Carlsberg (district)

Carlsberg (district)

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Carlsberg is an area straddling the border of Valby
Valby
' is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in the southwestern corner of Copenhagen Municipality, it is a heterogeneous mixture of different types of housing - including apartment blocks, terraced housing, areas with single-family houses and allotments, as well as remains...

 and Vesterbro
Vesterbro
Vesterbro is one of the 15 administrative, statistical, and city tax districts comprising the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark...

 districts in central Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Copenhagen is the capital and largest city of Denmark, with an urban population of 1,199,224 and a metropolitan population of 1,930,260 . With the completion of the transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre of the increasingly integrating Øresund Region...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

. It covers an area of 33 hectare
Hectare
The hectare is a metric unit of area defined as 10,000 square metres , and primarily used in the measurement of land. In 1795, when the metric system was introduced, the are was defined as being 100 square metres and the hectare was thus 100 ares or 1/100 km2...

s and is the former industrial site of the Carlsberg Breweries, which decommissioned their Valby brewery at the end of 2008, concentrating their production of beer in Denmark at their other Danish brewery in Fredericia
Fredericia
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Trekanten, or The Triangle...

.

The area is dominated by numerous historic and restored
Architectural conservation
Architectural conservation describes the process through which the material, historical, and design integrity of mankind's built heritage are prolonged through carefully planned interventions. The individual engaged in this pursuit is known as an architectural conservator...

 19th and early 20th century buildings, many of which have lavish ornamentations, as well as two historic gardens. The buildings have served a wide array of original functions, some of which are not immediately associated with the production of beer. These include a lighthouse
Lighthouse
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire, and used as an aid to navigation for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways....

, stable
Stable
A stable is a building in which livestock, especially horses, are kept. It most commonly means a building that is divided into separate stalls for individual animals...

s, Italianate villa
Italianate architecture
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. In the Italianate style, the models and architectural vocabulary of 16th-century Italian Renaissance architecture, which had served as inspiration for both Palladianism and...

s and a museum.

After the decision was made to close the brewery, plans were launched to redevelop the area into a new district. A master plan for the area draws on inspiration from classical, dense city centers with short, winding streets, passageways and small squares. It will also feature ten slim towers. The planned district will aim at sustainability
Sustainability
Sustainability is the capacity to endure. For humans, sustainability is the long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses the concept of union, an interdependent relationship and mutual responsible position with all living and non...

 and an active urban life
Urban design
Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space. It has traditionally been regarded as a disciplinary subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, or architecture and in more recent times has...

. The plan won the master planning category at the 2009 World Architecture Festival
World Architecture Festival
The World Architecture Festival is an annual event held in Barcelona organised by EMAP, a media group that runs other festivals, including the World Retail Congress and Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival, as well as publishes various journals, including within the field of...

.

Geography


Carlsberg covers an area of 33 hectares and lies at the junction of four districts. It is bordered by Vesterbro to the east, Valby
Valby
' is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. Located in the southwestern corner of Copenhagen Municipality, it is a heterogeneous mixture of different types of housing - including apartment blocks, terraced housing, areas with single-family houses and allotments, as well as remains...

 to the west, Frederiksberg Municipality to the north and Kongens Enghave
Kongens Enghave
Kongens Enghave , also known as Sydhavnen , is a district in southern Copenhagen. The area has historically been one of the poorest neighbourhoods in Copenhagen, dissected by major transport corridors and characterized by social problems as well as industry along the harbour-front.Since the turn...

 to the south. The area to the west of Carlsberg is dominated by extensive areas of greenspace with Søndermarken
Søndermarken
Søndermarken is a park in Frederiksberg on the border to Valby and the Carlsberg area in Copenhagen, Denmark. It shares much of its history with Frederiksberg Park from which it is separated only by Roskildevej...

-Frederiksberg Park
Frederiksberg Park
Frederiksberg Park is one of the largest and most attractive greenspaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. Together with the adjacent Søndermarken it forms a green area of 64 hectares at the western edge of Inner Copenhagen...

 to the northwest and Vestre Cemetery
Vestre Cemetery
Vestre Cemetery is located in a large park setting in the Kongens Enghave district of Copenhagen, Denmark. With its 54 hectares it is the largest cemetery in Denmark.Beautifully landscaped, it also serves as an important open space,...

 just across the rail tracks, to the southwest, making up a combined area of 120 hectares of parkland
Parkland
Parkland or Parklands may refer to:* A park* Aspen parkland, a biome transitional between prairie and boreal forest * Landscaped parkland, a managed rural area associated with European country houses such as Longleat-Place names:United States...

.

The brewery era


In search of better water supplies and more space, J. C. Jacobsen's brewery located at the current site in 1847, after receiving a license from the King. Constructuon of the new brewery starts in January and the first batch of beer is brewed on 10 November 1847. Carlsberg's main building, today known as the Carlsberg Academy is inaugurated in 1853, In 1857 the brewery is devastated by a fire but the buildings are rebuilt the same year.

In 1870 the brewery is extended with an annexed brewery, which is leased by J. C. Jacobsen's son Carl Jacobsen
Carl Jacobsen
Carl Christian Hillman Jacobsen was a Danish brewer, art collector and philanthropist, the son of J. C. Jacobsen, who founded the brewery Carlsberg and named it after him.-Career:...

 after disagreements with his father.

In 1876, J. C. Jacobsen establishes the Carlsberg Foundation
Carlsberg Foundation
Carlsberg Foundation was founded by J. C. Jacobsen in 1876 and owns 30,3% of the shares in Carlsberg Group and has 74,2% of the voting power.The purpose of the foundation is to run and fund Carlsberg Laboratory, the museum at Frederiksborg Palace, to fund scientific research, run the Ny Carlsberg...

 and the Carlsberg Laboratory
Carlsberg Laboratory
The Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, Denmark was created in 1875 by J. C. Jacobsen, the founder of the Carlsberg brewery, for the sake of advancing biochemical knowledge, especially relating to brewing. It featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology...

 . In 1880 J. C. Jacobsen terminates his son's lease and Carl founds his own brewery on a neighbouring premises. With his father's concent he names it Ny Carlsberg (New Carlsberg), while Carlsberg's name is changed to Gammel Carlsberg (English: Old Carlsberg).

In 1887 J. C. Jacobsen dies and his Carlsberg Foundation bequeaths his brewery. Over the next decades, the Carlsberg Breweries are continuously extended with new buildings. In 1992 the Dipylon building is added, in 1987 the Carlsberg Laboratory building and in 1901 the destinctive Elephant Gate as well as the Ny Carlsberg Brew House.

In 1902, Carl Jacobsen founds the Ny Carlsberg Foundation
Carlsberg Foundation
Carlsberg Foundation was founded by J. C. Jacobsen in 1876 and owns 30,3% of the shares in Carlsberg Group and has 74,2% of the voting power.The purpose of the foundation is to run and fund Carlsberg Laboratory, the museum at Frederiksborg Palace, to fund scientific research, run the Ny Carlsberg...

 as a subsidy under the Carlsberg Foundation and the two Carlsberg hereby get the same owner, that of the Carlsberg Foundation. The breweries built a joint tapping plant in 1903 and in 1906 they are formally merged under the name Carlsberg Breweries. Carl Jacobsen heads the breweries as well as the foundation until his death in 1914.

Later notable buildings include the Boiler House from 1827 and the Hanging Gardens.

Closure and redevelopment


In July 2006 Carlsberg decided to decommission the brewery in Valby and concentrate the brewery's production activities in Denmark at their other brewery, located in Fredericia
Fredericia
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the eastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region known locally as Trekanten, or The Triangle...

. Only the headquarters and the small specialty brewery Jacobsen
Jacobsen (beer)
Jacobsen is an upscale brand of specialty beers owned by Carlsberg. Named after Carlsberg's founder, J.C. Jacobsen, it is housed in the original Carlsberg brewery in Valby in Copenhagen, Denmark and is currently headed by brewmaster Morten Ibsen.- History :...

 would remain at the historical site in Valby.

Instead the former grounds were to be redeveloped by Carlsberg Properties, already with success developing the former Tuborg Brewery site
Tuborg Brewery
Tuborg is a Danish brewing company founded in 1873 by Carl Frederik Tietgen. Since 1970 it has been part of Carlsberg. The brewery was founded in Hellerup, a northern suburb of Copenhagen.-History:...

 in Hellerup
Hellerup
Hellerup is a Danish town of Region Hovedstaden, located in the Gentofte Municipality in Denmark. It is bordered to the east by the sound Øresund and to the South by Copenhagen and counted among the most affluent areas in Denmark....

 into a new district known as Tuborg Havn. In late 2006, an international architecture competition was launched. In May 2007, the small Danish architectural practice Entasis was chosen as winner of the competition among 220 entries. As planned, production at the Valby Brewery ceased in late 2008. In February 2009 the district plan for the area was approved by the City.

Historic buildings


The Carlsberg district contains numerous historic buildings relating to the areas history as an important industrial site. Apart from those directly related to the brewing of beer, these include stable
Stable
A stable is a building in which livestock, especially horses, are kept. It most commonly means a building that is divided into separate stalls for individual animals...

s, a lighthouse
Lighthouse
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire, and used as an aid to navigation for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways....

, private residences and garden pavilion
Pavilion (structure)
In architecture a pavilion has two main meanings.-Free-standing structure:Pavilion may refer to a free-standing structure sited a short distance from a main residence, whose architecture makes it an object of pleasure. Large or small, there is usually a connection with relaxation and pleasure in...

s. In 2008 13 building complexes and a garden was protected.


Elephant Gate & Tower



The Elephant Gate & Tower (Danish: Elefantporten & -tårnet) is designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup
Vilhelm Dahlerup
Jens Vilhelm Dahlerup was a Danish architect who specialized in the Historicist style. One of the most productive and noted Danish architects of the 19th century, he is behind many of the most known buildings and landmarks of his time and has more than any other single architect contributed to the...

 and was built in 1901. The tower is the Carlsberg district's most famous landmark and takes its name four granite elephants which flank the gate and carries the tower on their backs. It is inspired by Bernini's Elephant and Obelisk
Elephant and Obelisk
The Elephant and Obelisk is a sculpture designed by the Italian artist Gianlorenzo Bernini. The elephant was probably executed by his assistant Ercole Ferrata; the Egyptian obelisk was uncovered during nearby excavations...

 on Piazza della Minerva
Piazza della Minerva
Piazza della Minerva is a piazza in Rome, Italy, near the Pantheon. Its name derives from the existence of a temple built on the site by Pompey dedicated to Minerva Calcidica, whose statue is now in the Vatican Museums.-Features:Facing this piazza are:...

 in Rome.

The tower, which has a floor area of only 115 sqm, is built in red, ornamented tiles. It originally servedas a water tower and herb silo.


Dipylon or Double Gate



The Dipylon or Double Gate (Danish: Diptylon or Dobbeltporten) was designed by Vilhelm Dahlerup and was built in 1892. Dipylon being Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 for 'double gate', the Dipylon Gate is a double-arched Gateway marking the Vesterbro-side entrance to Ny Carlsberg. The building used to serve a dual purpose as a malt
Malt
Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then halted from germinating further by drying with hot air...

 chamber and a Clock tower
Clock tower
A clock tower is a tower specifically built with one or more clock faces. Clock towers can be either freestanding or part of a church or municipal building such as a town hall. Some clock towers are not true clock towers having had their clock faces added to an already existing building...

. The clock is still functioning and has artwork by Stephan Sinding
Stephan Sinding
Stephan Abel Sinding was a Norwegian-Danish sculptor. He moved to Copenhagen in 1883 and had his breakthrough the same year. In 1890 he obtained Danish citizenship. In 1810 he settled in Paris where he lived and worked until his death in 1922...

. The arches have a granite cladding. Above them there is i diagonal pattern in glazed and red tiles. On one side of the building, a frieze
Frieze
thumb|267px|Frieze of the [[Tower of the Winds]], AthensIn architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs. Even when neither columns nor pilasters are expressed, on an astylar wall it lies upon...

 depicts nine persons in decorative tilework. They include Carl Jacobsen, his wife Ottilia, his son and heir Alt as well as some key employees.

Brewhouse



The Brewhouse (Danish: Bryghuset) was built in 1901 as Ny Carlsberg's new brew house, replacing a smaller one still found on the other side of the street. The facade with its balcony was inspired by Palazzo Bavilaque in Verona
Verona
Verona ; German Bern, Dietrichsbern or Welschbern) is a city in the Veneto, northern Italy, with approx. 265,000 inhabitants and one of the seven chef-lieus of the region. It is the second largest city municipality in the region and the third of North-Eastern Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona...

, Italy. The roof features C. J. Bonnesen's sculpture group in cast bronze 'Thor
Thor
In Norse mythology, Thor is a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, and also hallowing, healing, and fertility...

 in combat with the Jötunns'. The figure group was originally a competition proposal for the competition for a fountain for Langelinie
Langelinie
Langelinie is a pier, promenade and park in central Copenhagen, Denmark, and home of the statue of The Little Mermaid. The area has for centuries been a popular destination for excursions and strolls in Copenhagen...

 won by the Gefion Fountain
Gefion fountain
The Gefion Fountain is a large fountain on the harbour front in Copenhagen, Denmark. It features a large-scale group of animal figures being driven by the legendary Norse goddess, Gefjun...

.

Carl Jacobsen House


Carl's Villa is the former private residence of Carl Jacobsen and his family. The building was designed by Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann
Hack Kampmann was a Danish architect. His parents were the priest Christian Peter Georg Kampmann and Johanne Marie Schmidt...

  and built in 1882-93. It is built in red stones on a granite foundation with details in glazed tiles and skate
Skate
Skates are cartilaginous fish belonging to the family Rajidae in the superorder Batoidea of rays. There are more than 200 described species in 27 genera. There are two subfamilies, Rajinae and Arhynchobatinae ....

. The entrance is marked by granite pillars. Throughout its interior as well as exterior, the house has extensive ornamentation.

Carlsberg Museum


The Carlsberg Museum is built in conjunction with Carl's Villa and used to house the first Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
The Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek is an art museum in Copenhagen, Denmark...

. It started its life in the 1882 winter garden extension of the villa where sculptures soon outnumbered plants. The same year the collection was opened to the public. In the following years the museum was gradually expanded until reaching a total of 19 galleries in 1885. Vilhelm Dahlerup designed the first 14 galleries while Hack Kampmann designed the last four as well as the reconstruction of the winter garden. After the collections were moved to the present Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, the building was used for various purposes before it in 1915 was turned into a museum of the brewery. The building is made in red tiles. The most notable galley is the Empress Gallery which consists of a rotunda
Rotunda (architecture)
A rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan, sometimes covered by a dome. It can also refer to a round room within a building . The Pantheon in Rome is a famous rotunda. A Band Rotunda is a circular bandstand, usually with a dome...

 featuring four Ionic columns
Ionic order
The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian...

 inline with the apse
Apse
In architecture, the apse is a semicircular recess covered with a hemispherical vault or semi-dome...

. The remaining galleries display variations in ornamentation of floors, walls and ceilings and are toplit.

Carlsberg Academy


The Carlsberg Academy is the former private home of J. P. Jacobsen. After his death it first served as an honorary residence for a deserving man or woman within the fields of science
Science
Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...

, literature
Literature
Literature is the art of written works, and is not bound to published sources...

 or art
Art
Art is the product or process of deliberately arranging items in a way that influences and affects one or more of the senses, emotions, and intellect....

 before it was turned into the Carlsberg Academy in 1995. The building was designed by J. C. Jacobsen and N.S. Nebelong and was built in 1853-54 and in 1858 a winter garden
Winter garden
The origin of the winter garden dates back to the 17th to 19th centuries where European nobility would construct large conservatories that would house tropical and subtropical plants and would act as an extension of their living space. Many of these would be attached to their main palaces...

 was added. In 1876 a conservatory referred to as Pompeji in the style of a hypostyle hall
Hypostyle
In architecture, a hypostyle hall has a roof which is supported by columns, as in the Great Hypostyle Hall at Karnak. The word hypostyle comes from the Ancient Greek hypóstȳlos meaning "under columns"...

 was added after the design of J. P Jacobsen and architect P.C. Bønecke.The house is built in the classical Italian villa style. The house was decorated with numerous artworks by Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen
Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish-Icelandic sculptor of international fame, who spent most of his life in Italy . Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a Danish/Icelandic family of humble means, and was accepted to the Royal Academy of Arts when he was eleven years old...

. These include 'the Alexander Frieze' below the barrel vault
Barrel vault
A barrel vault, also known as a tunnel vault or a wagon vault, is an architectural element formed by the extrusion of a single curve along a given distance. The curves are typically circular in shape, lending a semi-cylindrical appearance to the total design...

ed ceiling of the two-story dining hall, six relief
Relief
Relief is a sculptural technique. The term relief is from the Latin verb levo, to raise. To create a sculpture in relief is thus to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane...

s on the walls and a statue of Hebe
Hebe (mythology)
In Greek mythology, Hēbē is the goddess of youth . She is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. Hebe was the cupbearer for the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus, serving their nectar and ambrosia, until she was married to Heracles ; her successor was the young Trojan prince Ganymede...




Carlsberg Laboratory



The Carlsberg Laboratory were designed by F.C. Thomsen and built in 1893-96 in an Italian renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 style. In front of the Carlsberg Laboratory
Carlsberg Laboratory
The Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, Denmark was created in 1875 by J. C. Jacobsen, the founder of the Carlsberg brewery, for the sake of advancing biochemical knowledge, especially relating to brewing. It featured a Department of Chemistry and a Department of Physiology...

 stands a sculpture of J. C. Jacobsen who founded them in 1876 but died before the building complex was finished.


"Lime Tower" Lighthouse



The "Lime Tower" (Danish: "Kridttårnet" is a lighthouse
Lighthouse
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire, and used as an aid to navigation for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways....

 built in 1883. The name derrives from the limestone
Limestone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate . Many limestones are composed from skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral or foraminifera....

 which is the tower's dominating building material and comes from the Faxe Limestone Quaries south of Copenhagen. The tower stands on a granite foundation and is topped by a glass lantern
Lantern
A lantern is a portable lighting device or mounted light fixture used to illuminate broad areas. Lanterns may also be used for signaling, as 'torches', or as general light sources outdoors . Low light level varieties are used for decoration. The term "lantern" is also used more generically to...

. The lighthouse came with electric light
Electric light
Electric lights are a convenient and economic form of artificial lighting which provide increased comfort, safety and efficiency. Most electric lighting is powered by centrally-generated electric power, but lighting may also be powered by mobile or standby electric generators or battery systems...

 which had been introduced to Old Carlsberg the year before as one of the first places in Copenhagen.

Winding Chimney


Carl Jacobsen wanted to show that a chimney for an industrial plant could be beautiful in its own right, so he brought in architect Vilhelm Dahlerup and master builder PS Beckmann. Their 56m tall winding chimney features motifs of Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

ian lotus flowers
Nelumbo nucifera
Nelumbo nucifera, known by a number of names including Indian Lotus, Sacred Lotus, Bean of India, or simply Lotus, is a plant in the monogeneric family Nelumbonaceae...

 while, on the plinth
Plinth
In architecture, a plinth is the base or platform upon which a column, pedestal, statue, monument or structure rests. Gottfried Semper's The Four Elements of Architecture posited that the plinth, the hearth, the roof, and the wall make up all of architectural theory. The plinth usually rests...

, replica
Replica
A replica is a copy closely resembling the original concerning its shape and appearance. An inverted replica complements the original by filling its gaps. It can be a copy used for historical purposes, such as being placed in a museum. Sometimes the original never existed. For example, Difference...

s of the Chimera
Chimera (mythology)
The Chimera or Chimaera was, according to Greek mythology, a monstrous fire-breathing female creature of Lycia in Asia Minor, composed of the parts of multiple animals: upon the body of a lioness with a tail that ended in a snake's head, the head of a goat arose on her back at the center of her...

s (Gargoyles) from Notre Dame
Notre Dame de Paris
Notre Dame de Paris , also known as Notre Dame Cathedral, is a Gothic, Roman Catholic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France. It is the cathedral of the Catholic Archdiocese of Paris: that is, it is the church that contains the cathedra of...

 in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 look out over the city of Copenhagen.

Historical gardens


The Carlsberg area contains two historic gardens dating back to the early years of the brewery.

Carlsberg Academy Garden



The Carlsberg Academy Garden used to be the private garden of J. C. Jacobsen and is an English-style garden
English garden
The English garden, also called English landscape park , is a style of Landscape garden which emerged in England in the early 18th century, and spread across Europe, replacing the more formal, symmetrical Garden à la française of the 17th century as the principal gardening style of Europe. The...

 constructed in 1848. It is shielded from the surroundings by trees and hedges and contains winding paths, lawns and a pond
Pond
A pond is a body of standing water, either natural or man-made, that is usually smaller than a lake. A wide variety of man-made bodies of water are classified as ponds, including water gardens, water features and koi ponds; all designed for aesthetic ornamentation as landscape or architectural...

. Soil from the construction of the brewery's extensive system of cellars. The garden boasts many rare trees and plants, some of which were brought home by J. C. Jacobsen from his travels.

Ny Carlsberg Garden


The New Carlsberg Garden is the former private garden of Carl Jacobsen created in conjunction with his villa. It i made in a more stringent style than the Academy Garden and contains many replicas of classical sculptures. Located in the garden is a neo-gothic
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 Venitian with marble columns Garden Pavilion that finishes the garden complex as seen from the villa. Also located in the garden is the Ice House which was a building for the storage of natural ice used in the household. It is a small, circular building built in limestone. It has a wooden door and stained glass windows, a thatched roof
Thatching
Thatching is the craft of building a roof with dry vegetation such as straw, water reed, sedge , rushes, or heather, layering the vegetation so as to shed water away from the inner roof. It is a very old roofing method and has been used in both tropical and temperate climates...

 and ornamentation by the roof with a spire
Spire
A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass....

-like bell.

Carlsberg today


Since the production of beer on the premises was stopped at the end of 2008, the area is in the process of being transformed into a new district of Copenhagen. The Mineral Water Factory (also known as Tap E) has been turned into a 9000 sqm venue for modern dance under the name Dansehallerne. The former bottling plant Ny Tap has under the name Tap 1 been turned into a venue for various commercial and cultural events such as conferences, book and art fairs, concerts parties. It has a capacity of up to 6000 people. The Lime Tower Lighthouse now serves as an artist
Artist
An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only...

's studio
Studio
A studio is an artist's or worker's workroom, or the catchall term for an artist and his or her employees who work within that studio. This can be for the purpose of architecture, painting, pottery , sculpture, scrapbooking, photography, graphic design, filmmaking, animation, radio or television...

 and residence.

Future development


Entasis' masterplan for the area draws on inspiration from the classical, dense city, known from medieval city centre, rather than conventional modern developments. It is characterized by short, narrow streets and alleyways, unpredictability, many large and small squares. Nine slender highrises in heights between 50-120 metres will mark 9 of the area's most important urban space
Urban design
Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality of towns and cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space. It has traditionally been regarded as a disciplinary subset of urban planning, landscape architecture, or architecture and in more recent times has...

s. A total of 800,000 m2 will be built, 45 % housing, 45 % shops and offices and 10 % sports and cultural facilities. The plan focuses on:
  • mixed use
    Mixed-use development
    Mixed-use development is the use of a building, set of buildings, or neighborhood for more than one purpose. Since the 1920s, zoning in some countries has required uses to be separated. However, when jobs, housing, and commercial activities are located close together, a community's transportation...

    , buildings with shops, cafés and other public function
    Public space
    A public space is a social space such as a town square that is open and accessible to all, regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, age or socio-economic level. One of the earliest examples of public spaces are commons. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry, nor are the entrants...

    s at street-level and housing and offices at upper floors, where there is more light.
  • 24/7 activity
    24/7
    24/7 is an abbreviation which stands for "24 hours a day, 7 days a week", usually referring to a business or service available at all times without interruption...

     and a lively and diverse urban life, centred around the squares, parks and other public spaces. The concept of shared space
    Shared space
    Shared space is an urban design concept aimed at integrated use of public spaces. It encourages traffic engineers, urban planners and experts from other fields to consult with users of public space when planning and designing streets and squares in both built and non-built environments...

     plays a central role in the plan.
  • Cellars: Carlsberg's extensive several kilometres long network of underground corridors and cellars play a central role in the plan. Some will be opened up to create diverse, complex and idiosyncratic open spaces, others are kept as underground features.
  • Greenness
    Open space reserve
    Open space reserve, open space preserve, and open space reservation, are planning and conservation ethics terms used to describe areas of protected or conserved land or water on which development is indefinitely set aside...

    , the area already contains a large number of large trees. These will as far as possible be preserved, some places housefronts or streets are shaped to give room for existing trees. The two historical gardens in the area will be opened up as parks and supplemented with three new gardens.
  • Sustainability
    Sustainability
    Sustainability is the capacity to endure. For humans, sustainability is the long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses the concept of union, an interdependent relationship and mutual responsible position with all living and non...

    , the area is planned to be Carbon neutral and employ a number of cleantech technologies.

Cultural references

  • On 16 February 1868 Hans Christian Andersen
    Hans Christian Andersen
    Hans Christian Andersen was a Danish author, fairy tale writer, and poet noted for his children's stories. These include "The Steadfast Tin Soldier," "The Snow Queen," "The Little Mermaid," "Thumbelina," "The Little Match Girl," and "The Ugly Duckling."...

     attended a dinner in J. C. Jacobsen's house and writes in his diary: "it was like a wealthy country home abroad [...] there is machinery to hoist the food. Gas in the stoves and wax candles in the lamps".

Further reading

  • Allan de Waal, Jørgen Hegner Christiansen et al., The Architecture of Carlsberg/Arkitekturen på Carlsberg, Arkitektens Forlag, 2008 (text in English and Danish and photographs by Jens Lindhe)

External links