Congressional Cemetery

Congressional Cemetery

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The Congressional Cemetery is a historic cemetery
Cemetery
A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. The term "cemetery" implies that the land is specifically designated as a burying ground. Cemeteries in the Western world are where the final ceremonies of death are observed...

 located at 1801 E Street, SE, in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, on the west bank of the Anacostia River
Anacostia River
The Anacostia River is a river in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States. It flows from Prince George's County in Maryland into Washington, D.C., where it joins with the Washington Channel to empty into the Potomac River at Buzzard Point. It is approximately long...

. It is the final resting place of thousands of individuals who helped form the nation and the city of Washington in the early 19th century. Many members of the U.S. Congress who died while Congress was in session are interred at Congressional. Other burials include the early landowners and speculators, the builders and architects of the great buildings of Washington, native American diplomats, mayors of Washington, and hundreds of Civil War veterans. Nineteenth-century Washington, D.C. families unaffiliated with the federal government have also had graves and tombs at the cemetery. In all there is one Vice-President, one Supreme Court Justice, six Cabinet Members, 19 Senators and 71 Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 - including a former Speaker of the House, buried there; as well as one American Indian chief and veterans of every American war. The cemetery was listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 on June 23, 1969 and designated a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

 in 2011.

Founding and history



The Congressional Cemetery was first established by private citizens in 1807 and later given over to Christ Church
Christ Church, Washington Parish (Washington, D.C.)
Christ Church — known also as Christ Church, Washington Parish or Christ Church on Capitol Hill — is an historic Episcopal church located at 620 G Street SE in Washington, D.C., USA....

, which gave it the name Washington Parish Burial Ground. By 1817 sites were set aside for government legislators and officials; this includes cenotaph
Cenotaph
A cenotaph is an "empty tomb" or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been interred elsewhere. The word derives from the Greek κενοτάφιον = kenotaphion...

s for many legislators buried elsewhere. The cenotaphs were designed by Benjamin Latrobe
Benjamin Latrobe
Benjamin Henry Boneval Latrobe was a British-born American neoclassical architect best known for his design of the United States Capitol, along with his work on the Baltimore Basilica, the first Roman Catholic Cathedral in the United States...

. The Latrobe design consists of a large square block with recessed panels set on a wider plinth and surmounted by a conical point. The design is considered a rare and possibly unique example of Visionary architecture
Visionary architecture
Visionary architecture is the name given to architecture which exists only on paper or which has visionary qualities. While the term ‘visionary’ suggests the idea of an idealistic, impractical or Utopian notion, it also depicts a mental picture produced by the imagination...

 in the United States, of the kind practiced by the 18th-century French visionary architects Etienne-Louis Boullée
Étienne-Louis Boullée
Étienne-Louis Boullée was a visionary French neoclassical architect whose work greatly influenced contemporary architects and is still influential today.- Life :...

 and Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Claude Nicolas Ledoux
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture. He used his knowledge of architectural theory to design not only in domestic architecture but town planning; as a consequence of his visionary plan for the Ideal City of Chaux, he became known as a utopian...

.

The original cemetery was located on block 1115 on E Street between 18th and 19th Streets Southeast in 1808. In 1849, it doubled in size by acquiring the block to its south, 1116. In 1853, it expanded to the east on blocks 1130, 1148 and 1149 between F and G Streets Southeast. In 1853-53, the cemetery expanded to the west by acquiring block 1104, between 17th Street and 18th Streets Southeast. In 1858, the cemetery acquired block 1105 and Reservation 13. In 1859, it added blocks 1105 and 1123. Finally, the cemetery reached its current extent of 35.75 acres by growing south to Water Street Southeast with blocks 1106 and 1117 in 1869. Eventually the land to the south of the cemetery was transferred to the National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

 although the access road to the RFK Stadium Parking Lot is administered by the DC Sports and Entertainment Commission. In the 1950s, it appeared that the southeast corner of the cemetery would become a part of the right of way for the Southeast-Southwest Freeway
Interstate 695 (District of Columbia)
Interstate 695 is the unsigned designation for the 1.39-mile Southeast Freeway in Washington, D.C. It runs from Interstate 395 south of the United States Capitol building east past the north end of Interstate 295 to Pennsylvania Avenue at Barney Circle, just northwest of the John Philip Sousa...

. However, protracted environmental litigation halted construction at Pennsylvania Avenue
Pennsylvania Avenue
Pennsylvania Avenue is a street in Washington, D.C. that joins the White House and the United States Capitol. Called "America's Main Street", it is the location of official parades and processions, as well as protest marches...

, with the dead end of the freeway being connected by a temporary road to the RFK Parking Lot and to 17th Street Southeast at the southwest corner of the cemetery.

The cemetery is still owned by Christ Church but is now managed by the Association for the Preservation of Historic Congressional Cemetery (APHCC). In recent years, Congressional has witnessed a turnaround in its situation. Where the grass was unmowed in 2000, the board now has established an endowment fund that will maintain the lawn in perpetuity. The Association hosts over 500 volunteers each year working on a wide variety of projects: from planting bulbs to resetting tombstones to pruning trees, doing research, and writing a newsletter.

In the early 2000s, after a series of mysterious phone calls to the cemetery, it was discovered that in the 1970s someone had broken into the Wirt Tomb at the cemetery and had stolen William Wirt
William Wirt (Attorney General)
William Wirt was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence.-History:...

's skull. After the skull was recovered from the house of a historical memorabilia collector, it spent time in D.C. Council member Jim Graham's office while he tried to get it returned to its rightful crypt. Finally in 2005 investigators from the Smithsonian Institution were able to determine the skull, which had gold block letters saying "Hon. Wm. Wirt" painted on it, was indeed his and had it returned.

Association


The cemetery is administered by the Association for the Preservation of Historic Congressional Cemetery, which is a non-profit corporation headed by a 15 member Board of Directors. The Association has five full time employees and over 500 volunteers. Its mission is:
TO SERVE THE COMMUNITY AS AN ACTIVE BURIAL GROUND AND CONSERVE THE PHYSICAL ARTIFACTS, BUILDINGS, AND INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE CEMETERY; TO CELEBRATE THE AMERICAN HERITAGE REPRESENTED BY THOSE INTERRED HERE; TO RESTORE AND SUSTAIN THE LANDSCAPE, TO PROTECT THE ANACOSTIA RIVER WATERSHED, AND TO MANAGE THE GROUNDS AS AN ACCESSIBLE COMMUNITY RESOURCE.

In 2009, the Association retained the Oehme, van Sweden & Associates to develop a new landscape plan.

K-9 Corps


Congressional Cemetery is also known for allowing members of the APHCC to walk dogs off-leash on the cemetery grounds. In addition to their annual membership dues, K-9 Corps members pay an additional annual fee for the privilege of walking their dogs in one of Washington's great open spaces. K-9 Corps members provide about one-third of Congressional Cemetery's operating income. Dog walkers follow a set of rules and regulations and provide valuable volunteer time to restore and beautify this historic place.

The K-9 Corps program is recognized as providing the impetus for the revitalization of Congressional Cemetery, which had fallen into tremendous disrepair and neglect prior to the program's creation. In 2008, the Association restricted K-9 membership, placing restrictions on dogwalkers as the program became more popular. The K-9 Corps program has been nationally recognized for creative use of urban green space.

Notable interments

  • Joseph Anderson
    Joseph Anderson
    Joseph Inslee Anderson was an American soldier, judge, and politician, who served as a United States Senator from Tennessee from 1799 to 1815, and later as the first Comptroller of the United States Treasury...

    , (1757-1837), U.S. Senator — Tennessee
    Tennessee
    Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

    , Comptroller of the U.S. Treasury
    Office of the Comptroller of the Currency
    The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency is a US federal agency established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States...

  • Alexander Dallas Bache
    Alexander Dallas Bache
    Alexander Dallas Bache was an American physicist, scientist and surveyor who erected coastal fortifications and conducted a detailed survey mapping of the United States coastline.-Biography:...

    , (1806-1867), Superintendent of the Coast Survey
    U.S. National Geodetic Survey
    National Geodetic Survey, formerly called the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey , is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science...

    , Charter member National Academy of Sciences
    United States National Academy of Sciences
    The National Academy of Sciences is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and...

  • William Lee Ball
    William Lee Ball
    William Lee Ball was a nineteenth century politician from Virginia.-Biography:Born in Lancaster County, Virginia, Ball received a liberal schooling as a child. He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1805 to 1806 and again from 1810 to 1814...

    , (1781-1824), U.S. Congressman — Virginia
    Virginia
    The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

    , War of 1812
    War of 1812
    The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

     soldier
  • Philip Pendleton Barbour
    Philip Pendleton Barbour
    Philip Pendleton Barbour was a U.S. Congressman from Virginia and an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. He was also the brother of Virginia governor and U.S. Secretary of War James Barbour as well as the first cousin of John S. Barbour and first cousin, once removed of John S...

    , (1783-1841), U.S. Congressman — Virginia, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
    Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
    Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States...

  • Henry Washington Benham
    Henry Washington Benham
    Henry Washington Benham was an American soldier and civil engineer who served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War....

    , (1813-1884), Union army
    Union Army
    The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

     general
  • James G. Berret
    James G. Berret
    James Gabriel Berret was an American politician who served as a Maryland state legislator from 1837 to 1839 and as Mayor of Washington, District of Columbia, from 1858 to 1861, when he was forced to resign from office after being jailed by the Lincoln administration for sedition.Berret was born in...

    , (1815-1901), Mayor of Washington who was forced to resign at the outbreak of the Civil War
  • James Blair
    James Blair (South Carolina)
    James Blair was a United States Representative from South Carolina. He was born in the Waxhaw settlement, Lancaster County, South Carolina to Sarah Douglass and William Blair...

    , (1786-1834), U.S. Congressman — South Carolina
    South Carolina
    South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

  • Theodorick Bland
    Theodorick Bland (congressman)
    Theodorick Bland , also known as Theodorick Bland, Jr., was a physician, soldier, and statesman from Prince George County, Virginia...

    , (1741-1790), U.S. Congressman — Virginia; the first to die in office
  • Thomas Blount, (1759-1812) U.S. Congressman — North Carolina
    North Carolina
    North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

    , Revolutionary War prisoner of war
  • John Edward Bouligny
    John Edward Bouligny
    John Edward Bouligny was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives representing the state of Louisiana. He served one term as a member of the anti-immigrant American Party.Bouligny was born in New Orleans...

    , (1824-1864), U.S. Congressman — Louisiana
    Louisiana
    Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

    ; the only member of the Louisiana Congressional delegation to retain his seat after the state seceded during the Civil War (grave unmarked)
  • Lemuel Jackson Bowden, (1815-1864), U.S. Senator — Virginia; represented Virginia during the Civil War
  • Mathew Brady
    Mathew Brady
    Mathew B. Brady was one of the most celebrated 19th century American photographers, best known for his portraits of celebrities and his documentation of the American Civil War...

    , (1822-1896), Civil War photographer
  • Edward Bradley
    Edward Bradley (politician)
    Edward Bradley was a U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan.Bradley was born in East Bloomfield, New York and attended the common schools and the local academy in Canandaigua. He was associate judge of the common pleas court of Ontario County in 1836...

    , (1808-1847), U.S. Congressman — Michigan
    Michigan
    Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

  • Jacob Jennings Brown, (1775-1828), commanding general U.S. Army, hero of the War of 1812
    War of 1812
    The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

  • William A. Burwell
    William A. Burwell
    William Armisted Burwell was a nineteenth century congressman and presidential secretary from Virginia....

    , (1780-1821), U.S. Congressman — Virginia; private secretary to Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...

  • Joseph Goldsborough Bruff
    Joseph Goldsborough Bruff
    J. Goldsborough Bruff was an artist, draftsman, historian and topographer during the California Gold Rush era.-Career:...

    , (1804-1889), architect and topographer
  • John Carrington, (1871-1939), Fire Chief of Washington, DC, hero of the Knickerbocker Theatre disaster
  • Levi Casey, (1752-1807), U.S. Congressman — South Carolina; Brigadier General of the South Carolina Militia and American Continental Army
  • Warren R. Davis
    Warren R. Davis
    Warren Ransom Davis was an American attorney and Representative from South Carolina's 6th congressional district from 1827-35....

    , (1793-1835), U.S. Congressman — South Carolina
  • John Dawson, (1762-1814), U.S. Congressman — Virginia
  • Owen Thomas Edgar
    Owen Thomas Edgar
    Owen Thomas Edgar was, according to data from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the longest surviving U.S. veteran of the Mexican-American War....

    , (1831-1929), longest surviving Mexican-American War veteran
  • William H. Emory
    William H. Emory
    William Hemsley Emory was an United States Army officer and surveyor of Texas.-Early life and career:...

    , (1811-1887), Army engineer, Western explorer, Civil War general
  • John Forsyth
    John Forsyth (politician)
    John Forsyth, Sr. was a 19th-century American politician from Georgia.Forsyth was born in Fredericksburg, Virginia. His father Robert Forsyth was the first U.S. Marshal to be killed in the line of duty in 1794. He was an attorney who graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1799...

    , (1780-1841), U.S. Congressman and Senator — Georgia
    Georgia (U.S. state)
    Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

    , Governor of Georgia, U.S. Secretary of State
    United States Secretary of State
    The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence...

  • Henry Stephen Fox
    Henry Stephen Fox
    Henry Stephen Fox was a British diplomat.-Life:As the only son of General Henry Edward Fox , Henry was educated at Eton College. Matriculating from Christ Church, Oxford in 1809, his wit, charm, love of gambling and manners made him popular in fashionable circles...

    , (1791-1846), British diplomat
  • Mary Fuller
    Mary Fuller
    Mary Claire Fuller was an American stage and silent film actress and screenwriter.-Early life:Born in Washington, D.C., to Nora Swing and attorney Miles Fuller, she spent her childhood on a farm. As a child, she was interested in music, writing and art...

    , (1888-1973), silent film actress (unmarked)
  • John Gaillard
    John Gaillard
    John Gaillard was a U.S. Senator from South Carolina.Gaillard was born in St. Stephen's district, South Carolina on September 5, 1765. He was of Huguenot descent. He was elected to the United States Senate in place of Pierce Butler, who resigned, and served from January 31, 1805 until his death....

    , (1765-1826), U.S. Senator — South Carolina
  • Elbridge Gerry
    Elbridge Gerry
    Elbridge Thomas Gerry was an American statesman and diplomat. As a Democratic-Republican he was selected as the fifth Vice President of the United States , serving under James Madison, until his death a year and a half into his term...

    , (1744-1814), Vice President
    Vice President of the United States
    The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people, through the Electoral College, to a four-year term...

     and the only signer of the Declaration of Independence
    Declaration of independence
    A declaration of independence is an assertion of the independence of an aspiring state or states. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state...

     buried in Washington, D.C.
  • James Gillespie
    James Gillespie
    James Gillespie was a Democratic-Republican U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1793 and 1799....

    , (1747-1805), Revolutionary War soldier, U.S. Congressman — North Carolina
    North Carolina
    North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

  • William Montrose Graham, Jr.
    William Montrose Graham, Jr.
    William Montrose Graham, Jr. , was a career soldier in the United States Army, reaching the rank of major general. He was a veteran of both the American Civil War and the Spanish-American War.-Biography:...

    , (1834-1916), Major General in the U.S. Army during the Spanish-American War
    Spanish-American War
    The Spanish–American War was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, effectively the result of American intervention in the ongoing Cuban War of Independence...

  • George Hadfield, architect; superintendent of construction for the U.S. Capitol
    United States Capitol
    The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall...

  • Archibald Henderson
    Archibald Henderson
    Archibald Henderson was the longest-serving Commandant of the Marine Corps, serving from 1820 to 1859. He is often referred to as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps," serving in the United States Marine Corps for 53 years.-Biography:Born in Colchester, Fairfax County, Virginia to successful...

    , (1783-1859), the longest serving Commandant of the U.S. Marine Corps
  • David Herold
    David Herold
    David Edgar Herold was an accomplice of John Wilkes Booth in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. After guiding fellow conspirator Lewis Powell to the home of Secretary of State William H. Seward, whom Powell intended to kill, Herold fled and rendezvoused outside of Washington, D.C., with Booth...

    , (1842-1865), conspirator of the Abraham Lincoln assassination
    Abraham Lincoln assassination
    The assassination of United States President Abraham Lincoln took place on Good Friday, April 14, 1865, as the American Civil War was drawing to a close. The assassination occurred five days after the commanding General of the Army of Northern Virginia, Robert E. Lee, and his battered Army of...

  • Daniel Hiester
    Daniel Hiester
    Daniel Hiester was an American political and military leader from the Revolutionary War period to the early 19th Century. Born in Berks County, Pennsylvania, he was a member of the Hiester Family political dynasty. He was the brother of John Hiester and Gabriel Hiester, cousin of Joseph Hiester,...

    , (1747-1804), U.S. Congressman — Pennsylvania
    Pennsylvania
    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

  • J. Edgar Hoover
    J. Edgar Hoover
    John Edgar Hoover was the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. Appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation—predecessor to the FBI—in 1924, he was instrumental in founding the FBI in 1935, where he remained director until his death in 1972...

    , (1895-1972), FBI Director
  • Robertson Howard
    Robertson Howard
    Robertson Howard , was an attorney, editor for West Publishing, and founder of Pi Kappa Alpha Fraternity.Howard was born December 11, 1847 to Flodoardo R. Howard and Lydia Maria Howard, in Brookeville, Maryland. His mother was of solid Quaker stock and his father was a descendant of the Howards...

    , (1847-1899), attorney, editor for West Publishing, and founder of Pi Kappa Alpha
    Pi Kappa Alpha
    Pi Kappa Alpha is a Greek social fraternity with over 230 chapters and colonies and over 250,000 lifetime initiates in the United States and Canada.-History:...

     Fraternity
  • Andrew A. Humphreys
    Andrew A. Humphreys
    Andrew Atkinson Humphreys , was a career United States Army officer, civil engineer, and a Union General in the American Civil War. He served in senior positions in the Army of the Potomac, including division command, chief of staff, and corps command, and was Chief Engineer of the U.S...

    , (1810-1883), Army Engineer, Civil War general, prominent scientist
  • Samuel Humphreys
    Samuel Humphreys
    Samuel Humphreys was a noted U.S. naval architect in the early 19th century.- Naval architect :Samuel Humphreys constructed ships at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. He built the USS Franklin in 1815...

    , (1778-1846), naval architect known as Chief Constructor of the Navy
  • Adelaide Johnson
    Adelaide Johnson
    Adelaide Johnson was an American sculptor whose work is displayed in the U.S. Capitol and a feminist who was devoted to the cause for equality of women....

    , (1859-1955), sculptor, social reformer
  • Charles West Kendall
    Charles West Kendall
    Charles West Kendall was an American politician, lawyer, librarian, editor, proprietor and miner in California, Nevada and Colorado.Born in Searsmont, Maine, Kendall attended Phillips Academy and Yale College...

    , (1828-1914), U.S. Congressman — Nevada
    Nevada
    Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

    , California State Assemblyman, attorney
  • Horatio King
    Horatio King
    Horatio King was Postmaster General of the United States under James Buchanan.Born in Paris, Maine, he received a common school education, and at the age of 18 entered the office of the Paris Jeffersonian, where he learned printing, afterward becoming owner and editor of the paper...

    , (1811-1897), U.S. Postmaster General
  • Tom Lantos
    Tom Lantos
    Thomas Peter "Tom" Lantos was a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from 1981 until his death, representing the northern two-thirds of San Mateo County and a portion of southwest San Francisco...

    , (1928-2008), U.S. Congressman — California
    California
    California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

    ; Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee and the only Holocaust
    The Holocaust
    The Holocaust , also known as the Shoah , was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi...

     survivor elected to Congress
  • Belva Ann Lockwood
    Belva Ann Lockwood
    Belva Ann Bennett Lockwood was an American attorney, politician, educator, and author. She was active in working for women's rights, although the term feminist was not in use. The press of her day referred to her as a "suffragist," someone who believed in women's suffrage or voting rights...

    , (1830-1917), first woman attorney permitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court
  • Joseph Lovell
    Joseph Lovell
    Dr. Joseph Lovell was the 8th Surgeon General of the United States Army, ,-Family:Lovell was born in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of James S. and Deborah Lovell...

    , (1788-1836), Surgeon General of the U.S. Army
  • Alexander Macomb, Jr.
    Alexander Macomb, Jr.
    Alexander Macomb was the commanding general of the United States Army from May 29, 1828 to June 25, 1841. Macomb was the field commander at the Battle of Plattsburg, and after the stunning victory was lauded with praise and styled "The Hero of Plattsburgh" by some of the American press...

    , (1782-1841), War of 1812 Hero, Commanding General of the Army and namesake of Macomb County
    Macomb County, Michigan
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 788,149 people, 309,203 households, and 210,876 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,640 people per square mile . There were 320,276 housing units at an average density of 667 per square mile...

     and Macomb Township, Michigan
    Macomb Township, Michigan
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 50,478 people, 16,946 households, and 14,065 families residing in the township. The population density was 1,391.7 per square mile . There were 17,922 housing units at an average density of 494.1 per square mile...

    ; Macomb, Illinois
    Macomb, Illinois
    Macomb is a city in and the county seat of McDonough County, Illinois, United States. It is situated in western Illinois southwest of Galesburg. The population was 18,588 at the 2000 census. Macomb is the home of Western Illinois University.- Geography :...

     and Macomb Mountain
    Macomb Mountain
    Macomb Mountain is a mountain located in Essex County, New York.The mountain is named after Maj.Gen. Alexander Macomb , who won acclaim during the War of 1812 at the Battle of Plattsburgh, and served as Commanding General of the United States Army .Macomb Mountain is part of the Dix Range, and is...

     in New York
  • Leonard Matlovich
    Leonard Matlovich
    Technical Sergeant Leonard P. Matlovich was a Vietnam War veteran, race relations instructor, and recipient of the Purple Heart and the Bronze Star....

    , (1943-1988), gay-rights activist and Air Force veteran
  • Edward Maynard
    Edward Maynard
    -External links:*...

    , (1813-1891), prominent Washington, D.C. dentist and firearms innovator
  • Jeremiah McLene
    Jeremiah McLene
    Jeremiah McLene was a U.S. Representative from Ohio from 1833 to 1837, major general of militia in the American Revolutionary War, the 2nd Ohio Secretary of State from 1808 to 1831, and a state representative from 1807 to 1808. He served as a Democrat.-Early life:McLene was born in Cumberland...

    , (1767-1837), U.S. Congressman — Ohio
    Ohio
    Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

    , Major General of militia in the American Revolution, Ohio Secretary of State
    Ohio Secretary of State
    The Secretary of State is responsible for overseeing elections in the State of Ohio. The Secretary of State also is responsible for registering business entities and granting them the authority to do business within the state, registering secured transactions, and granting access to public...

  • Robert Mills
    Robert Mills (architect)
    Robert Mills , most famously known for designing the Washington Monument, is sometimes called the first native born American to become a professional architect, though Charles Bulfinch perhaps has a clearer claim to this honor...

    , (1781-1855), architect and designer of the Washington Monument
    Washington Monument
    The Washington Monument is an obelisk near the west end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate the first U.S. president, General George Washington...

  • Robert Adam Mosbacher, (1927-2010), U.S. Secretary of Commerce
    United States Secretary of Commerce
    The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry; the Department states its mission to be "to foster, promote, and develop the foreign and domestic commerce"...

  • Joseph Nicollet
    Joseph Nicollet
    Joseph Nicolas Nicollet , also known as Jean-Nicolas Nicollet, was a French geographer and mathematician known for mapping the Upper Mississippi River basin during the 1830s....

    , (1786-1843), Mathemetician and explorer who mapped the upper Mississippi River
    Mississippi River
    The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

    ; namesake of City of Nicollet
    Nicollet, Minnesota
    Nicollet is a city in Nicollet County, Minnesota, United States. The population was 1,093 at the 2010 census.It is part of the Mankato–North Mankato Metropolitan Statistical Area....

    , County of Nicollet
    Nicollet County, Minnesota
    As of the census of 2000, there were 29,771 people, 10,642 households, and 7,311 families residing in the county. The population density was 66 people per square mile . There were 11,240 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile...

     and Nicollet Island
    Nicollet Island
    Nicollet Island is an island in the Mississippi River just north of downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, named for cartographer, Joseph Nicollet. DeLaSalle High School and the Nicollet Island Inn are located there, as well as three multi-family residential buildings and twenty-two restored...

     in Minnesota
    Minnesota
    Minnesota is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern United States. The twelfth largest state of the U.S., it is the twenty-first most populous, with 5.3 million residents. Minnesota was carved out of the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory and admitted to the Union as the thirty-second state...

    .
  • James Noble
    James Noble
    James Noble was the first U.S. Senator from the U.S. state of Indiana.Noble was born near Berryville, Virginia and moved with his parents to Campbell County, Kentucky when he was 10...

    , (1785-1831), U.S. Senator — Indiana
    Indiana
    Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

  • Daniel Patterson
    Daniel Patterson
    Daniel Todd Patterson was an officer in the United States Navy during the Quasi-War with France, the First Barbary War and the War of 1812.-Biography:...

    , (1786-1831) U.S. Navy commodore
  • Thomas H. Patterson
    Thomas H. Patterson
    Thomas Harmon Patterson was a rear admiral in the United States Navy.-Early life and career:Patterson was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the second son of Commodore Daniel Todd Patterson, a War of 1812 U.S. Navy hero, and George Ann Pollock. Patterson saw action in the American Civil War and...

    , (1820-1889), U.S. Navy rear admiral
  • William Pinkney
    William Pinkney
    William Pinkney was an American statesman and diplomat, and the seventh U.S. Attorney General.-Biography:Born in Annapolis, Maryland, Pinkney studied medicine and law, becoming a lawyer after his admission to the bar in 1786...

    , (1764-1822), U.S. and Maryland Attorney General, Mayor of Annapolis, statesman and diplomat
  • Alfred Pleasonton
    Alfred Pleasonton
    Alfred Pleasonton was a United States Army officer and General of Union cavalry during the American Civil War. He commanded the Cavalry Corps of the Army of the Potomac during the Gettysburg Campaign, including the largest predominantly cavalry battle of the war, Brandy Station...

    , (1824-1897), Union army
    Union Army
    The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

     general
  • Push-Ma-Ha-Ta
    Pushmataha
    Pushmataha , the "Indian General", was one of the three regional chiefs of the major divisions of the Choctaw in the nineteenth century. Many historians considered him the "greatest of all Choctaw chiefs"...

    , (c.1760-1824), Native American (Choctaw
    Choctaw
    The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States...

    ) Chief
  • Edith Nourse Rogers
    Edith Nourse Rogers
    Edith Nourse Rogers was an American social welfare volunteer and politician who was one of the first women to serve in the United States Congress. She was the first woman elected to congress from Massachusetts...

    , (1881-1960), social reformer, U.S. Congresswoman — Massachusetts
    Massachusetts
    The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

    ; sponsor of the G. I. Bill and Womens Army Corps
  • John Smilie
    John Smilie
    John Smilie was an American politician from Fayette, Pennsylvania.He served in both houses of the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in the U.S. House from 1793 until 1795 and from 1799 to 1812. Smilie was a prominent Jeffersonian, and was identified with the "'Quid" branch of the party...

    , (1741-1812), U.S. Congressman — Pennsylvania
  • Alexander Smyth
    Alexander Smyth
    Alexander Smyth was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician from Virginia, who served in the United States House of Representatives and as a general during the War of 1812.-Biography:...

    , (1765-1830), lawyer, soldier, U.S. Congressman — Virginia
  • John Philip Sousa
    John Philip Sousa
    John Philip Sousa was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known particularly for American military and patriotic marches. Because of his mastery of march composition, he is known as "The March King" or the "American March King" due to his British counterpart Kenneth J....

    , (1854-1932), composer of many noted military and patriotic marches and conductor of the U.S. Marine Band
  • Samuel L. Southard
    Samuel L. Southard
    Samuel Lewis Southard was a prominent U.S. statesman of the early 19th century, serving as a U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Navy, and the 10th Governor of New Jersey.-History:...

    , (1787-1842), U.S. Senator — New Jersey
    New Jersey
    New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

    , Secretary of the Navy
    United States Secretary of the Navy
    The Secretary of the Navy of the United States of America is the head of the Department of the Navy, a component organization of the Department of Defense...

    , Governor of New Jersey
    Governor of New Jersey
    The Office of the Governor of New Jersey is the executive branch for the U.S. state of New Jersey. The office of Governor is an elected position, for which elected officials serve four year terms. While individual politicians may serve as many terms as they can be elected to, Governors cannot be...

  • Richard Stanford
    Richard Stanford
    Richard Stanford was a Democratic-Republican U.S. Congressman from North Carolina between 1797 and 1816.-Biography:...

    , (1767-1816), U.S. Congressman — North Carolina
  • William Taylor
    William Taylor (congressman)
    William Taylor was a nineteenth century congressman and lawyer from Virginia.Born in Alexandria, Virginia , Taylor completed preparatory studies, studied law and was admitted to the bar, commencing practice in Staunton, Virginia...

    , (1788-1846), U.S. Congressman — Virginia, Member of Virginia House of Delegates
    Virginia House of Delegates
    The Virginia House of Delegates is the lower house of the Virginia General Assembly. It has 100 members elected for terms of two years; unlike most states, these elections take place during odd-numbered years. The House is presided over by the Speaker of the House, who is elected from among the...

    , attorney
  • Chief Taza
    Chief Taza
    Taza was the son of Chiricahua Apache leader Cochise. He died September 26, 1876, after only about two years as chief. He is buried in Congressional Cemetery Washington D.C....

    , (c. 1849-1876), Apache
    Apache
    Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan...

     Chief
  • William Thornton
    William Thornton
    Dr. William Thornton was a British-American physician, inventor, painter and architect who designed the United States Capitol, an authentic polymath...

    , (1759-1828), physician, painter, designer and first Architect of the Capitol
    Architect of the Capitol
    The Architect of the Capitol is the federal agency responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex, and also the head of that agency. The Architect of the Capitol is in the legislative branch and is responsible to the United States...

     and superintendent of the U.S. Patent Office
    United States Patent and Trademark Office
    The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.The USPTO is based in Alexandria, Virginia,...

  • Thomas Tingey
    Thomas Tingey
    Thomas Tingey was a Commodore of the United States Navy.-History:Tingey was born in London on 11 September 1750. As a youth, he served in the British Navy commanding a blockhouse at Chateaux Bay on the Labrador coast. He later commanded merchant vessels in the West Indies before coming to the...

    , (1750-1829), U.S. Navy commodore
  • Clyde Tolson
    Clyde Tolson
    Clyde Anderson Tolson was Associate Director of the FBI, primarily responsible for personnel and discipline. He is best known as the protégé of FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover.-Early career:...

    , (1900-1975), associate director of the FBI
  • Joseph Gilbert Totten
    Joseph Gilbert Totten
    Joseph Gilbert Totten fought in the War of 1812, served as Chief Engineer and was regent of the Smithsonian Institution and cofounder of the National Academy of Sciences.-Early life and education:...

    , (1788-1864), military officer, longtime Army Chief of Engineers, regent of the Smithsonian Institution
    Smithsonian Institution
    The Smithsonian Institution is an educational and research institute and associated museum complex, administered and funded by the government of the United States and by funds from its endowment, contributions, and profits from its retail operations, concessions, licensing activities, and magazines...

    , cofounder of the National Academy of Sciences and namesake of Fort Totten in Washington, D.C.
  • Uriah Tracy
    Uriah Tracy
    Uriah Tracy was an American politician from Connecticut who served in both the House of Representatives and the Senate....

    , (1755-1807), U.S. Congressman and Senator — Connecticut
    Connecticut
    Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

  • William Upham
    William Upham
    William Upham was a United States Senator from Vermont.-Biography:William Upham was born in Leicester, Massachusetts to Samuel Upham and Martha Upham. He moved with his father to Montpelier, Vermont in 1802...

    , (1792-1853), U.S. Senator — Vermont
    Vermont
    Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd in land area, , and 45th in total area. Its population according to the 2010 census, 630,337, is the second smallest in the country, larger only than Wyoming. It is the only New England...

    , member of the Vermont House of Representatives
    Vermont House of Representatives
    The Vermont House of Representatives is the lower house of the Vermont General Assembly, the state legislature of the U.S. state of Vermont. The House comprises 150 members. Vermont legislative districting divides representing districts into 66 single-member districts and 42 two-member...

    , attorney
  • Abel P. Upshur
    Abel P. Upshur
    Abel Parker Upshur was an American lawyer, judge and politician from Virginia. Upshur was active in Virginia state politics and later served as Secretary of the Navy and Secretary of State during the Whig administration of President John Tyler...

    , (1790-1844), lawyer, Secretary of the Navy, U.S. Secretary of State
  • Charles H. Upton
    Charles H. Upton
    Charles Horace Upton was a nineteenth century politician and statesman from Massachusetts and Virginia.-Biography:...

    , (1812-1877), U.S. Congressman — Virginia, consul
    Consul
    Consul was the highest elected office of the Roman Republic and an appointive office under the Empire. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic...

     to Switzerland
    Switzerland
    Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

  • William Wirt
    William Wirt (Attorney General)
    William Wirt was an American author and statesman who is credited with turning the position of United States Attorney General into one of influence.-History:...

    , (1772-1834), U.S. Attorney General
    United States Attorney General
    The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. The attorney general is considered to be the chief lawyer of the U.S. government...

    , member of the Virginia House of Delegates, author

Temporary Interments
  • John Quincy Adams
    John Quincy Adams
    John Quincy Adams was the sixth President of the United States . He served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of former...

    , the 6th President of the United States
    President of the United States
    The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

    , Interred in the Public Vault upon his death in 1848
  • Louisa Catherine Adams, First Lady of the United States
    First Lady of the United States
    First Lady of the United States is the title of the hostess of the White House. Because this position is traditionally filled by the wife of the president of the United States, the title is most often applied to the wife of a sitting president. The current first lady is Michelle Obama.-Current:The...

    , wife of John Quincy, Interred in the Public Vault in 1852
  • William Henry Harrison
    William Henry Harrison
    William Henry Harrison was the ninth President of the United States , an American military officer and politician, and the first president to die in office. He was 68 years, 23 days old when elected, the oldest president elected until Ronald Reagan in 1980, and last President to be born before the...

    , the 9th President of the United States
    President of the United States
    The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

     Interred in the cemetery's Public Vault in 1841
  • Dolley Madison
    Dolley Madison
    Dolley Payne Todd Madison was the spouse of the fourth President of the United States, James Madison, and was First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817...

    , First Lady of the United States
    First Lady of the United States
    First Lady of the United States is the title of the hostess of the White House. Because this position is traditionally filled by the wife of the president of the United States, the title is most often applied to the wife of a sitting president. The current first lady is Michelle Obama.-Current:The...

    , Interred in the vault in 1849
  • John Aaron Rawlins
    John Aaron Rawlins
    John Aaron Rawlins was an United States Army general during the American Civil War, a confidant of Ulysses S. Grant, and later U.S. Secretary of War.-Biography:...

     Civil War General and U.S. Secretary of War, Buried at Congressional but later moved to Arlington National Cemetery
    Arlington National Cemetery
    Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington County, Virginia, is a military cemetery in the United States of America, established during the American Civil War on the grounds of Arlington House, formerly the estate of the family of Confederate general Robert E. Lee's wife Mary Anna Lee, a great...

  • Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor
    Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States and an American military leader. Initially uninterested in politics, Taylor nonetheless ran as a Whig in the 1848 presidential election, defeating Lewis Cass...

    , the 12th President of the United States
    President of the United States
    The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

    , Interred in the Public Vault in 1850


In addition, the Congressional Cemetery contains a cenotaph
Cenotaph
A cenotaph is an "empty tomb" or a monument erected in honour of a person or group of people whose remains are elsewhere. It can also be the initial tomb for a person who has since been interred elsewhere. The word derives from the Greek κενοτάφιον = kenotaphion...

for any member of Congress who died in office between 1833 and 1870 and was interred elsewhere.

External links