United States National Academy of Sciences

United States National Academy of Sciences

Overview
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 whose members serve pro bono
Pro bono
Pro bono publico is a Latin phrase generally used to describe professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment or at a reduced fee as a public service. It is common in the legal profession and is increasingly seen in marketing, technology, and strategy consulting firms...

as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." As a national academy
National academy
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities. Typically the country's learned societies in...

, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.

The National Academy of Sciences is part of the National Academies
United States National Academies
The United States National Academies comprises four organizations:* National Academy of Sciences * National Academy of Engineering * Institute of Medicine * National Research Council...

, which also includes:
  • National Academy of Engineering
    National Academy of Engineering
    The National Academy of Engineering is a government-created non-profit institution in the United States, that was founded in 1964 under the same congressional act that led to the founding of the National Academy of Sciences...

     (NAE)
  • Institute of Medicine
    Institute of Medicine
    The Institute of Medicine is a not-for-profit, non-governmental American organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences...

     (IOM)
  • National Research Council
    United States National Research Council
    The National Research Council of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academies, carrying out most of the studies done in their names.The National Academies include:* National Academy of Sciences...

     (NRC)


The group holds a congressional charter
Congressional charter
A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission, authority and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code....

 under Title 36 of the United States Code
Title 36 of the United States Code
Title 36 of the United States Code outlines the role of Patriotic Societies and Observances in the United States Code.*Subtitle I—Patriotic and National Observances and Ceremonies*Subtitle II—Patriotic and National Organizations...

.

The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members.
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Encyclopedia
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 whose members serve pro bono
Pro bono
Pro bono publico is a Latin phrase generally used to describe professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment or at a reduced fee as a public service. It is common in the legal profession and is increasingly seen in marketing, technology, and strategy consulting firms...

as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." As a national academy
National academy
A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research activities and standards for academic disciplines, most frequently in the sciences but also the humanities. Typically the country's learned societies in...

, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research.

The National Academy of Sciences is part of the National Academies
United States National Academies
The United States National Academies comprises four organizations:* National Academy of Sciences * National Academy of Engineering * Institute of Medicine * National Research Council...

, which also includes:
  • National Academy of Engineering
    National Academy of Engineering
    The National Academy of Engineering is a government-created non-profit institution in the United States, that was founded in 1964 under the same congressional act that led to the founding of the National Academy of Sciences...

     (NAE)
  • Institute of Medicine
    Institute of Medicine
    The Institute of Medicine is a not-for-profit, non-governmental American organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences...

     (IOM)
  • National Research Council
    United States National Research Council
    The National Research Council of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academies, carrying out most of the studies done in their names.The National Academies include:* National Academy of Sciences...

     (NRC)


The group holds a congressional charter
Congressional charter
A congressional charter is a law passed by the United States Congress that states the mission, authority and activities of a group. Congress issued federal charters from 1791 until 1992 under Title 36 of the United States Code....

 under Title 36 of the United States Code
Title 36 of the United States Code
Title 36 of the United States Code outlines the role of Patriotic Societies and Observances in the United States Code.*Subtitle I—Patriotic and National Observances and Ceremonies*Subtitle II—Patriotic and National Organizations...

.

Origin


The Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS came from the so-called Scientific Lazzaroni
Scientific Lazzaroni
The Scientific Lazzaroni is a self-mocking name adopted by Alexander Dallas Bache and his group of scientists who flourished before and up to the American Civil War, then gained greater support and laid the foundation for the National Academy of Sciences...

, an informal network of mostly physical scientists working in the vicinity of Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge, Massachusetts
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, in the Greater Boston area. It was named in honor of the University of Cambridge in England, an important center of the Puritan theology embraced by the town's founders. Cambridge is home to two of the world's most prominent...

 (circa 1850s).
In 1863, enlisting the support of Alexander Dallas Bache
Alexander Dallas Bache
Alexander Dallas Bache was an American physicist, scientist and surveyor who erected coastal fortifications and conducted a detailed survey mapping of the United States coastline.-Biography:...

 and Charles Henry Davis
Charles Henry Davis
Charles Henry Davis was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy, serving primarily during the American Civil War, and with the United States Coast Survey.-Early life and career:...

, a professional astronomer recently recalled from the Navy to Washington to head the Bureau of Navigation, Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz was a Swiss paleontologist, glaciologist, geologist and a prominent innovator in the study of the Earth's natural history. He grew up in Switzerland and became a professor of natural history at University of Neuchâtel...

 and Benjamin Peirce
Benjamin Peirce
Benjamin Peirce was an American mathematician who taught at Harvard University for approximately 50 years. He made contributions to celestial mechanics, statistics, number theory, algebra, and the philosophy of mathematics....

 planned the steps whereby the National Academy of Sciences was to be established. Senator Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson
Henry Wilson was the 18th Vice President of the United States and a Senator from Massachusetts...

 of Massachusetts was to name Agassiz to the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian.

Agassiz was to come to Washington at the government's expense to plan the organization with the others. So it was done, bypassing Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as a founding member of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution. During his lifetime, he was highly regarded...

, who had already made known his reluctance to have a bill for such an academy presented to Congress in the belief that such a resolution would be "opposed as something at variance with our democratic institutions;" (Henry nevertheless soon became the second NAS President). Agassiz, Davis, Peirce, Benjamin Gould, and Senator Wilson met at Bache's house and "hurriedly wrote the bill incorporating the Academy, including in it the name of fifty incorporators."

During the last hours of the session, when the Senate was immersed in the rush of last minute business before its adjournment, Senator Wilson introduced the bill. Without examining it or debating its provisions, both the Senate and House approved it, and President Lincoln signed it.

Although hailed as a great step forward in government recognition of the role of science in American civilization, the National Academy of Sciences at the time created enormous ill-feelings among scientists, whether or not they were named as incorporators. Later, Agassiz admitted that they had "started on the wrong track."

The Act states:

The National Academy did not solve the problems facing a nation in Civil War as the Lazzaroni had hoped, nor did it centralize American scientific efforts.

Recent history


As of spring 2009, the National Academy of Sciences included about 2,100 members and 380 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005. The current members annually elect new members for life. Election to membership is one of the highest honors that can be accorded to a scientist and recognizes scientists who have made distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Nearly 200 members have won a Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

.

The National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science
International Council for Science
The International Council for Science , formerly the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science...

 (ICSU). The ICSU Advisory Committee, which is in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and is a liaison for U.S. national committees for the individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there often is informal dialogue.

The National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences...

, the scholarly journal of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academies Press
National Academies Press
National Academies Press was created by the United States National Academies, to publish the reports issued by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. It publishes nearly 200 books a year on a wide range...

 is the publisher for the National Academies, and makes 3600+ publications available for free reading on its website.

There are several books on the National Academy of Sciences and the advice the National Research Council gives the U.S. government, including a critical piece of journalism The Brain Bank of America by Philip Boffey and a sociological study Science on Stage: Expert Advice as Public Drama.

Since 2004, the National Academy of Sciences has administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum
Marian Koshland Science Museum
The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences features exhibits that present modern science and scientific issues in an accessible way, geared for the general public...

, to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work. The museum's current exhibits focus on climate change
Global warming
Global warming refers to the rising average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans and its projected continuation. In the last 100 years, Earth's average surface temperature increased by about with about two thirds of the increase occurring over just the last three decades...

 and infectious disease
Infectious disease
Infectious diseases, also known as communicable diseases, contagious diseases or transmissible diseases comprise clinically evident illness resulting from the infection, presence and growth of pathogenic biological agents in an individual host organism...

.

Since June 2011, the NAS made a digital copy of most books and reports published by the National Academies Press
National Academies Press
National Academies Press was created by the United States National Academies, to publish the reports issued by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. It publishes nearly 200 books a year on a wide range...

 available for free at their website. The catalog includes more than 4,000 works.

Facilities


The National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States.

The historic National Academy of Sciences building is located at 2100 C Street, in northwest Washington, DC; it sits on the National Mall, adjacent to the Federal Reserve
Eccles Building
The Marriner S. Eccles Federal Reserve Board Building houses the main offices of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. It is located at 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, N.W., in Washington, D.C. The building, designed in the stripped-down classical style, was designed by Paul...

 and in front of the State Department
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State , is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries...

. This neoclassical building was dedicated in 1924 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

. The building is used for lectures, exhibits, and symposia, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, and IOM. It is currently closed to visitors, with major restoration slated until 2012.

The NAS headquarters is housed in the Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, DC. The Keck Center employs more than 1,000 people, provides meeting space, and houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum
Marian Koshland Science Museum
The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences features exhibits that present modern science and scientific issues in an accessible way, geared for the general public...

 of the National Academy of Sciences – entered at the corner of Sixth and E Streets – hosts visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, and permanent science exhibits.

Two other NAS buildings are located in northwest Washington, DC: the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences...

at 700 11th Street and the NAS financial office at 575 Seventh Street.

The NAS also maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts. The Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center of the National Academies is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, California, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine
University of California, Irvine
The University of California, Irvine , founded in 1965, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, located in Irvine, California, USA...

; it offers a conference center and houses several NAS programs. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center in Woods Hole, Massachusetts
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
Woods Hole is a census-designated place in the town of Falmouth in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States. It lies at the extreme southwest corner of Cape Cod, near Martha's Vineyard and the Elizabeth Islands...

, is a conference facility.

Presidents of the National Academy of Sciences


The President is the elected head of the Academy. An Academy member is elected by a majority vote of the membership to serve in this position for a term to be determined by the governing Council, not to exceed six years, and may be re-elected for a second term. The Academy has had twenty-one presidents since its foundation. The current President is atmospheric chemist
Atmospheric chemistry
Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earth's atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. It is a multidisciplinary field of research and draws on environmental chemistry, physics, meteorology, computer modeling, oceanography, geology and...

, Ralph J. Cicerone of the University of California, Irvine
University of California, Irvine
The University of California, Irvine , founded in 1965, is one of the ten campuses of the University of California, located in Irvine, California, USA...

.

  • 1863–1867 Alexander Dallas Bache
    Alexander Dallas Bache
    Alexander Dallas Bache was an American physicist, scientist and surveyor who erected coastal fortifications and conducted a detailed survey mapping of the United States coastline.-Biography:...

  • 1868–1878 Joseph Henry
    Joseph Henry
    Joseph Henry was an American scientist who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, as well as a founding member of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, a precursor of the Smithsonian Institution. During his lifetime, he was highly regarded...

  • 1879–1882 William Barton Rogers
    William Barton Rogers
    William Barton Rogers was a geologist, physicist and educator. He is best known for setting down the founding principles for, advocating for, and finally obtaining the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1861...

  • 1883–1895 Othniel Charles Marsh
    Othniel Charles Marsh
    Othniel Charles Marsh was an American paleontologist. Marsh was one of the preeminent scientists in the field; the discovery or description of dozens of news species and theories on the origins of birds are among his legacies.Born into a modest family, Marsh was able to afford higher education...

  • 1895–1900 Wolcott Gibbs
    Oliver Wolcott Gibbs
    For the writer, see Wolcott Gibbs.Oliver Wolcott Gibbs was an American chemist. He is known for performing the first electrogravimetric analyses, namely the reductions of copper and nickel ions to their respective metals.- Biography:Oliver Wolcott Gibbs was born in New York City in 1822 to...

  • 1901–1907 Alexander Agassiz
  • 1907–1913 Ira Remsen
    Ira Remsen
    Ira Remsen was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg, discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University.-Biography:...

  • 1913–1917 William Henry Welch
  • 1917–1923 Charles Doolittle Walcott
    Charles Doolittle Walcott
    Charles Doolittle Walcott was an American invertebrate paleontologist. He became known for his discovery in 1909 of well-preserved fossils in the Burgess Shale of British Columbia, Canada.-Early life:...

  • 1923–1927 Albert Abraham Michelson
    Albert Abraham Michelson
    Albert Abraham Michelson was an American physicist known for his work on the measurement of the speed of light and especially for the Michelson-Morley experiment. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize in Physics...

  • 1927–1931 Thomas Hunt Morgan
    Thomas Hunt Morgan
    Thomas Hunt Morgan was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and embryologist and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries relating the role the chromosome plays in heredity.Morgan received his PhD from Johns Hopkins University in zoology...

  • 1931–1935 William Wallace Campbell
    William Wallace Campbell
    William Wallace Campbell was an American astronomer, and director of Lick Observatory from 1900 to 1930. He specialized in spectroscopy.-Biography:...

  • 1935–1939 Frank Rattray Lillie
  • 1939–1947 Frank Baldwin Jewett
  • 1947–1950 Alfred Newton Richards
    Alfred Newton Richards
    Alfred Newton Richards was an American pharmacologist.Richards was born in Stamford, New York. He served as chairman of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine's Department of Pharmacology from 1910 to 1946; thereafter he became Professor Emeritus...

  • 1950–1962 Detlev Wulf Bronk
  • 1962–1969 Frederick Seitz
    Frederick Seitz
    Frederick Seitz was an American physicist and a pioneer of solid state physics. Seitz was president of Rockefeller University, and president of the United States National Academy of Sciences 1962–1969. He was the recipient of the National Medal of Science, NASA's Distinguished Public Service...

  • 1969–1981 Philip Handler
    Philip Handler
    Philip Handler was an American nutritionist, and biochemist. He was President of the United States National Academy of Sciences for two terms from 1969 to 1981. He was also a recipient of the National Medal of Science....

  • 1981–1993 Frank Press
    Frank Press
    Frank Press is an American geophysicist.Born in Brooklyn, New York, Press was science advisor to President Jimmy Carter from1976 to 1980,and president of the U.S. NationalAcademy of Sciences from 1981 to 1993...

  • 1993–2005 Bruce Michael Alberts
    Bruce Alberts
    Bruce Michael Alberts is an American biochemist known for his work in science public policy and as an original author of the Molecular Biology of the Cell...

  • 2005–present Ralph J. Cicerone


Highlights

  • David Blackwell
    David Blackwell
    -Honors and awards:*President, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 1956*National Academy of Sciences, 1965*American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1968*Honorary Fellow, Royal Statistical Society, 1976*Vice President, American Statistical Association, 1978...

     was the first African-American elected (1965).
  • Edward C. Pickering (1846–1919) was the youngest scientist elected.

Joint declaration on global warming


In 2005, the national science academies of the G8
G8
The Group of Eight is a forum, created by France in 1975, for the governments of seven major economies: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In 1997, the group added Russia, thus becoming the G8...

 nations (including the National Academy of Sciences) plus science academies of Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 (three of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the developing world) signed a statement on the global response to climate change
Climate change
Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be a change in average weather conditions or the distribution of events around that average...

. The statement stresses that the scientific understanding of climate change had become sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action.

In May 2010, Virginia Attorney General Ken Cuccinelli
Ken Cuccinelli
Kenneth Thomas 'Ken' Cuccinelli II is a U.S. politician and the Attorney General of Virginia. From 2002 until January 16, 2010 he was a Republican member of the Senate of Virginia, representing the 37th district in Fairfax County...

 served a civil investigative demand on the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, founded by Thomas Jefferson...

 seeking a broad range of documents from Michael E. Mann, who was formerly an assistant professor there from 1999-2005. Mann, who currently works at Penn State, is a climate change researcher, and Cuccinelli alleges that Mann may have defrauded Virginia taxpayers in the course of his environmental research. Climate change skeptics have challenged Mann's work, but a Penn State investigation cleared Mann of charges that he falsified or suppressed data. In response, 255 Academy members signed a letter that was published in Science magazine on May 7, 2010, decrying "political assaults" against climate change scientists.

Awards


The Academy gives a number of different awards:
  • General
    • John J. Carty Award for the Advancement of Science
    • NAS Award for Initiatives in Research
      NAS Award for Initiatives in Research
      The NAS Award for Initiatives in Research is awarded annually by the National Academy of Sciences "to recognize innovative young scientists and to encourage research likely to lead toward new capabilities for human benefit. The award is to be given to a citizen of the United States, preferably no...

    • NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing
    • Public Welfare Medal
      Public Welfare Medal
      The Public Welfare Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "in recognition of distinguished contributions in the application of science to the public welfare." It is the most prestigious honor conferred by the Academy...


  • Astronomy/Astrophysics
    • Henry Draper Medal
      Henry Draper Medal
      The Henry Draper Medal is awarded by the United States National Academy of Sciences "for investigations in astronomical physics". Named after Henry Draper, the medal is awarded with a gift of USD $15,000...

    • J. Lawrence Smith Medal
      J. Lawrence Smith Medal
      J. Lawrence Smith Medal is awarded by the National Academy of Sciences for investigations of meteoric bodies. The medal is in honor of its namesake, J. Lawrence Smith.-Further reading:* Willson, Lee Anne. Presented April 2006....

    • James Craig Watson Medal
      James Craig Watson Medal
      thumb|right|400px|James Craig Watson MedalThe James Craig Watson Medal was established by the bequest of James Craig Watson, and is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for contributions to astronomy.The recipients have been:-External links:*...


  • Behavioral/Social Sciences
    • NAS Award for Behavior Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War
      NAS Award for Behavior Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War
      The NAS Award for Behavioral Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "to recognize basic research in any field of cognitive or behavioral science that has employed rigorous formal or empirical methods, optimally a combination of these,...

    • Troland Research Awards
      Troland Research Awards
      The Troland Research Awards are an annual prize given by the United States National Academy of Sciences to two researchers under the age of 40 in recognition of psychological research on the relationship between consciousness and the physical world....


  • Biology and Medicine
    • Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics
      Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics
      The Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for outstanding contributions in biophysics." Named in honor of Alexander Hollaender, it has been awarded every three years since 1998....

    • Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal
      Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal
      The Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for important contributions to the medical sciences." It was first awarded in 1952.- List of Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal winners :*2010: Janet D. Rowley...

    • Richard Lounsbery Award
    • NAS Award in Molecular Biology
      NAS Award in Molecular Biology
      The NAS Award in Molecular Biology is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for recent notable discovery in molecular biology by a young scientist who is a citizen of the United States." It has been awarded annually since its inception in 1962....

    • NAS Award in the Neurosciences
      NAS Award in the Neurosciences
      The NAS Award in the Neurosciences is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "in recognition of extraordinary contributions to progress in the fields of neuroscience, including neurochemistry, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology, developmental neuroscience, neuroanatomy, and behavioral...

    • Gilbert Morgan Smith Medal
      Gilbert Morgan Smith Medal
      The Gilbert Morgan Smith Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "in recognition of excellence in published research on marine or freshwater algae." It has been awarded every three years since 1979....

    • Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology
      Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology
      The Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "in recognition of excellence in the field of microbiology." Named after Selman Waksman, it was first awarded in 1968....


  • Chemistry
    • NAS Award in Chemical Sciences
      NAS Award in Chemical Sciences
      The National Academy of Sciences Award in Chemical Sciences is awarded for innovative research in the chemical sciences that in the broadest sense contributes to a better understanding of the natural sciences and to the benefit of humanity.-Recipients:...

    • NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society
      NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society
      The NAS Award for Chemistry in Service to Society is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for contributions to chemistry, either in fundamental science or its application, that clearly satisfy a societal need." It has been awarded every two years since its inception in 1991.- List of...


  • Earth and Environmental Sciences
    • Alexander Agassiz Medal
      Alexander Agassiz Medal
      The Alexander Agassiz Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for an original contribution in the science of oceanography. It was established by Sir John Murray in honor of his friend Alexander Agassiz.-Recipients:-References:NotesA...

    • Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship
      Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship
      The Arthur L. Day Prize and Lectureship is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "to a scientist making new contributions to the physics of the Earth whose four to six lectures would prove a solid, timely, and useful addition to the knowledge and literature in the field." The prize was...

    • Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal
      Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal
      The Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for meritorious work in zoology or paleontology published in a three- to five-year period." Named after Daniel Giraud Elliot, it was first awarded in 1917....

    • Mary Clark Thompson Medal
      Mary Clark Thompson Medal
      The Mary Clark Thompson Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for most important service to geology and paleontology." Named after Mary Clark Thompson, it was first awarded in 1921.- List of Mary Clark Thompson Medal winners :...

    • Charles Doolittle Walcott Medal
      Charles Doolittle Walcott Medal
      Charles Doolittle Walcott Medal is an award presented by the National Academy of Sciences every five years to promote research and study in the fields of Precambrian and Cambrian life and history. The medal was established and endowed in 1934 by the Walcott Fund, a gift of Mary Vaux Walcott, in...

    • G. K. Warren Prize
      G. K. Warren Prize
      The G. K. Warren Prize is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for noteworthy and distinguished accomplishment in fluviatile geology and closely related aspects of the geological sciences." Named in honor of Gouverneur Kemble Warren, it was first awarded in 1969 and has been awarded...


  • Engineering and Applied Sciences
    • NAS Award in Aeronautical Engineering
      NAS Award in Aeronautical Engineering
      The NAS Award in Aeronautical Engineering is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for excellence in the field of aeronautical engineering." Established by Jerome C. Hunsaker and his wife, it was first awarded in 1968....

       - aeronautical engineering
    • Gibbs Brothers Medal
      Gibbs Brothers Medal
      The Gibbs Brothers Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for "outstanding contributions in the field of naval architecture and marine engineering". It was established by a gift from William Francis Gibbs and Frederic H. Gibbs....

       - naval architecture
      Naval architecture
      Naval architecture is an engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction, maintenance and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, design, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a...

      , marine engineering
    • NAS Award for the Industrial Application of Science

  • Mathematics and Computer Science
    • NAS Award in Mathematics
      NAS Award in Mathematics
      The NAS Award in Mathematics is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for excellence of research in the mathematical sciences published within the past ten years." It has been awarded every four years since 1988....


  • Physics
    • Arctowski Medal
      Arctowski Medal
      The Arctowski Medal is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for studies in solar physics and solar-terrestrial relationships." Named in honor of Henryk Arctowski, it was first awarded in 1969.- List of Arctowski Medal winners :...

    • Comstock Prize in Physics
      Comstock Prize in Physics
      The Comstock Prize in Physics is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for recent innovative discovery or investigation in electricity, magnetism, or radiant energy, broadly interpreted."...

    • Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics
      Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics
      The Alexander Hollaender Award in Biophysics is awarded by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences "for outstanding contributions in biophysics." Named in honor of Alexander Hollaender, it has been awarded every three years since 1998....


See also

  • List of members of the National Academy of Sciences
  • Library of Congress Digital Library project
    Library of Congress Digital Library project
    The Library of Congress National Digital Library Program is assembling a digital library of reproductions of primary source materials to support the study of the history and culture of the United States...

  • Marian Koshland Science Museum
    Marian Koshland Science Museum
    The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences features exhibits that present modern science and scientific issues in an accessible way, geared for the general public...

  • National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program
    National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program
    The National Digital Information Infrastructure and Preservation Program is an archival program led by the Library of Congress to archive and provide access to digital resources. The U.S. Congress established the program in 2000...

  • National Science Foundation
    National Science Foundation
    The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health...

  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, usually referred to as PNAS, is the official journal of the United States National Academy of Sciences...

  • National Academies Press
    National Academies Press
    National Academies Press was created by the United States National Academies, to publish the reports issued by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. It publishes nearly 200 books a year on a wide range...

  • US National Academy of Sciences' Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy

External links