Architect of the Capitol

Architect of the Capitol

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Architect of the Capitol'
Start a new discussion about 'Architect of the Capitol'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Architect of the Capitol (AOC) is the federal
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 agency
Government agency
A government or state agency is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency. There is a notable variety of agency types...

 responsible for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States Capitol Complex
United States Capitol Complex
The United States Capitol Complex is a group of about a dozen buildings and facilities in Washington, D.C., that are used by the United States government...

, and also the head of that agency. The Architect of the Capitol is in the legislative branch
Legislature
A legislature is a kind of deliberative assembly with the power to pass, amend, and repeal laws. The law created by a legislature is called legislation or statutory law. In addition to enacting laws, legislatures usually have exclusive authority to raise or lower taxes and adopt the budget and...

 and is responsible to the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

.

The current Architect of the Capitol is Stephen T. Ayers. Ayers served as acting Architect of the Capital since February 2007, and was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on May 12, 2010, becoming the 11th Architect of the Capitol.

Overview


The Architect of the Capitol sits on the Capitol Police Board
Capitol Police Board
The Capitol Police Board is a group of three members who maintain jurisdiction over the United States Capitol Police. The three members of this board are the Architect of the Capitol, the Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate, and the Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of...

, which has jurisdiction over the United States Capitol Police, and on the United States Capitol Guide Board
United States Capitol Guide Board
The Capitol Guide Board is a group of three members who have jurisdiction over the United States Capitol Guide Service. The three members of this board are the Architect of the Capitol, the Senate Sergeant at Arms, and the House Sergeant at Arms. These same three individuals also make up the...

, which has jurisdiction over the United States Capitol Guide Service
United States Capitol Guide Service
The United States Capitol Guide Service is a guide service charged by the United States Congress to "provide guided tours of the interior of the United States Capitol Building for the education and enlightenment of the general public, without charge for such tours." It exists under .Created in 1876...

.

Until 1989, the position of Architect of the Capitol was filled by appointment from the President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 for an indefinite term. Legislation enacted in 1989 provides that the Architect is to be appointed for a term of ten years by the President, with the advice and consent
Advice and consent
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts, describing a situation in which the executive branch of a government enacts something previously approved of by the legislative branch.-General:The expression is...

 of the Senate, from a list of three candidates recommended by a congressional commission. Upon confirmation by the Senate, the Architect becomes an official of the legislative branch as an officer and agent of Congress; he is eligible for reappointment after completion of his term.

Responsibility



The Office of the Architect of the Capitol is responsible to the United States Congress for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of 17.4 million square feet of buildings and more than 450 acres (182.1 ha) of land throughout the Capitol Complex. The Architect’s Office is also responsible for the upkeep and improvement of the Capitol grounds, and the arrangement of inaugural ceremonies and other ceremonies held in the building or on the grounds. Legislation has been enacted over the years to place additional buildings and grounds under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol.

The Capitol Complex includes the following facilities:
  • the Capitol
    United States Capitol
    The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall...

  • the Capitol Visitor Center
    United States Capitol Visitor Center
    The United States Capitol Visitor Center is a large underground addition to the United States Capitol complex which serves as a gathering point for up to 4,000 tourists and an expansion space for the US Congress. It is located below the East Front of the Capitol and its plaza, between the Capitol...

  • the seven congressional office buildings
    Congressional office buildings
    The congressional office buildings are the office buildings used by the United States Congress to augment the limited space in the United States Capitol. The congressional office buildings are part of the Capitol Complex are thus under the authority of the Architect of the Capitol and protected by...

    • Cannon
      Cannon House Office Building
      The Cannon House Office Building, completed in 1908, is the oldest congressional office building as well as a significant example of the Beaux-Arts style of architecture...

    • Ford
      Ford House Office Building
      The Ford House Office Building is one of the four office buildings containing U.S. House of Representatives staff in Washington, D.C., on Capitol Hill....

    • Longworth
      Longworth House Office Building
      The Longworth House Office Building is one of four office buildings used by the United States House of Representatives. The building is located south of the Capitol, bounded by Independence Avenue, New Jersey Avenue, C Street S.E., and South Capitol Street, in southeast Washington...

    • Rayburn
      Rayburn House Office Building
      The Rayburn House Office Building is a congressional office building for the U.S. House of Representatives in the Capitol Hill neighborhood of Washington, D.C., between South Capitol Street and First Street....

       for the House of Representatives
      United States House of Representatives
      The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

    • Russell
      Russell Senate Office Building
      The Russell Senate Office Building is the oldest of the United States Senate office buildings. Designed in the Beaux-Arts architectural style, it was built from 1903 to 1908, opened in 1909, and named for former Senator Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. of Georgia in 1972...

    • Dirksen
      Dirksen Senate Office Building
      The Dirksen Senate Office Building is the second office building constructed for members of the United States Senate in Washington, D.C., and was named for the late Minority Leader Everett Dirksen from Illinois in 1972.-History:...

    • Hart
      Hart Senate Office Building
      The Hart Senate Office Building, the third U.S. Senate office building, was built in the 1970s. First occupied in November 1982, the Hart Building is the largest of the Senate office buildings. It is named for Philip A. Hart, who served 18 years as a senator from Michigan.-Design and...

       for the Senate
      United States Senate
      The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

  • the Library of Congress
    Library of Congress
    The Library of Congress is the research library of the United States Congress, de facto national library of the United States, and the oldest federal cultural institution in the United States. Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and...

     buildings
  • the United States Supreme Court Building
    United States Supreme Court building
    The Supreme Court Building is the seat of the Supreme Court of the United States. It is situated in Washington, D.C. at 1 First Street, NE, on the block immediately east of the United States Capitol. The building is under the jurisdiction of the Architect of the Capitol. On May 4, 1987, the Supreme...

  • the United States Botanic Garden
    United States Botanic Garden
    The United States Botanic Garden is a botanic garden on the grounds of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C., near Garfield Circle....

  • the Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building
    Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building
    The Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building houses offices that support the work of the United States Courts, including the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, the Federal Judicial Center, and the United States Sentencing Commission.It is located at 1 Columbus Circle NE in...

  • the Capitol Power Plant
    Capitol Power Plant
    The Capitol Power Plant is a power plant which provides steam and cooled water for the United States Capitol and other buildings in the Capitol Complex. Though it was originally built to supply the Capitol complex with electricity, the plant has not produced electricity for the Capitol since 1952...

  • the House
    United States House of Representatives Page
    United States House of Representatives Page Program was a program run by the United States House of Representatives, under the office of the Clerk of the House, in which appointed high school juniors acted as non-partisan federal employees in the House of Representatives, providing supplemental...

     and Senate page
    United States Senate Page
    A United States Senate Page is a non-partisan federal employee serving the United States Senate in Washington, DC. Despite the non-partisan affiliation, Pages are typically divided to serve the party that appointed them.-Selection:In order to become a US Senate Page, one must first be nominated...

     dormitories
    Dormitory
    A dormitory, often shortened to dorm, in the United States is a residence hall consisting of sleeping quarters or entire buildings primarily providing sleeping and residential quarters for large numbers of people, often boarding school, college or university students...

  • the United States Capitol Police
    United States Capitol Police
    The United States Capitol Police is a federal police force charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories.-History:...

     headquarters and K9
    Police dog
    A police dog, often referred to as a "K-9 dog" in some areas , is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel in their work...

     division facilities
  • other facilities

Architects of the Capitol

Architect of the Capitol Term of Office Deputy Architect Assistant Architect Appointing President Notes
William Thornton
William Thornton
Dr. William Thornton was a British-American physician, inventor, painter and architect who designed the United States Capitol, an authentic polymath...

1793 Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

Washington selected Thornton's original design for the Capitol.
Benjamin Henry Latrobe March 6, 1803 –
July 1, 1811


----

April 6, 1815 –
November 20, 1817
Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...




----

Madison
James Madison
James Madison, Jr. was an American statesman and political theorist. He was the fourth President of the United States and is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being the primary author of the United States Constitution and at first an opponent of, and then a key author of the United...

Latrobe was appointed twice. President Jefferson appointed him to take over work on the building in 1803 and construction was halted in 1811. During the War of 1812, the Capitol was burned by British troops, prompting President Madison to reappoint Latrobe as Architect of the Capitol and conduct repairs.
Charles Bulfinch
Charles Bulfinch
Charles Bulfinch was an early American architect, and has been regarded by many as the first native-born American to practice architecture as a profession....

January 8, 1818 –
June 25, 1829
Monroe
James Monroe
James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States . Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation...

Thomas U. Walter
Thomas U. Walter
Thomas Ustick Walter of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania was an American architect, the dean of American architecture between the 1820 death of Benjamin Latrobe and the emergence of H.H. Richardson in the 1870s...


(Engineer-in-charge:
Montgomery C. Meigs
Montgomery C. Meigs
Montgomery Cunningham Meigs was a career United States Army officer, civil engineer, construction engineer for a number of facilities in Washington, D.C., and Quartermaster General of the U.S. Army during and after the American Civil War....

)
June 11, 1851 –
May 26, 1865
Edward Clark
Edward Clark (architect)
Edward Clark was an American architect who served as Architect of the Capitol from 1865 to 1902.Edward Clark was Thomas U. Walter's student, chief assistant, and successor. Prior to working with Walter, he had received training in freehand and mechanical drawing as well as engineering...

Fillmore
Millard Fillmore
Millard Fillmore was the 13th President of the United States and the last member of the Whig Party to hold the office of president...

Walter and Meigs shared responsibility for the Capitol and the construction of its additions.
Edward Clark
Edward Clark (architect)
Edward Clark was an American architect who served as Architect of the Capitol from 1865 to 1902.Edward Clark was Thomas U. Walter's student, chief assistant, and successor. Prior to working with Walter, he had received training in freehand and mechanical drawing as well as engineering...

August 30, 1865 –
January 6, 1902
Elliott Woods
Elliott Woods
Elliott Woods was an American architect who served as Architect of the Capitol from 1902 to 1923.-Early years:...

A. Johnson
Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States . As Vice-President of the United States in 1865, he succeeded Abraham Lincoln following the latter's assassination. Johnson then presided over the initial and contentious Reconstruction era of the United States following the American...

Elliott Woods
Elliott Woods
Elliott Woods was an American architect who served as Architect of the Capitol from 1902 to 1923.-Early years:...

February 19, 1902 –
May 22, 1923
T. Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States . He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity...

David Lynn
David Lynn (architect)
David Lynn was an American architect and honorary member of the American Institute of Architects....

August 22, 1923 –
September 30, 1954
  • Horace Rouzer (1930-1946)
  • Arthur Cook (1946-1959)
Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. was the 30th President of the United States . A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state...

J. George Stewart
J. George Stewart
John George Stewart was an American architect and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a member of the Republican Party, who served as U.S. Representative from Delaware and as Architect of the Capitol. He was known by his middle name.-Early life and family:Stewart was...

October 1, 1954 –
May 24, 1970
  • Arthur Cook (1946-1959)
  • Mario Campioli, FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...

     (1959-1980)
  • Eisenhower
    George M. White
    George M. White
    George M. White, FAIA, was an American architect who served as the Architect of the Capitol from January 27, 1971 to November 21, 1995. He was born in Cleveland, Ohio and attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology at the age of sixteen. He graduated with a B.S. and an M.S. in electrical...

    , FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...

    January 27, 1971 –
    November 21, 1995
  • Mario Campioli, FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...

     (1959-1980)
  • William L. Ensign
    William L. Ensign
    William L. "Bill" Ensign FAIA, is the planning and architectural consultant for the Tax-Free Fund For Utah, one of the Aquila Group of Funds. The Tax-Free Fund For Utah is a municipal bond mutual fund especially designed for residents of Utah....

    , FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...

     (1980-1997)
  • Nixon Ensign acted as Architect after White's retirement until a replacement was appointed
    Alan M. Hantman
    Alan M. Hantman
    Alan M. Hantman, FAIA is an American architect who served as the 10th Architect of the Capitol from February 1997 until February 2007. As Architect of the Capitol, he was responsible to the United States Congress for the maintenance, operation, development, and preservation of the United States...

    , FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...

    January 6, 1997 –
    February 2, 2007
    Stephen T. Ayers
    Stephen T. Ayers
    Stephen T. Ayers, AIA, LEED AP, is an American architect who is currently serving as the 11th Architect of the Capitol. He assumed the office as Acting Architect in February 2007 and was unanimously confirmed as permanent Architect by the United States Senate on May 12, 2010. He is an Air Force...

    , AIA
  • (Deputy: October 2005-February 2007)
  • (Acting Architect: February 2, 2007-May 11, 2010)
  • Michael G. Turnbull
    Michael G. Turnbull
    Michael G. Turnbull, FAIA is an American architect who has spent much of his career in the public sector as a custodian of major public buildings, notably the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC as the Assistant to the Architect of the Capitol and as the Director of Design and Construction at the Art...

    , FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...


    (June 1998-present)
    Clinton
    Bill Clinton
    William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

    Hantman was the first Architect of the Capitol appointed under the legislation passed in 1989 providing for a fixed, renewable ten-year term for the Architects of the Capitol. On August 1, 2006, Hantman announced he would not seek a second term when his term expired in 2007.
    Stephen T. Ayers
    Stephen T. Ayers
    Stephen T. Ayers, AIA, LEED AP, is an American architect who is currently serving as the 11th Architect of the Capitol. He assumed the office as Acting Architect in February 2007 and was unanimously confirmed as permanent Architect by the United States Senate on May 12, 2010. He is an Air Force...

    , AIA
    American Institute of Architects
    The American Institute of Architects is a professional organization for architects in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., the AIA offers education, government advocacy, community redevelopment, and public outreach to support the architecture profession and improve its public image...

    , LEED AP
    Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
    Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings, homes and neighborhoods....

    May 12, 2010–Present
    Christine A. Merdon, PE
    Regulation and licensure in engineering
    Regulation of the engineering profession is established by various jurisdictions of the world to protect the safety, well-being and other interests of the general public, and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to provide professional services to the...

    , CCM (2011-Present)
    Michael G. Turnbull
    Michael G. Turnbull
    Michael G. Turnbull, FAIA is an American architect who has spent much of his career in the public sector as a custodian of major public buildings, notably the U.S. Capitol in Washington, DC as the Assistant to the Architect of the Capitol and as the Director of Design and Construction at the Art...

    , FAIA
    FAIA
    Fellow of the American Institute of Architects is a postnomial, designating an individual who has been named a fellow of the American Institute of Architects...

      (1998-Present)
    Obama
    Barack Obama
    Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

    Ayers is the second Architect of the Capitol appointed under the legislation passed in 1989 providing for a fixed, renewable ten-year term for the Architects of the Capitol. Ayers was appointed acting Architect of the Capitol from February 2007- May 2010, and unanimously confirmed as Architect of the Capitol May 12, 2010.

    See also

    • United States Capitol
      United States Capitol
      The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall...

    • United States Congress
      United States Congress
      The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

    • United States Capitol Complex
      United States Capitol Complex
      The United States Capitol Complex is a group of about a dozen buildings and facilities in Washington, D.C., that are used by the United States government...


    External links