Vermont

Vermont

Overview

Vermont is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 in the New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

 region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd in land area, 9250 square miles (23,957.4 km²), and 45th in total area. Its population according to the 2010 census, 630,337, is the second smallest in the country, larger only than Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

. It is the only New England state not bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain is a natural, freshwater lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States but partially situated across the Canada—United States border in the Canadian province of Quebec.The New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of...

 forms half of Vermont's western border, which it shares with the state of New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Vermont'
Start a new discussion about 'Vermont'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Recent Discussions
Quotations

Freedom and Unity

Vermont State Motto

The gods of the valley are not the gods of the hills, and you shall understand it.

Ethan Allen, in reply to the King's attorney-general, in a New York court case decided against him, prior to his armed resistance to claims of New York authority over Vermont; quoted in Curiosities of Human Nature (1844) by Samuel Griswold Goodrich|Samuel Griswold Goodrich, p. 145.

Vermont is a small state which makes an enormous difference.

Fred Rogers, Commencement Address at Middlebury College (May 2001)

I am Vermont.

Valerie Frankel|Valerie Frankel, "Runway To The White House: Searching for a Defining Look In the Land of Ben & Jerry's", New York Times, August 31, 2003
Encyclopedia

Vermont is a state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

 in the New England
New England
New England is a region in the northeastern corner of the United States consisting of the six states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut...

 region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd in land area, 9250 square miles (23,957.4 km²), and 45th in total area. Its population according to the 2010 census, 630,337, is the second smallest in the country, larger only than Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

. It is the only New England state not bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain is a natural, freshwater lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States but partially situated across the Canada—United States border in the Canadian province of Quebec.The New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of...

 forms half of Vermont's western border, which it shares with the state of New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

. The Green Mountains
Green Mountains
The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range extends approximately .-Peaks:The most notable mountains in the range include:*Mount Mansfield, , the highest point in Vermont*Killington Peak, *Mount Ellen,...

 are within the state. It is bordered by Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 to the south, New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

 to the east, New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 to the north.

Originally inhabited by two major Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 tribes (the Algonquian
Algonquian languages
The Algonquian languages also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is a...

-speaking Abenaki and the Iroquois
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

), much of the territory that is now Vermont was claimed by France in the early colonial period. France ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Great Britain after being defeated in 1763 in the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines...

 (also called the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

). For many years, the nearby colonies
Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies were English and later British colonies established on the Atlantic coast of North America between 1607 and 1733. They declared their independence in the American Revolution and formed the United States of America...

, especially New Hampshire and New York, disputed control of the area (then called the New Hampshire Grants
New Hampshire Grants
The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth. The land grants, totaling about 135 , were made on land claimed by New Hampshire west of the Connecticut River, territory that was also...

). Settlers who held land titles granted by these colonies were opposed by the Green Mountain Boys
Green Mountain Boys
The Green Mountain Boys were a militia organization first established in the 1760s in the territory between the British provinces of New York and New Hampshire, known as the New Hampshire Grants...

 militia, which eventually prevailed in creating an independent state, the Vermont Republic
Vermont Republic
The term Vermont Republic has been used by later historians for the government of what became modern Vermont from 1777 to 1791. In July 1777 delegates from 28 towns met and declared independence from jurisdictions and land claims of British colonies in New Hampshire and New York. They also...

. Founded in 1777, during the Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

, it lasted for fourteen years. Vermont is one of seventeen U.S. states (along with Texas
Republic of Texas
The Republic of Texas was an independent nation in North America, bordering the United States and Mexico, that existed from 1836 to 1846.Formed as a break-away republic from Mexico by the Texas Revolution, the state claimed borders that encompassed an area that included all of the present U.S...

, Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaii was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lānai, Kauai and Niihau by the chiefdom of Hawaii into one unified government...

, the brief California Republic
California Republic
The California Republic, also called the Bear Flag Republic, is the name used for a period of revolt against Mexico initially proclaimed by a handful of American settlers in Mexican California on June 14, 1846, in Sonoma. This was shortly before news of the Mexican–American War had reached the area...

, and each of the original Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies were English and later British colonies established on the Atlantic coast of North America between 1607 and 1733. They declared their independence in the American Revolution and formed the United States of America...

) that each once had a sovereign government. In 1791, Vermont joined the United States as the fourteenth state, the first outside the original Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
The Thirteen Colonies were English and later British colonies established on the Atlantic coast of North America between 1607 and 1733. They declared their independence in the American Revolution and formed the United States of America...

. It abolished slavery
Slavery
Slavery is a system under which people are treated as property to be bought and sold, and are forced to work. Slaves can be held against their will from the time of their capture, purchase or birth, and deprived of the right to leave, to refuse to work, or to demand compensation...

 while independent and upon joining the Union became the first state to have done so.

Vermont is the leading producer of maple syrup
Maple syrup
Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species such as the bigleaf maple. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter; the starch is then...

 in the United States. The state capital is Montpelier
Montpelier, Vermont
Montpelier is a city in the U.S. state of Vermont that serves as the state capital and the shire town of Washington County. As the capital of Vermont, Montpelier is the site of the Vermont State House, seat of the legislative branch of Vermont government. The population was 7,855 at the 2010...

, which with 7,855 people is the least-populated state capital in the country. Its most populous city is Burlington
Burlington, Vermont
Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the shire town of Chittenden County. Burlington lies south of the U.S.-Canadian border and some south of Montreal....

, which has a metro population of 211,261 residents.

Geography


Vermont is located in the New England region in the eastern United States and comprises 9614 square miles (24,900.1 km²), making it the 45th-largest state. Land comprises 9250 square miles (23,957.4 km²) and water comprises 365 square miles (945.3 km²), making it the 43rd-largest in land area and the 47th in water area. In total area, it is larger than El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador or simply Salvador is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. The country's capital city and largest city is San Salvador; Santa Ana and San Miguel are also important cultural and commercial centers in the country and in all of Central America...

 and smaller than Haiti
Haiti
Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti , is a Caribbean country. It occupies the western, smaller portion of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Ayiti was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island...

. Vermont is the smallest landlocked U.S. state.


The west bank of the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
The Connecticut River is the largest and longest river in New England, and also an American Heritage River. It flows roughly south, starting from the Fourth Connecticut Lake in New Hampshire. After flowing through the remaining Connecticut Lakes and Lake Francis, it defines the border between the...

 marks the eastern (New Hampshire) border of the state (the river is part of New Hampshire). Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain
Lake Champlain is a natural, freshwater lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States but partially situated across the Canada—United States border in the Canadian province of Quebec.The New York portion of the Champlain Valley includes the eastern portions of...

, the major lake in Vermont, is the sixth-largest body of fresh water in the United States and separates Vermont from New York in the northwest portion of the state. From north to south, Vermont is 159 miles (255.9 km) long. Its greatest width, from east to west, is 89 miles (143.2 km) at the Canadian border; the narrowest width is 37 miles (59.5 km) at the Massachusetts line. The width averages 60.5 miles (97.4 km). The state's geographic center
Centroid
In geometry, the centroid, geometric center, or barycenter of a plane figure or two-dimensional shape X is the intersection of all straight lines that divide X into two parts of equal moment about the line. Informally, it is the "average" of all points of X...

 is Washington
Washington, Vermont
Washington is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,047 at the 2000 census. The town is believed to be named after George Washington, the town may also be named after Washington, CT as there are records of individuals moving eponymous town in Connecticut to Vermont...

, three miles (5 km) east of Roxbury
Roxbury, Vermont
Roxbury is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States, created by Vermont charter on August 6, 1781. The population was 691 at the 2010 census, an increase of 20.0% over the 2000 census.-Geography:...

. There are fifteen US federal border crossings between Vermont and Canada.

The origin of the name "Vermont" is uncertain, but likely comes from the French les Verts Monts, meaning "the Green Mountains". Thomas Young
Thomas Young (American revolutionary)
Dr. Thomas Young was an American patriot during the American Revolutionary War who advocated for independence from Britain. He was a member of the Boston Committee of Correspondence and a participant in the Boston Tea Party...

 introduced it in 1777. Some authorities say that the mountains were called green because they were more forested than the higher White Mountains
White Mountains (New Hampshire)
The White Mountains are a mountain range covering about a quarter of the state of New Hampshire and a small portion of western Maine in the United States. Part of the Appalachian Mountains, they are considered the most rugged mountains in New England...

 of New Hampshire and Adirondacks of New York; others say that the predominance of mica
Mica
The mica group of sheet silicate minerals includes several closely related materials having highly perfect basal cleavage. All are monoclinic, with a tendency towards pseudohexagonal crystals, and are similar in chemical composition...

-quartz
Quartz
Quartz is the second-most-abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz,...

-chlorite
Chlorite
The chlorite ion is ClO2−. A chlorite is a compound that contains this group,with chlorine in oxidation state +3. Chlorites are also known as salts of chlorous acid.-Oxidation states:...

 schist
Schist
The schists constitute a group of medium-grade metamorphic rocks, chiefly notable for the preponderance of lamellar minerals such as micas, chlorite, talc, hornblende, graphite, and others. Quartz often occurs in drawn-out grains to such an extent that a particular form called quartz schist is...

, a green-hued metamorphosed shale, is the reason. The Green Mountain range forms a north–south spine running most of the length of the state, slightly west of its center. In the southwest portion of the state are the Taconic Mountains
Taconic Mountains
The Taconic Mountains or Taconic Range are a physiographic section of the larger New England province and part of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State and adjacent New England from northwest Connecticut to western Massachusetts, north to central western...

; the Granitic Mountains are in the northeast. In the northwest, near Lake Champlain, is the fertile Champlain Valley
Champlain Valley
The Champlain Valley is a region of the United States around Lake Champlain in Vermont and New York extending slightly into Quebec, Canada as part of the St. Lawrence River drainage basin drained northward by the Richelieu River into the St...

. In the south of the valley is Lake Bomoseen
Bomoseen Lake
Lake Bomoseen is a freshwater lake in the western part of the state of Vermont in the towns of Castleton and Hubbardton in Rutland County. It is the largest lake that lies entirely within the state's boundaries, with a surface area of approximately . The lake was formed by glaciation and has an...

.


Several mountains have timberlines with delicate year-round alpine ecosystems, including Mount Mansfield
Mount Mansfield
Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in Vermont with a summit that peaks at above sea level. The summit is in Underhill; the ridgeline, including some secondary peaks, extends into the town of Stowe, and the mountain's flanks also reach into the town of Cambridge.When viewed from the east or...

, the highest mountain in the state; Killington Peak
Killington Peak
Killington Peak is the second highest summit in the Green Mountains and in the U.S. state of Vermont. It is located east of Rutland in south-central Vermont. A ski resort, Killington Ski Resort, nicknamed "the beast of the east," is located on the mountain. Killington is a stop on the Long...

, the second-highest; Camel's Hump, the state's third-highest; and Mount Abraham
Mount Abraham (Vermont)
Mount Abraham is the fifth tallest peak in the U.S. state of Vermont. The summit supports a small amount of alpine vegetation and offers a view of the Champlain Valley and Adirondack Mountains to the west. Mount Abraham is on the Long Trail, a hiking trail running the length of Vermont...

, the fifth-highest peak. About 77 percent of the state is covered by forest; the rest is covered in meadow, uplands, lakes, ponds, and swampy wetlands.

Areas in Vermont administered by the National Park Service
National Park Service
The National Park Service is the U.S. federal agency that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations...

 include the Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park
Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park
Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park in Woodstock, Vermont. The park preserves the site where Frederick Billings established a managed forest and a progressive dairy farm. The name honors Billings and the other owners of the property:...

 (in Woodstock) and the Appalachian National Scenic Trail.

Cities


Vermont has nine incorporated cities.




Largest towns


Although these towns
New England town
The New England town is the basic unit of local government in each of the six New England states. Without a direct counterpart in most other U.S. states, New England towns are conceptually similar to civil townships in other states, but are incorporated, possessing powers like cities in other...

 are large enough to be considered cities, they are not incorporated as such.

Climate



Vermont has a humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

, with warm, humid summers and cold winters that are colder at higher elevations. It has a Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 of Dfb, similar to Minsk
Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

, Stockholm
Stockholm
Stockholm is the capital and the largest city of Sweden and constitutes the most populated urban area in Scandinavia. Stockholm is the most populous city in Sweden, with a population of 851,155 in the municipality , 1.37 million in the urban area , and around 2.1 million in the metropolitan area...

, and Fargo
Fargo, North Dakota
Fargo is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Cass County. In 2010, its population was 105,549, and it had an estimated metropolitan population of 208,777...

.

Vermont is known for its mud season
Mud season
Mud Season is a term used to denote a time period in late Winter and early Spring. The name comes from dirt paths such as roads and hiking trails which become muddy from melting snow and rain. When the muddy paths and roads are traveled over by wheels, they develop ruts...

 in spring, followed by a generally mild early summer, hot Augusts, a colorful autumn, and its particularly cold winters; the rural northeastern section (dubbed the "Northeast Kingdom
Northeast Kingdom
The Northeast Kingdom is a term used to describe the northeast corner of the U.S. state of Vermont, comprising Essex, Orleans and Caledonia Counties and having a population of 62,438. In Vermont, the written term "NEK" is often used. The term is attributed to the late George D. Aiken, former...

") often averages 10 °F (5.56 °C) colder than the southern areas of the state during winter. The annual snowfall averages between 60 to 100 in (152.4 to 254 ) depending on elevation. The annual mean temperature for the state is 43 °F (6 °C). Vermont is the seventh coldest state in the country.

In the autumn, Vermont's hills display red, orange, and gold foliage displayed on the sugar maple
Sugar Maple
Acer saccharum is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas...

 as cold weather approaches. This display of color is not due so much to the presence of a particular variant of the sugar maple; rather, it is caused by a number of soil and climate conditions unique to the area.

The highest recorded temperature was 105 °F (40.6 °C), at Vernon
Vernon, Vermont
Vernon is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,141 at the 2000 census. Vernon is the home of Vermont Yankee, Vermont's only nuclear power plant.-Geography:...

, on July 4, 1911; the lowest recorded temperature was -50 °F, at Bloomfield
Bloomfield, Vermont
Bloomfield is a town in Essex County, Vermont, United States. The population was 261 as of the 2000 census. It is part of the Berlin, NH–VT Micropolitan Statistical Area...

, on December 30, 1933; this is the lowest temperature recorded in New England (Big Black River, Maine, also recorded a verified -50 °F in 2009). The agricultural growing season ranges from 120 to 180 days.

The USDA Plant hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone...

s for the state range between zone 3b (no colder than -35 F ) in the Northeast Kingdom
Northeast Kingdom
The Northeast Kingdom is a term used to describe the northeast corner of the U.S. state of Vermont, comprising Essex, Orleans and Caledonia Counties and having a population of 62,438. In Vermont, the written term "NEK" is often used. The term is attributed to the late George D. Aiken, former...

 and northern part of the state, to zone 5b (no colder than -15 F ) in the southern part of the state.

The state receives between 2,000 and 2,400 hours of sunshine annually.



(15)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 63
(17)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 84
(29)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 91
(33)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 94
(34.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 96
(35.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 101
(38)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 98
(36.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 95
(35)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 87
(30.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 69
(20.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 62
(17)
|-
! Norm high °F(°C)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 25
(−4)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 31
(−0.5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 43
(6)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 51
(10.5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 64
(18)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 76
(24.5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 81
(27)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 78
(25.5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 71
(22)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 54
(12)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 36
(2)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 28
(−2)
|-
! Norm low °F(°C)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 4
(−15.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 10
(−12)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 22
(−5.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 30
(−1)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 43
(6)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 55
(13)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 60
(15.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 57
(14)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 50
(10)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 33
(0.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 15
(−9.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 7
(−14)
|-
! Rec low °F(°C)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| −38
(−39)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| −35
(−37)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| −18
(−28)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 9
(−13)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 24
(−4.5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 36
(2)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 41
(5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 38
(3)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 21
(−6)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| 4
(−15.5)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| −16
(−27)
| style="text-align:center; color:#000;"| −32
(−35.5)
|-
! Precip in(mm)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 0.61
(15.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 0.63
(16)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 0.68
(17)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 1.99
(50.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 4.01
(102)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 4.06
(103)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 4.07
(103.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 4.00
(101.5)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 3.95
(100)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 2.48
(63)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 0.66
(17)
| style="text-align:center; background:#e8eafa; color:#000;"| 0.62
(16)
|-
|colspan="13" style="font-size:90%"| Source: USTravelWeather.com
|}

Geology


There are five distinct physiographic regions of Vermont. Categorized by geological and physical attributes, they are the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains
Taconic Mountains
The Taconic Mountains or Taconic Range are a physiographic section of the larger New England province and part of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State and adjacent New England from northwest Connecticut to western Massachusetts, north to central western...

, the Champlain Lowlands, and the Vermont Piedmont.
About 500 million years ago Vermont was part of Laurentia
Laurentia
Laurentia is a large area of continental craton, which forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent...

 and located in the tropics.

The central and southern Green Mountain range include the oldest rocks in Vermont, formed about one billion years ago during the first mountain building period (or orogeny). Subsequently, about years ago, the second mountain building period created Green Mountain peaks that were 15000–20000 ft (4,572–6,096 ) tall, three to four times their current height and comparable to the Himalayas
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

. The geological pressures that created those peaks remain evident as the Champlain Thrust
Champlain thrust
The Champlain Thrust is a fault extending southward from southern Quebec, though western Vermont in the Champlain Valley, and into eastern New York in the Hudson Valley. This east dipping thrust fault transports Cambrian-Ordovician passive margin shelf rocks westerward by about and places them on...

, running north–south to the west of the mountains (now the eastern shore of Lake Champlain). It is an example of geological fault thrusting where bedrock is pushed over the newer rock formation.

As a result of tectonic formation, Vermont east of the Green Mountains tends to be formed from rocks produced in the Silurian
Silurian
The Silurian is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Ordovician Period, about 443.7 ± 1.5 Mya , to the beginning of the Devonian Period, about 416.0 ± 2.8 Mya . As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the...

 and Devonian
Devonian
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about 416.0 ± 2.8 Mya , to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about 359.2 ± 2.5 Mya...

 periods. Western Vermont mainly from the older Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian
Cambrian
The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from Mya ; it is succeeded by the Ordovician. Its subdivisions, and indeed its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established by Adam Sedgwick, who named it after Cambria, the Latin name for Wales, where Britain's...

 material.

Several large deposits within the state contain granite. The Rock of Ages
Rock of Ages Corporation
Rock of Ages Corporation is a granite quarrying and finishing company located in Graniteville, Vermont. It was founded in 1885. The company was one of the cemetery-related businesses profiled in the 2005 PBS documentary A Cemetery Special....

 Quarry in Barre
Barre, Vermont
Barre, Vermont can refer to:*Barre , Vermont*Barre , Vermont...

 is one of the leading exporters of granite in the country. The work of the trained sculptors of this corporation can be seen only 3 miles (4.8 km) down the road at the Hope Cemetery, where gravestones and mausoleums can be seen.

Some buildings in Germany, Hong Kong and Abu Dhabi are constructed almost primarily of Vermont granite. There are eight different colors of granite including: Barre Gray, Bethel White, Galactic Blue, Salisbury Pink, American Black, Gardenia White, Laurentian Pink, and Stanstead grey.

The remains of the Chazy Formation
Chazy Formation
The Chazy Reef Formation is a mid-Ordovician limestone deposit that consists of some of the oldest reef systems built by a community of organisms rather than the deposit of a limited range of similar organisms, such as Stromatolite mounds deposited by ancient cyanobacteria...

 can be observed in Isle La Motte
Isle La Motte, Vermont
-Notable events:Around 480 Million Years ago when the Chazy Formation was flourishing, Strematoporoid colonies were among the most common builders of the reef.In 1609, Samuel de Champlain debarked on Isle La Motte July 9....

. It was one of the first tropical reefs. It is the site of the limestone Fisk Quarry, which contains a collection of ancient marine fossils such as stromatoporoids
Stromatoporoidea
Stromatoporoidea is a class of aquatic invertebrates common in the fossil record from the Ordovician through the Cretaceous. They were especially abundant in the Silurian and Devonian. These invertebrates were important reef-formers throughout the Paleozoic and the Late Mesozoic. The group was...

. These fossils date back to years ago. It is believed that at one point, Vermont was connected to Africa (Pangaea
Pangaea
Pangaea, Pangæa, or Pangea is hypothesized as a supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configuration....

) and the fossils found and the rock formations found on the coasts in both Africa and America are further evidence of the Pangaea theory.

In the past four centuries, Vermont has experienced a few earthquakes rarely centered under Vermont, the highest being a Richter magnitude scale
Richter magnitude scale
The expression Richter magnitude scale refers to a number of ways to assign a single number to quantify the energy contained in an earthquake....

 6.0 in 1952.

Natural history


Vermont is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests
Mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome. The typical structure of these forests includes four layers. The uppermost layer is the canopy composed of tall mature trees ranging from 33 to 66 m high. Below the canopy is the three-layered, shade-tolerant understory that is roughly 9 to...

 biome
Biome
Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Some parts of the earth have more or less the same kind of abiotic and biotic factors spread over a...

. Much of the state, in particular the Green Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods
Northern hardwood forest
The northern hardwood forest is a general type of North American forest ecosystem found over much of southeastern and south central Canada, extending south into the United States in northern New England and New York, and west along the Great Lakes to Minnesota and western Ontario...

 of the New England-Acadian forests. The western border with New York and the area around Lake Champlain lies within the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests
Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests
The Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests is a Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests ecoregion of North America, mostly in eastern Canada.-Setting:...

. The southwest corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River are covered by Northeastern coastal forests
Northeastern coastal forests
The Northeastern coastal forests are a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion of the northeastern United States. The ecoregion covers an area of 34,630 sq miles encompassing the Piedmont and coastal plain of seven states, extending from northern Maryland and Delaware through southeast...

 of mixed oak.

The state contains 41 species of reptiles and amphibians, 89 species of fish, of which 12 are non-native; 193 species of breeding birds, 58 species of mammals, more than 15,000 insect species, and 2,000 higher plant species, plus fungi, algae, and 75 different types of natural communities.

Vermont contains one species of venomous snake, the Eastern timber rattlesnake
Crotalus horridus
Crotalus horridus, the timber rattlesnake, is a species of venomous pitviper found in the eastern United States. This is the only rattlesnake species in most of the populous northeastern United States. No subspecies are currently recognized....

, which is confined to a few acres in western Rutland County.
By the mid-19th century, wild turkeys were exterminated in the state through overhunting and destruction of habitat. Sixteen were re-introduced in 1969 and had grown to an estimated flock of 45,000 in 2009.

Since 1970, reduction of farmland has resulted in reduced environment for, and reduced numbers of various shrubland
Shrubland
Shrubland, scrubland, scrub or brush is a plant community characterized by vegetation dominated by shrubs, often also including grasses, herbs, and geophytes. Shrubland may either occur naturally or be the result of human activity...

 birds including the American woodcock
American Woodcock
The American Woodcock , sometimes colloquially referred to as the Timberdoodle, is a small chunky shorebird species found primarily in the eastern half of North America...

, brown thrasher
Brown Thrasher
The Brown Thrasher , sometimes erroneously called the Brown Thrush, is a bird in the Mimidae family, a group that also includes the New World catbirds and mockingbirds.-Description:...

, Eastern towhee
Eastern Towhee
The Eastern Towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus, is a large New World sparrow. The taxonomy of the towhees has been under debate in recent decades, and formerly this bird and the Spotted Towhee were considered a single species, the Rufous-sided Towhee....

, willow flycatcher
Willow Flycatcher
The Willow Flycatcher is a small insect-eating bird of the tyrant flycatcher family.Adults have brown-olive upperparts, darker on the wings and tail, with whitish underparts; they have an indistinct white eye ring, white wing bars and a small bill. The breast is washed with olive-grey. The upper...

, golden-winged warbler
Golden-winged Warbler
The Golden-winged Warbler, Vermivora chrysoptera, is a New World warbler, 11.6 cm long and weighing 8.5 g. It breeds in eastern North America, southeastern Canada and the eastern USA...

, blue-winged warbler
Blue-winged Warbler
The Blue-winged Warbler, Vermivora cyanoptera, is a fairly common New World warbler, 11.5 cm long and weighing 8.5 g. It breeds in eastern North America in southern Ontario and the eastern USA. Its range is extending northwards, where it is replacing the very closely related...

, field sparrow
Field Sparrow
The Field Sparrow is a small sparrow.Adults have brown upperparts, a light brown breast, a white belly, wing bars and a forked tail. They have a grey face, a rusty crown, a white eye ring and a pink bill....

, and Baltimore oriole
Baltimore Oriole
The Baltimore Oriole is a small icterid blackbird that averages 18 cm long and weighs 34 g. This bird received its name from the fact that the male's colors resemble those on the coat-of-arms of Lord Baltimore...

.

Invasive wild honeysuckle has been deemed a threat to the state's forests, native species of plants, and wildlife.

DDT
DDT
DDT is one of the most well-known synthetic insecticides. It is a chemical with a long, unique, and controversial history....

 destroyed the eggshells of osprey
Osprey
The Osprey , sometimes known as the sea hawk or fish eagle, is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey. It is a large raptor, reaching more than in length and across the wings...

s which resulted in their disappearance from the state. This species began reviving in 1998. As of 2010, they were no longer endangered in the state.

White-nose syndrome killed an estimated two-thirds of all cave-wintering bats in the state from 2008 to 2010.

Many of Vermont's rivers, including the Winooski River
Winooski River
The Winooski River is a tributary of Lake Champlain, approximately long, in northern Vermont in the United States. Although not Vermont's longest river, it is one of the state's most significant, forming a major valley way from Lake Champlain through the Green Mountains towards the Connecticut...

, have been subjected to man-made barriers to prevent flooding.

History




Pre-Columbian


Between 8500 to 7000 BC, at the time of the Champlain Sea
Champlain Sea
The Champlain Sea was a temporary inlet of the Atlantic Ocean, a paratropical subsea or epeiric sea created by the retreating glaciers during the close of the last ice age...

, Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 inhabited and hunted in Vermont. During the Archaic period, from the 8th millennium BC to 1000 BC, Native Americans migrated year-round. During the Woodland period
Woodland period
The Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures was from roughly 1000 BCE to 1000 CE in the eastern part of North America. The term "Woodland Period" was introduced in the 1930s as a generic header for prehistoric sites falling between the Archaic hunter-gatherers and the...

, from 1000 BC to AD 1600, villages and trade networks were established, and ceramic and bow and arrow
Bow (weapon)
The bow and arrow is a projectile weapon system that predates recorded history and is common to most cultures.-Description:A bow is a flexible arc that shoots aerodynamic projectiles by means of elastic energy. Essentially, the bow is a form of spring powered by a string or cord...

 technology was developed. In pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during...

 Vermont. In the western part of the state there lived a small population of Algonquian
Algonquian languages
The Algonquian languages also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family. The name of the Algonquian language family is distinguished from the orthographically similar Algonquin dialect of the Ojibwe language, which is a...

-speaking tribes, including the Mohican
Mahican
The Mahican are an Eastern Algonquian Native American tribe, originally settling in the Hudson River Valley . After 1680, many moved to Stockbridge, Massachusetts. During the early 1820s and 1830s, most of the Mahican descendants migrated westward to northeastern Wisconsin...

 and Abenaki peoples. Sometime between 1500 and 1600, the Iroquois
Iroquois
The Iroquois , also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an association of several tribes of indigenous people of North America...

 drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting
Hunting
Hunting is the practice of pursuing any living thing, usually wildlife, for food, recreation, or trade. In present-day use, the term refers to lawful hunting, as distinguished from poaching, which is the killing, trapping or capture of the hunted species contrary to applicable law...

 ground and warring with the remaining Abenaki. The population in 1500 was estimated to be around 10,000 people.

Colonial




The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big...

 in 1535. On July 30, 1609 French explorer
French colonization of the Americas
The French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century, and continued in the following centuries as France established a colonial empire in the Western Hemisphere. France founded colonies in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean islands, and in South America...

 Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain , "The Father of New France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608....

 claimed Vermont as part of New France
New France
New France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period beginning with the exploration of the Saint Lawrence River by Jacques Cartier in 1534 and ending with the cession of New France to Spain and Great Britain in 1763...

, and erected Fort Lamotte in 1666 which was the first European settlement in Vermont.

In 1638, a "violent" earthquake was felt throughout New England, centered in the St. Lawrence Valley. This was the first seismic event noted in Vermont.

In 1690, a group of Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

-British settlers from Albany
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital city of the U.S. state of New York, the seat of Albany County, and the central city of New York's Capital District. Roughly north of New York City, Albany sits on the west bank of the Hudson River, about south of its confluence with the Mohawk River...

 established a settlement and trading post at Chimney Point
Chimney Point, Vermont
Chimney Point is an unincorporated community in the town of Addison in Addison County, Vermont, United States. It lies across Lake Champlain from Crown Point, New York. French settlers established the community of Hocquart near modern-day Chimney Point in 1730. This first settlement in Vermont...

 8 miles (12.9 km) west of present-day Addison
Addison, Vermont
Addison is a town in Addison County, Vermont, United States. It was founded October 14, 1761. The population was 1,393 at the 2000 census.-History:Addison was chartered on October 14, 1761...

.

The first permanent British settlement was established in 1724, with the construction of Fort Dummer
Fort Dummer
Fort Dummer was a British fort built in 1724 by the colonial militia of the Province of Massachusetts Bay under the command of Lieutenant Timothy Dwight in what is now the Town of Brattleboro in southeastern Vermont. The fort was the first permanent European settlement in Vermont...

 protecting the nearby settlements of Dummerston
Dummerston, Vermont
Dummerston is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,915 at the 2000 census. Dummerston is home to the longest covered bridge still in use inside the state borders of Vermont.-History:...

 and Brattleboro
Brattleboro (town), Vermont
Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state, along the state line with New Hampshire. The population was 12,046 at the 2010 census...

.

From 1731 to 1734, the French constructed Fort St. Frédéric
Fort St. Frédéric
Fort St. Frédéric was a French fort built on Lake Champlain at Crown Point to secure the region against British colonization and to allow the French to control the use of Lake Champlain....

 which gave the French control of the New France/Vermont frontier region in the Lake Champlain Valley. With the outbreak of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

 in 1754, the French began construction of Fort Carillon
Fort Ticonderoga
Fort Ticonderoga, formerly Fort Carillon, is a large 18th-century fort built by the Canadians and the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain in upstate New York in the United States...

 at present-day Ticonderoga, New York
Ticonderoga, New York
Ticonderoga is a town in Essex County, New York, USA. The population was 5,167 at the 2000 census. The name comes from the Mohawk tekontaró:ken, meaning "it is at the junction of two waterways"....

 in 1755. The British failed to take Fort St. Frédéric or Fort Carillon between 1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined force of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffery Amherst captured Carillon
Battle of Ticonderoga (1759)
The 1759 Battle of Ticonderoga was a minor confrontation at Fort Carillon on July 26 and 27, 1759, during the French and Indian War...

, after which the French abandoned Fort St. Frédéric. Amherst then constructed Fort Crown Point
Fort Crown Point
Crown Point, was a British fort built by the combined efforts of both British and Provincial troops in North America in 1759 at narrows on Lake Champlain on the border between modern New York State and Vermont...

 next to the remains of the Fort St. Frédéric, securing British control over the area.

Following France's loss in the French and Indian War, the 1763 Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1763)
The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

 gave control of the land to the British. Colonial settlement was limited by the crown
Royal Proclamation of 1763
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

 to lands east of the Appalachians, and Vermont was divided nearly in half in a jagged line running from Fort William Henry
Fort William Henry
Fort William Henry was a British fort at the southern end of Lake George in the province of New York. It is best known as the site of notorious atrocities committed by Indians against the surrendered British and provincial troops following a successful French siege in 1757, an event which is the...

 in Lake George
Lake George (New York)
Lake George, nicknamed the Queen of American Lakes, is a long, narrow oligotrophic lake draining northwards into Lake Champlain and the St. Lawrence River Drainage basin located at the southeast base of the Adirondack Mountains in northern New York, U.S.A.. It lies within the upper region of the...

 diagonally north-eastward to Lake Memphremagog
Lake Memphremagog
Lake Memphremagog is a fresh water glacial lake located between Newport, Vermont, United States and Magog, Quebec, Canada. The lake is long with 73 percent of the lake's surface area in Quebec, where it drains into the Magog River. However, three-quarters of its watershed, , is in Vermont. The...

. The end of the war brought new settlers to Vermont. Ultimately, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York all claimed this frontier area.

On March 20, 1764, King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 established the boundary between New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

 and New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 along the west bank of the Connecticut River
Connecticut River
The Connecticut River is the largest and longest river in New England, and also an American Heritage River. It flows roughly south, starting from the Fourth Connecticut Lake in New Hampshire. After flowing through the remaining Connecticut Lakes and Lake Francis, it defines the border between the...

, north of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

, and south of 45 degrees north latitude. When New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 refused to recognize land titles known as the New Hampshire Grants
New Hampshire Grants
The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth. The land grants, totaling about 135 , were made on land claimed by New Hampshire west of the Connecticut River, territory that was also...

 (towns created by land grants sold by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentworth
Benning Wentworth
Benning Wentworth was the colonial governor of New Hampshire from 1741 to 1766.-Biography:The eldest child of the John Wentworth who had been Lieutenant Governor, he was born and died in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Wentworth graduated from Harvard College in 1715...

), dissatisfied colonists organized in opposition, which led to the creation of independent Vermont on January 15, 1777. In 1770, Ethan Allen
Ethan Allen
Ethan Allen was a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S...

, his brothers Ira
Ira Allen
Ira Allen was one of the founders of Vermont, and leaders of the Green Mountain Boys; and was the brother of Ethan Allen.-Biography:...

 and Levi, and Seth Warner
Seth Warner
Seth Warner was born in Roxbury, Connecticut. In 1763, he removed with his father to Bennington in what was then known as the New Hampshire Grants. He established there as a huntsman....

 recruited an informal militia, known as the Green Mountain Boys
Green Mountain Boys
The Green Mountain Boys were a militia organization first established in the 1760s in the territory between the British provinces of New York and New Hampshire, known as the New Hampshire Grants...

, to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against the new migrants from New York.

Independence and statehood




On January 15, 1777, representatives of the New Hampshire Grants declared the independence of Vermont
Vermont Republic
The term Vermont Republic has been used by later historians for the government of what became modern Vermont from 1777 to 1791. In July 1777 delegates from 28 towns met and declared independence from jurisdictions and land claims of British colonies in New Hampshire and New York. They also...

. For the first six months of its existence, it was called The Republic of New Connecticut.

On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met to adopt the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly Pennsylvanian who wrote to them on how to achieve admission into the newly independent United States as the 14th state. On July 4, the Constitution of Vermont
Constitution of the Vermont Republic
The Constitution of Vermont was Vermont's constitution when it existed as the independent Vermont Republic or, more correctly, the Commonwealth of Vermont, from 1777 to 1791. The official title of the document was simply the Constitution of Vermont. The constitution was adopted in 1777 when Vermont...

 was drafted at the Windsor Tavern
Old Constitution House
The Old Constitution House located at Windsor in the U.S. state of Vermont is the birthplace of the Vermont Republic and the Constitution of the State of Vermont. A mid-18 century building built in a simple Georgian architectural style, the Old Constitution House was originally called the Windsor...

; it was adopted by the delegates on July 8. This was among the first written constitutions in North America and was indisputably the first to abolish the institution of slavery, provide for universal adult male suffrage, and require support of public schools. It was in effect from 1777 to 1791. Slavery was banned again by state law on November 25, 1858.

Revolutionary War



The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a seminal event in the history of the state of Vermont.

A combined American force, under General Stark's command, attacked the British column at Hoosick, New York
Hoosick, New York
Hoosick is a town in Rensselaer County, New York, United States. The population was 6,759 at the 2000 census.The Town of Hoosick is in the northeast corner of the county.- History :...

, just across the border from Bennington and killed or captured virtually the entire British detachment. General Burgoyne never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his 6,000-man force at Saratoga, New York
Saratoga, New York
Saratoga is a town in Saratoga County, New York, United States. The population was 5,141 at the 2000 census. It is also the commonly used, but not official, name for the neighboring and much more populous city, Saratoga Springs. The major village in the town of Saratoga is Schuylerville which is...

, on October 17.

The Battles of Bennington
Battle of Bennington
The Battle of Bennington was a battle of the American Revolutionary War that took place on August 16, 1777, in Walloomsac, New York, about from its namesake Bennington, Vermont...

 and Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. The battles were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, south of Saratoga, New York...

 are recognized as the turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of a British army. The anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a legal holiday.

The Battle of Hubbardton
Battle of Hubbardton
The Battle of Hubbardton was an engagement in the Saratoga campaign of the American Revolutionary War fought in the village of Hubbardton, then in the disputed New Hampshire Grants territory . On the morning of July 7, 1777, British forces, under General Simon Fraser, caught up with the American...

 (July 7, 1777) was the only battle in present day Vermont
Military history of Vermont
The military history of Vermont covers the military history of the American state of Vermont, as part of French colonial America; as part of Massachusetts, New Hampshire and New York during the British colonial period and during the French and Indian Wars; as the independent New Connecticut and...

 and though the Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces were damaged to the point that they did not pursue the Americans (retreating from Fort Ticonderoga) any further.

Statehood and the antebellum era



Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity based in the eastern town of Windsor for fourteen years. The independent state of Vermont issued its own coinage from 1785 to 1788 and operated a statewide postal service. Thomas Chittenden
Thomas Chittenden
Thomas Chittenden was an important figure in the founding of Vermont.Chittenden was born in East Guilford, Connecticut and moved to Vermont in 1774, where he founded the town of Williston. During the American Revolution, Chittenden was a member of a committee empowered to negotiate with the...

 was the Governor in 1778–1789 and in 1790–1791. The state was obliged to solve conflicting property ownership disputes with New Yorkers. In 1791, Vermont joined the federal union as the fourteenth state, and the first to enter the Union after the original thirteen colonies.

Vermont had a unicameral
Unicameralism
In government, unicameralism is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber. Thus, a unicameral parliament or unicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of one chamber or house...

 legislature until 1836.

The mid-1850s onwards saw a transition from Vermonters mostly favoring slavery's containment, to a far more serious opposition to the institution, producing the Radical Republican and abolitionist Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens
Thaddeus Stevens , of Pennsylvania, was a Republican leader and one of the most powerful members of the United States House of Representatives...

. While the Whig Party shriveled, and the Republican Party
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 emerged, Vermont strongly trended in support of its candidates. In 1860 it voted for President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state.

The Civil War



During the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, Vermont sent more than 34,000 men into United States service. Almost 5,200 Vermonters, 15 percent, were killed or mortally wounded in action or died of disease, a higher percentage than any other state.

The northernmost land action of the war, the St. Albans Raid
St. Albans raid
The St. Albans Raid was the northernmost land action of the American Civil War, taking place in St. Albans, Vermont on October 19, 1864.-Background:In this unusual incident, Bennett H. Young led Confederate States Army forces...

, took place in Vermont.

Postbellum era and beyond


The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were granted limited suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

 and were first allowed to vote in town elections, and then in state legislative races.

Large-scale flooding occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 84 people died including the state's lieutenant-governor.

The 1938 New England hurricane blew down 15000000 acres (60,702.9 km²) of trees, one-third of the total forest at the time in New England. 3 billion board feet were salvaged. Many of the older trees in the state are about 75 years old, dating from after this storm.

Another flood occurred in 1973, causing the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage.

In 1964, the US Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. Sims
Reynolds v. Sims
Reynolds v. Sims, 377 U.S. 533 was a United States Supreme Court case that ruled that state legislature districts had to be roughly equal in population.-Facts:...

 that forced "one-man, one-vote" redistricting on all states required large changes in Vermont, giving cities an equitable share of votes in both houses for the entire country. Until that time, counties had often been represented by area in state senates and were often unsympathetic to possible solutions to urban problems that would increase taxes.

The governor called the 2011 flooding caused by Tropical Storm Irene one of the worst in the 20th and 21st century, second only to the flood of 1927.

Population



The center of population
Center of population
In demographics, the center of population of a region is a geographical point that describes a centerpoint of the region's population...

 of Vermont is located in Washington County
Washington County, Vermont
Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of 2010, the population was 59,534; Vermont's third-most populous county after Chittenden County and Rutland County. Its shire town is Montpelier, the state capital. The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington...

, in the town of Warren
Warren, Vermont
Warren is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,681 at the 2000 census. The center of population of Vermont is located in Warren. It is set between the two ranges of the Green Mountains, with approximately 25% of the town under Green Mountain National Forest...

.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2005, Vermont has an estimated population of 623,050, which is an increase of 1,817, or 0.3 percent, from the prior year and an increase of 14,223, or 2.3 percent, since 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 7,148 people (33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 4,359 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 3,530 people. As of 2009, 47.8% of Vermont's population was born outside the state, with first and second-generation Vermonters representing a majority of the population.

Vermont is the least populous state in New England. In 2006 it had the second lowest birthrate in the nation, 42/1000 women. The median age of the work force was 42.3, the highest in the nation.

In 2009, 12.6 percent of people over 15 were divorced. This was the fifth highest percentage in the nation.

Race and gender



Vermont's population is:
  • 50.8% female
    Female
    Female is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces non-mobile ova .- Defining characteristics :The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male...

  • 49.2% male
    Male
    Male refers to the biological sex of an organism, or part of an organism, which produces small mobile gametes, called spermatozoa. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete or ovum, in the process of fertilization...



Among the 50 states and the District of Columbia, Vermont ranks:
  • 2nd highest proportion of non-Hispanic Whites (94.3%)
  • 2nd oldest median age
  • 41st highest proportion of Asians (1.3%)
  • 49th highest proportion of Hispanics (1.5%)
  • 48th highest proportion of Blacks
    African American
    African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

     (1.0%)
  • 29th highest proportion of Native Americans
    Native Americans in the United States
    Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

     (0.4%)
  • 39th highest proportion of people of mixed race (1.7%)
  • 28th highest proportion of males (49.2%)
  • 24th highest proportion of females (50.8%)


The above percentages are from the 2010 Census.

Ethnicity and language


The largest ancestry groups are:
  • 23.9% French
    French American
    French Americans or Franco-Americans are Americans of French or French Canadian descent. About 11.8 million U.S. residents are of this descent, and about 1.6 million speak French at home.An additional 450,000 U.S...

     or French Canadian
    French Canadian
    French Canadian or Francophone Canadian, , generally refers to the descendents of French colonists who arrived in New France in the 17th and 18th centuries...

  • 18.6% English
    English American
    English Americans are citizens or residents of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England....

  • 17.9% Irish
    Irish American
    Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

  • 10.3% German
    German American
    German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

  • 7.5% Italian
  • 7.0% American
    American ethnicity
    American ethnicity differs from United States nationality. An individual's nationality is American if he or she is a national of the United States of America. The circumstances under which a person is ethnically American are less clear....

  • 5.0% Scottish
    Scottish American
    Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Scotland. Scottish Americans are closely related to Scots-Irish Americans, descendants of Ulster Scots, and communities emphasize and celebrate a common heritage...

  • 3.9% Polish
    Polish American
    A Polish American , is a citizen of the United States of Polish descent. There are an estimated 10 million Polish Americans, representing about 3.2% of the population of the United States...

  • 2.7% Scotch Irish
  • 1.9% Swedish
    Swedish American
    Swedish Americans are Americans of Swedish descent, especially the descendants of about 1.2 million immigrants from Sweden during 1885-1915. Most were Lutherans who affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ; some were Methodists...

  • 1.6% Dutch
  • 1.4% Russian
    Russian American
    Russian Americans are primarily Americans who traces their ancestry to Russia. The definition can be applied to recent Russian immigrants to the United States, as well as to settlers of 19th century Russian settlements in northwestern America which includes today's California, Alaska and...

  • 1.4% Welsh
    Welsh American
    Welsh Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales. In the 2008 U.S. Census community survey, an estimated 1.98 million Americans had Welsh ancestry, 0.6% of the total U.S. population. This compares with a population of 3 million in Wales. However,...



Residents of British ancestry (especially English) live throughout most of Vermont. The northern part of the state maintains a significant percentage of people of French-Canadian ancestry. Some vestiges of a Vermont accent
Vermont English
Vermont English is a dialect of English Language spoken in the U.S. state of Vermont. Although a New England state, the variety of English spoken in most parts of the state generally has more in common with the accent spoken in nearby New York State and parts of the Midwest...

 are heard but the population has become more homogenized around American standard English in recent years.

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 2.54 percent of the population aged five and older speak French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 at home, while 1 percent speak Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

.

Religion

Religious identification
Religion 1990 2001 2008
Christian 84% 67% 55%
    Roman Catholic 37% 38% 26%
    Protestant 47% 29% 29%
        Congregational
Congregational church
Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing Congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs....

/United
        Church of Christ
6%
       Methodist
Methodism
Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley's evangelistic revival movement within Anglicanism. His younger brother...

6%
        Episcopal 4%
        Other Christian 4%
        Baptist
Baptist
Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

3%
        Other Protestant 2%
        Assemblies of God 1%
        Evangelical
Evangelicalism
Evangelicalism is a Protestant Christian movement which began in Great Britain in the 1730s and gained popularity in the United States during the series of Great Awakenings of the 18th and 19th century.Its key commitments are:...

1%
        Seventh-day Adventist
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ...

1%
        Non-Denominational 1%
Other religions 3% 2% 4%
No religion 13% 22% 34%
Declined to answer 1% 8% 6%

In 2008 over half of Vermont residents identified themselves as Christians. The largest single religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

. According to the ARDA
Association of religion data archives
The Association of Religion Data Archives is a free source of online information related to American and international religion. Founded as the American Religion Data Archive in 1997, and online since 1998, the archive was initially targeted at researchers interested in American religion...

 in 2000, the Catholic Church had 147,918 members.

Almost one-third of Vermonters were self-identified Protestants
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

. The Congregational United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
The United Church of Christ is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination primarily in the Reformed tradition but also historically influenced by Lutheranism. The Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957 to form the UCC...

 is the largest Protestant denomination (21,597) and Vermont has the largest percentage of this denomination of any state.
The number of congregations of the United Church of Christ
United Church of Christ
The United Church of Christ is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination primarily in the Reformed tradition but also historically influenced by Lutheranism. The Evangelical and Reformed Church and the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957 to form the UCC...

 (149) was larger than the number of Catholic congregations (133).

The second largest Protestant denomination is the United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination which is both mainline Protestant and evangelical. Founded in 1968 by the union of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley...

 with 19,000 members; followed by Episcopalians, "other" Christians, and Baptists.

Twenty-four percent of Vermonters attended church regularly. This low is matched nationally only by New Hampshire.

In 2008, 34 percent of Vermonters claimed no religion; this is the highest percentage in the nation. A survey suggested that people in Vermont and New Hampshire which were polled jointly, were less likely to attend weekly services and are less likely to believe in God (54 percent) than people in the rest of the nation (71 percent). The two states were at the lowest levels among states in religious commitment. About 23 percent of the respondents attended religious service at least once a week (39 percent nationally). Thirty-six percent said religion is very important to them (56 percent nationally).

Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young
Brigham Young
Brigham Young was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and a settler of the Western United States. He was the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death in 1877, he founded Salt Lake City, and he served as the first governor of the Utah...

—the first two leaders of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints—were both born in Vermont. A memorial to Joseph Smith, at his birthplace in Sharon
Sharon, Vermont
Sharon is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. It had a population of 1,411 at the 2000 census. The town is home to The Sharon Academy.-History:...

, is maintained by the LDS church and draws about 70,000 visitors annually. As of 2010 the church reports 4,386 members in twelve congregations throughout the state.

Vermont may have the highest concentration of western-convert Buddhists in the country. Several Buddhist retreat centers are located in the state.

2,000 people of Islamic faith are estimated to live in the state.

Economy


In 2007, Vermont was ranked by Forbes
Forbes
Forbes is an American publishing and media company. Its flagship publication, the Forbes magazine, is published biweekly. Its primary competitors in the national business magazine category are Fortune, which is also published biweekly, and Business Week...

magazine as 32nd among states in which to do business. It was 30th the previous year. In 2008, an economist said that the state had "a really stagnant economy, which is what we are forecasting for Vermont for the next 30 years." In May 2010, Vermont's 6.2 percent unemployment rate was the fourth lowest in the nation. This rate reflects the second sharpest decline among the 50 states since the prior May.

According to the 2010 U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis report, Vermont's gross state product
Gross state product
Gross state product is a measurement of the economic output of a state or province...

 (GSP) was . This places the state 50th among the 50 states. It stood 34th in per capita GSP.

Components of GSP were:
  • Government – $3,083 million (13.4%)
  • Real Estate, Rental and Leasing – (11.6%)
  • Durable goods manufacturing – (9.6%)
  • Health Care and Social Assistance – (9.4%)
  • Retail
    Retail
    Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

     trade – $1,934 million (8.4%)
  • Finance and Insurance – $1,369 million (5.9%)
  • Construction – $1,258 million (5.5%)
  • Professional and technical services – (5.5%)
  • Wholesale trade – $1,175 million (5.1%)
  • Accommodations and Food Services – (4.5%)
  • Information – $958 million (4.2%)
  • Non-durable goods manufacturing – (3.1%)
  • Other Services – $563 million (2.4%)
  • Utilities – $553 million (2.4%)
  • Educational Services – $478 million (2.1%)
  • Transportation and Warehousing – (2.1%)
  • Administrative and Waste Services – (1.9%)
  • Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting – (1.6%)
  • Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation – (.8%)
  • Mining
    Mining
    Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, from an ore body, vein or seam. The term also includes the removal of soil. Materials recovered by mining include base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds, limestone, oil shale, rock...

     – $100 million (.4%)
  • Management of Companies – $35 million (.2%)


Canada was Vermont's largest foreign trade partner in 2007. The state's second largest foreign trade partner was Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

. The state had worth of commerce with Québec.

One measure of economic activity is retail sales. The state had in 2007. In 2008, 8,631 new businesses were registered in Vermont, a decline of 500 from 2007.

Personal income


The median household income from 2002 to 2004 was $45,692. This was 15th nationally. The median wage in the state in 2008 was $15.31 hourly or $31,845 annually. About 80 percent of the 68,000 Vermonters who qualify for food stamps, actually received them in 2007. 40 percent of seniors 75 years or older live on annual incomes of $21,660 or less.

Agriculture


Agriculture contributes , about 12 percent, directly and indirectly to the state's economy. However, another study claims that agriculture contributes 2.2 percent of the state's domestic product. In 2000, about 3 percent of the state's working population engaged in agriculture.
Over the past two centuries, logging has fallen off as over-cutting and the exploitation of other forests made Vermont's forest less attractive. The decline of farms has resulted in a regrowth of Vermont's forests due to ecological succession
Ecological succession
Ecological succession, is the phenomenon or process by which a community progressively transforms itself until a stable community is formed. It is a fundamental concept in ecology, and refers to more or less predictable and orderly changes in the composition or structure of an ecological community...

. Today, most of Vermont's forests are secondary
Secondary forest
A secondary forest is a forest or woodland area which has re-grown after a major disturbance such as fire, insect infestation, timber harvest or windthrow, until a long enough period has passed so that the effects of the disturbance are no longer evident...

. The state and non-profit organization
Non-profit organization
Nonprofit organization is neither a legal nor technical definition but generally refers to an organization that uses surplus revenues to achieve its goals, rather than distributing them as profit or dividends...

s are actively encouraging regrowth and careful forest management. Over 78 percent of the land area of the state is forested. Over 85 percent of that area is non-industrial, private forestland owned by individuals or families.

Dairy farming
Dairy farming
Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats and sheep, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.Most dairy farms...

 is the primary source of agricultural income. In the last half of the 20th century, developers had plans to build condos and houses on what was relatively inexpensive, open land. Vermont's government responded with a series of laws controlling development
Growth management
Growth management is a set of techniques used by government to ensure that as the population grows that there are services available to meet their demands. These are not necessarily only government services...

 and with some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry. Still, the number of Vermont dairy farms has declined more than 85 percent from the 11,206 dairy farms operating in 1947. In 2003 there were fewer than 1,500 dairy farms in the state; in 2006 there were 1,138; and in 2007 there were 1,087. The number of dairy farms has been diminishing by 10 percent annually.

The number of cattle
Cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

 in Vermont had declined by 40 percent; however, milk production has doubled in the same period due to tripling the production per cow. While milk production rose, Vermont's market share
Market share
Market share is the percentage of a market accounted for by a specific entity. In a survey of nearly 200 senior marketing managers, 67 percent responded that they found the "dollar market share" metric very useful, while 61% found "unit market share" very useful.Marketers need to be able to...

 declined. Within a group of states supplying the Boston
Greater Boston
Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston. Due to ambiguity in usage, the size of the area referred to can be anywhere between that of the metropolitan statistical area of Boston and that of the city's combined statistical area which includes...

 and New York City markets
New York metropolitan area
The New York metropolitan area, also known as Greater New York, or the Tri-State area, is the region that composes of New York City and the surrounding region...

, Vermont was third in market share, with 10.6 percent; New York has 44.9 percent and Pennsylvania has 32.9 percent. In 2007, dairy farmers received a record $23.60 for 100 pounds (45.4 kg) of milk. This dropped in 2008 to $17. The average dairy farm produced pounds of milk annually in 2008.

The dairy barn remains an iconic image of Vermont, but the 87 percent decrease in active dairy farms between 1947 and 2003 preservation of the dairy barns has increasingly become dependent upon a commitment to maintaining a legacy rather than basic need in the agricultural economy. The Vermont Barn Census, organized by a collaboration of educational and nonprofit state and local historic preservation programs, has developed educational and administrative systems for recording the number, condition, and features of barns throughout Vermont.

In 2009, there were 543 organic farms
Organic farming
Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm...

. Twenty percent of the dairy farms were organic and 23 percent (128) vegetable farms were organic. Organic farming increased in 2006–07, but leveled off in 2008–09. Nor are any expected for 2010.

A significant amount of milk is shipped into the Boston market. Therefore the Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

 certifies that Vermont farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this certification, a farmer may not sell milk for distribution into the bulk market.

An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the manufacture and sale of artisan foods, fancy foods, and novelty items trading in part upon the Vermont "brand" which the state

manages and defends. Examples of these specialty exports include Cabot Cheese, the Vermont Teddy Bear Company
Vermont Teddy Bear Company
The Vermont Teddy Bear Company is one of the largest producers of teddy bears and the largest seller of teddy bears by mail order and Internet. The company handcrafts each of its teddy bears and produces almost 500,000 teddy bears each year...

, Fine Paints of Europe
Fine Paints of Europe
Fine Paints of Europe, located in the U.S. state of Vermont, is the sole North American importer of paints and varnishes manufactured in the Netherlands by Wijzonol Bouwverven B.V....

, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several micro breweries
Vermont beer and breweries
The U.S. state of Vermont is home to several breweries that produce a wide variety of beer.-History:The history of beer in Vermont is similar to its history in the rest of the United States - no local breweries existed from Prohibition until the microbrewery explosion of the 1980s and 1990s...

, ginseng growers, Burton Snowboards, Lake Champlain Chocolates
Lake Champlain Chocolates
Lake Champlain Chocolates is a privately held chocolate manufacturer located in Burlington, Vermont, USA. The company handcrafts over one million pounds of gourmet chocolates each year. Its products are sold nationally through independent specialty food retailers...

, King Arthur Flour, and Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream
Ben & Jerry's
Ben & Jerry's is an American ice cream company, a division of the British-Dutch Unilever conglomerate, that manufactures ice cream, frozen yogurt, sorbet, and ice cream novelty products, manufactured by Ben & Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in South Burlington, Vermont, United...

.

There were about 2,000 maple products producers in 2010. In 2001, Vermont produced 275,000 US gallons (1,040,000 L) of maple syrup
Maple syrup
Maple syrup is a syrup usually made from the xylem sap of sugar maple, red maple, or black maple trees, although it can also be made from other maple species such as the bigleaf maple. In cold climates, these trees store starch in their trunks and roots before the winter; the starch is then...

, about one-quarter of U.S. production. For 2005 that number was 410000 gallons (1,552,018.9 l) accounting for 37 percent of national production. This rose to 920000 gallons (3,482,579 l) in 2009.

Wine industry in Vermont started in 1985. There are 14 wineries today.

Farms in the state were estimated to have hired 2,000 illegal immigrants as of 2005. Local authorities have ignored the problem, sympathizing with the employers about being able to efficiently run a farm.

Manufacturing


Vermont's largest for-profit employer, IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

, in Essex Junction, provides 25 percent of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont, employing 6,800 workers in 2007. It is responsible for of the state's annual economy.

A 2010 University of Connecticut
University of Connecticut
The admission rate to the University of Connecticut is about 50% and has been steadily decreasing, with about 28,000 prospective students applying for admission to the freshman class in recent years. Approximately 40,000 prospective students tour the main campus in Storrs annually...

 study reported that Vermont, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire tied as the most costly states in the U.S. for manufacturers.

Health


An increasingly aging population is expected to improve this industry's position in the state economy. In 2008, Fletcher Allen Health Care
Fletcher Allen Health Care
Fletcher Allen Health Care, together with its partners at the University of Vermont College of Medicine and the College of Nursing and Health Sciences, is Vermont's academic medical center. Fletcher Allen target clientele are the one million people in Vermont and northern New York...

 was the second largest employer of people in the state.

In 2010, all of Vermont's hospitals billed patients $3.76 billion, and collected $2 billion.

Housing


In 2007 Vermont was the 17th highest state in the nation for mortgage affordability. However, in 41 other states, inhabitants contributed within plus or minus 4 percent of Vermont's 18.4 percent of household income to a mortgage.

Housing prices did not rise much during the early 2000s. As a result, the collapse in real estate values was not that precipitous either. While foreclosure rose significantly in 2007, the state stood 50th (last, and best) in ratio of foreclosure filings to households. While housing sales dropped annually from 2004 to 2008, prices continued to rise.

In 2007, Vermont was best in the country for construction of new energy efficient homes as evaluated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 under the Energy Star
Energy Star
Energy Star is an international standard for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States of America. It was first created as a United States government program during the early 1990s, but Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan and the European Union have also adopted...

 program. However, about 60 percent of Vermont homes were heated with oil in 2008. In August 2008, the cost in Vermont of various heating sources per BTU ranged from $14.39 for cord wood to $43.50 for kerosene.

While the number of houses sold in the state has dropped from 8,318 in 2004 to 8,120 in 2005, 6,919 in 2006, and 5,820 in 2007, the average price has continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in 2007).

In 2009, the average rent for a two-bedroom apartment was $920 per month. Rental vacancy was 5.4 percent, the lowest in the nation. 2,800 people were counted as homeless in January 2010, 22 percent more than in 2008.

In 2011, Vermont was fifth among the states with the greatest backlog of foreclosures needing court processing, taking an estimated 18 years. The national average was eight years.

Labor


As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11 percent of these are unionized. Out of a workforce of 299,200 workers, 52,000 were government jobs, federal, state and local.

A modern high unemployment rate of 9 percent was reached in June 1976. A modern low of 2.4 percent was measured in February 2000. As of September 2010, the unemployment rate was 5.8 percent.

Employment grew 7.5 percent from 2000 to 2006. From 1980 to 2000, employment grew by 3.4 percent; nationally it was up 4.6 percent. Real wages were $33,385 in 2006 constant dollars and remained there in 2010; the nation, $36,871.

Insurance


Captive insurance
Captive insurance
Captive insurance companies are insurance companies established with the specific objective of financing risks emanating from their parent group or groups, but they sometimes also insure risks of the group's customers as well...

 plays an increasingly large role in Vermont's economy. With this form of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form standalone insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby substantially reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over types of risks to be covered. There are also significant tax advantages to be gained from the formation and operation of captive insurance companies. According to the Insurance Information Institute, Vermont in 2009 was the world's third-largest domicile for captive insurance companies, following Bermuda
Bermuda
Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

 and the Cayman Islands
Cayman Islands
The Cayman Islands is a British Overseas Territory and overseas territory of the European Union located in the western Caribbean Sea. The territory comprises the three islands of Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman, located south of Cuba and northwest of Jamaica...

. In 2009, there were 560 such companies. In 2010, the state had 900 such companies.

Tourism



Tourism is an important industry to the state. Home to some of the largest ski areas in New England, skiers and snowboarders visit the state's ski resorts in wintertime, including Burke Mountain Ski Area
Burke Mountain Ski Area
Burke Mountain Ski Area is a mid-size ski resort open to skiing and snowboarding in northeast Vermont . It is located on Burke Mountain...

, Bolton Valley
Bolton Valley
Bolton Valley is a mid-sized ski area in northern Vermont in the United States.-History:The resort was founded in 1966 by Ralph DesLauriers and his father. Bolton thrived for many years as a family-friendly resort and spawned two famous skiers, Rob and Eric DesLauriers, who went on to star in...

, Stowe
Mount Mansfield
Mount Mansfield is the highest mountain in Vermont with a summit that peaks at above sea level. The summit is in Underhill; the ridgeline, including some secondary peaks, extends into the town of Stowe, and the mountain's flanks also reach into the town of Cambridge.When viewed from the east or...

, Smugglers' Notch, Killington Ski Resort
Killington Ski Resort
Killington Mountain Resort & Ski Area is a ski resort near Killington, Vermont. It is the largest ski area in the Eastern United States, and has the largest vertical in New England as well at 3050 feet.-History:In 1954, Perry H...

, Mad River Glen
Mad River Glen
Mad River Glen is a ski area in Fayston, Vermont. Its terrain has been ranked by SKI magazine as the most challenging on the east coast of the United States. Located within the Green Mountain range, it sits in the Mad River Valley, close to the larger Sugarbush Resort...

, Sugarbush
Sugarbush Resort
Sugarbush Resort is a ski resort located in the Mad River Valley in Warren, Vermont. It is one of the largest ski resorts in New England. The resort encompasses more than 4000 acres total, 578 acres skiable, 53 miles of trails, and 16 ski lifts...

, Stratton
Stratton, Vermont
Stratton is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 136 at the 2000 census.Stratton was one of thirteen Vermont towns isolated by flooding caused by Hurricane Irene in 2011.-Geography:...

, Jay Peak, Okemo
Okemo Mountain
Okemo Mountain Resort is a ski resort located in Ludlow, Vermont. Before becoming a popular ski resort destination, Ludlow was originally a mill town, and was the home of a General Electric plant until 1977. The resort experienced 600,000 skier visits in 2009...

, Suicide Six
Suicide Six
Suicide Six is the name of a ski resort in South Pomfret, Vermont. It has some claim to historical fame as a very early ski resort and in 1934, an improvised rope tow, said to be the first ski lift in the Eastern United States. The rope tow was set up by Wallace "Bunny" Bertram on...

, Mount Snow
Mount Snow
Mount Snow is a mountain and ski area in southern Vermont located in the Green Mountains. It is Vermont's closest big mountain to many Northeast metropolitan areas. It was cohost of the first Extreme Games in 1995 and host of the Winter X-Games in 2000 and 2001...

 and Bromley
Bromley Mountain
Bromley Mountain is a mountain in the Green Mountains of southern Vermont, United States. It is located in Bennington County, seven miles to the east of Manchester, Vermont and just west of Peru, Vermont...

. Summer visitors tour resort towns like Stowe
Stowe, Vermont
Stowe is a town in Lamoille County, Vermont, United States. The population was 4,339 at the 2000 census. Tourism is a significant industry.-Geography:...

, Manchester, Quechee
Quechee, Vermont
Quechee is one of five unincorporated villages in the town of Hartford, Windsor County, Vermont. Quechee is also a census-designated place. It is the site of the Quechee Gorge on the Ottauquechee River and is also the home to the Quechee Lakes planned community initiated in the late 1960s, which...

, Wilmington
Wilmington, Vermont
Wilmington is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,225 at the 2000 census.-History:The town was chartered in 1751 by Benning Wentworth, colonial governor of New Hampshire. It was named in honor of Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington...

 and Woodstock. Resorts, hotels, restaurants, and shops, designed to attract tourists, employ people year-round. Summer camps contribute to Vermont's tourist economy.
Visitors participate in trout
Trout
Trout is the name for a number of species of freshwater and saltwater fish belonging to the Salmoninae subfamily of the family Salmonidae. Salmon belong to the same family as trout. Most salmon species spend almost all their lives in salt water...

 fishing, lake fishing, and ice fishing
Ice fishing
Ice fishing is the practice of catching fish with lines and fish hooks or spears through an opening in the ice on a frozen body of water. Ice anglers may sit on the stool in the open on a frozen lake, or in a heated cabin on the ice, some with bunks and amenities.-Locations:It is a popular pastime...

. Some hike the Long Trail
Long Trail
The Long Trail is a hiking trail located in Vermont, running the length of the state. It is the oldest long-distance trail in the United States, constructed between 1910 and 1930 by the Green Mountain Club...

.

In winter, nordic and backcountry skiers visit to travel the length of the state on the Catamount Trail
Catamount Trail
The Catamount Trail is a Nordic ski trail that spans the length of Vermont, extending more than from the border with Massachusetts from Readsboro, Vermont to the Canadian border North Troy, Vermont....

. Several horse show
Horse show
A Horse show is a judged exhibition of horses and ponies. Many different horse breeds and equestrian disciplines hold competitions worldwide, from local to the international levels. Most horse shows run from one to three days, sometimes longer for major, all-breed events or national and...

s are annual events. Vermont's state parks, historic sites, museums, golf courses, and new boutique hotels with spas were designed to attract tourists.

According to the 2000 Census, almost 15 percent of all housing units in Vermont were vacant and classified "for seasonal, recreational, or occasional use". This was the second highest percentage nationwide, after Maine. In some Vermont cities, vacation homes owned by wealthy residents of New England and New York City constitute the bulk of all housing stock. According to one estimate, as of 2009, 84 percent of all houses in Ludlow, Vermont
Ludlow (town), Vermont
Ludlow is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. The population was 2,449 at the 2000 census. Ludlow is the home of Okemo Mountain, a popular skiing area.-Geography:...

, were owned by out-of-state residents. Other notable vacation-home resorts include Manchester and Stowe.

In 2005, visitors made an estimated trips to the state, spending .

In 2000–01, there were 4,579,719 skier and snowboarder visits to the state. There were 4,125,082 visits in 2009–2010, a rise from recent years.

In 2008, there were 35,000 members of 138 snowmobiling clubs in Vermont. The combined association of clubs maintains 6,000 miles of trail often over private lands. The industry is said to generate "hundreds of millions of dollars worth of business."

Hunting is controlled for black bear
American black bear
The American black bear is a medium-sized bear native to North America. It is the continent's smallest and most common bear species. Black bears are omnivores, with their diets varying greatly depending on season and location. They typically live in largely forested areas, but do leave forests in...

, wild turkey
Wild Turkey
The Wild Turkey is native to North America and is the heaviest member of the Galliformes. It is the same species as the domestic turkey, which derives from the South Mexican subspecies of wild turkey .Adult wild turkeys have long reddish-yellow to grayish-green...

s, deer, and moose. There are 5,500 bears in the state. The goal is to keep the numbers between 4,500 and 6,000. In 2010, there were about 141,000 deer in the state, which is in range of government goals. However, these are distributed unevenly and when in excess of 10-15 per square mile, negatively impact timber growth.

Quarrying


The towns of Rutland
Rutland (town), Vermont
Rutland is a town in Rutland County, Vermont, United States. The population was 4,054 at the 2010 census. Rutland completely surrounds the city of Rutland, which is incorporated separately from the town of Rutland.-History:...

 and Barre
Barre (town), Vermont
Barre is a town in Washington County, Vermont, United States. The population was 7,924 at the 2010 census. Barre town almost completely surrounds Barre city, which is incorporated separately from the town of Barre.-Geography:...

 are the traditional centers of marble and granite quarrying and carving in the U.S. For many years Vermont was also the headquarters of the smallest union in the U.S., the Stonecutters Association, of about 500 members. The first marble quarry in America was on Mount Aeolus overlooking East Dorset.
Up the western side of the state runs the "Marble Valley" joining up with the "Slate Valley" that runs from just inside New York across from Chimney Point until it meets the "Granite Valley" that runs west past Barre, where is located the Rock of Ages quarry
Rock of Ages Corporation
Rock of Ages Corporation is a granite quarrying and finishing company located in Graniteville, Vermont. It was founded in 1885. The company was one of the cemetery-related businesses profiled in the 2005 PBS documentary A Cemetery Special....

, the largest granite quarry in America.

Vermont is the largest producer of slate in the country.

Production of dimension stone
Dimension stone
Dimension stone is natural stone or rock that has been selected and fabricated to specific sizes or shapes. Color, texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements...

 is the greatest producer of revenues by quarrying.

Non-profits and volunteerism


There were 2,682 non-profit organizations in Vermont in 2008, with in revenue. The state ranked ninth in the country for volunteerism for the period 2005–08. 35.6% of the population volunteered during this period. The national average was 26.4%.

Transportation



Vermont's main mode of travel is by automobile. 5.7 percent of Vermont households did not own a car in 2008. On average, 20–25 people die each year from drunk driving incidents; as well as 70–80 people in fatal car crashes in the state. Motorists have the highest rate of insurance in the country, 93%, tied with Pennsylvania.

In 2010 Vermont owned 2840 miles (4,570.5 km) of highway. This was the third smallest quantity among the 50 states. 2.5 percent of the highways were listed as "congested," the 5th lowest in the country. The highway fatality rate was 1 per 100000000 miles (160,934,000 km), tenth lowest in the nation. The highways cost $28,669 per 1 miles (1.6 km) to maintain, the 17th highest in the states. 34.4 percent of its bridges were rated deficient or obsolete, the 8th worst in the nation.

Individual communities and counties have public transit, but their breadth of coverage is frequently limited. Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 services a number of small towns. Two Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 trains serve Vermont, the Vermonter
Vermonter
Amtrak's Vermonter is a 611-mile passenger train service between St. Albans , New York City and Washington, D.C. One trip runs in each direction per day....

 and the Ethan Allen Express
Ethan Allen Express
The Ethan Allen Express is a 241-mile passenger train operated by Amtrak between New York City and Rutland, Vermont, via Albany. The total trip is scheduled to be completed in 5.5 hours. Its operations are subsidized by the State of Vermont, and the train is popular among vacationers travelling...

. In 2011, Amtrak evaluated the track used by the Ethan Allen Express between Rutland and Whitehall, as the worst in the nation.

Trucks weighing less than 80000 pounds (36,287.4 kg) can use Vermont's interstate highways. The limit for state roads is 99000 pounds (44,905.6 kg). This means that vehicles too heavy for the turnpikes can legally only use secondary roads.

In 2011, the American Society for Public Administration
American Society for Public Administration
The American Society for Public Administration is a membership association in the United States sponsoring conferences and providing professional services primarily to those who study the implementation of government policy, public administration, and, to a lesser degree, programs of civil society...

 rated Vermont among the top ten best states for overall litter/debris removals from public spaces/properties (roadways, streams, trails).

Major routes


The state has 2843 miles (4,575 km) of highways under its control.

For a more detailed explanation see a List of Routes in Vermont.

North–south routes

  • Interstate 89
    Interstate 89
    Interstate 89 is an interstate highway in the New England region of the United States travelling between Bow, New Hampshire and Highgate Springs, Vermont. As with all odd-numbered primary interstates, I-89 is signed as a north–south highway...

     – Runs northwestward from White River Junction to serve both Montpelier and Burlington en route to the Canadian border.
  • Interstate 91
    Interstate 91
    Interstate 91 is an Interstate Highway in the New England region of the United States. It provides the primary north–south thoroughfare in the western part of New England...

     – Runs northward from the Massachusetts border to the Canadian border, connecting Brattleboro
    Brattleboro, Vermont
    Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state, along the state line with New Hampshire. The population was 12,046 at the 2010 census...

    , White River Junction, St. Johnsbury, and Newport.
  • Interstate 93
    Interstate 93
    Interstate 93 is an Interstate Highway in the New England section of the United States. Its southern terminus is in Canton, Massachusetts, in the Boston metropolitan area, at Interstate 95; its northern terminus is near St. Johnsbury, Vermont, at Interstate 91...

     – Has its northern terminus at I-91 in St. Johnsbury and connects the northern part of the state with New Hampshire and points south.
  • U.S. Route 5
    U.S. Route 5
    U.S. Route 5 is a north–south United States highway running through the New England states of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont. Significant cities along the route include New Haven, Connecticut; Hartford, Connecticut; and Springfield, Massachusetts. From Hartford northward to St...

     – Travels south to north along the eastern border of the state, parallel to I-91 for its entire length in the state.
  • U.S. Route 7
    U.S. Route 7
    U.S. Route 7 is a north–south United States highway in western New England that runs for from Norwalk, Connecticut, to Highgate, Vermont. The highway's southern terminus is at Interstate 95 in Norwalk, Connecticut...

     – Runs south to north along the western border of the state connecting Burlington
    Burlington, Vermont
    Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the shire town of Chittenden County. Burlington lies south of the U.S.-Canadian border and some south of Montreal....

    , Middlebury, Rutland, and Bennington. U.S. 7 parallels I-89 from Burlington northward to the Canadian border.
  • Vermont Route 100
    Vermont Route 100
    Vermont Route 100 is a north–south state highway in Vermont, United States. Running through the center of the state, it travels nearly the entire length of Vermont and is long...

     – Runs south to north almost directly through the center of the state, providing a route along the full length of the Green Mountains.

East–west routes

  • U.S. Route 2
    U.S. Route 2
    U.S. Route 2 is an east–west U.S. Highway spanning across the northern continental United States. US 2 consists of two segments connected by various roadways in southern Canada...

     – Crosses northern Vermont from west to east and connects the population centers of Burlington, Montpelier, and St. Johnsbury.
  • U.S. Route 4
    U.S. Route 4
    U.S. Route 4 is a long United States highway that runs from East Greenbush, New York, in the west to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in the east, traversing through Vermont.In New York, US 4 is signed north–south to reflect its alignment in the state...

     – Crosses south-central Vermont from west to east. It connects with the New York border, in the town of Fair Haven, with the city of Rutland and continues running through Killington and White River Junction.
  • U.S. Route 302
    U.S. Route 302
    U.S. Route 302 is a spur of U.S. Route 2. It currently runs 171 miles north from Portland, Maine, at U.S. Route 1, to Montpelier, Vermont, at US 2...

     – Travels eastward from Montpelier and Barre, into New Hampshire and Maine.
  • Vermont Route 9 – A route across the southern part of the state that connects Bennington to Brattleboro.
  • Vermont Route 105
    Vermont Route 105
    Vermont Route 105 is a state highway located in northern Vermont, United States. The route runs from U.S. Route 7 in the city of St. Albans in the west to the New Hampshire state line in Bloomfield in the east. The road continues across the state line as Bridge Street, a short unnumbered New...

     – Crosses the northernmost parts of Vermont (sometimes within a few miles of the Canadian border) and connects the cities of St. Albans and Newport.


A 2005–06 study ranked Vermont 37th out of the states for "cost-effective road maintenance", a decline of thirteen places since 2004–05.

Federal data indicates that 16 percent of Vermont's 2,691 bridges had been rated structurally deficient by the state in 2006. In 2007 Vermont had the sixth worst percentage of structurally deficient bridges in the country.

Rail



The state is served by Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

's Vermonter
Vermonter
Amtrak's Vermonter is a 611-mile passenger train service between St. Albans , New York City and Washington, D.C. One trip runs in each direction per day....

and Ethan Allen Express
Ethan Allen Express
The Ethan Allen Express is a 241-mile passenger train operated by Amtrak between New York City and Rutland, Vermont, via Albany. The total trip is scheduled to be completed in 5.5 hours. Its operations are subsidized by the State of Vermont, and the train is popular among vacationers travelling...

, the New England Central Railroad
New England Central Railroad
The New England Central Railroad is a subsidiary of RailAmerica that began operations in 1995. It runs from New London, Connecticut, to Alburgh, Vermont, a distance of .-History:...

, the Vermont Railway
Vermont Railway
The Vermont Railway is a shortline railroad in Vermont and eastern New York, operating much of the former Rutland Railway. It is the main part of the Vermont Rail System, which also owns the Green Mountain Railroad, the Rutland's branch to Bellows Falls...

, and the Green Mountain Railroad
Green Mountain Railroad
The Green Mountain Railroad is a class III railroad operating in Vermont.GMRC operates on tracks that had been owned by the Rutland Railroad and Boston and Maine Railroad. The railroad operates on a rail line between North Walpole, New Hampshire and Rutland, Vermont. Corporate colors are green...

.

The Ethan Allen Express serves Rutland and Castleton, while the Vermonter serves Saint Albans, Essex Junction
Essex Junction, Vermont
Essex Junction is a village in the town of Essex in Chittenden County, Vermont, United States. The population was 8,591 at the 2000 census. It was incorporated on November 15, 1892....

, Waterbury
Waterbury, Vermont
Waterbury is a town in Washington County in central Vermont, in the United States. It is also the name of a village within that town. The population was 4,915 at the 2000 census.-Economy:-Industry:...

, Montpelier
Montpelier, Vermont
Montpelier is a city in the U.S. state of Vermont that serves as the state capital and the shire town of Washington County. As the capital of Vermont, Montpelier is the site of the Vermont State House, seat of the legislative branch of Vermont government. The population was 7,855 at the 2010...

, Randolph
Randolph, Vermont
Randolph is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States. The population was 4,853 at the 2000 census, making Randolph the largest town in Orange County. The town is a commercial center for many of the smaller, rural farming communities that surround it....

, White River Junction
White River Junction, Vermont
White River Junction is an unincorporated village and census-designated place in the town of Hartford in Windsor County, Vermont, United States...

, Windsor
Windsor, Vermont
Windsor is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. The population was 3,756 at the 2000 census.-History:One of the New Hampshire grants, Windsor was chartered as a town on July 6, 1761 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth. It was first settled in August 1764 by Captain Steele Smith and...

, Bellows Falls
Bellows Falls, Vermont
Bellows Falls is an incorporated village located in the town of Rockingham in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 3,165 at the 2000 census...

 and Brattleboro
Brattleboro, Vermont
Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state, along the state line with New Hampshire. The population was 12,046 at the 2010 census...

.

Local community public and private transportation


Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 stops at Bellows Falls, Brattleboro, Burlington, Montpelier, and White River Junction. Other transportation includes:
  • Addison County Transit Resources (ACTR) services Addison County
    Addison County, Vermont
    Addison County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. In 2010, the population was 36,821. Its shire town is Middlebury.-Geography:...

    , including the college town
    College town
    A college town or university town is a community which is dominated by its university population...

     of Middlebury, Bristol
    Bristol, Vermont
    Bristol is a town in Addison County, Vermont, United States. The town was founded June 26, 1762. The population was 3,788 at the 2000 census. Main Street is home to most of the businesses of the town...

    , and Vergennes
    Vergennes, Vermont
    Vergennes is a city located in the northwest quadrant of Addison County, Vermont, in the United States. Bordered by the towns of Ferrisburgh, Panton and Waltham, as of the 2000 census the city population was 2,741. It is the smallest of Vermont's nine cities in terms of population...

    .
  • Bennington County is serviced by American Red Cross Green Mountain Express (GME) out of Bennington and Yankee Trails (TC) out of Rensselaer, New York
    Rensselaer, New York
    Rensselaer is a city in Rensselaer County, New York, United States, and is located on the Hudson River directly opposite Albany. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 9,392; in 1920, it was 10,832. The name is from Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the original landowner of the region in New...

    .
  • Brattleboro
    Brattleboro, Vermont
    Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state, along the state line with New Hampshire. The population was 12,046 at the 2010 census...

     in Windham County
    Windham County, Vermont
    Windham County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of 2010, the population was 44,513. Its shire town is Newfane.-Geography:According to the U.S...

     is served by the BeeLine (Brattleboro Town Bus). Windham
    Windham, Vermont
    Windham is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States. The population was 328 at the 2000 census. The town center village is designated as the Windham Village Historic District.-Geography:...

     is served, out of West Dover, by the MOOver (Deerfield Valley Transit Association or DVTA).
  • Burlington has Chittenden County Transportation Authority (CCTA) and CATS (University of Vermont
    University of Vermont
    The University of Vermont comprises seven undergraduate schools, an honors college, a graduate college, and a college of medicine. The Honors College does not offer its own degrees; students in the Honors College concurrently enroll in one of the university's seven undergraduate colleges or...

     Campus Area Transportation System).
  • Colchester in Chittenden County is serviced by the SSTA (Special Services Transportation Agency).
  • Rutland County has the Bus (Marble Valley Regional Transit District
    Marble Valley Regional Transit District
    Marble Valley Regional Transit District operates a public transportation system in central Vermont called The Bus. The company currently has full bus service to Rutland and West Rutland, as well as limited bus service to Castleton, Fair Haven, Poultney, Proctor, Killington, Ludlow and Brandon. It...

    , MVRTD) out of Rutland.
  • Windsor County:
    • Ludlow (in Windsor County) is served by the LMTS (Ludlow Municipal Transit System).
    • Windsor is also served by Advanced Transit (AT) out of Wilder.
    • The Connecticut River Transit (CRT) out of Springfield, Vermont
      Springfield, Vermont
      Springfield is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States. The population was 9,373 at the 2010 census.-History:One of the New Hampshire grants, the township was chartered on August 20, 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth and awarded to Gideon Lyman and 61 others...

      , serves parts of Windham County.
    • In parts of Windsor County, including Norwich
      Norwich, Vermont
      Norwich is a town in Windsor County, Vermont, United States, located along the Connecticut River opposite Hanover, New Hampshire. The population was 3,544 at the 2000 census....

       and Hartford
      Hartford, Vermont
      Hartford is a town in Windsor County in the U.S. state of Vermont. It is located on the New Hampshire border, at the intersection of Interstates 89 and 91. It is the site of the confluence of the White River and the Connecticut River; the Ottauquechee River also flows through the town...

      , as well as in White River Junction
      White River Junction, Vermont
      White River Junction is an unincorporated village and census-designated place in the town of Hartford in Windsor County, Vermont, United States...

       and in parts of New Hampshire there is a free public transportation service called the Advanced Transit. It has routes and many different lines all throughout the Upper Valley region.
  • Stowe
    Stowe, Vermont
    Stowe is a town in Lamoille County, Vermont, United States. The population was 4,339 at the 2000 census. Tourism is a significant industry.-Geography:...

     in Lamoille County is serviced by STS (Stowe Trolley System, Village Mountain Shuttle, Morrisville Shuttle).
  • Stagecoach Transportation Services (STS) out of Randolph
    Randolph, Vermont
    Randolph is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States. The population was 4,853 at the 2000 census, making Randolph the largest town in Orange County. The town is a commercial center for many of the smaller, rural farming communities that surround it....

     in Orange County also serves parts of Windsor County.
  • In Washington County
    Washington County, Vermont
    Washington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Vermont. As of 2010, the population was 59,534; Vermont's third-most populous county after Chittenden County and Rutland County. Its shire town is Montpelier, the state capital. The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington...

    , the Green Mountain Transit Authority
    Green Mountain Transit Authority
    Green Mountain Transit Authority provides public transportation in central Vermont, specifically in Washington and Lamoille counties and parts of Orange County, expanding in 2009 to include Franklin and Grand Isle counties...

     (GMTA) runs out of the capital city, Montpelier.
  • The Network (Northwest Vermont Public Transit Network, NVPT) running out of Saint Albans services Franklin
    Franklin, Vermont
    Franklin is a town in Franklin County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,268 at the 2000 census.The original name was Huntsburgh but the name was changed to Franklin in 1817.-Geography:...

     and Grand Isle
    Grand Isle, Vermont
    Grand Isle is a town in Grand Isle County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,955 at the 2000 census.A landing for the Lake Champlain Transportation Company's ferry to Plattsburgh, New York at Cumberland Head is located on the western shore of Grand Isle at Gordon's...

     counties.
  • Rural Community Transportation
    Rural Community Transportation
    Rural Community Transportation is a nonprofit, public bus system headquartered in St. Johnsbury in Caledonia County, Vermont. RCT serves the counties of Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille, and Orleans Counties. It provides regular bus routes to member municipalities.It consists of mainly volunteer drivers...

     (RCT) runs out of Saint Johnsbury and services Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille and Orleans Counties. There is a shuttle bus linking the various local networks.
  • There is ferry service to New York State from Burlington, Charlotte, Grand Isle, and Shoreham. All but the Shoreham ferry are operated by the LCTC (Lake Champlain Transportation Company
    Lake Champlain Transportation Company
    The Lake Champlain Transportation Company provides car and passenger ferry service at four points on Lake Champlain in the United States. From 1976 to 2003, it was owned by Burlington, Vermont, businessman Raymond C. Pecor, Jr. who is Chairman of the company's board...

    ). Additionally, during the period of replacement of the Champlain Bridge
    Champlain Bridge (United States)
    The Champlain Bridge was a long vehicular bridge in the United States that traversed Lake Champlain between Crown Point, New York and Chimney Point, Vermont. It was opened to traffic in 1929 as a toll bridge; the tolls were removed in 1987...

     at Chimney Point, VT, the LCTC operates a free, 24 hour ferry from just south of the now-demolished bridge to Crown Point, NY at the expense of the states of New York and Vermont at a cost to the states of about $10 per car.

Airports


Vermont is served by two commercial airports:
  • Burlington International Airport
    Burlington International Airport
    Burlington International Airport is a joint-use public and military airport in Chittenden County, Vermont, United States. It is owned by the City of Burlington...

     is the largest in the state, with regular flights to Chicago
    Chicago
    Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

    , Cleveland
    Cleveland, Ohio
    Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state. The city is located in northeastern Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately west of the Pennsylvania border...

    , Detroit, Newark
    Newark, New Jersey
    Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

    , New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

    , Orlando
    Orlando, Florida
    Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

    , Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.
  • Rutland Southern Vermont Regional Airport has regular flights to Boston
    Boston
    Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

     via Cape Air
    Cape Air
    Hyannis Air Service, Inc., operating as Cape Air, is an airline headquartered at Barnstable Municipal Airport in Barnstable, Massachusetts, United States. It operates scheduled passenger services in the Northeast, Florida, the Caribbean, Mid-Atlantic States, Midwest, and Micronesia...

    .

Newspapers of record


Vermont statute requires the Vermont secretary of state to designate newspapers that provide general coverage across the state as the "Newspapers of Record." On June 30, 2010, the secretary of state designated the following newspapers for publishing administrative rule notices during the period of July 1, 2010 through June 30, 2011:
  • Addison Independent
    Addison County Independent
    The Addison County Independent is a biweekly newspaper located in Middlebury, VT that covers Addison County. The paper was founded in 1946 and is now owned and managed by Angelo Lynn. The paper has a a website, and uses a pay wall to charge for some of its content...

  • Bennington Banner
    Bennington Banner
    The Bennington Banner is a daily newspaper published in Bennington, Vermont. Established in 1841, the paper covers local, national, and world news. The Bennington Banner sells 7,800 papers daily with a penetration of 65% in Bennington. It is distributed throughout Southwestern Vermont and eastern...

  • Brattleboro Reformer
    Brattleboro Reformer
    The Brattleboro Reformer is the third-largest daily newspaper in the U.S. state of Vermont. With a weekday circulation of just over 10,000, it is behind the Burlington Free Press and the Rutland Herald, respectively...

  • Burlington Free Press
    Burlington Free Press
    The Burlington Free Press is a daily newspaper based in Burlington, Vermont, in the United States. With a circulation of about 48,042 daily and 56,295 Sundays, it is the most circulated paper in Vermont....

  • Caledonian Record
  • The Chronicle
    The Chronicle
    The Chronicle may refer to:Publications* The Chronicle * The Chronicle * The Chronicle * The Chronicle * The Chronicle The Chronicle may refer to:Publications* The Chronicle (Barton, Vermont)* The Chronicle (Dominica)* The Chronicle (Duke University)* The Chronicle (North Central College)* The...

  • Islander
  • Rutland Herald
    Rutland Herald
    The Rutland Herald is the second largest daily newspaper in the U.S. state of Vermont . It is published in Rutland. With a daily circulation of about 12,000, it is the main source of news geared towards the southern part of the state, along with the Brattleboro Reformer and the Bennington Banner...

  • Newport Daily Express
    Newport Daily Express
    The Newport Daily Express is a newspaper published weekdays in Newport , Vermont.-History:There were a number of predecessor papers that merged to form the Express....

  • News & Citizen / Transcript
  • St. Albans Messenger
    St. Albans Messenger
    The St. Albans Messenger is a newspaper published in St. Albans, Vermont. The newspaper is distributed throughout Franklin County and Northwestern Vermont. Since 2002, the Messenger has received over 40 journalism awards in national, regional, and statewide competitions. It is owned by Emerson and...

  • Times Argus
    Barre Montpelier Times Argus
    The Barre Montpelier Times Argus is a daily morning newspaper serving the capital region of Vermont. It was established in 1897. The newspaper claims that "80% of all adults in the Barre/Montpelier area read the Times Argus for local news, state government, sports, and advertising...

  • Valley News
    Valley News
    The Valley News is a seven-day morning daily newspaper based in Lebanon, New Hampshire, covering the Upper Valley region of New Hampshire and Vermont....

  • Vermont Lawyer
  • White River Valley Herald (a.k.a. Herald of Randolph)


Broadcast media


Vermont hosts 93 radio broadcast stations. The top categories are Talk/Information (11), Country (9), and Classic Rock (9). The top two owners of radio broadcast stations were Vermont Public Radio
Vermont Public Radio
-WVPR:-WRVT:-VPR Classical:Since 2007, VPR has broadcast classical music on a separate network. The main station is WOXR , which is licensed to Schuyler Falls, New York and serves the Burlington/Plattsburgh area....

 (11 broadcast frequencies + 13 low-power, local translators) and Nassau Broadcasting III, LLC
Nassau Broadcasting Partners
Nassau Broadcasting Partners LP is a company based in Princeton, New Jersey that owns radio stations in New England and the Mid-Atlantic United States. Nassau's stations, which include both AM and FM frequencies, are located in Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,...

 (6 broadcast frequencies + 6 translators based in Lebanon, NH). Other companies had five or fewer stations. The state has fifteen on-line radio stations.

Vermont hosts 10 high-power television broadcast stations, three of which are satellites of a primary station. Represented are the following networks and number of high-power transmitters, ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

 (1), CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

 (1), Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

 (1), NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 (2), PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 (4), and RTV
Retro Television Network
The Retro Television Network is a system of television stations that airs classic television shows as well as more recently produced programs...

 (1). In addition, it has 17 low-power television broadcast stations, which in several cases are satellites of the high-power stations.

Electricity


2008 peak demand in the state was 1,100 megawatts (MW).

In May 2009, Vermont created the first state-wide renewable energy feed-in law
Feed-in Tariff
A feed-in tariff is a policy mechanism designed to accelerate investment in renewable energy technologies. It achieves this by offering long-term contracts to renewable energy producers, typically based on the cost of generation of each technology...

.
In 2010, there were about 150 methane digesters in the nation, Vermont led the nation with six online.

While Vermont paid the lowest rates in New England for power in 2007, it is still ranked among the highest eleven states in the nation; that is, about 16 percent higher than the national average.

In 2009, the state had the highest energy rates for energy (including heating) in the US and the worst affordability gap nationwide.

In 2009, the state received 1/3 or 400 MW of its power from Hydro-Québec
Hydro-Québec
Hydro-Québec is a government-owned public utility established in 1944 by the Government of Quebec. Based in Montreal, the company is in charge of the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity across Quebec....

 and 1/3 from Vermont Yankee. In total, the state got half its power from Canada and other states. It received 75 percent of the power it generated in the state from Vermont Yankee.

The state's two largest electric utilities, Green Mountain Power Corporation and Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, together serve 80 percent of Vermont households.

Vermont experts estimate that the state has the capacity to ultimately generate from 134 to 175 megawatts of electricity from hydro power.

In 2006, the total summer generating capacity of Vermont was 1,117 megawatts. In 2005, the inhabitants of the state used an average of 5,883 kilowatt hours of electricity per capita. Another source says that each household consumed 7,100 kilowatt-hours annually in 2008.

Vermont has the highest rate of nuclear-generated power in the nation, 73.7 percent. As one result, Vermont is one of only two states with no coal-fired power plant.

All Vermont utilities get their power from lines run by ISO New England
ISO New England
ISO New England Inc. is an independent, non-profit Regional Transmission Organization , serving Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont....

. Each utility pays a share of transmitting power over these lines. Vermont's share is about 4.5 percent.

The state has 78 hydro power dams. They generate 143 megawatts, about 12 percent of the state's total requirement.

Communication

  • Broadband
    Broadband
    The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device . Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times...

     coverage as of 2006
    • Total Coverage = 87%
    • Cable TV = 68%
    • DSL = 69%
    • Wireless Internet Service Provider = 24%


(Above percentages are of population, not of land area.)

Generally, cell phone coverage in the state outside of the major metropolitan areas is weak due to interference from mountains. Attempts to serve a small rural population living in a large area renders investment in improvements uneconomical. Unicel
Unicel
Unicel was a brand of mobile phone service from Rural Cellular Corporation. Service was provided in northern Minnesota, northern New England, Mississippi, Alabama, eastern Washington and Oregon, and adjacent areas. The company was headquartered in Alexandria, Minnesota. Until 2005, RCC also...

, which focused on rural areas and covered much of the state, is now owned by AT&T.

In May 2007, Vermont passed measures intended to make broadband (3 Mbit minimum) together with cellular coverage universally available to all citizens with the intention of having the first e-state in the Union by 2010. In 2010, 130,000 still had "poor" service. The state accepted a $116 million grant from the federal government. Representative Welch said that this would enable the state to advance from among the least connected, to one of the most connected states in the country.

In 2008 Comcast
Comcast
Comcast Corporation is the largest cable operator, home Internet service provider, and fourth largest home telephone service provider in the United States, providing cable television, broadband Internet, and telephone service to both residential and commercial customers in 39 states and the...

 started to extend additional cable TV access throughout the state. In 2007,two-thirds of all Vermonters had access to cable. At the end of this 2008 initiative, 90 percent of Vermonters will have access.

Law and government



Vermont is federally represented in the United States Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 by two senators and one representative.

The state is governed by a constitution which divides governmental duties into legislative, executive and judicial branches: the Vermont General Assembly
Vermont General Assembly
The Vermont General Assembly is the legislative body of the U.S. state of Vermont. The Legislature is formally known as the "General Assembly," but the style of "Legislature" is commonly used, including by the body itself...

, the Governor of Vermont
Governor of Vermont
The Governor of Vermont is the governor of the U.S. state of Vermont. The governor is elected in even numbered years by direct voting for a term of two years; Vermont and bordering New Hampshire are the only states to hold gubernatorial elections every two years, instead of every four...

 and the Vermont Supreme Court
Vermont Supreme Court
The Vermont Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority of the U.S. state of Vermont and is one of seven state courts of Vermont.The Court consists of a chief justice and four associate justices; the Court mostly hears appeals of cases that have been decided by other courts...

. The governorship and the General Assembly serve two-year terms including the governor and 30 senators. There are no term limits
Term limits in the United States
Term limits in the United States apply to many offices at both the federal and state level, and date back to the American Revolution.-Pre-constitution:...

 for any office. The state capital is in Montpelier.

There are three types of incorporated municipalities in Vermont: towns, cities, and villages. Like most of New England, there is slight provision for autonomous county government. Counties and county seats are merely convenient repositories for various government services such as county and state courts, with several elected officers such as a State's Attorney and Sheriff. All county services are directly funded by the state of Vermont. The next effective governmental level below state government are municipalities. Most of these are towns.

Finances


Vermont is the only state in the union not to have a balanced budget requirement and yet Vermont has had a balanced budget every year since 1991. In 2007, Moody's Investors
Moody's
Moody's Corporation is the holding company for Moody's Analytics and Moody's Investors Service, a credit rating agency which performs international financial research and analysis on commercial and government entities. The company also ranks the credit-worthiness of borrowers using a standardized...

 Service gave its top rating of Aaa to the state.

The state uses enterprise funds for operations that are similar to private business enterprises. The Vermont Lottery Commission, the Liquor Control Fund, and the Unemployment Compensation Trust Fund, are the largest of the State's enterprise funds.

Taxes


In 2007, Vermont stood 14th highest out of 50 states and the District of Columbia for state and local taxation, with a per capita load of $3,681. The national average was $3,447. However, CNNMoney ranked Vermont highest in the nation based on the percentage of per capita income. The rankings showed Vermont had a per capita tax load of $5,387, 14.1 percent of the per capita income of $38,306.

Vermont collects personal income tax
Income tax
An income tax is a tax levied on the income of individuals or businesses . Various income tax systems exist, with varying degrees of tax incidence. Income taxation can be progressive, proportional, or regressive. When the tax is levied on the income of companies, it is often called a corporate...

 in a progressive structure of five different income brackets with marginal tax rates ranging from 3.6 percent to 9.5 percent.

In 2008, the top 1 percent of the residents provided 30 percent of the income tax revenue. 2,000 people had sufficient income to be taxed at the highest marginal rate of 9.5 percent.

Vermont's general sales tax
Sales tax
A sales tax is a tax, usually paid by the consumer at the point of purchase, itemized separately from the base price, for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale....

 rate is 6 percent, which is imposed on sales of tangible personal property, amusement charges, fabrication charges, some public utility charges and some service contracts (some towns and cities impose an additional 1 percent Local Option Tax). There are 46 exemptions from the tax which include medical items, food, manufacturing machinery, equipment and fuel, residential fuel and electricity, clothing, and shoes. A use tax
Use tax
A use tax is a type of excise tax levied in the United States. It is assessed upon otherwise "tax free" tangible personal property purchased by a resident of the assessing state for use, storage or consumption of goods in that state , regardless of where the purchase took place...

 is imposed on the buyer at the same rate as the sales tax. The buyer pays the use tax when the seller fails to collect the sales tax or the items are purchased from a source where no tax is collected. The use tax applies to items taxable under the sales tax.

Vermont does not collect inheritance taxes; however, its estate tax is decoupled from the federal estate tax laws and therefore the state still imposes its own estate tax.

Property taxes


Property tax
Property tax
A property tax is an ad valorem levy on the value of property that the owner is required to pay. The tax is levied by the governing authority of the jurisdiction in which the property is located; it may be paid to a national government, a federated state or a municipality...

es are imposed for the support of education and municipal services. Vermont does not assess tax on personal property
Personal property
Personal property, roughly speaking, is private property that is moveable, as opposed to real property or real estate. In the common law systems personal property may also be called chattels or personalty. In the civil law systems personal property is often called movable property or movables - any...

.

Property taxes are levied by municipalities based on fair market appraisal of real property. Rates vary from .97 percent on homesteaded property in Ferdinand, Essex County, to 2.72 percent on nonresidents' property in Barre City. Statewide, towns average 1.77 percent to 1.82 percent tax rate.

In 2007, Vermont counties were among the highest in the country for property taxes. Chittenden ($3,809 median), Windham ($3,412), Addison ($3,352), and Windsor ($3,327) ranked in the top 100, out of 1,817 counties in the nation with populations greater than 20,000. Twelve of the state's 14 counties stood in the top 20 percent.

To equitably support education, some towns are required by Act 60
Act 60 (Vermont law)
In June 1997, the Vermont legislature passed Act 60, known as The Equal Educational Opportunity Act.It was drafted in response to a Vermont Supreme Court decision, in the Brigham vs...

 to send some of their collected taxes to be redistributed to school districts lacking adequate support.

Median annual property taxes as a percentage of median homeowners income, 5.4%, was rated as the third highest in the nation in 2011.

Politics


Vermonters have been known for their political independence. Vermont is one of four states (aside from the original Thirteen Colonies) that were once independent nations (the others being Texas, California, and Hawaii). It has sometimes voted contrarian in national elections. Notably, Vermont is the only state to have voted for a presidential candidate from the Anti-Masonic Party
Anti-Masonic Party
The Anti-Masonic Party was the first "third party" in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry and was founded as a single-issue party aspiring to become a major party....

, and Vermont was one of only two states to vote against Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

 in all four of his presidential campaigns (the other was Maine
Maine
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east and south, New Hampshire to the west, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the northwest and New Brunswick to the northeast. Maine is both the northernmost and easternmost...

).

Vermont's history of independent political thought has led to movements for the establishment of the Second Vermont Republic
Second Vermont Republic
Second Vermont Republic is a secessionist group within the U.S. state of Vermont which seeks to return to the formerly independent status of the Vermont Republic . It describes itself as "a nonviolent citizens' network and think tank opposed to the tyranny of Corporate America and the U.S...

 and other plans advocating secession
Secession
Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. Threats of secession also can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.-Secession theory:...

.

National politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

Democratic
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

2008
United States presidential election, 2008
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on November 4, 2008. Democrat Barack Obama, then the junior United States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. Obama received 365...

30.45% 98,974 67.46% 219,262
2004
United States presidential election, 2004
The United States presidential election of 2004 was the United States' 55th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Republican Party candidate and incumbent President George W. Bush defeated Democratic Party candidate John Kerry, the then-junior U.S. Senator...

38.80% 121,180 58.94% 184,067
2000
United States presidential election, 2000
The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between Republican candidate George W. Bush, then-governor of Texas and son of former president George H. W. Bush , and Democratic candidate Al Gore, then-Vice President....

40.70% 119,775 50.62% 149,022
1996
United States presidential election, 1996
The United States presidential election of 1996 was a contest between the Democratic national ticket of President Bill Clinton of Arkansas and Vice President Al Gore of Tennessee and the Republican national ticket of former Senator Bob Dole of Kansas for President and former Housing Secretary Jack...

31.09% 80,352 53.35% 137,894
1992
United States presidential election, 1992
The United States presidential election of 1992 had three major candidates: Incumbent Republican President George Bush; Democratic Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot....

30.42% 88,122 46.11% 133,592
1988
United States presidential election, 1988
The United States presidential election of 1988 featured no incumbent president, as President Ronald Reagan was unable to seek re-election after serving the maximum two terms allowed by the Twenty-second Amendment. Reagan's Vice President, George H. W. Bush, won the Republican nomination, while the...

51.10% 124,331 47.58% 115,775
1984
United States presidential election, 1984
The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate, and former Vice President Walter Mondale, the Democratic candidate. Reagan was helped by a strong economic recovery from the deep recession of 1981–1982...

57.9% 135,865 40.8% 95,730
1980
United States presidential election, 1980
The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, as well as Republican Congressman John B. Anderson, who ran as an independent...

44.4% 94,628 38.4% 81,952
1976
United States presidential election, 1976
The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. It pitted incumbent President Gerald Ford, the Republican candidate, against the relatively unknown former governor of Georgia, Jimmy Carter, the Democratic...

54.3% 102,085 43.1% 81,004
1972
United States presidential election, 1972
The United States presidential election of 1972 was the 47th quadrennial United States presidential election. It was held on November 7, 1972. The Democratic Party's nomination was eventually won by Senator George McGovern, who ran an anti-war campaign against incumbent Republican President Richard...

62.9% 117,149 36.6% 68,174
1968
United States presidential election, 1968
The United States presidential election of 1968 was the 46th quadrennial United States presidential election. Coming four years after Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson won in a historic landslide, it saw Johnson forced out of the race and Republican Richard Nixon elected...

52.8% 85,142 43.5% 70,255
1964
United States presidential election, 1964
The United States presidential election of 1964 was held on November 3, 1964. Incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson had come to office less than a year earlier following the assassination of his predecessor, John F. Kennedy. Johnson, who had successfully associated himself with Kennedy's...

30.4% 54,942 66.3% 108,127
1960
United States presidential election, 1960
The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th American presidential election, held on November 8, 1960, for the term beginning January 20, 1961, and ending January 20, 1965. The incumbent president, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, was not eligible to run again. The Republican Party...

58.7% 98,131 41.4% 69,186
1956
United States presidential election, 1956
The United States presidential election of 1956 saw a popular Dwight D. Eisenhower successfully run for re-election. The 1956 election was a rematch of 1952, as Eisenhower's opponent in 1956 was Democrat Adlai Stevenson, whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier.Incumbent President Eisenhower...

72.2% 110,390 27.8% 42,549
1952
United States presidential election, 1952
The United States presidential election of 1952 took place in an era when Cold War tension between the United States and the Soviet Union was escalating rapidly. In the United States Senate, Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin had become a national figure after chairing congressional...

71.5% 109,717 28.2% 43,355

Historically, Vermont was considered one of the most reliably Republican
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 states in the country in terms of national elections. Prior to the 1990s, Vermont had voted Democratic
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 only once, in Lyndon Johnson's landslide victory of 1964 against Barry Goldwater
Barry Goldwater
Barry Morris Goldwater was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona and the Republican Party's nominee for President in the 1964 election. An articulate and charismatic figure during the first half of the 1960s, he was known as "Mr...

. In the late 19th and early 20th Centuries, Republican presidential candidates frequently won the state with over 70 percent of the vote. Republicans also dominated local Vermont politics from the party's founding in 1854 until the mid-1970s. Prior to the 1960s, rural interests dominated the legislature. As a result, cities, particularly the older sections of Burlington and Winooski, were neglected and fell into decay. People began to move out to newer suburbs.

In the meantime, many people had moved in from out of state. Much of this immigration included the arrival of more liberal political influences of the urban areas of New York and New England in Vermont. In addition, a series of one man, one vote decisions made by the United States Supreme Court in the 1960s required states to redraw their legislative districts to more fairly reflect population. As a result, urban areas in Vermont began to regain some political power.

In 1992, it supported a Democrat for president, the first time the state had done so since 1964, and has voted Democratic in every presidential election since. Vermont gave John Kerry his fourth-largest margin of victory in 2004. He won the state's popular vote by 20 percentage points over incumbent George W. Bush
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States, from 2001 to 2009. Before that, he was the 46th Governor of Texas, having served from 1995 to 2000....

, taking almost 59 percent of the vote. Essex County
Essex County, Vermont
Essex County is the county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Vermont. As of 2010, the population was 6,306, making it the least-populous county in both Vermont and New England...

 in the state's northeastern section was the only county to vote for Bush. Vermont is the only state that did not receive a visit from George W. Bush when he was President of the United States. In the 2000 Presidential Elections, Bush was the first Republican in American history to win the White House without carrying Vermont. Vermont gave Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 his third largest winning margin (37 percentage points) winning there 68–31 percent. On the other hand, Republican Governor Douglas won all counties but Windham in the 2006 election.

Today, Vermont is one of only two states represented by a member of the United States Congress who does not currently associate with a political party: Senator
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
Bernard "Bernie" Sanders is the junior United States Senator from Vermont. He previously represented Vermont's at-large district in the United States House of Representatives...

 describes his political views as democratic socialist, but is officially registered as an independent and caucuses with the Democrats
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 in the selection of the Senate leadership.

State politics


After the legislature was redistricted under one-person, one-vote in the 1960s, it passed legislation to accommodate the new arrivals to the state. This legislation was the Land Use and Development Law (Act 250
Act 250 (Vermont law)
In the spring of 1970, the Vermont legislature passed , known as the Land Use and Development Act. Development pressures resulting from the opening of two interstate highways made access to the state much easier for year-round visitors, creating community concerns including road congestion,...

) in 1970. The law, which was the first of its kind in the nation, created nine District Environmental Commissions consisting of private citizens, appointed by the Governor, who must approve land development and subdivision plans that would have a significant impact on the state's environment and many small communities. As a result of Act 250, Vermont was the last state to get a Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. , branded as Walmart since 2008 and Wal-Mart before then, is an American public multinational corporation that runs chains of large discount department stores and warehouse stores. The company is the world's 18th largest public corporation, according to the Forbes Global 2000...

 (there are now four in the state, as of December 2009, but only the Williston store was new construction). Because of the success of Act 250, subsequent attempts to dilute its power, and other development pressures, Vermont has been designated one of America's most "endangered historic places" by the National Trust for Historic Preservation
National Trust for Historic Preservation
The National Trust for Historic Preservation is an American member-supported organization that was founded in 1949 by congressional charter to support preservation of historic buildings and neighborhoods through a range of programs and activities, including the publication of Preservation...

.

A recent controversy was over the adoption of civil union
Civil union
A civil union, also referred to as a civil partnership, is a legally recognized form of partnership similar to marriage. Beginning with Denmark in 1989, civil unions under one name or another have been established by law in many developed countries in order to provide same-sex couples rights,...

s, an institution which grants same-sex couples nearly all the rights and privileges of marriage
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 at the state, but not federal, level. In Baker v. Vermont
Baker v. Vermont
Baker v. Vermont, 744 A.2d 864 , was handed down on December 20, 1999 by the Vermont Supreme Court. The decision represented one of the first high-level judicial affirmations of same-sex couples' right to treatment equivalent to that of traditionally married couples...

(1999), the Vermont Supreme Court ruled that, under the Constitution of Vermont
Constitution of Vermont
The Constitution of the State of Vermont is the fundamental body of law of the U.S. State of Vermont. It was adopted in 1793 following Vermont's admission to the Union in 1791 and is largely based upon the 1777 Constitution of Vermont which was ratified at Windsor in the Old Constitution House. At...

, the state must either allow same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage
Same-sex marriage is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or social gender. Supporters of legal recognition for same-sex marriage typically refer to such recognition as marriage equality....

 or provide a separate but equal
Separate but equal
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law that justified systems of segregation. Under this doctrine, services, facilities and public accommodations were allowed to be separated by race, on the condition that the quality of each group's public facilities was to...

 status for them. The state legislature chose the second option by creating the institution of civil union
Civil union
A civil union, also referred to as a civil partnership, is a legally recognized form of partnership similar to marriage. Beginning with Denmark in 1989, civil unions under one name or another have been established by law in many developed countries in order to provide same-sex couples rights,...

; the bill was passed by the legislature and signed into law by Governor Howard Dean
Howard Dean
Howard Brush Dean III is an American politician and physician from Vermont. He served six terms as the 79th Governor of Vermont and ran unsuccessfully for the 2004 Democratic presidential nomination. He was chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 2005 to 2009. Although his U.S...

. In April 2009 the state legislature overrode governor Jim Douglas
Jim Douglas
James H. Douglas is an American politician from the U.S. state of Vermont. A Republican, he was elected the 80th Governor of Vermont in 2002 and was reelected three times with a majority of the vote...

's veto to allow same-sex marriage, becoming the first state in the nation to legalize same-sex marriage through legislation. In September 2009, Vermont became one of six states in which same-sex couples could marry.

In 2007, the state's House of Representatives rejected a measure which would have legalized assisted suicide for the terminally ill, by a vote of 82–63.

Minor parties and Independents flourish. Rules which eliminate smaller parties from the ballot in most states do not exist in Vermont. As a result, voters often have extensive choices for general elections. This has resulted in the election to Mayor of Burlington and then to U.S. Congressman of Bernie Sanders, then a Socialist, and later, as an Independent, to U.S. Senator.

A political issue has been Act 60
Act 60 (Vermont law)
In June 1997, the Vermont legislature passed Act 60, known as The Equal Educational Opportunity Act.It was drafted in response to a Vermont Supreme Court decision, in the Brigham vs...

, which balances taxation for education funding. This has resulted in the town of Killington
Killington, Vermont secession movement
At the 2004 and 2005 Town Meetings, the citizens of the ski resort community of Killington, Vermont voted in favor of pursuing secession from Vermont and admission into the state of New Hampshire, which lies 25 miles to the east.-Adherents' claims:...

 trying to secede from Vermont and join New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

 due to what the locals say is an unfair tax burden.

The Vermont constitution and the courts supports the right of a person to walk (fish and hunt) on any unposted, unfenced land. That is, trespass must be proven by the owner; it is not automatically assumed.

The state is an alcoholic beverage control state
Alcoholic beverage control state
Alcoholic beverage control states, generally called control states, are those in the United States that have state monopoly over the wholesaling and/or retailing of some or all categories of alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, and distilled spirits....

. In 2007, through the Vermont Department of Liquor Control, it took in over from the sale and distribution of liquor.

Public health


In 2010 Vermont was the sixth highest ranked state for Well-Being in a study by Gallup and Healthways. In 2010, the state stood third in physical well-being of children.

In 2010, Vermont was ranked the highest in the country for health outcomes.

In 2008 Vermont was ranked number one in the nation as the healthiest place to live for the seventh time in eight years. Criteria included low teenage birth rate, strong health coverage, the lowest AIDS rate in the country, and 18 other factors. The state scored well in cessation of smoking, obesity, fewer occupational fatalities, prevalence of health insurance, and low infant mortality. A problem area was a high prevalence of binge drinking
Binge drinking
Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is the modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with the primary intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time. It is a kind of purposeful drinking style that is popular in several countries worldwide,...

. While ranking sixth from best for adults in obesity in 2009, the state still had 22.1 percent obese with a rate of 26.7 percent for children 10–17. The ranking for children was ninth best in the nation.
In 1993, the obesity rate for adults was 12 percent. Vermonters spend annually in medical costs related to obesity. The combined figures for overweight and obese adults rose from 40.7% in 1990 to 58.4% in 2010. This is better than most other states.

In 2011, Vermont led the nation in the rate of young people who had consumed alcohol in the past month; one-third of people aged 11 through 20. One-fifth of that group had binged during that time. The state was second for the use of marijuana by young people; 30% of adults 18 to 25 in the past month.
In 2009, Vermont was ranked second in the nation for safety. Crime statistics on violence were used for the criteria. Vermont has some of the least restrictive gun control laws in the country. A permit or license is not required for purchasing firearms. Concealed carry and Open Carry of a firearm is legal over the age of 16 without a permit or parental permission, however, those under 16 may carry with a parents permission.

In 2007, Vermont was ranked among the best five states in the country for preventing "premature death" in people under 75 years of age. The rate of survival was twice that of the five lowest performing states.

In 2007, Vermont was ranked the third safest state for highway fatalities. In 2007, a third of fatal crashes involved a drunken driver. In 2008, Vermont was the fifth best state for fewest uninsured motorists – 6 percent.

Parts of the state have been declared federal disaster area
Disaster area
A disaster area is a region or a locale heavily damaged by either natural hazards, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, floods, earthquakes, technological hazards including nuclear and radiation accidents, or sociological hazards like riots, terrorism or war. The population living there often...

s on 28 occasions from 1963 to 2008.

In 2007, the Environmental Protection Agency cited Chittenden and Bennington as counties with 70 parts per billion of smog which is undesirable.

In northern Vermont particularly, moose are not uncommon, including in urban areas. They constitute a traffic threat since they are unaware of vehicles. There are several deaths each year from automobiles striking moose.

In 2008, about 100,000 Vermonters got their health care through the federal government, Medicare
Medicare (United States)
Medicare is a social insurance program administered by the United States government, providing health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; to those who are under 65 and are permanently physically disabled or who have a congenital physical disability; or to those who meet other...

, Tri-Care
TRICARE
TRICARE, formerly known as the Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services , is a health care program of the United States Department of Defense Military Health System. TRICARE provides civilian health benefits for military personnel, military retirees, and their dependents,...

 and the Veteran's Administration. An additional 10,000 work for employers who provide insurance under federal law under ERISA. About 20 percent of Vermonters receive health care outside of Vermont. Twenty percent of the care provided within the state is to non-Vermonters. In 2008, the state had an estimated 7.6% with no medical insurance, down from 9.8% in 2005. In 2008, the Vermont Health Access Program for low-income, uninsured adults cost from $7 to $49 per month. A "Catamount Health" premium assistance program was available for Vermonters who do not qualify for other programs. Total monthly premiums ranged from $60 to $393 for an individual. There was a $250 deductible. Insured paid $10 toward each generic prescription. 16.9% of residents 18 to 35 were uninsured, the highest group.

Health care spending increased from in 2000 to in 2009.
In 2009, adult day care services cost more in Vermont than any other state – $150 daily.

The state started air drops of rabies bait
Rabies vaccine
Rabies vaccine is a vaccine used to control rabies. Rabies can be prevented by vaccination, both in humans and other animals.-In animals:Currently, pre-exposure immunization has been used on domesticated and normal non-human populations...

 for raccoons in 1997. Known rabies cases in raccoons peaked in 2007 at 165. The program is in cooperation with neighboring states and Canada.

Education


Vermont was named the nation's smartest state in 2005 and 2006. In 2006, there was a gap between state testing standards and national which is biased in favor of the state standards by 30 percent, on average. This puts Vermont 11th best in the nation. Most states have a higher bias. However, when allowance for race is considered, a 2007 US Government list of test scores shows Vermont white fourth graders performed 25th in the nation for reading (229), 26th for math (247). White eight graders scored 18th for math (292) and 12th for reading (273). The first three scores were not considered statistically different from average. White eighth graders scored significantly above average in reading. Statistics for black students were not reliable because of their small representation in the testing.

The average effective spending per pupil in Vermont was $11,548 in 2008.

Education Week
Education Week
Education Week is a United States national newspaper covering K-12 education. It is published by Editorial Projects in Education , a non-profit organization, which is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland...

 ranked the state second in high school graduation rates for 2007.

Higher education



Experimentation at the University of Vermont by George Perkins Marsh
George Perkins Marsh
George Perkins Marsh , an American diplomat and philologist, is considered by some to be America's first environmentalist, although "conservationist" would be more accurate...

, and later the influence of Vermont-born philosopher and educator John Dewey
John Dewey
John Dewey was an American philosopher, psychologist and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform. Dewey was an important early developer of the philosophy of pragmatism and one of the founders of functional psychology...

 brought about the concepts of electives and learning by doing.

Vermont has five colleges within the Vermont State Colleges
Vermont State Colleges
The Vermont State Colleges is the U.S. state of Vermont's system of public colleges. It functions as a governance organization, and was created by act of the Vermont General Assembly in 1961...

 system, University of Vermont (UVM)
University of Vermont
The University of Vermont comprises seven undergraduate schools, an honors college, a graduate college, and a college of medicine. The Honors College does not offer its own degrees; students in the Honors College concurrently enroll in one of the university's seven undergraduate colleges or...

, and fourteen other private, degree-granting colleges, including Bennington College
Bennington College
Bennington College is a liberal arts college located in Bennington, Vermont, USA. The college was founded in 1932 as a women's college and became co-educational in 1969.-History:-Early years:...

, Burlington College
Burlington College
Burlington College is a private liberal arts college located in Burlington, Vermont that offers Associate, Bachelor's, and Masters degrees, as well as several professional certificate programs...

, Champlain College
Champlain College
Champlain College is a private, coeducational college located in Burlington, Vermont. It offers professionally focused programs that incorporate an interdisciplinary core curriculum. In addition to its main campus, the College maintains study-abroad campuses in Montreal and Dublin, and offers...

, Goddard College
Goddard College
Goddard College is a private, liberal arts college located in Plainfield, Vermont, offering undergraduate and graduate degree programs. Goddard College currently operates on an intensive low-residency model...

, Marlboro College
Marlboro College
Marlboro College is a small, coeducational, alternative liberal-arts college in Marlboro, Vermont, USA.-History:Marlboro College was founded in 1946 by Walter Hendricks for returning World War II veterans on Potash Hill in Marlboro, Vermont. The school's operation was initially financed using money...

, Middlebury College
Middlebury College
Middlebury College is a private liberal arts college located in Middlebury, Vermont, USA. Founded in 1800, it is one of the oldest liberal arts colleges in the United States. Drawing 2,400 undergraduates from all 50 United States and over 70 countries, Middlebury offers 44 majors in the arts,...

, Saint Michael's College
Saint Michael's College
Saint Michael's College is a private, residential liberal arts Catholic college. The campus is located in Colchester, Vermont. It was founded in 1904 by the Society of Saint Edmund, a French order of Catholic priests.-History:...

, the Vermont Law School
Vermont Law School
Vermont Law School is a private, American Bar Association accredited law school located in South Royalton, Vermont . The Law School has one of the United States' leading programs in environmental law, and the Law School is currently ranked #1 in Environmental Law by U.S...

, and Norwich University
Norwich University
Norwich University is a private university located in Northfield, Vermont . The university was founded in 1819 at Norwich, Vermont, as the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy. It is the oldest of six Senior Military Colleges, and is recognized by the United States Department of...

.

Sports


Notable in the field are Olympic gold medalists Hannah Teter
Hannah Teter
Hannah Teter is an American snowboarder from Belmont, Vermont. She is an Olympic champion, having won the gold medal in halfpipe at the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Torino, Italy. She also won bronze at the 2005 FIS World Championships at Whistler, British Columbia, and has six World Cup victories...

, Ross Powers
Ross Powers
Ross Powers , is an American world champion halfpipe snowboarder from South Londonderry, Vermont. Though he originally rode at Stratton Mountain, Vermont, his home mountain is now Okemo, VT. Ross helps with the design of the Superpipe and also helped design the RossCross Family Terrain Park. Ross...

 and Hannah Kearney
Hannah Kearney
Hannah Kearney is an American mogul skier who won a gold medal at the 2010 Winter Olympics.-Personal life:Born in a hospital in Hanover, New Hampshire, Kearney grew up and still lives in Norwich, Vermont. She is the daughter of Tom and Jill Kearney, who met while attending McGill University in...

.

The largest professional franchise is the Vermont Lake Monsters
Vermont Lake Monsters
The Vermont Lake Monsters are a minor league baseball team in the Short-Season A classification New York - Penn League, affiliated with the Oakland Athletics. The team plays its home games at Centennial Field on the University of Vermont campus in Burlington, Vermont...

, a single-A minor league baseball
Minor league baseball
Minor league baseball is a hierarchy of professional baseball leagues in the Americas that compete at levels below Major League Baseball and provide opportunities for player development. All of the minor leagues are operated as independent businesses...

 affiliate of the Oakland Athletics
Oakland Athletics
The Oakland Athletics are a Major League Baseball team based in Oakland, California. The Athletics are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League. From to the present, the Athletics have played in the O.co Coliseum....

, based in Burlington
Burlington, Vermont
Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the shire town of Chittenden County. Burlington lies south of the U.S.-Canadian border and some south of Montreal....

. They were named the Vermont Expos prior to 2006. Up until the 2011 season, they were the affiliate of the Washington Nationals
Washington Nationals
The Washington Nationals are a professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals are a member of the Eastern Division of the National League of Major League Baseball . The team moved into the newly built Nationals Park in 2008, after playing their first three seasons in RFK Stadium...

 (formerly the Montreal Expos
Montreal Expos
The Montreal Expos were a Major League Baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 through 2004, holding the first MLB franchise awarded outside the United States. After the 2004 season, MLB moved the Expos to Washington, D.C. and renamed them the Nationals.Named after the Expo 67 World's...

).

The Vermont Frost Heaves
Vermont Frost Heaves
The Vermont Frost Heaves were a professional basketball team in Vermont, United States that last played in the Premier Basketball League, last coached by Joe Salerno. The formation of the team was announced in December, 2005 by founding owner Alexander Wolff, a Cornwall, Vermont resident and...

, the 2007 and 2008 American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association
The American Basketball Association was a professional basketball league founded in 1967. The ABA ceased to exist with the ABA–NBA merger in 1976.-League history:...

 national champions, were a franchise of the Premier Basketball League
Premier Basketball League
The Premier Basketball League, often abbreviated to the PBL, is a men's professional basketball minor league in the United States that began play in January 2008. The league had ten teams for the 2008 season and thirteen teams for the 2009 season. Nine teams from Canada and the United States...

, and were based in Barre and Burlington
Burlington, Vermont
Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and the shire town of Chittenden County. Burlington lies south of the U.S.-Canadian border and some south of Montreal....

 from the fall of 2006 through the winter of 2011.

A semi-professional football team, the Vermont Ice Storm, is based in South Hero
South Hero, Vermont
South Hero is a town in Grand Isle County, Vermont, United States. The population was 1,696 at the 2000 census.-Geography:According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 47.5 square miles , of which 15.1 square miles is land and 32.4 square miles is...

. It plays its home games at the Colchester High School
Colchester High School (Vermont)
Colchester High School is a public senior high school in Colchester, Vermont, and is part of the Colchester School District in Chittenden County. The high school serves 9th through 12th grades. Enrollment is approximately 650 to 825 students with an annual graduating class of around 190 to 230...

 stadium. It is a member of the Empire Football League.

Vermont natives in the snowboarding profession include: Kevin Pearce
Kevin Pearce (snowboarder)
Kevin Pearce is an American snowboarder. He was born in Hanover, New Hampshire, and raised in Hartland, Vermont before moving with his parents to Norwich, Vermont.-Career:...

, Ross Powers
Ross Powers
Ross Powers , is an American world champion halfpipe snowboarder from South Londonderry, Vermont. Though he originally rode at Stratton Mountain, Vermont, his home mountain is now Okemo, VT. Ross helps with the design of the Superpipe and also helped design the RossCross Family Terrain Park. Ross...

, Hannah Teter
Hannah Teter
Hannah Teter is an American snowboarder from Belmont, Vermont. She is an Olympic champion, having won the gold medal in halfpipe at the 2006 Winter Olympic Games in Torino, Italy. She also won bronze at the 2005 FIS World Championships at Whistler, British Columbia, and has six World Cup victories...

, and Kelly Clark
Kelly Clark
Kelly Clark is a snowboarder born in the village of West Dover in the town of Dover, Vermont. She has been snowboarding since she was 8 years old, and began competing in 1999...

. Others learned snowboarding in the state such as: Louie Vito
Louie Vito
Louis "Louie" Vito is an American professional snowboarder.-Early life:Louis Vito was born in Columbus, Ohio and raised in Bellefontaine, growing up outside Mad River Mountain. He attended the Stratton Mountain School in Vermont and turned pro in 2005...

, and Ellery Hollingsworth
Ellery Hollingsworth (snowboarder)
Ellery Hollingsworth is an American professional snowboarder from Stratton, Vermont.- Biography :Ellery started snowboarding when she was 6 years old. Ellery is a graduate of the Stratton Mountain School where she trained to be a professional snowboarder, and is currently one of the youngest...

.

The Vermont Voltage
Vermont Voltage
Vermont Voltage is an American soccer team based in St. Albans, Vermont, United States. Founded in 1997, the team plays in the USL Premier Development League , the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference, having spent the 2009 season on...

 is a USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...

 soccer club that plays in St. Albans
St. Albans (city), Vermont
St. Albans is a city in and the shire town of Franklin County, Vermont, in the United States. At the 2000 census, the city population was 7,650. St Albans City is completely surrounded by St. Albans town, which is incorporated separately from the city of St. Albans...

.

Annually since 2002, high school statewide all stars compete against New Hampshire in ten sports during "Twin State" playoffs.

Culture



Vermont festivals include the Vermont Maple Festival, Festival on the Green, The Vermont Dairy Festival in Enosburg Falls, the Apple Festival (held each Columbus Day Weekend), the Marlboro Music Festival
Marlboro Music School and Festival
The Marlboro Music School and Festival is a retreat for advanced classical training and musicianship held for seven weeks each summer in Marlboro, Vermont...

, the Vermont Mozart Festival
Vermont Mozart Festival
The Vermont Mozart Festival was a series of indoor and outdoor concerts presented annually at sites throughout the state of Vermont. The inaugural Festival of 1974 was conceived as a celebration of both the natural beauty of the state and the genius of the Festival's namesake, composer Wolfgang...

, and the Vermont Brewers Festival. The Vermont Symphony Orchestra
Vermont Symphony Orchestra
The Vermont Symphony Orchestra is a symphony orchestra based in, and supported in part by, the U.S. state of Vermont. It is a 501 corporation. It is one of the few, and the oldest, state-supported symphony orchestras in the United States....

 is supported by the state and performs throughout the area.

Since 1973 the Sage City Symphony
Sage City Symphony
Sage City Symphony is a community orchestra based in Bennington, Vermont that tackles ambitious works from the traditional repertoire as well as commissioning new works. It was formed in 1973 by its first musical director, noted composer Louis Calabro, who was on the faculty of Bennington College...

, formed by composer Louis Calabro
Louis Calabro
Louis Calabro, was an Italian American orchestral composer.Calabro studied piano and composition at Juilliard School of Music. Vincent Persichetti was his principal teacher there....

, has performed in the Bennington
Bennington
-People:* Chester Bennington, lead singer of rock bands Linkin Park and Dead by Sunrise* Geoffrey Bennington, Professor of French and Professor of Comparative Literature at Emory University* Ron Bennington, co-host of the Ron and Fez radio show...

 area. In 1988 a number of Vermont-based composers including Gwyneth Walker
Gwyneth Walker
-Personal:Walker grew up in New Canaan, Connecticut and is a graduate of Pembroke College in Brown University and the Hartt School of Music and holds B.A., M.M., and D.M.A. degrees in music composition...

 formed the Vermont Composers Consortium , which was recognized by the governor proclaiming 2011 as The Year of the Composer .

The Brattleboro
Brattleboro, Vermont
Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, Vermont, United States, located in the southeast corner of the state, along the state line with New Hampshire. The population was 12,046 at the 2010 census...

-based Vermont Theatre Company presents an annual summer Shakespeare festival. Brattleboro also hosts the summertime Strolling of the Heifers parade which celebrates Vermont's unique dairy culture. The annual Green Mountain Film Festival
Green Mountain Film Festival
The first Green Mountain Film Festival took place in Montpelier, Vermont in 1997. In March 1999, a second festival was held and it has been an annual March event ever since. In 2010 the festival was extended to include a series of satellite screenings in St. Johnsbury, Vermont.The program focuses...

 is held in Montpelier.

In the Northeast Kingdom, the Bread and Puppet Theatre holds weekly shows in Glover in a natural outdoor amphitheater.

Vermont's most recent best known musical talent was the group Phish
Phish
Phish is an American rock band noted for its musical improvisation, extended jams, and exploration of music across genres. Formed at the University of Vermont in 1983 , the band's four members – Trey Anastasio , Mike Gordon , Jon Fishman , and Page McConnell Phish is an American rock band...

, whose members met while attending school in Vermont and spent much of their early years playing at venues across the state.

The Vermont-based House of LeMay
House of LeMay
The House of LeMay is a drag performance team founded in the early 1990s by Bob Bolyard and Michael Hayes . The other regular member of the team is Johnnie McLaughlin...

 performs several shows a year, hosts the annual "Winter is a Drag Ball," and performs for fundraisers.

Examples of folk art
Folk art
Folk art encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian and decorative rather than purely aesthetic....

 found in Vermont include the Vermontasaurus
Vermontasaurus
Vermontasaurus is a , folk art representation of a dinosaur at the Post Mills Airport in the town of Thetford, Vermont. It is the creation of retired teacher and experimental balloon pilot, Brian Boland, together with a crew of volunteers, who used scrap lumber obtained from a collapsed portion of...

 in Post Mills, a community in Thetford
Thetford, Vermont
Thetford is a town in Orange County, Vermont, United States in the Connecticut River Valley. The population was 2,617 at the 2000 census. Villages within the town include East Thetford, North Thetford, Thetford Hill, Thetford Center, Rices Mills and Post Mills. The town office is in Thetford...

.

The rate of volunteerism in Vermont was eighth in the nation with 37 percent in 2007. The state stood first in New England.

State symbols




State symbols include:
  • State song – "These Green Mountains
    These Green Mountains
    "These Green Mountains" is the official state song of Vermont. The song, composed by Diane Martin and arranged by Rita Buglass Gluck was made official on May 22, 2000, when then governor Howard Dean signed Act 99. The previous official state song of Vermont was "Hail to Vermont!".- Lyrics :"These...

    ",
  • Unofficial popular state song – Moonlight in Vermont
    Moonlight in Vermont (song)
    "Moonlight in Vermont" is a popular song about the U.S. state of Vermont, written by John Blackburn and Karl Suessdorf and published in 1943. The lyrics are unusual in that they do not rhyme...

  • State Beverage – milk
    Milk
    Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to the baby and can reduce the risk of many...

  • State Pie – apple pie
    Apple pie
    An apple pie is a fruit pie in which the principal filling ingredient is apples. It is sometimes served with whipped cream or ice cream on top...

  • State Fruit – apple
    Apple
    The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

  • State Flower – red clover
    Clover
    Clover , or trefoil, is a genus of about 300 species of plants in the leguminous pea family Fabaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution; the highest diversity is found in the temperate Northern Hemisphere, but many species also occur in South America and Africa, including at high altitudes...

  • State Mammal – Morgan horse
    Morgan horse
    The Morgan is one of the earliest horse breeds developed in the United States. Tracing back to the stallion Figure, later named Justin Morgan after his best-known owner, the breed excels in many disciplines, and is known for its versatility....

  • State rock – granite
    Granite
    Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite usually has a medium- to coarse-grained texture. Occasionally some individual crystals are larger than the groundmass, in which case the texture is known as porphyritic. A granitic rock with a porphyritic...

    , marble
    Marble
    Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

    , and slate
    Slate
    Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. The result is a foliated rock in which the foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering...

  • State Tree – sugar maple
    Sugar Maple
    Acer saccharum is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas...

  • State butterfly – Monarch Butterfly
    Monarch butterfly
    The Monarch butterfly is a milkweed butterfly , in the family Nymphalidae. It is perhaps the best known of all North American butterflies. Since the 19th century, it has been found in New Zealand, and in Australia since 1871 where it is called the Wanderer...

  • State fish cold water – Brook Trout
    Brook trout
    The brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, is a species of fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. In many parts of its range, it is known as the speckled trout or squaretail. A potamodromous population in Lake Superior are known as coaster trout or, simply, as coasters...

  • State fish warm water – Walleye Pike
  • State Fossil
    State fossil
    Most American states have made a state fossil designation, in many cases during the 1980s. It is common to designate one species in which fossilization has occurred, rather than a single specimen, or a category of fossils not limited to a single species....

     – White Whale (Beluga Whale)

Notable Vermonters


Vermont is the birthplace of former presidents Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. was the 30th President of the United States . A Republican lawyer from Vermont, Coolidge worked his way up the ladder of Massachusetts state politics, eventually becoming governor of that state...

 and Chester A. Arthur
Chester A. Arthur
Chester Alan Arthur was the 21st President of the United States . Becoming President after the assassination of President James A. Garfield, Arthur struggled to overcome suspicions of his beginnings as a politician from the New York City Republican machine, succeeding at that task by embracing...

.

Notable fictional Vermonters

  • Vermont was the original home of the fictional villain Simon Legree in the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin
    Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel "helped lay the groundwork for the Civil War", according to Will Kaufman....

    .
  • Vermont was also the home of Dick Loudon, Bob Newhart
    Bob Newhart
    George Robert Newhart , known professionally as Bob Newhart, is an American stand-up comedian and actor. Noted for his deadpan and slightly stammering delivery, Newhart came to prominence in the 1960s when his album of comedic monologues The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart was a worldwide...

    's character on the 1980s sitcom Newhart
    Newhart
    Newhart is a television situation comedy starring comedian Bob Newhart and actress Mary Frann as an author and wife who owned and operated an inn located in a small, rural Vermont town that was home to many eccentric characters. The show aired on the CBS network from October 25, 1982 to May 21, 1990...

    . All action supposedly took place in Vermont.
  • Vermont was the home of Pollyanna and her Aunt Polly in the novel Pollyanna
    Pollyanna
    Pollyanna is a best-selling 1913 novel by Eleanor H. Porter that is now considered a classic of children's literature, with the title character's name becoming a popular term for someone with the same optimistic outlook. The book was such a success, that Porter soon produced a sequel, Pollyanna...

    .
  • In the first seasons of M*A*S*H Alan Alda's character "Hawkeye Pierce" was from Vermont
  • In the Marvel Comics
    Marvel Comics
    Marvel Worldwide, Inc., commonly referred to as Marvel Comics and formerly Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, is an American company that publishes comic books and related media...

     shared universe
    Marvel Universe
    The Marvel Universe is the shared fictional universe where most comic book titles and other media published by Marvel Entertainment take place, including those featuring Marvel's most familiar characters, such as Spider-Man, the Hulk, the X-Men, and the Avengers.The Marvel Universe is further...

    , Vermont is home of the superhero
    Superhero
    A superhero is a type of stock character, possessing "extraordinary or superhuman powers", dedicated to protecting the public. Since the debut of the prototypical superhero Superman in 1938, stories of superheroes — ranging from brief episodic adventures to continuing years-long sagas —...

     team the Garrison
    Fifty State Initiative
    The Fifty State Initiative, often referred to as simply The Initiative, is a fictional governmental plan that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics, in particular those related to The Avengers...

    .

See also



External links


General

Government

Geology

Maps and Demographics

Tourism & recreation

Business

Culture & history

Online Media

Related information