Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah
Amir ibn `Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah (583-638) (Arabic: أبو عبيدة عامر بن عبدالله بن الجراح Abū ‘Ubaydah ‘Āmir bin ‘Abd Allāh bin al-Jarāḥ), more commonly known as Abu 'Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah, was one of the ten companions of the Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 who were promised Paradise
Jannah , is the Islamic conception of paradise. The Arabic word Jannah is a shortened version meaning simply "Garden". According to Islamic eschatology, after death, one will reside in the grave until the appointed resurrection on . Muslims believe that the treatment of the individual in the life...

 as mentioned in early Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

ic historical accounts and records. He remained commander of a large section of Muslim armies
Rashidun army
The Rashidun Caliphate Army or Rashidun army was the primary military body of the Rashidun Caliphate's armed forces during the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, serving alongside the Rashidun Navy...

 during the time of Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c. 2 November , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad who later became the second Muslim Caliph after Muhammad's death....

 ('Umar ibn al-Khattab) and was on the list of Umar's appointed successors to the Caliphate
The term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...


Early life

Abu Ubaidah was born in the year 583 CE in the house of 'Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah, a merchant by profession. Abu Ubaidah belonged to the Qurayshi clan of Banu al-Harith ibn Fihr. Even before his conversion to Islam, he was considered to be one of the nobles of the Quraysh and was famous among the Quraysh of Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 for his modesty and bravery

Conversion to Islam

By 611 Muhammad was preaching the oneness of God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

 to the people of Mecca. He began by inviting his closest companions and relatives in secret to the way of Islam. He embraced Islam just a day after Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 in the year 611.

Migration to Abyssinia

Abu Ubaidah lived through the harsh experience that the Muslims went through in Mecca from beginning to end. With other early Muslims, he endured the insults and oppressions of the Quraysh. As the first migration to Abyssinia
Migration to Abyssinia
The migration known as the first Hijarat was made in two groups totalling more than a hundred persons. According to Islamic tradition, eleven male and five female Sahabah, the Muslims who originally converged in Mecca, sought refuge from Quraysh persecution in the Kingdom of Aksum in of in the...

Ethiopia , officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second-most populous nation in Africa, with over 82 million inhabitants, and the tenth-largest by area, occupying 1,100,000 km2...

) succeeded, this violence against the Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s renewed itself with much conviction and became stronger in its force. Being the only person in his clan to have accepted Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, Abu Ubaidah was foremost amongst them. Muhammad suggested that the remaining Muslims who were especially subject to the atrocities of the people of Mecca migrate as well. Consequently, Abu 'Ubaidah migrated to Abyssinia along with a delegation of 83 men and 20 women.

Migration to Medina

In 622 CE, when Muhammad migrated from Mecca
Hijra (Islam)
The Hijra is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE. Alternate spellings of this Arabic word are Hijrah, Hijrat or Hegira, the latter following the spelling rules of Latin.- Hijra of Muhammad :In September 622, warned of a plot to...

 to Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, Abu Ubaidah also migrated. When Muhammad arrived in Medina, he paired off each immigrant (Muhajir
Muhajirun are the early, initial Muslims who followed Muhammad on his Hijra . The early Muslims from Medina are called the Ansar .-List:*Muhammad*Ali*Umar *Abu Bakr .*Salman the Persian*Bilal ibn Ribah...

) with one of the residents of Medina (Ansari
Ansar (Islam)
Ansar is an Islamic term that literally means "helpers" and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arrival to the city after the migration to Medina...

), joining Muadh ibn Jabal with Abu Ubaidah making them brothers in faith. The Muslims remained in peace in Medina for about a year before the Quraysh raised an army to attack Medina.

Battle of Badr and Uhud

In the year 624, Abu Ubaidah participated in the first major battle between the Muslims and the Quraysh of Mecca, at the Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr , fought Saturday, March 13, 624 AD in the Hejaz region of western Arabia , was a key battle in the early days of Islam and a turning point in Muhammad's struggle with his opponents among the Quraish in Mecca...

. In this battle, he was attacked by his father Abdullah ibn al-Jarrah, who was fighting alongside the army of Quraysh. Abu Ubaidah avoided fighting with him but eventually his father succeeded in blocking Abu Ubaidah's path. Abu Ubaidah then attacked him and killed him.

The following verse of the Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 was written about this display of character by Abu 'Ubaidah:
In the year 625, he participated in the Battle of Uhud
Battle of Uhud
The Battle of Uhud was fought on March 19, 625 at the valley located in front of Mount Uhud, in what is now northwestern Arabia. It occurred between a force from the Muslim community of Medina led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and a force led by Abu Sufyan ibn Harb from Mecca, the town from...

. In the second phase of the battle, when Khalid ibn al-Walid
Khalid ibn al-Walid
Khālid ibn al-Walīd also known as Sayf Allāh al-Maslūl , was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He is noted for his military tactics and prowess, commanding the forces of Medina and those of his immediate successors of the Rashidun Caliphate; Abu Bakr and Umar...

's cavalry attacked the Muslims from the rear, changing an Islamic victory into defeat, the bulk of the Muslim soldiers were routed from the battlefield, and few remained steadfast. Abu Ubaidah was one of them and he guarded Muhammad from the attacks of the Qurayshi soldiers. On that day, Abu Ubaidah lost two of his front teeth while trying to extract two links of Muhammad's armour that had penetrated into his cheeks.

Conflict with Jewish tribes

Later in the year 627 he took part in the Battle of the Trench
Battle of the Trench
The Battle of the Trench also known as Battle of Ahzab, Battle of the Confederates and Siege of Medina , was a fortnight-long siege of Yathrib by Arab and Jewish tribes. The strength of the confederate armies is estimated around 10,000 men with six hundred horses and some camels, while the...

 and also in the Invasion of Banu Qurayza
Invasion of Banu Qurayza
The Invasion of Banu Qurayza, also known as the Massacre of Banu Qurayza, took place in the Dhul Qa‘dah during February and March of 627 CE ....

. He was also made commander of a small expedition that set out to attack and destroy the tribes of Tha'libah and Anmar, who were plundering nearby villages.

In the year 628 he participated in Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
The Treaty of Hudaybiyyah is the treaty that took place between the state of Medina and the Quraishi tribe of Mecca in March 628CE .-Background:...

 and was made one of the witnesses over the pact. Later in the same year, he was a part of the Muslim campaign to Khaybar
Khaybar is the name of an oasis some 153 km to the north of Medina , Saudi Arabia. It was inhabited by Jews before the rise of Islam, and was conquered by Muhammad in 629 AD.-Pre-Islamic Khaybar:...


Campaigns during end of Muhammads era

In the year 630, when the Muslim army conquered Mecca
Conquest of Mecca
Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD .-Background:In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraysh and the Muslim community in Medina signed a 10 year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah....

, Abu Ubaidah was commanding one of the four divisions that entered the city from four different routes. Later that year, he participated in the Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Hunayn
The Battle of Hunain was fought between Muhammad and his followers against the Bedouin tribe of Hawazin and its subsection the Thaqif in 630 in a valley on one of the roads leading from Mecca to al-Ta'if. The battle ended in a decisive victory for the Muslims, who captured enormous spoils...

 and the Siege of Ta'if
Siege of Ta'if
The Siege of Taif took place in 630 CE, as the Muslims besieged the city of Taif after their victory in the Battle of Hunayn and Autas. However, the city did not succumb to the siege. One of their chieftains, Urwah ibn Mas'ud, was absent in Yemen during that siege...

. He was also part of the Tabuk campaign under the command of Muhammad himself. On their return from the Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Tabouk
The Battle of Tabouk was a military expedition, which, according to Muslim biographies, was initiated by the Prophet Muhammad in October, AD 630. Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000 north to Tabouk in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia, with the intention of engaging the Byzantine army...

, a Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 delegation from Najran
Najran , formerly known as Aba as Sa'ud, is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen. It is the capital of Najran Province. Designated a New town, Najran is one of the fastest-growing cities in the kingdom; its population has risen from 47,500 in 1974 and 90,983 in 1992 to...

 arrived in Medina and showed interest in Islam and asked Muhammad to send them a person to guide them in the matters of religion and in other tribal affairs according to Islamic law
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

s, Abu Ubaidah was appointed by Muhammad to go with them. He was also sent as the tax collector ('aamil) to Bahrain
Bahrain (historical region)
Bahrain is a historical region in eastern Arabia that was known as the Province of Bahrain until the 16th Century. It stretched from the south of Basra along the Persian Gulf coast and included the regions of Kuwait, Al-Hasa, Qatif, Qatar, and the Awal Islands, now known as Bahrain. The name...

 by Muhammad. He was present in Mecca when Muhammad died in 632.

Campaigns as commander

In the year 629 Muhammad sent 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
`Amr ibn al-`As was an Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. A contemporary of Muhammad, and one of the Sahaba , who rose quickly through the Muslim hierarchy following his conversion to Islam in the year 8 AH...

 to Daat al-Salaasil from where he called for reinforcements, this was known as the Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah
Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah
Expedition of Abu Ubaidah ibn al Jarrah, also known as the Expedition of Fish and Invasion of al-Khabt, took place in October 629 AD, 8AH, 7th month, of the Islamic Calendar, or according to some scholars in 7AH, 4th Month.-Expedition:...

. Muhammad sent Abu Ubaidah in command of an army that included Abu Bakr and Umar. They attacked and defeated the enemy. Later in the same year, another expedition was sent under his command to locate the routes of Qurayshi caravans.

During Abu Bakr's era

When Muhammad died in 632 the matter of his succession
Succession to Muhammad
The Succession to Muhammad concerns the various aspects of successorship of Muhammad after his death, comprising who might be considered as his successor to lead the Muslims, how that person should be elected, the conditions of legitimacy, and the role of successor...

 took place at the Saqifah
The Saqīfah , also known as Saqīfah banī Sāˤidat , was a roofed building used by the tribe called the banū Sāˤidat of the faction of the banū Khazraj tribe of the city of Medina in the Hejaz, northwestern Arabia.- Significance of Saqifah :...

 of Banu Sa'ida
Banu Sa'ida
The Banu Sa'ida was one of the Jewish tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era.They were included in point 31 of the Constitution of Medina as allies to the Muslims, being as "one nation", but retaining their Jewish religion ....

, Abu Ubaidah was there along with Abu Bakr and Umar. Umar said to Abu Ubaidah to stretch forth his hand for the caliphate, but he refused and said to Abu Bakr to sretch forth his hand to take the pledge of alliance. After the Ridda wars
Ridda wars
The Ridda wars , also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabian tribes launched by the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, after prophet Muhammad died....

 when Abu Bakr sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 to conquer it, he sent four Muslim armies into the Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

, making Abu Ubaidah commander of one of them. His target was selected to be Emessa
Homs , previously known as Emesa , is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. It is above sea level and is located north of Damascus...

 and he was ordered to move through the Tabuk region after the army of Sharjeel ibn Hassana
Sharjeel ibn Hassana
Shurahbil ibn Hassana, or Sharjeel ibn Hassana , was a companion of Muhammad [PBUH] and later one of the successful commanders of Rashidun army, served under Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar....


He remained commander in chief of the Muslim army until Khalid ibn al-Walid arrived from Iraq to Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 in 634. Abu Ubaidah was ordered by Khalid ibn al-Walid to remain where he was until Khalid ibn al-Walid reached the Ghassanid
The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and the Holy Land....

 city of Bosra
Bosra , also known as Bostra, Busrana, Bozrah, Bozra, Busra Eski Şam, Busra ash-Sham, and Nova Trajana Bostra, is an ancient city administratively belonging to the Daraa Governorate in southern Syria...

, where they met. The castle surrendered the city after the Battle of Bosra
Battle of Bosra
The Battle of Bosra was fought in 634 between the Rashidun Caliphate army and the Byzantine Empire for the possession of Bosra, in Syria. The city, then capital of the Ghassanid kingdom, a Byzantine vassal, was the first important one to be captured by the Islamic forces...

 in mid July 634 and 130 Muslims died in the battle.

Soon the Muslims heard of a gathering of 90,000 Byzantine
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 army (Eastern Roman army) at Ajnadayn, about 15 mi (24.1 km) southwest of Jerusalem. All the divisions of the Muslim army, about 32,000 in number, joined Khalid at Ajnadayn on 24 July 634. Under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid the Muslims defeated the Byzantine army
Byzantine army
The Byzantine army was the primary military body of the Byzantine armed forces, serving alongside the Byzantine navy. A direct descendant of the Roman army, the Byzantine army maintained a similar level of discipline, strategic prowess and organization...

 there on 30 July 634 at the Battle of Ajnadayn
Battle of Ajnadayn
The Battle of Ajnadayn, fought on July 30, 634, south of Beit Shemesh in present day Israel, was the first major pitched battle between the Eastern Roman Empire and the army of the Arabic Rashidun Caliphate. The result of the battle was a decisive Muslim victory...

. After one week, Abu Ubaidah, along with Khalid, moved towards Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

. On their way to Damascus, they defeated another Byzantine army at the Battle of Yakusa in mid-August 634. Caloiis and Azrail, the governor of Damascus, led another army to stop Khalid's corps but they were also defeated in the battle of Maraj-al-Safar on 19 August 634.

The next day the Muslims reached Damascus and besieged the city, which continued for 30 days. After defeating the Byzantine reinforcements sent by Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius was Byzantine Emperor from 610 to 641.He was responsible for introducing Greek as the empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, successfully led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.Heraclius'...

 at the Battle of Sanita-al-Uqab, 20 mi (32.2 km) from Damascus, Khalid's forces attacked and entered the city. With Khalid's divisions investing
Investment (military)
Investment is the military tactic of surrounding an enemy fort with armed forces to prevent entry or escape.A circumvallation is a line of fortifications, built by the attackers around the besieged fortification facing towards the enemy fort...

 the city from the northeast, Thomas, the purported son-in-law of the Emperor Heraclius, surrendered the city to Ubaidah, who was besieging the Bab al-Jabiya
Bab al-Jabiya
Bab al-Jabiya or the Gate of Jupiter is one of the eight ancient city-gates of Damascus, Syria. Bab al-Jabiya was the main entrance on the city's west side. The gate opens on Medhat Pasha Souq, which is the modern western half of the Street Called Straight, the Roman east-west artery, which still...

 (Jabiya Gate), on 19 September 634.

Abu Ubaidah was appointed by Khalid ibn al-Walid to siege the Jabiya Gate of Damascus. It was Abu Ubaidah who gave peace to Damascus after Khalid ibn al-Walid attacked the city and conquered it by force. Abu Ubaidah, Sharjeel ibn Hassana and 'Amr ibn al-'As, unaware of Khalid's attack from the Eastern Gate
Bab Sharqi
Bab Sharqi , also known as the Gate of the Sun, is one of the eight ancient city gates of Damascus, Syria, and the only original Roman gate still standing. Its modern name comes from its location in the eastern side of the city. The gate also gives its name to the christian quarter surrounding it...

, gave peace to them, which was reluctantly endorsed by Khalid. The Byzantine army was given a cease fire of three days and allowed to go as far as they could with their families and treasure. Others simply agreed to stay at Damascus and pay tribute. The Muslims controlled the road to Emessa, so the Byzantines went west and then north up the Beqaa Valley
Beqaa Valley
The Beqaa Valley is a fertile valley in east Lebanon. For the Romans, the Beqaa Valley was a major agricultural source, and today it remains Lebanon’s most important farming region...

. After the three day truce was over, the Muslim cavalry, under Khalid's command, pursued the Byzantine column via the shorter Emessa road and caught them in the northwest Beqaa Valley, just before they entered the mountains en route to Antioch
Antioch on the Orontes was an ancient city on the eastern side of the Orontes River. It is near the modern city of Antakya, Turkey.Founded near the end of the 4th century BC by Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander the Great's generals, Antioch eventually rivaled Alexandria as the chief city of the...

 at the Battle of Maraj-al-Debaj
Battle of Maraj-al-Debaj
Battle of Marj-ud-Deebaj was fought between the Byzantine army, survivors from the conquest of Damascus, and the Rashidun Caliphate army in September 634...


Appointment as Supreme Commander

On 22 August 634, Caliph Abu Bakr died making Umar his successor. As Umar became caliph he relieved Khalid ibn al-Walid from the command of the Islamic army and appointed Abu Ubaidah as the new commander. This was done to dispel the impression that the victories were due to Khalid. Moreover Khalid was an overtly generous person, who according to some would often waste his money in giving gifts to his soldiers as a reward for their bravery in the battles.

Due to different style of commands, there was a slowdown in the pace of operations, as Abu Ubaida moved slowly and steadily, in contrast to Khalid who is said to rush 'like a tornado from battle to battle'; using surprise, audacity and brute force to win his battles. The conquest of Syria
Muslim conquest of Syria
The Muslim conquest of Syria occurred in the first half of the 7th century, and refers to the region known as the Bilad al-Sham, the Levant, or Greater Syria...

 continued under the new commander. Abu Ubaida used to rely heavily on the advice of Khalid, whom he kept with him as much as possible.

Conquest of central Levant

Soon after the appointment of Abu-Ubaidah as commander in chief, he sent a small detachment to the annual fair held at Abu-al-Quds, modern day Abla, near Zahlé
Zahlé is the capital and largest city of Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. With around 50,000 inhabitants, it is the fourth largest city in Lebanon, after Beirut, Tripoli and Jounieh...

; east of Beirut
Beirut is the capital and largest city of Lebanon, with a population ranging from 1 million to more than 2 million . Located on a peninsula at the midpoint of Lebanon's Mediterranean coastline, it serves as the country's largest and main seaport, and also forms the Beirut Metropolitan...

. There was a Byzantine and Christian Arab garrison guarding that fair, the size of the garrison was miscalculated by the Muslim informants and it quickly encircled the small Muslim detachment. Before it would have been completely destroyed, Abu Ubaidah, having received new intelligence, sent Khalid to rescue the Muslim army. Khalid reached there and defeated them in the Battle of Abu-al-Quds on 15 October 634 and returned with tons of looted booty from the fair and hundreds of Byzantine prisoners.

With central Syria captured, the Muslims has given a decisive blow to the Byzantines. The communication between northern Syria and Palestine
Palestine is a conventional name, among others, used to describe the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River, and various adjoining lands....

 was now cut off. Abu Ubaidah decided to march to Fahl (Pella
Pella, Jordan
Pella is a village and the site of ancient ruins in northwestern Jordan. It is half an hour by car from Irbid, in the north of the country....

), which is about 500 ft (152.4 m) below sea level
Sea level
Mean sea level is a measure of the average height of the ocean's surface ; used as a standard in reckoning land elevation...

, and where a strong Byzantine garrison and survivors of Battle of Ajnadayn were present. The region was crucial because from here the Byzantine army could strike eastwards and cut the communications line with Arabia
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

. Moreover with this large garrison at the rear, Palestine could not be invaded.

Thus the Muslim army moved to Fahl. The Byzantine army was eventually defeated at the Battle of Fahl
Battle of Fahl
The Battle of Fahl or Battle of Pella was a Byzantine-Arab battle fought between the Rashidun army under Khalid ibn al-Walid Saifullah and the Roman Empire under Theodore the Sacellarius , in Fahl in January 635 AD...

 on the 23 January 635 A.D.

Battles for Emesa and the second battle of Damascus

After the battle, which would prove to be a key to Palestine and Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

, the Muslim armies split up. Sharjeel and Amr's corps moved south to capture Palestine. Meanwhile, Abu Ubaidah and Khalid with a relatively larger corps moved north through Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 to conquer Lebanon and northern Syria.

While the Muslims were occupied at Fahl, Heraclius, sensing the opportunity, quickly sent an army under General Theodore Trithyrius
Theodore Trithyrius
Theodore Trithyrius , commonly known by his title as Theodore the Sacellarius, was a Byzantine treasurer of the state and a military commander during the last years of the reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius.-Life:...

 to recapture Damascus, where a small Muslim garrison had been left. Shortly after Heraclius dispatched this new army, the Muslims having finished the business at Fahl, were on their way to Emesa. The Byzantine army met the Muslims half way to Emesa, at Maraj-al-Rome. During the night Theodras sent half of his army towards Damascus to launch a surprise attack on the Muslim garrison

Khalid's spy informed him about the move, Khalid having received permission from Abu Ubaidah, galloped towards Damascus with his mobile guard
Mobile guard
The Mobile Guard was an elite light cavalry regiment of Rashidun army during the Muslim conquest of Syria, under the command of Khalid ibn Walid...

. While Abu Ubaidah fought and defeated the Byzantine army in the Battle of Maraj-al-Rome, Khalid moved to Damascus with his cavalry
Light cavalry
Light cavalry refers to lightly armed and lightly armored troops mounted on horses, as opposed to heavy cavalry, where the riders are heavily armored...

 and attacked and defeated Theodras in the second battle of Damascus.

A week later, Abu Ubaida himself moved towards Baalbek
Baalbek is a town in the Beqaa Valley of Lebanon, altitude , situated east of the Litani River. It is famous for its exquisitely detailed yet monumentally scaled temple ruins of the Roman period, when Baalbek, then known as Heliopolis, was one of the largest sanctuaries in the Empire...

 (Heliopolis), where the great Temple of Jupiter
Jupiter (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Jupiter or Jove is the king of the gods, and the god of the sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus in the Greek pantheon....

 stood. Baalbek surrendered to Muslim rule after little resistance and agreed to pay tribute. Abu Ubaidah sent Khalid straight towards Emesa.

Emesa and Chalcis
Chalcis, Syria
Chalcis was an ancient city in Syria. Syrian Chalcis was the birthplace of 3rd century Neoplatonist philosopher Iamblichus.It is thought to be the site of the modern town of Qinnasrin, though Anjar in Lebanon has also been suggested as the site of ancient Chalcis....

 sued for peace for a year. Abu Ubaidah, accepted the offer and rather than invading the districts of Emesa and Chalcis, he consolidated his rule in conquered land and captured Hama
Hama is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria north of Damascus. It is the provincial capital of the Hama Governorate. Hama is the fourth-largest city in Syria—behind Aleppo, Damascus, and Homs—with a population of 696,863...

, Ma’arrat an Nu’man. The peace treaties were, however, on Heraclius's instructions, to lure the Muslims and to secure time for preparation of defenses of northern Syria (present day Lebanon, Syria and southern Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

). Having mustered sizeable armies at Antioch, Heraclius sent them to reinforce strategically important areas of northern Syria, like Emesa and Chalcis. With the arrival of Byzantine army in the city, the peace treaty was violated, Abu Ubadiah and Khalid thus marched to Emesa, and a Byzantine army that halted Khalid's advance guard was defeated. The Muslims besieged Emesa
Siege of Emesa
The Siege of Emesa was laid by the forces of Rashidun Caliphate from December 635 up until March 636. This led to the Islamic conquest of Emesa, which was a major trading city of the Byzantine Empire in the Levant.-Background:...

 which was finally conquered in March 636 after six months of siege.

Battle of Yarmouk

After capturing Emesa, the Muslims moved north to capture whole of the northern Syria. Khalid, acting as an advance guard took his mobile guard to raid northern Syria. At Shaizer, Khalid intercepted a convoy taking provisions for Chalcis. The prisoners were interrogated and informed him about Emperor Heraclius' ambitious plan to take back Syria. They told him that an army, possibly 200,000 strong, would soon emerge to recapture their territory. Khalid stopped there. After his past experiences, Heraclius, now had been avoiding pitch battles with the Muslims. He planned to send massive reinforcements to all the major cities and isolate the Muslim corps from each other, and thus separately encircle and destroy the Muslim armies. Five massive armies were launched in June 636 to roll back Syria.

Khalid, sensing Heraclius's plan, feared that the Muslim armies would be isolated and destroyed. In a council of war
Council of war
A council of war is a term in military science that describes a meeting held to decide on a course of action, usually in the midst of a battle. Under normal circumstances, decisions are made by a commanding officer, optionally communicated and coordinated by staff officers, and then implemented by...

 he suggested that Abu Ubaidah draw all the Muslim armies to one place so as to fight a decisive battle with the Byzantines. As per Khalid's suggestion, Abu Ubaidah ordered all the Muslim armies in Syria to evacuate the conquered land and concentrate at Jabiya. This maneuver gave a decisive blow to the Heraclius's plan, as he did not wish engage his troops in an open battle with the Muslims, where the light cavalry could be effectively used. From Jabiya, on Khalid's suggestion, Abu Ubaidah ordered the Muslim army to withdraw on the plain of the Yarmouk River
Yarmouk River
The Yarmouk River is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. It drains much of the Hauran Plateau. It is one of three main tributaries which enter the Jordan between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea. To the south, are the Jabbok/Zarqa and the Arnon/Wadi Mujib) rivers...

, where cavalry could be used. While the Muslim armies were gathering at Yarmouk, Khalid intercepted and routed the Byzantine advance guard. This was to ensure the safe retreat of the Muslims from conquered land.

The Muslim armies reached there in July 636. A week or two later, around mid July, the Byzantine army arrived. The Byzantine commander in chief, Vahan, sent Christian Arab troops of the Ghassanid king, Jabalah ibn al-Aiham
Jabalah ibn al-Aiham
Jabalah Ibn Al-Aiham was the last ruler of the Ghassanid state in Syria and Jordan in the seventh century AD. He commanded a Christian Arab army in the Battle of Yarmouk in 636. After the Muslim conquest of the Levant he converted to Islam around the year 638...

, to check the strength of the Muslims. Khalid's mobile guard defeated and routed the Christian Arabs; this was the last action before the battle started. For the next month negotiations continued between the two armies, and Khalid went to meet Vahan in person at Byzantine camp. Meanwhile the Muslims received reinforcements sent by Caliph Umar.

Abu Ubaidah in a coincil of war transferred the command of Muslim army to Khalid, who acted as a field commander in the battle and was the mastermind behind the annihilation of Byzantine army.

Finally on 15 August, the Battle of Yarmouk was fought, it lasted for 6 days and ended in a devastating defeat for the Byzantines. The Battle of Yarmouk is considered to be one of the most decisive battles of history. It was the historic defeat that sealed the fate of Byzantines, the magnitude of defeat was so intense that Byzantine could never recover from it. It left whole of the Byzantine Empire vulnerable to the Muslim invaders. The battle was the greatest battle ever fought on Syrian soil till then and was a tactical marvel of Khalid.

Capturing Jerusalem

With the Byzantine army shattered and routed, the Muslims quickly recaptured the territory that they conquered prior to Yarmouk. Abu Ubaida held a meeting with his high command, including Khalid, to decide on future conquests. They decided to conquer Jerusalem. The Siege of Jerusalem lasted four months after which the city agreed to surrender, but only to caliph Umar in person. 'Amr ibn al-'As suggested that Khalid should be sent as caliph, because of his very strong resemblance to Umar. Khalid was recognized and eventually, Umar came and the Jerusalem surrendered
Siege of Jerusalem (637)
The Siege of Jerusalem was a part of a military conflict which took place in the year 637 between the Byzantine Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate. It began when the Rashidun army, under the command of Abu Ubaidah, besieged Jerusalem in November 636. After six months, the Patriarch Sophronius...

 on April 637. After Jerusalem, the Muslim armies broke up once again. Yazid's corps went to Damascus and captured Beirut. Amr and Sharjeel's corps went on to conquer the rest of Palestine, while Abu Ubaidah and Khalid, at the head of a 17,000 strong army moved north to conquer whole of the northern Syria.

Abu Ubaida sent the commanders 'Amr ibn al-'As, Yazid ibn Abi Sufyan, and Sharjeel ibn Hassana back to their areas to reconquer them. Most of the areas submitted without a fight. Abu Ubaida himself, along with Khalid, moved to northern Syria once again to conquer them with a 17,000 strong army. Khalid along with his cavalry was sent to Hazir and Abu Ubaidah moved to Chalcis.

Conquest of northern Syria

With Emesa already in hand, Abu Ubaidah and Khalid moved towards Chalcis, which was strategically the most significant Byzantine fort. Though Chalcis, the Byzantines would guard Anatolia
Anatolia is a geographic and historical term denoting the westernmost protrusion of Asia, comprising the majority of the Republic of Turkey...

, Heraclius's homeland Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 and there the Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

n zone's capital Antioch. Abu Ubaidah sent Khalid, with his elite cavalry, the mobile guard, towards Chalcis. The fort was guarded by the Greek troops under their commander, Menas, who was reported to be of high prestige, second only to the emperor himself. Menas, diverting from conventional Byzantine tactics, decided to face Khalid and destroy the leading elements of the Muslim army before the main body could join them at Hazir, 5 km (3.1 mi) east of Chalcis. This is known as the Battle of Hazir
Battle of Hazir
Battle of Hazir took place between the Byzantine army and Rashidun army's elite cavalry the Mobile guard, in June 637, 3 miles east of Qinnasrin at Hazir in present-day Syria.-Background:...

, which even forced Umar to praise Khalid's military genius. Umar is reported to have said:
Abu Ubaidah soon joined Khalid at the virtually impregnable fort of Chalcis, which surrendered in June 637. With this strategic victory, the territory north of Chalcis lay open to the Muslims. Khalid and Abu Ubaidah continued their march northward and laid siege to Aleppo
Siege of Aleppo
The Siege of Aleppo, the Byzantine stronghold and one of few remaining Byzantine castles in the northern Levant after the decisive Battle of Yarmouk, was laid between July and October 637.-Background:...

, which was captured after fierce resistance from desperate Byzantine troops in October 637. The next objective was the splendid city of Antioch, the capital of the Asian zone of the Byzantine Empire.

Before marching towards Antioch, Khalid and Abu Ubaidah decided to isolate the city from Anatolia. Accordingly, they sent detachments north to eliminate all possible Byzantine forces and captured a garrison town, Azaz 50 km (31.1 mi) from Aleppo
Aleppo is the largest city in Syria and the capital of Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate. With an official population of 2,301,570 , expanding to over 2.5 million in the metropolitan area, it is also one of the largest cities in the Levant...

; from there the Muslims attacked Antioch on the eastern side. In order to save the empire from annihilation, a desperate battle was fought between the Muslim army and that of the defenders of Antioch, popularly known as Battle of Iron Bridge
Battle of Iron bridge
The Battle of Iron Bridge was fought between the Muslim Rashidun army and the Byzantine army in 637 AD. The battle was fought near a nine-arch stone bridge spanning the River Orontes, from which the battle took its name. The campaigns in Anatolia were undertaken after the decisive Rashidun...

. The Byzantine army was composed of the survivors of Yarmouk and other Syrian campaigns. After being defeated, the Byzantines retreated to Antioch and the Muslims besieged the city. Having little hope of help from Emperor Herakleios, Antioch surrendered on 30 October 637, with the terms that all Byzantine troops would be given safe passage to Constantinople
Constantinople was the capital of the Roman, Eastern Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman Empires. Throughout most of the Middle Ages, Constantinople was Europe's largest and wealthiest city.-Names:...


Abu Ubaidah sent Khalid northwards, while he marched south and captured Lazkia, Jabla, Tartus and the coastal areas west of Anti-Lebanon mountains. Khalid moved north and raided territory up to the Kızıl River (Kızılırmak) in Anatolia. Emperor Heraclius had already left Antioch for Edessa
Edessa, Mesopotamia
Edessa is the Greek name of an Aramaic town in northern Mesopotamia, as refounded by Seleucus I Nicator. For the modern history of the city, see Şanlıurfa.-Names:...

 before the arrival of the Muslims. He arranged for the necessary defenses in Al-Jazira
Al-Jazira, Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq and northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey which is known by the traditional Arabic name of Al-Jazira , variously transliterated into Roman script as Djazirah, Djezirah and Jazirah...

 and Armenia and left for his capital Constantinople. On his way to Constantinople he had a narrow escape when Khalid, after the capturing Marash
Siege of Marash
The Siege of Marash was led by Muslim forces of the Rashidun Caliphate during their campaigns in Anatolia in 638. The city surrendered without much bloodshed...

, was heading south towards Munbij. Heraclius hastily took the mountainous path and, passing though the Cilician Gates
Cilician Gates
The Cilician Gates or Gülek Pass is a pass through the Taurus Mountains connecting the low plains of Cilicia to the Anatolian Plateau, by way of the narrow gorge of the Gökoluk River. Its highest elevation is about 1000m....

, is reported to have said:
With the devastating defeat at Yarmouk his empire was extremely vulnerable to Muslim invasion. With few military resources left he was no longer in a position to attempt a military come back in Syria. To gain time for the preparations of the defense of the rest of his empire, Heraclius needed the Muslims occupied in Syria. He sought help of the Christian Arabs of Al-Jazira who mustered up a large army and marched against Emesa, Abu Ubaidah's headquarters. Abu Ubaidah withdrew all his forces from northern Syria to Emesa, and the Christian Arabs laid siege to the city. Khalid was in favour of an open battle outside the fort, but Abu Ubaidah rather sent the matter to Umar, who handled it brilliantly. Umar sent detachments of the Muslim army from Iraq to invade Al-Jazira, homeland of the invading Christian Arabs, from three different routes. Moreover, another detachment was sent to Emesa from Iraq under Qa’qa ibn Amr, a veteran of Yarmouk who was sent to Iraq for the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
Battle of al-Qadisiyyah
The Battle of al-Qādisiyyah was fought in 636; it was the decisive engagement between the Arab muslim army and the Sassanid Persian army during the first period of Muslim expansion. It resulted in the Islamic conquest of Persia, and was key to the conquest of Iraq...

. Umar himself marched from Medina at the head of 1,000 men. The Christian Arabs, when they received the news of the Muslim invasion of their homeland, abandoned the siege and hastily withdrew to Al-Jazira. At this point Khalid and his mobile guard came out of the fort and devastated the army, attacking them from the rear.

Campaigns in Armenia and Anatolia

After the battle Umar ordered the conquest of Al-Jazira, which was completed by late summer 638 A.D. Following the victory, Abu Ubaidah sent Khalid and Ayaz ibn Ghanam (conqueror of Al-Jazira) to invade the Byzantine territory north of Al-Jazira. They marched independently and captured Edessa, Amida
Diyarbakır is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey...

 (Diyarbakır), Malatya
Malatya ) is a city in southeastern Turkey and the capital of its eponymous province.-Overview:The city site has been occupied for thousands of years. The Assyrians called the city Meliddu. Following Roman expansion into the east, the city was renamed in Latin as Melitene...

 and whole of Armenia up to Ararat
Ararat (village), Armenia
Ararat is a village in the Ararat Province of Armenia. Ararat village was host to the first CYMA - Canadian Youth Mission to Armenia led by Ronald Alepian in 1993.- References :*...

 and raided northern and central Anatolia. Heraclius has already abandoned all the forts between Antioch and Tartus to create a buffer zone
Buffer zone
A buffer zone is generally a zonal area that lies between two or more other areas , but depending on the type of buffer zone, the reason for it may be to segregate regions or to conjoin them....

 or no man's land
No man's land
No man's land is a term for land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties that leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty. The term was originally used to define a contested territory or a dumping ground for refuse between fiefdoms...

 between Muslim controlled areas and mainland Anatolia.

Umar for the time being stopped his armies from further invasion deeper into Anatolia but rather ordered Abu Ubaidah, now the governor of Syria, to consolidate his rule in Syria. At this point, Umar is reported to have said:
Due to the dismissal of Khalid from the army and a famine and plague the next year, the Muslim armies were kept from invading Anatolia. The expedition to Anatolia and Armenia marked the end of the military career of Khalid.

The great famine

Later that year Arabia fell into a severe drought, and large sums of people began to perish from hunger and epidemic diseases alike, both resulting from the drought and its complications. Therefore, countless numbers of people (in the hundreds of thousands), from throughout Arabia, gathered at Medina as food was being rationed. Soon, Medina's food reserves declined to alarming levels; by this time, Caliph Umar had already wrote to the governors of his provinces requesting any relevant aid they might assist with. One such letter was rushed to Abu Ubaidah, who responded promptly:
True to his assurance, Abu Ubaidah's caravans
Camel train
A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. Although they rarely travelled faster than the walking speed of a man, camels' ability to handle harsh conditions made camel trains a vital part of...

 of food supplies were the first to reach Medina, with 4,000 camels arriving full of food. To handle the overwhelming amount, Umar appointed Abu Ubaidah to distribute this among the thousands of people living in the outskirts of Medina. Following Abu Ubaidah's generous aid and efforts, Umar provided 4,000 dinar
The dinar is the official currency of several countries.The history of the dinar dates to the gold dinar, an early Islamic coin corresponding to the Byzantine denarius auri...

s as a modest stipend or token of appreciation which, he refused on the grounds that the deed was done for the sake of God.

The great plague

Nine months had passed since the drought and a new problem had started brewing. The plague epidemic broke in Syria and western Iraq; it was most severe in Syria. When the news of plague broke Umar had been on his way for a tour of Syria but, he returned from the Syrian border as advised by his companions. Abu Ubaidah met him there and said:
Umar was shocked by this and said in sorrow: if only some one else would have said this other than you Abu Ubaidah and then said:
Umar returned from Syria because Muhammad once instructed that one should not enter the place where an epidemic is unless it is absolutely safe. So Abu Ubaidah returned to his army at Emesa. It was then that a plague hit the land of Syria, the like of which people had never experienced before. It devastated the population. As Caliph Umar wanted to make Abu Ubaidah his successor he didn't want him to remain there in the epidemic region. Umar dispatched a messenger to Abu Ubaidah with a letter saying:
When Abu Ubaydah received Umar's letter, he said, '"I know why Umar needs me. He wants to secure the survival of someone who, however, is not eternal." So he wrote to Umar:
When Caliph Umar read this letter tears filled his eyes and those who were with him asked, "Has Abu Ubaidah died?" he replied "No, but death is near to him.". Caliph Umar sent another messenger to him saying that if you are not coming back at least move to any highland with a less humid environment and Abu Ubaidah moved to Jabyia.

Another reason why Abu Ubaydah did not leave Syria is because Muhammad once ordered that if a state is being hit by a plague, none from the state should escape and none from outside the state shall enter it(quarantine).


As soon as Abu Ubaidah moved to Jabyia he became afflicted with the plague. As death hung over him, he spoke to his army:
He then appointed Muadh ibn Jabal as his successor and ordered him to lead people in prayers; after the prayers Muadh went to him and, at that moment, his soul departed.

Muadh got up and said to the people:
He died in 639 C.E. and was buried at Jabiya. It has been narrated that his janaza was led by Muadh bin Jabal.


His appearance was striking, slim and tall and his face was bright and he had a sparse beard. It was pleasing to look at him and refreshing to meet him. He was extremely courteous and humble and quite shy. Yet in a tough situation he would become strikingly serious and alert. He was given the title Amin
In Arabic Amin ' for males means 'faithful, trustworthy'. The female equivalent is Amina, which is a widely used name among female Arabs .-People:امین*al-Amin, nickname of Muhammad in his youth*Amin Ahsan Islahi...

or Custodian of Muhammad's community (Ummah
Ummah is an Arabic word meaning "community" or "nation." It is commonly used to mean either the collective nation of states, or the whole Arab world...

). `Abd Allah ibn `Umar
`Abd Allah ibn `Umar
Abdullah ibn Umar was the son of the second Caliph Umar ibn Khattab. He was a prominent authority in hadith and law, and was known for his neutrality toward factions engaged in the first civil war within the Muslim community ....

 once said about him:
He chose to live a simple way of life, opting for the most modest of garments when compared to some of the other sahaba
In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

(companions of Muhammad). When, during the conquest of Jerusalem, Caliph Umar had come to Syria, he was met by Khalid ibn al-Walid and Yazid bin abu Sufyan; Caliph Umar dismounted from his camel and threw sand at them while admonishing them that "it has not been even a year since you have came out of the hunger and hard life of Arabia and you have forgotten all the simplicity when you saw the glamour of Syria's Emperors?" Both men were incidentally wearing better garments then they were previously accustomed; Khalid ibn al-Walid noted that beneath their clothes they were still sufficiently armed, indicating they were still accustomed to the practical ways of hard desert life, bringing some relief to the Caliph. Comparatively, Abu Ubaidah was also present, but had always maintained his humble dressing and way of life; Umar was pleased to see him, and that very evening, when Umar arrived at his home, he saw that Abu Ubaidah, a man made successful in the art of battle (earning him rights to much booty), had no possessions at home except one bed, a sword and a shield. Umar said to him:
Christians of the Levant accepted Islam and were greatly inspired by Abu Ubaidah; all members of the two Christian tribes, Banu Tanookh and Banu Saleej, had accepted Islam after the conquest of the city of Qasreen. Moreover, there was much relief given by Abu Ubaidah to the non-Muslims living as his subjects in Syria. He is regarded by Muslims to be one of the ten companions of Muhammad who were promised paradise
Hadith of the ten promised paradise
The prophet Muhammad, in a Hadith accepted by Sunni Muslims, specified ten of his companions who were promised paradise. Those companions named in this Hadith are referred to by Sunnis as The Ten Promised Paradise...

 by God during their lifetime.


Little is known about Abu Ubaidah's family. He had two wives. From his wife Hind bint Jabar he had his son Yazid and Ubaidah. From his wife Warja he had his son Umair, but all of them died in childhood. It is unknown if he had any daughters, but his male line of descendants is reported to be ended. However, the Al-Jarrah family in present day Jordan and Lebanon claim their descendant from Abu Ubaidah.

See also

  • Ali
    ' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

  • Talhah
  • Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
    Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
    Saad ibn Abī Waqqās was an early convert to Islam in 610-11 and one of the important companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Sa'd was the seventeenth person to embrace Islam at the age of seventeen...

  • Zubayr ibn al-Awam
  • Abdur Rahman bin Awf
  • Saeed bin Zaid
  • Sunni view of the Sahaba

External links

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