Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (mythology)

Overview
In ancient Roman religion
Religion in ancient Rome
Religion in ancient Rome encompassed the religious beliefs and cult practices regarded by the Romans as indigenous and central to their identity as a people, as well as the various and many cults imported from other peoples brought under Roman rule. Romans thus offered cult to innumerable deities...

 and myth
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

, Jupiter (Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 Iuppiter) or Jove is the king of the gods
Pantheon (gods)
A pantheon is a set of all the gods of a particular polytheistic religion or mythology.Max Weber's 1922 opus, Economy and Society discusses the link between a...

, and the god of the sky
Sky
The sky is the part of the atmosphere or outer space visible from the surface of any astronomical object. It is difficult to define precisely for several reasons. During daylight, the sky of Earth has the appearance of a pale blue surface because the air scatters the sunlight. The sky is sometimes...

 and thunder
Thunder
Thunder is the sound made by lightning. Depending on the nature of the lightning and distance of the listener, thunder can range from a sharp, loud crack to a long, low rumble . The sudden increase in pressure and temperature from lightning produces rapid expansion of the air surrounding and within...

. He is the equivalent
Interpretatio graeca
Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. Herodotus, for example, refers to the ancient Egyptian gods Amon, Osiris and Ptah as "Zeus", "Dionysus" and "Hephaestus", respectively.-Roman...

 of Zeus
Zeus
In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus was the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia.Zeus was the child of Cronus...

 in the Greek pantheon
Twelve Olympians
The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon , in Greek mythology, were the principal deities of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings. Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis were children of Zeus...

.

Jupiter may have begun as a sky-god, concerned mainly with wine festivals and associated with the sacred oak on the Capitol
Capitoline Hill
The Capitoline Hill , between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. It was the citadel of the earliest Romans. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino in Italian, with the alternative Campidoglio stemming from Capitolium. The English word capitol...

. If so, he developed a twofold character. He received the spolia opima
Spolia opima
Spolia opima refers to the armor, arms, and other effects that an ancient Roman general had stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single combat...

 and became a god of war; as Stator he made the armies stand firm and as Victor he gave them victory.
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In ancient Roman religion
Religion in ancient Rome
Religion in ancient Rome encompassed the religious beliefs and cult practices regarded by the Romans as indigenous and central to their identity as a people, as well as the various and many cults imported from other peoples brought under Roman rule. Romans thus offered cult to innumerable deities...

 and myth
Roman mythology
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans...

, Jupiter (Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 Iuppiter) or Jove is the king of the gods
Pantheon (gods)
A pantheon is a set of all the gods of a particular polytheistic religion or mythology.Max Weber's 1922 opus, Economy and Society discusses the link between a...

, and the god of the sky
Sky
The sky is the part of the atmosphere or outer space visible from the surface of any astronomical object. It is difficult to define precisely for several reasons. During daylight, the sky of Earth has the appearance of a pale blue surface because the air scatters the sunlight. The sky is sometimes...

 and thunder
Thunder
Thunder is the sound made by lightning. Depending on the nature of the lightning and distance of the listener, thunder can range from a sharp, loud crack to a long, low rumble . The sudden increase in pressure and temperature from lightning produces rapid expansion of the air surrounding and within...

. He is the equivalent
Interpretatio graeca
Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. Herodotus, for example, refers to the ancient Egyptian gods Amon, Osiris and Ptah as "Zeus", "Dionysus" and "Hephaestus", respectively.-Roman...

 of Zeus
Zeus
In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus was the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia.Zeus was the child of Cronus...

 in the Greek pantheon
Twelve Olympians
The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon , in Greek mythology, were the principal deities of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings. Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis were children of Zeus...

.

Jupiter may have begun as a sky-god, concerned mainly with wine festivals and associated with the sacred oak on the Capitol
Capitoline Hill
The Capitoline Hill , between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. It was the citadel of the earliest Romans. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino in Italian, with the alternative Campidoglio stemming from Capitolium. The English word capitol...

. If so, he developed a twofold character. He received the spolia opima
Spolia opima
Spolia opima refers to the armor, arms, and other effects that an ancient Roman general had stripped from the body of an opposing commander slain in single combat...

 and became a god of war; as Stator he made the armies stand firm and as Victor he gave them victory. As the sky-god, he was the first resort as a divine witness to oaths.

Jupiter's primary sacred animal is the eagle, which held precedence over other birds in the taking of auspices.

Jupiter was the central deity of the early Capitoline Triad of Roman state religion, comprising Jupiter, Mars
Mars (mythology)
Mars was the Roman god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome. He was second in importance only to Jupiter, and he was the most prominent of the military gods worshipped by the Roman legions...

 and Quirinus
Quirinus
In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus. His name is derived from Quiris meaning "spear."-History:...

, who each possessed some measure of the divine characteristics essential to Rome's agricultural economy, social organisation and success in war. He retained this position as senior deity among the later Capitoline Triad of Jupiter, Juno
Juno (mythology)
Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars and Vulcan. Juno also looked after the women of Rome. Her Greek equivalent is Hera...

 and Minerva
Minerva
Minerva was the Roman goddess whom Romans from the 2nd century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic...

.

In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune
Neptune (mythology)
Neptune was the god of water and the sea in Roman mythology and religion. He is analogous with, but not identical to, the Greek god Poseidon. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of Jupiter and Pluto, each of them presiding over one of the three realms of the universe,...

 and Pluto
Pluto (mythology)
In ancient Greek religion and myth, Pluto was a name for the ruler of the underworld; the god was also known as Hades, a name for the underworld itself...

. Each of them presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, land, and underworld. Jupiter remained Rome's chief official deity throughout the Republican
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 and Imperial
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 eras, until displaced by the religious hegemony of Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

.

Jupiter and the state


The Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honored him more than any other people had. Jupiter was "the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested." He personified the divine authority of Rome's highest offices, internal organization, and external relations. His image in the Republican
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 and Imperial
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 Capitol bore regalia
Regalia
Regalia is Latin plurale tantum for the privileges and the insignia characteristic of a Sovereign.The word stems from the Latin substantivation of the adjective regalis, 'regal', itself from Rex, 'king'...

 associated with Rome's ancient kings and the highest consular
Roman consul
A consul served in the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic.Each year, two consuls were elected together, to serve for a one-year term. Each consul was given veto power over his colleague and the officials would alternate each month...

 and Imperial honours
Imperial cult (ancient Rome)
The Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority of the Roman State...

.
The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiter's name, and honored him on the annual feriae of the Capitol in September. To thank him for his help, and to secure his continued support, they offered him a white, castrated ox (bos mas) with gilded horns. A similar offering was made by triumphal generals
Roman triumph
The Roman triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the military achievement of an army commander who had won great military successes, or originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war. In Republican...

, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiter's statue in the Capitol. Some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying or impersonating Jupiter in the triumphal procession.

Jupiter's association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Rome's form of government changed. Originally, Rome was ruled by kings; after the monarchy was abolished and the Republic
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 established, religious prerogatives were transferred to the patres, the patrician ruling class. Nostalgia for the kingship (affectatio regni) was considered treasonous. Those suspected of harboring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state. In the 5th century BC, the triumphator Furius Camillus
Marcus Furius Camillus
Marcus Furius Camillus was a Roman soldier and statesman of patrician descent. According to Livy and Plutarch, Camillus triumphed four times, was five times dictator, and was honoured with the title of Second Founder of Rome....

 was sent into exile after he drove a chariot with a team of four white horses (quadriga
Quadriga
A quadriga is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast . It was raced in the Ancient Olympic Games and other contests. It is represented in profile as the chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and in bas-relief. The quadriga was adopted in ancient Roman chariot racing...

)—an honour reserved for Jupiter himself. After the Gallic occupation ended and self-rule was restored, Manlius Capitolinus
Marcus Manlius
Marcus Manlius Capitolinus was consul of the Roman Republic in 392 BC. He was the brother of Aulus Manlius Capitolinus. The Manlii were a patrician gens....

 took on regal pretensions, and was executed as a traitor by being cast from the Tarpeian Rock
Tarpeian Rock
The Tarpeian Rock was a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill, overlooking the Roman Forum in Ancient Rome. It was used during the Roman Republic as an execution site. Murderers, traitors, perjurors, and larcenous slaves, if convicted by the quaestores parricidii, were flung...

. His house on the Capitoline was razed, and it was decreed that no patrician should ever be allowed to live there. Capitoline Jupiter finds himself in a delicate position: he represents a continuity of royal power from the Regal period
Roman Kingdom
The Roman Kingdom was the period of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by a monarchical form of government of the city of Rome and its territories....

, and confers power on the magistrates
Roman Magistrates
The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the principal executive magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, lawgiver, judge, and the sole commander of the army...

 who pay their respects to him; at the same time, he embodies that which is now forbidden, abhorred, and scorned.

During the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
The Conflict of the Orders, also referred to as the Struggle of the Orders, was a political struggle between the Plebeians and Patricians of the ancient Roman Republic, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians. It played a major role in the development of the...

, Rome's plebeians
Plebs
The plebs was the general body of free land-owning Roman citizens in Ancient Rome. They were distinct from the higher order of the patricians. A member of the plebs was known as a plebeian...

 demanded the right to hold political and religious office. During their first secessio
Secessio plebis
Secessio plebis was an informal exercise of power by Rome's plebeian citizens, similar to a general strike taken to the extreme. During a secessio plebis, the plebs would simply abandon the city en masse and leave the patrician order to themselves...

, similar to a general strike
General strike
A general strike is a strike action by a critical mass of the labour force in a city, region, or country. While a general strike can be for political goals, economic goals, or both, it tends to gain its momentum from the ideological or class sympathies of the participants...

, they withdrew from the city and threatened to found their own. Plebeians eventually became eligible for all the magistracies
Roman Magistrates
The Roman Magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome. During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the principal executive magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, lawgiver, judge, and the sole commander of the army...

 and most priesthoods, but the high priest of Jupiter (Flamen Dialis
Flamen Dialis
In ancient Roman religion, the Flamen Dialis was the high priest of Jupiter. There were 15 flamines, of which three were flamines maiores, serving the three gods of the Archaic Triad...

) remained the preserve of patricians.

Flamen and Flaminica Dialis


Jupiter was served by the patrician Flamen Dialis, the most senior of the flamines
Flamen
In ancient Roman religion, a flamen was a priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic. The most important three were the flamines maiores , who served the three chief Roman gods of the Archaic Triad. The remaining twelve were the flamines minores...

, a college
Collegium (ancient Rome)
In Ancient Rome, a collegium was any association with a legal personality. Such associations had various functions.-Functioning:...

 of fifteen priests in the official public cult of Rome, along with his wife, the Flaminica Dialis. The couple were required to marry by the exclusive patrician ritual confarreatio
Confarreatio
In ancient Rome, confarreatio was a traditional patrician form of marriage. The ceremony involved the bride and bridegroom sharing a cake of spelt, in Latin far or panis farreus, hence the rite's name. The Flamen Dialis and Pontifex Maximus presided over the wedding, and ten witnesses had to be...

, which included a sacrifice of spelt
Spelt
Spelt is a hexaploid species of wheat. Spelt was an important staple in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times; it now survives as a relict crop in Central Europe and northern Spain and has found a new market as a health food. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the...

 bread to Jupiter Farreus (from far, "wheat, grain"). The Flaminica had her own duties, and presided over the sacrifice of a ram to Jupiter on each of the nundinae, the "market" days of a calendar cycle comparable to a week.

The office of Flamen Dialis was circumscribed by several unique ritual prohibitions, some of which shed light on the nature of the god himself. For instance, the flamen may remove his clothes or apex (his pointed hat) only when under roof, in order to avoid showing himself naked to the sky—that is, "as if under the eyes of Jupiter" as god of the sky or heaven. Every time the Flaminica saw a lightning bolt, Jupiter's distinctive instrument, she was prohibited from carrying on with her normal routine until she placated the gods.

Some privileges of the flamen of Jupiter may reflect regal origin: he had the use of the curule chair
Curule chair
In the Roman Republic, and later the Empire, the curule seat was the chair upon which senior magistrates or promagistrates owning imperium were entitled to sit, including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles...

, and was the only priest (sacerdos) who was preceded by a lictor
Lictor
The lictor was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending and guarding magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium, the right and power to command; essentially, a bodyguard...

 and had a seat in the senate
Roman Senate
The Senate of the Roman Republic was a political institution in the ancient Roman Republic, however, it was not an elected body, but one whose members were appointed by the consuls, and later by the censors. After a magistrate served his term in office, it usually was followed with automatic...

. Other regulations concern his ritual purity, and his separation from the military function, as he was forbidden to ride a horse or see the army outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium
Pomerium
The pomerium or pomoerium , was the sacred boundary of the city of Rome. In legal terms, Rome existed only within the pomerium; everything beyond it was simply territory belonging to Rome.-Location and extensions:Tradition maintained that it was the original line ploughed by Romulus around the...

). Although he served the god who embodied the sanctity of the oath, it was not religiously permissible (fas) for the Dialis to swear an oath.

Fetials


The fetials were a college of twenty men devoted to the religious administration of the international affairs of the state. Their task was to preserve and apply the fetial law (ius fetiale), a complex set of procedures aimed at ensuring the protection of the gods in Rome's relations with foreign states. Iupiter Lapis is the god under whose protection they act and whom the chief fetial (pater patratus) invokes in the rite concluding a treaty. If a declaration of war
Declaration of war
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one nation goes to war against another. The declaration is a performative speech act by an authorized party of a national government in order to create a state of war between two or more states.The legality of who is competent to declare war varies...

 ensues, the fetial calls upon Jupiter, Juno
Juno (mythology)
Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars and Vulcan. Juno also looked after the women of Rome. Her Greek equivalent is Hera...

 (or Janus), Quirinus
Quirinus
In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. In Augustan Rome, Quirinus was also an epithet of Janus, as Janus Quirinus. His name is derived from Quiris meaning "spear."-History:...

, and the heavenly, earthly and chthonic
Chthonic
Chthonic designates, or pertains to, deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in relation to Greek religion. The Greek word khthon is one of several for "earth"; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land or the land as territory...

 gods to witness the violation of the ius. He can then declare war within thirty-three days.

The action of the fetials falls under Jupiter's jurisdiction as the divine defender of good faith. Among the symbols of their office are the silex (later the sceptre) which is taken from the temple of Iuppiter Fertrius; and the vervain or sacred herbs (sagmina) from the nearby arx
Arx (Roman)
Arx is the Latin word for citadel. In the ancient city of Rome, the Arx, not always capitalized, was located on the northern spur of the Capitoline Hill, and is sometimes specified as the Arx Capitolina. Sentries were posted there to watch for a signal to be displayed on the Janiculum if an enemy...

 (citadel).

Myths and legends



A dominant line of scholarship has held that Rome lacked a body of myths in its earliest period, or that this original mythology has been irrecoverably obscured by the influence of the Greek narrative tradition
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

. After the Hellenization
Hellenization
Hellenization is a term used to describe the spread of ancient Greek culture, and, to a lesser extent, language. It is mainly used to describe the spread of Hellenistic civilization during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great of Macedon...

 of Roman culture, Latin literature and iconography reinterpreted the myths of Zeus in depictions and narratives of Jupiter. In the legendary history of Rome, Jupiter is often connected to kings and kingship.

Birth


Jupiter was depicted as the twin of Juno in a statue at Praeneste that showed them nursed by Fortuna Primigenia. An inscription, however, also from Praeneste, says that Fortuna Primigenia was Jupiter's first-born child. Jacqueline Champeaux sees this contradiction as the result of successive different cultural and religious phases in which a wave of influence coming from the Hellenic world made of Fortuna the daughter of Jupiter. The childhood of Zeus is an important theme in Greek religion, art and literature, but there are only rare or dubious depictions of Jupiter as a child.

Numa


Faced by a severe spell of bad weather that endangered the harvest during one early Spring king Numa
Numa Pompilius
Numa Pompilius was the legendary second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus. What tales are descended to us about him come from Valerius Antias, an author from the early part of the 1st century BC known through limited mentions of later authors , Dionysius of Halicarnassus circa 60BC-...

 resorted to the scheme of asking the advice of the god by evoking his presence. He succeded through the help of Picus and Faunus whom he had caught prisoners though the stratagem of making them drunk. The two gods through a charm evoked Jupiter who was forced to come down onto Earth at the Aventine (hence named Iuppiter Elicius according to Ovid). After Numa had skilfully avoided the requests of the god for human sacrifices Jupiter agreed to condescend to his request of knowing the means by which lightningbolts are averted, asking only for the substitutions Numa had mentioned: an onion head, hairs and a fish. Moreover Jupiter promised that at the sunrise of the following day he would give to Numa and the Roman people sure pawns of the imperium. The following day after three throwing three lightningbolts in a clear sky Jupiter sent down from heaven a shield. Since this shield had no angles Numa named it ancile and because in it resided the fate of the imperium had many copies made of it in order to disguise the real one. He asked the smith Mamurius to make the copies and gave them to the Salii
Salii
In ancient Roman religion, the Salii were the "leaping priests" of Mars supposed to have been introduced by King Numa Pompilius. They were twelve patrician youths, dressed as archaic warriors: an embroidered tunic, a breastplate, a short red cloak , a sword, and a spiked headdress called an apex...

. As only reward Mamurius expressed the wish that his name were sung in the last of their carmina. Plutarch gives a slightly different version of the story: he writes that the occasion of the miracolous dropping of the shield was a plague and does not say it was linked with the Roman imperium.

Tullus Hostilius


King Tullus had throught his reign sport a scornful attitude towards religion: his temperament was warlike and he disregarded religious rites and piety. After conquering the Albans by means of the duel between the Horatii and Curiatii he destroyed Alba Longa and deported its inhabitants to Rome. According to Livy's narration prodigia (a rain of stones) happened on Mons Albanus as a consequence of the fact that deported Albans disregarded their ancestral rites linked to the sanctuary of Jupiter: a voice was also heard requesting the Albans to perform the religious rites. Thereafter a plague ensued and at last the king himself was affected by a lingering desease. As a consequence the warlike character of Tullus broke down and he resorted to religion and superstitious practises, even of the petty type. At last he found a book by Numa in which a secret rite on how to evoke Iuppiter Elicius was recorded: the king set in to perform it, though since he executed the rite in an improper way (irritually) the god was so enraged as to throw a lightningbolt which caused the burning down of the king's house and the death of Tullus.

Tarquinius the Elder


While he was approaching Rome, town to which Tarquin was heading in order to try his good luck in politics after his unsuccessful attempts in his native Tarquinii, an eagle descended onto his cart and removed his hat, flew in circles around it a few times screaming and then replaced the hat on his head and flew away. Tarquin's wife Tanaquil
Tanaquil
Tanaquil was the wife of Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king of Rome.-History:She had four children, two daughters and two sons. One of the daughters became the wife to Servius Tullius, when he became the successor....

 interpreted this as a sign that he would become king, on the grounds of the bird, the quarter of the sky from which it came, the god who had sent it and the fact it had touched his hat, an item of clothing placed on a man's most noble part, the head.

Cult



Sacrifices


The sacrificial victims (hostiae) offered to Jupiter were the ox (castrated bull), the lamb (on the Ides, the ovis idulis) and the wether (on the Ides of January). The animals were required to be white. The question of the sex of the lamb is debated as while the lamb is generally supposed to be a male, on the festival of vintage opening the flamen Dialis sacrificed a ewe lamb. This rule seems to have seen many exceptions, as the sacrifice of a ram on the Nundinae by the flaminica Dialis shows.

During one of the crises of the Punic Wars
Second Punic War
The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and The War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean. This was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic, with the participation of the Berbers on...

, Jupiter was offered every animal born that year (see ver sacrum
Ver sacrum
Ver sacrum is a religious practice of ancient Italic peoples, especially Sabines and their offshoot Samnites, concerning the deduction of colonies...

).

Temple of Capitoline Jupiter



The temple to Jupiter Optimus Maximus stood on the Capitoline Hill
Capitoline Hill
The Capitoline Hill , between the Forum and the Campus Martius, is one of the seven hills of Rome. It was the citadel of the earliest Romans. By the 16th century, Capitolinus had become Capitolino in Italian, with the alternative Campidoglio stemming from Capitolium. The English word capitol...

. Jupiter was worshiped there as an individual deity, and with Juno
Juno (mythology)
Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars and Vulcan. Juno also looked after the women of Rome. Her Greek equivalent is Hera...

 and Minerva
Minerva
Minerva was the Roman goddess whom Romans from the 2nd century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic...

 as part of the Capitoline Triad
Capitoline Triad
In ancient Roman religion, the Capitoline Triad was a group of three supreme deities who were worshipped in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill, the Capitolium. Two distinct Capitoline Triads were worshipped at various times in Rome's history, both originating in ancient traditions...

. The building was supposedly begun by king Tarquinius Priscus
Tarquinius Priscus
Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, also called Tarquin the Elder or Tarquin I, was the legendary fifth King of Rome from 616 BC to 579 BC. His wife was Tanaquil.-Early life:According to Livy, Tarquinius Priscus came from the Etruria...

, completed by the last king, Tarquinius Superbus and inaugurated in the early days of the Roman Republic, on September 13 509 BC. It was topped with the statues of four horses drawing a quadriga
Quadriga
A quadriga is a car or chariot drawn by four horses abreast . It was raced in the Ancient Olympic Games and other contests. It is represented in profile as the chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and in bas-relief. The quadriga was adopted in ancient Roman chariot racing...

, with Jupiter as charioteer. A large statue of Jupiter stood within; on festival days, its face was painted red. In or near the same temple was the Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone
Jupiter Stone
In the Roman tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, Capitoline Hill. Iuppiter Lapis was held in the Roman Tradition to be an Oath Stone, an aspect of Jupiter is his role as divine law-maker responsible for order and used principally...

, on which oaths could be sworn.
Jupiter's Capitoline Temple probably served as the architectural model for his provincial temples.
When Hadrian built Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Jerusalem, which was in ruins since 70 AD, leading in part to the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136.-Politics:...

 on the site of Jerusalem, a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected in the place of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple , refers to one of a series of structures which were historically located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, the current site of the Dome of the Rock. Historically, these successive temples stood at this location and functioned as the centre of...

.

Other temples in Rome


There were two temples in Rome dedicated to Iuppiter Stator: the first one was vowed and built in 294 BC by Marcus Atilius Regulus
Marcus Atilius Regulus
Marcus Atilius Regulus , a general and consul in the ninth year of the First Punic War...

 after the third Saamnite War. It was located on the Via Nova, below the Porta Mugonia, ancient entrance to the Palatine . The annalistic tradition has attributed to Romulus its first founding. Wissowa opines at best there may have been an earlier fanumshrine, as the cult of the god is attested epigraphically. E. Aust claims June 27 given by Ovid is the day of the dedication of the temple after its restoration by Augustus on the grounds of the rule of the dedication on the Ides for the temples of Jupiter. This assumption might find support in the calendar of Philocalus which gives on the Ides of January (13): Iovi Statori c(ircenses) m(issus) XXIV. This date may be the original day of the dedication of the temple.

A second temple of Iuppiter Stator was built and dedicated by Quintus Caecilus Metellus Macedonicus after his triumph in 146 BC near the Circus Flaminius
Circus Flaminius
The Circus Flaminius was a large, circular area of land in Rome that contained a small race-track reserved for mysterious games, and various other buildings and monuments. It was located in the southern end of the Campus Martius, near the Tiber River. It was ‘built,’ or sectioned off, by Flaminius...

. It was connected to the restored temple of Iuno Regina with a porch (porticus Metelli).

Iuppiter Victor had a temple dedicated by Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges
Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges (consul 292 BC)
Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges was the son of Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus and a Consul in 292 and 276 BC.In 295 BC he was curule aedile, and fined certain matrons of noble birth for their disorderly life. With the proceeds of the fines built a temple to Venus near the Circus Maximus.He was...

 during the third Samnite War in 295 BC: its location is unknown, it might be on the Quirinal on which an inscription reading D]iovei Victore has been found or on the Palatine according to the Notitia in the Liber Regionum (regio X) reading: aedes Iovis Victoris. Either of them might have been dedicated either on April 13 or June 13, days of Iuppiter Victor and of Iuppiter Invictus respectively in Ovid's Fasti.

Inscriptions of the imperial age have revealed the existence of an otherwise unknown temple of Iuppiter Propugnator on the Palatine.

Ides


The Ides (the day that was the midpoint of any given month) was sacred to Jupiter, because on that day the heavenly light shines uninterrupted day and night. Some, or possibly all Ides were Feriae Iovis, sacred to Jupiter. On the Ides, a white lamb (ovis idulis) was led along Rome's Sacred Way
Via Sacra
The Via Sacra was the main street of ancient Rome, leading from the top of the Capitoline Hill, through some of the most important religious sites of the Forum , to the Colosseum....

 to the Capitoline Citadel
Arx (Roman)
Arx is the Latin word for citadel. In the ancient city of Rome, the Arx, not always capitalized, was located on the northern spur of the Capitoline Hill, and is sometimes specified as the Arx Capitolina. Sentries were posted there to watch for a signal to be displayed on the Janiculum if an enemy...

 and sacrificed to him. Jupiter's two epula Iovis
Epulum Jovis
In ancient Roman religion, the Epulum Jovis was a sumptuous ritual feast offered to Jove on the Ides of September and a smaller feast on the Ides of November . It was celebrated during the Ludi Romani and the Ludi Plebeii .The gods were formally invited, and attended in the form of statues...

 festivals fell on the Ides, as did his temple foundation rites as Optimus Maximus, Victor, Invictus and possibly Stator.

Nundinae


The nundinae recurred every ninth day. They divided the calendar into a market cycle analogous to a week. They gave the people of the countryside (pagi
Pagus
In the later Western Roman Empire, following the reorganization of Diocletian, a pagus became the smallest administrative district of a province....

) the opportunity to hold markets in town and to be informed of religious and political edicts, which were posted in public for three consecutive days. According to tradition, these festival days were instituted by king Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius
Servius Tullius was the legendary sixth king of ancient Rome, and the second of its Etruscan dynasty. He reigned 578-535 BC. Roman and Greek sources describe his servile origins and later marriage to a daughter of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, Rome's first Etruscan king, who was assassinated in 579 BC...

. The high priestess of Jupiter (Flaminica Dialis) sanctioned their religious nature by conducting the sacrifice of a ram to Jupiter.

Festivals



During the Republican era
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

, more fixed holidays on the Roman calendar were devoted to Jupiter than to any other deity.

Viniculture and wine


Festivals of viniculture and wine belonged to Jupiter, as grapes were particularly susceptible to vagaries of the weather. Dumézil describes wine as a "kingly" drink with the power to inebriate and exhilarate, analogous with Vedic Soma
Soma
Soma , or Haoma , from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-, was a ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the subsequent Vedic and greater Persian cultures. It is frequently mentioned in the Rigveda, whose Soma Mandala contains 114 hymns, many praising its energizing qualities...

.
Three Roman festivals were connected with viniculture and wine.

The rustic Vinalia
Vinalia
The Vinalia were Roman festivals of the annual vintage, in honour of Jupiter and Venus. The first was held on August 19, and the second on May 1...

 altera of August 19 asked for good weather for ripening the grapes before harvest. When the grapes were ripe, a sheep was sacrificed to Jupiter and the flamen Dialis cut the first of the grape harvest.

The Meditrinalia
Meditrinalia
In Roman religion, Meditrinalia was an obscure festival celebrated on October 11 in honor of the new vintage, which was offered in libations to the gods for the first time each year...

 of October 11 marked the end of the grape harvest; new wine was pressed, tasted and mixed with old wine to control fermentation. In the Fasti Amiternini this festival is assigned to Jupiter. Later Roman sources invented a goddess Meditrina, probably to explain the name of the festival.

At the Vinalia
Vinalia
The Vinalia were Roman festivals of the annual vintage, in honour of Jupiter and Venus. The first was held on August 19, and the second on May 1...

 urbana of April 23 the new wine was offered to Jupiter. Large quantities of it were poured into a ditch near the temple of Venus Erycina, which was located on the Capitol.

Regifugium and Poplifugium



The Regifugium
Regifugium
In the Roman religion, Regifugium or Fugalia was an annual observance that took place every February 24. In Latin, the name of the observance transparently means "flight of the king."...

 ("King's Flight") on February 24 has often been discussed in connection with the Poplifugia
Poplifugia
The poplifugia or populifugia , was a festival of ancient Rome celebrated on July 5, according to Varro, in commemoration of the flight of the Romans, when the inhabitants of Ficuleae and Fidenae appeared in arms against them, shortly after the burning of the city by the Gauls ; the traditional...

 on July 5, which was a day holy to Jupiter. The Regifugium followed immediately on the festival of Iuppiter Terminus
Terminus (mythology)
In Roman religion, Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers; his name was the Latin word for such a marker. Sacrifices were performed to sanctify each boundary stone, and landowners celebrated a festival called the "Terminalia" in Terminus' honor each year on February 23...

 (Jupiter of Boundaries) on February 23. Later Roman antiquarian
Antiquarian
An antiquarian or antiquary is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past. More specifically, the term is used for those who study history with particular attention to ancient objects of art or science, archaeological and historic sites, or historic archives and manuscripts...

s misinterpreted the Regifugium as marking the expulsion of the monarchy, but the "king" of this festival may have been the priest known as the rex sacrorum
Rex Sacrorum
In ancient Roman religion, the rex sacrorum was a senatorial priesthood reserved for patricians. Although in the historical era the pontifex maximus was the head of Roman state religion, Festus says that in the ranking of priests, the rex sacrorum was of highest prestige, followed by the flamines...

, who ritually enacted the waning and renewal of power associated with the New Year
New Year
The New Year is the day that marks the time of the beginning of a new calendar year, and is the day on which the year count of the specific calendar used is incremented. For many cultures, the event is celebrated in some manner....

, March 1 on the old Roman calendar. A temporary vacancy of power, construed as a yearly "interregnum
Interregnum
An interregnum is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order...

", took place between the Regifugium on February 24 and the New Year on March 1, when the lunar cycle was thought to coincide again with the solar cycle and the incertitudes of change during the two winter months are over. Not all scholars discount the traditional political significance of the day.

The Poplifugia ("the Routing of Armies"), a day sacred to Jupiter, may similarly mark the second half of the year, when before the Julian calendar reform
Julian calendar
The Julian calendar began in 45 BC as a reform of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar. It was chosen after consultation with the astronomer Sosigenes of Alexandria and was probably designed to approximate the tropical year .The Julian calendar has a regular year of 365 days divided into 12 months...

 the months were named numerically, Quintilis
Quintilis
In the 10-month calendar of ancient Rome, Quintilis follows Junius and precedes Sextilis . Quintilis is Latin for "fifth", that is, it was the fifth month in the earliest calendar attributed to Romulus, which began with the month of Martius...

 (the fifth month) to December
December
December is the 12th and last month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and one of seven months with the length of 31 days.December starts on the same day as September every year and ends on the same day as April every year.-Etymology:...

 (the tenth month). The Poplifugia was a "primitive military ritual" for which the adult male population assembled for purification rites, after which they ritually dispelled foreign invaders from Rome.

Epula Iovis



There were two festivals called epulum Iovis, "Feast of Jove". One was held on September 13, the anniversary of the foundation of Jupiter's Capitoline temple. The other and probably older festival was part of the Plebeian Games (Ludi Plebei), and was held on November 13. In the 3rd century BC, the epulum Iovis became similar to a lectisternium
Lectisternium
In ancient Roman religion, the lectisternium was a propitiatory ceremony, consisting of a meal offered to gods and goddesses. The word derives from lectum sternere, "to spread a couch." The deities were represented by their busts or statues, or by portable figures of wood, with heads of bronze,...

.

Ludi



The most ancient Roman games followed after one day (considered dies ater) the two Epula Iovis of September and November. The games of September were named Ludi Magni and originally were not held every year, later they became the yearly Ludi Romani and were held in the Circus Maximus
Circus Maximus
The Circus Maximus is an ancient Roman chariot racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy. Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills, it was the first and largest stadium in ancient Rome and its later Empire...

 after a procession from the Capitol. Their establishment was attributed to Tarquinius Priscus and linked to the cult of Jupiter on the Capitol Romans themselves acknowledged analogies with the triumph
Roman triumph
The Roman triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the military achievement of an army commander who had won great military successes, or originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war. In Republican...

 which Dumézil think can be explained with the common Etruscan origin: the magistrate in charge of the games dressed like the triumphator and the pompa circensis
Pompa circensis
In ancient Rome, the pompa circensis was the procession that preceded the official games held in the circus as part of religious festivals and other occasions.-Description:...

 looked like a triumphal procession. Wissowa and Mommsen argue that they were a detached part of the triumph on the above grounds, conclusion which Dumézil rejects.

The Ludi Plebei took place in November in the Circus Flaminius
Circus Flaminius
The Circus Flaminius was a large, circular area of land in Rome that contained a small race-track reserved for mysterious games, and various other buildings and monuments. It was located in the southern end of the Campus Martius, near the Tiber River. It was ‘built,’ or sectioned off, by Flaminius...

.
Mommsen
Mommsen
Mommsen is a surname, and may refer to one of a family of German historians, see Mommsen family:* Theodor Mommsen , great classical scholar, and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature* Tycho Mommsen...

 argued that the epulum of the Ludi Plebei was the model of that of the Ludi Romani, but Wissowa finds the evidence for this assumption insufficient. The Ludi Plebei were probably established in 534 BC. The belonging of these to the cult of Jupiter is testified by Cicero In Verrem V 36 and Paulus s.v. ludi magni p. 122 M.

Larentalia


The feriae of december 23 were devoted to a great ceremony which saw the participation of some of the highest religious authorities (probaly the flamen Quirinalis and the pointiffs) in honour of Acca Larentia
Acca Larentia
Acca Larentia or Acca Larentina was a mythical woman, later goddess, in Roman mythology whose festival, the Larentalia, was celebrated on December 23.-Foster mother:...

 or Larentina. The fasti Praenestini marks the day as feriae Iovis as does Macrobius. It is unclear whether the rite of parentatio was itself the reason of the festival of Jupiter or if this was another festival that happened to fall on the same day. Wissowa excludes their identiy as Jupiter and his flamen might not be involved in any way with the Underworld or the deities of death, let alone be present to a funeral rite held at a grave site.

Name and epithets


The Latin name Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound
Vocative case
The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person being addressed and/or occasionally the determiners of that noun. A vocative expression is an expression of direct address, wherein the identity of the party being spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence...

 of the Old Latin
Old Latin
Old Latin refers to the Latin language in the period before the age of Classical Latin; that is, all Latin before 75 BC...

 vocative *Iou and pater ("father") and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case
Nominative case
The nominative case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments...

 *Ious. Jove is a less common English formation based on Iov-, the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. Linguistic
Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context....

 studies identify the form *Iou-pater as deriving from the Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European language
The Proto-Indo-European language is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans...

 vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (meaning "O Father Sky-god"; nominative: *Dyēus
Dyeus
*Dyēus is the reconstructed chief deity of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. He was the god of the daylight sky, and his position may have mirrored the position of the patriarch or monarch in society....

-pətēr).
Older forms of the deity's name in Rome were Dieus-pater (“day/sky-father”), then Diéspiter. The 19th-century philologist Georg Wissowa
Georg Wissowa
Georg Otto August Wissowa was a German classical philologist who was born in Neudorf, near Breslau.Wissowa studied at the University of Breslau, and in 1886 became a professor at the University of Marburg, and in 1895 a professor at the University of Halle.Wissowa was a specialist in the study of...

 asserted these names are conceptually and linguistically connected with Diovis and Diovis Pater, comparing the analogous formations Vedius-Veiove, fulgur Dium as opposed to fulgur Summanum (nocturnal lightningbolt) and flamen Dialis based on Dius dies. The ancients later regarded them as entities separate from Jupiter. The terms are allied in etymology and semantics (dies meaning daylight and Dius daytime sky), but linguistically are different words. Wissowa cites here also the epithet Dianus as noteworthy. Dieus is the etymological equivalent of ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

's Zeus
Zeus
In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus was the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia.Zeus was the child of Cronus...

 and of the Teutonics'
Germanic peoples
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Indo-European Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.Originating about 1800 BCE from the Corded Ware Culture on the North...

 Ziu, gen. Ziewes. The Indo-European deity thus would be the god from which Zeus and the Indo-Aryan
Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryan is an ethno-linguistic term referring to the wide collection of peoples united as native speakers of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages...

 Vedic
Vedic mythology
Vedic mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic religion and Vedic literature, most notably alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda...

 Dyaus Pita
Dyaus Pita
In the Vedic pantheon ' or ' or Dyaus Pitar is the Sky Father, divine consort of the Prithvi and father of Agni, Indra , and Ushas, the daughter representing dawn. In archaic Vedic lore, Dyauṣ Pitṛ and Prithivi Matṛ were one, single composite dvandva entity, named as the Dyavaprthivi...

 are derived.

The Roman practice of swearing by Jove to witness an oath in law courts is the origin of the common expression "By Jove!" still used as an archaism
Archaism
In language, an archaism is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current. This can either be done deliberately or as part of a specific jargon or formula...

 today. The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter
Jupiter
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn,...

, and the adjective
Adjective
In grammar, an adjective is a 'describing' word; the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified....

 "jovial" originally described those born under the planet of Jupiter
Jupiter
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is a gas giant with mass one-thousandth that of the Sun but is two and a half times the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant along with Saturn,...

. who were supposed by nature to be jolly, optimistic, and buoyant in temperament
Temperament
In psychology, temperament refers to those aspects of an individual's personality, such as introversion or extroversion, that are often regarded as innate rather than learned...

.

Jove was the original namesake of Latin forms of the weekday
Week-day names
The names of the days of the week from the Roman period have been both named after the seven planets of classical astronomy and numbered, beginning with Monday. In Slavic languages, a numbering system was adopted, but beginning with Monday. There was an even older tradition of names in Ancient...

 now known in English as Thursday but originally called Iovis Dies in Latin, giving rise to jeudi in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, jueves in Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

, joi in Romanian
Romanian language
Romanian Romanian Romanian (or Daco-Romanian; obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; self-designation: română, limba română ("the Romanian language") or românește (lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 to 28 million people, primarily in Romania and Moldova...

, giovedì in Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

, dijous in Catalan
Catalan language
Catalan is a Romance language, the national and only official language of Andorra and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencian Community, where it is known as Valencian , as well as in the city of Alghero, on the Italian island...

, Xoves in Galcian
Galician language
Galician is a language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch, spoken in Galicia, an autonomous community located in northwestern Spain, where it is co-official with Castilian Spanish, as well as in border zones of the neighbouring territories of Asturias and Castile and León.Modern Galician and...

, Joibe in Friulian
Friulian language
Friulan , is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy. Friulan has around 800,000 speakers, the vast majority of whom also speak Italian...

, Dijóu in Provençal
Franco-Provençal language
Franco-Provençal , Arpitan, or Romand is a Romance language with several distinct dialects that form a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue d'Oïl and Langue d'Oc. The name Franco-Provençal was given to the language by G.I...

.

Major epithets



The epithets of a Roman god indicate his theological qualities. The study of these epithets must take into consideration their origin, i.e. the historical setting of the source of the given epithet.

Epithets denoting functionality



Some epithets describe a particular aspect of the god, or one of his functions.
  • Jupiter Caelus, Jupiter as the sky or heavens; see also Caelus
    Caelus
    Caelus or Coelus was a primal god of the sky in Roman myth and theology, iconography, and literature...

    .
  • Jupiter Caelestis, "Heavenly" or "Celestial Jupiter".
  • Jupiter Elicius, Jupiter "who calls forth [celestial omens]" or "who is called forth [by incantations]"; "sender of rain".
  • Jupiter Feretrius, who carries away the spoils of war
    Spoils of War
    Botín de guerra is a 2000 Argentine documentary film directed and written by David Blaustein with Luis Alberto Asurey. The film premiered on 11 April 2000 in Buenos Aires...

    ". Feretrius was called upon to witness solemn oaths. The epithet or “numen
    Numen
    Numen is a Latin term for a potential, guiding the course of events in a particular place or in the whole world, used in Roman philosophical and religious thought...

    ” is probably connected with the verb ferire, "to strike," referring to a ritual striking of ritual as illustrated in foedus ferire, of which the silex, a quartz rock, is evidence in his temple on the Capitoline hill, which is said to have been the first temple in Rome, erected and dedicated by Romulus
    Romulus
    - People:* Romulus and Remus, the mythical founders of Rome* Romulus Augustulus, the last Western Roman Emperor* Valerius Romulus , deified son of the Roman emperor Maxentius* Romulus , son of the Western Roman emperor Anthemius...

     to commemorate his winning of the spolia opima from Acron, king of the Caeninenses, and to serve as a repository for them. Iuppiter Feretrius was therefore equivalent to Iuppiter Lapis, the latter used for a specially solemn oath According to Livy I 10, 5 and Plutarch Marcellus 8, the meaning of this epithet is related to the peculiar frame used to carry the spolia opima to the god, the feretrum, from verb fero.
  • Jupiter Centumpeda, literally, "he who has one hundred feet"; that is, "he who has the power of establishing, of rendering stable, bestowing stability on everything", since he himself is the paramount of stability.
  • Jupiter Fulgur ("Lightning Jupiter"), Fulgurator or Fulgens.
  • Jupiter Lucetius ("of the light"), an epithet almost certainly related to the light or flame of lightningbolts and not to daylight, as indicated by the Jovian verses of the carmen Saliare
    Carmen Saliare
    The Carmen Saliare is a fragment of archaic Latin, which played a part in the rituals performed by the Salii of Ancient Rome.The rituals revolved around Mars and Quirinus, and were performed in March and October...

    .
  • Jupiter Optimus Maximus (" the best and greatest"). Optumus because of the benefits he bestows, Maximus because of his strength, according to Cicero Pro Domo Sua.
  • Jupiter Pluvius, "sender of rain".
  • Jupiter Ruminus, "breastfeeder of every living being", according to Augustine.
  • Jupiter Stator, from stare, "to stand": "he who has power of founding, instituting everything", thence also he who makes people, soldiers, stand firm and fast.
  • Jupiter Summanus, sender of nocturnal thunder.
  • Jupiter Terminalus
    Terminus (mythology)
    In Roman religion, Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers; his name was the Latin word for such a marker. Sacrifices were performed to sanctify each boundary stone, and landowners celebrated a festival called the "Terminalia" in Terminus' honor each year on February 23...

    or Iuppiter Terminus, patron and defender of boundaries.
  • Jupiter Tigillus, "beam or shaft that supports and holds together the universe."
  • Jupiter Tonans
    Jupiter Tonans
    Jupiter Tonans, or, in Latin spelling, Iuppiter Tonans was the aspect of Jupiter venerated in the Temple of Iuppiter Tonans, which was vowed in 26 BC or BCE by Augustus and dedicated in 22 BC or BCE on the Capitoline Hill; the Emperor had narrowly escaped being struck by lightning during the...

    , "thunderer".
  • Jupiter Victor, "he who has the power of conquering everything."

Syncretic or geographical epithets


Some epithets of Jupiter indicate his association with a particular place. Epithets found in the provinces of the Roman Empire may identify Jupiter with a local deity or site (see syncretism
Syncretism
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought. The term means "combining", but see below for the origin of the word...

).
  • Jupiter Ammon, Jupiter equated with the Egyptian deity Amun
    Amun
    Amun, reconstructed Egyptian Yamānu , was a god in Egyptian mythology who in the form of Amun-Ra became the focus of the most complex system of theology in Ancient Egypt...

     after the Roman conquest of Egypt.
  • Jupiter Brixianus, Jupiter equated with the local god of the town of Brescia
    Brescia
    Brescia is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. It is situated at the foot of the Alps, between the Mella and the Naviglio, with a population of around 197,000. It is the second largest city in Lombardy, after the capital, Milan...

     in Cisalpine Gaul
    Cisalpine Gaul
    Cisalpine Gaul, in Latin: Gallia Cisalpina or Citerior, also called Gallia Togata, was a Roman province until 41 BC when it was merged into Roman Italy.It bore the name Gallia, because the great body of its inhabitants, after the expulsion of the Etruscans, consisted of Gauls or Celts...

     (modern North Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    .
  • Jupiter Capitolinus, also Jupiter Optimus Maximus, venerated throughout the Roman Empire
    Roman Empire
    The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

     at sites with a Capitol (Capitolium).
  • Jupiter Dolichenus
    Jupiter Dolichenus
    Jupiter Dolichenus was a Roman god created from the syncretization of Jupiter, the Roman 'King of the gods', and a Baal cult of Commagene in Asia Minor. The Baal gods were themselves king gods and the combination was intended to form a powerful mixture of eastern and western regal traditions...

    , from Doliche
    Gaziantep
    Gaziantep , Ottoman Turkish: Ayintab) previously and still informally called Antep; ʻayn tāb is a city in southeast Turkey and amongst the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world. The city is located 185 kilometres northeast of Adana and 127 kilometres by road north of Aleppo, Syria...

     in Syria
    Syria (Roman province)
    Syria was a Roman province, annexed in 64 BC by Pompey, as a consequence of his military presence after pursuing victory in the Third Mithridatic War. It remained under Roman, and subsequently Byzantine, rule for seven centuries, until 637 when it fell to the Islamic conquests.- Principate :The...

    , originally a Baal
    Baal
    Baʿal is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord" that is used for various gods who were patrons of cities in the Levant and Asia Minor, cognate to Akkadian Bēlu...

     weather and war god. From the time of Vespasian
    Vespasian
    Vespasian , was Roman Emperor from 69 AD to 79 AD. Vespasian was the founder of the Flavian dynasty, which ruled the Empire for a quarter century. Vespasian was descended from a family of equestrians, who rose into the senatorial rank under the Emperors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty...

    , he was popular among the Roman legions as god of war and victory, especially on the Danube
    Danube
    The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

     at Carnuntum
    Carnuntum
    Carnuntum was a Roman army camp on the Danube in the Noricum province and after the 1st century the capital of the Upper Pannonia province...

    . He is depicted as standing on a bull, with a thunderbolt in his left hand, and a double ax in the right.
  • Jupiter Indiges, "Jupiter of the country," a title given to Aeneas
    Aeneas
    Aeneas , in Greco-Roman mythology, was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite. His father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas Priam's second cousin, once removed. The journey of Aeneas from Troy , which led to the founding a hamlet south of...

     after his death, according to Livy
    Livy
    Titus Livius — known as Livy in English — was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people. Ab Urbe Condita Libri, "Chapters from the Foundation of the City," covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome well before the traditional foundation in 753 BC...

    .
  • Jupiter Ladicus, Jupiter equated with a Celtiberian mountain-god and worshipped as the spirit of Mount Ladicus in Gallaecia
    Gallaecia
    Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province and an early Mediaeval kingdom that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania...

    , northwest Iberia, preserved in the toponym Codos de Ladoco.
  • Jupiter Laterius or Latiaris, the god of Latium
    Latium
    Lazio is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the central peninsular section of the country. With about 5.7 million residents and a GDP of more than 170 billion euros, Lazio is the third most populated and the second richest region of Italy...

    .
  • Jupiter Parthinus or Partinus, under this name was worshiped on the borders of north-east Dalmatia
    Dalmatia (Roman province)
    Dalmatia was an ancient Roman province. Its name is probably derived from the name of an Illyrian tribe called the Dalmatae which lived in the area of the eastern Adriatic coast in Classical antiquity....

     and Upper Moesia, perhaps associated with the local tribe known as the Partheni.
  • Jupiter Poeninus, under this name worshipped in the Alps, around the Great St Bernard Pass, where he had a sanctuary.
  • Jupiter Solutorius, a local version of Jupiter worshipped in Spain
    Spain
    Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

    ; he was syncretised with the local Iberian
    Iberians
    The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula at least from the 6th century BC...

     god Eacus
    Eacus (god)
    Eacus is a weather god worshipped in Iberian Spain. He is known from the area of Castile and was syncretised with the local Roman deity Jupiter Solutorius....

    .
  • Jupiter Taranis, Jupiter equated with the Celtic god Taranis
    Taranis
    In Celtic mythology Taranis was the god of thunder worshipped essentially in Gaul, the British Isles, but also in the Rhineland and Danube regions amongst others, and mentioned, along with Esus and Toutatis as part of a sacred triad, by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia as a Celtic...

    .
  • Jupiter Uxellinus, Jupiter as a god of high mountains.


In addition, many of the epithets of Zeus can be found applied to Jupiter, by interpretatio romana. Thus, since the hero Trophonius
Trophonius
Trophonius or Trophonios was a Greek hero or daimon or god - it was never certain which one - with a rich mythological tradition and an oracular cult at Lebadaea in Boeotia....

, of Lebadea in Boeotia, is called Zeus Trophonius, this can be represented in English, as it would be in Latin, Jupiter Trophonius. Similarly, the Greek cult of Zeus Meilichios
Meilichios
As Zeus Meilichius or Meilichios , the Olympian of Greek mythology subsumed as an attributive epithet an earlier chthonic daimon, Meilichios, who was propitiated in Athens by archaic rituals, as Jane Ellen Harrison demonstrated in detail in Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion...

 appears in Pompeii as Jupiter Meilichius. Except in representing actual cultus in Italy, this is largely nineteenth century usage; modern work will distinguish between Jupiter and Zeus.

Sources


Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro was an ancient Roman scholar and writer. He is sometimes called Varro Reatinus to distinguish him from his younger contemporary Varro Atacinus.-Biography:...

 and Verrius Flaccus
Verrius Flaccus
Marcus Verrius Flaccus was a Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius.-Life:He was a freedman, and his manumitter has been identified with Verrius Flaccus, an authority on pontifical law; but for chronological reasons the name of Veranius Flaccus, a writer on augury,...

 were the main sources on the theology of Jupiter as well as archaic Roman religion in general. Varro was acquainted with the libri pontificum ("books of the Pontiffs
College of Pontiffs
The College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. The college consisted of the Pontifex Maximus, the Vestal Virgins, the Rex Sacrorum, and the flamines...

") and their archaic classifications. On these two sources depend other ancient authorities such as Ovid
Ovid
Publius Ovidius Naso , known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who is best known as the author of the three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides, Amores, and Ars Amatoria...

, Servius, Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius
Aulus Gellius , was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome. He was educated in Athens, after which he returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office...

, Macrobius, patristic texts
Church Fathers
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were early and influential theologians, eminent Christian teachers and great bishops. Their scholarly works were used as a precedent for centuries to come...

, Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus was a Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, who flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus. His literary style was Attistic — imitating Classical Attic Greek in its prime.-Life:...

 and Plutarch
Plutarch
Plutarch then named, on his becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus , c. 46 – 120 AD, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia...

.

One of the most important sources that preserves the theology of Jupiter and other Roman deities is The City of God against the Pagans by Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo
Augustine of Hippo , also known as Augustine, St. Augustine, St. Austin, St. Augoustinos, Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed, was Bishop of Hippo Regius . He was a Latin-speaking philosopher and theologian who lived in the Roman Africa Province...

. Augustine's criticism of traditional Roman religion is based on Varro's lost work Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum
Res divina
In ancient Rome, res divinae, singular res divina , were the laws that pertained to the religious duties of the state and its officials...

. Although a work of Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics is a field of Christian theology that aims to present a rational basis for the Christian faith, defend the faith against objections, and expose the perceived flaws of other world views...

, The City of God thus affords glimpses of Varro's theological system and of authentic Roman theological lore in general. According to Augustine, Varro drew on the pontiff Mucius Scaevola
Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex
Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex , the son of Publius Mucius Scaevola was a politician of the Roman Republic and an important early authority on Roman law. He is credited with founding the study of law as a systematic discipline...

's tripartite theology:
  • the mythic theology
    Mythical theology
    Mythical theology is one of three branches of theology established by the Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro in his lost work Antiquitates rerum humanarum et divinarum...

     of the poets, useful for the theatre
    Theatre of ancient Rome
    The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca...

    ;
  • the physical theology
    Natural theology
    Natural theology is a branch of theology based on reason and ordinary experience. Thus it is distinguished from revealed theology which is based on scripture and religious experiences of various kinds; and also from transcendental theology, theology from a priori reasoning.Marcus Terentius Varro ...

     of the philosophers, useful for understanding the natural world;
  • the civil theology of the priests, useful for the State.

Theology of Jupiter in early Rome


Georg Wissowa
Georg Wissowa
Georg Otto August Wissowa was a German classical philologist who was born in Neudorf, near Breslau.Wissowa studied at the University of Breslau, and in 1886 became a professor at the University of Marburg, and in 1895 a professor at the University of Halle.Wissowa was a specialist in the study of...

 stressed the peculiarity of Jupiter as the only case in Indo-European religions in which the original heavenly god had preserved his name as well as his identity and prerogatives. In his view Jupiter is the god of Heaven and keeps on its original conceptual identification with the sky in the conscience of Latin poets as his name is used as a synonym of sky. In this respect he would be different from his Greek equivalent Zeus, who is considered a personal god, warden, dispenser of skylight and a being that was actually born of parents. His name reflects this idea as it is a derivate of the Indo-European word for bright, shining sky. His residence is to be found on the tops of the hills of Rome and of mountains in general. As elsewhere in Italy his cult is present in Rome in high locations, on the top of the Hills. Jupiter has taken up atmospheric qualities, being the wielder of lightning and the master of weather. However Wissowa does acknowledge that Jupiter is not just a naturalistic heavenly supreme deity but he is in continuous communication with man by means of thunder and lightning and the flight of birds, i.e. the auspices he sends. Through his vigilant watch he is also the guardian of public oaths and compacts, the guarantor of good faith in the State cult. The cult of Jupiter was common to the Italic people under the name forms Iove, Diove (Latin) and Iuve, Diuve (Oscan, in Umbrian only Iuve, Iupater in the Iguvine Tables
Iguvine Tables
The Iguvine Tablets are a series of seven bronze tablets discovered at Iguvium , Italy, in the year 1444. They are also known as Eugubian tablets...

).

Wissowa considered Jupiter also a god of war and battle and of agriculture, beside his political role as guarantor of good faith public and private as Iuppiter Lapis and Dius Fidius respectively. His view is grounded on the sphere of action of the god, who intervenes in battle and influences the outcome of the harvest through weather.

In Georges Dumézil
Georges Dumézil
Georges Dumézil was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society...

's view the theology of Jupiter, as well as that of his homologous sovereign gods in the religion of other Indo-European ethnicities, offers an instance of evolution from a naturalistic supreme uranic god identified also by his name as Heaven, to a sovereign god who is wielder of lightningbolt, master and protector of the community. In other words, of the passage from a sheerly naturalistic approach to the world of the divine to one that is mainly a social and political one.

In Vedic religion
Vedic mythology
Vedic mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic religion and Vedic literature, most notably alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda...

 Dyaus Pitar remained confined to his distant, removed, apparently inactive role and the place of sovereign god was occupied by Varuna
Varuna
In Vedic religion, Varuna is a god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld...

 and Mitra
Mitra
*Mitra was an important Indo-Iranian divinity. Following the prehistoric cultural split of Indo-Aryan and Iranian cultures, names descended from *mitra were used for the following religious entities:...

. In Greek and Roman religion instead the homonymous gods *Diou-, Δι(digamma)-, underwent a shift and an enrichment that made of them also atmospheric deities, who by their mastership on thunder and lightning expressed themselves and made their will known to the community. In Rome, Jupiter sent also signs to the leaders of the state under the form of auspices, i. e. through birds besides thunder. The art of augury was considered regal by ancient Romans: by sending his signs Jupiter, the sovereign of Heaven communicates his advice to his terrestrial colleague, the king (rex), or his successor magistrates. The encounter of the heavenly and political, legal aspect of the deity are well represented by the prerogatives, priviledges, functions and taboos proper to his flamen
Flamen
In ancient Roman religion, a flamen was a priest assigned to one of fifteen deities with official cults during the Roman Republic. The most important three were the flamines maiores , who served the three chief Roman gods of the Archaic Triad. The remaining twelve were the flamines minores...

, the flamen Dialis
Flamen Dialis
In ancient Roman religion, the Flamen Dialis was the high priest of Jupiter. There were 15 flamines, of which three were flamines maiores, serving the three gods of the Archaic Triad...

 and his wife, the flaminica Dialis.


Dumézil maintains Jupiter is not in himself a god of war and agriculture even though his action and interest may extend to these spheres of human behaviour. His view is based on the methodological assumption that the correct criterion in studying a god's nature is not primarily to consider his field of action but instead the quality, way and features of his action. Consequently the analysis of the type of action performed by Jupiter in all the domains in which he operates allows him to understand that Jupiter is a sovereign god who may act in the field of politics as well as agriculture and war in his capacity as such, i.e. in a way and with the features proper to a king: sovereignity is expressed through the two aspects of absolute, magic power epitomised and represented by Vedic god Varuna
Varuna
In Vedic religion, Varuna is a god of the sky, of water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld...

 and lawful right by Vedic god Mitra
Mitra
*Mitra was an important Indo-Iranian divinity. Following the prehistoric cultural split of Indo-Aryan and Iranian cultures, names descended from *mitra were used for the following religious entities:...

. However sovereignity is highly peculiar in that it allows action in every field, other it would lose its essential quality. As a further proof of his view Dumézil cites the story of Tullus Hostilius, the most belligerant of the Roman kings, who was killed by Juppiter with a lightningbolt, fact which purports he did not enjoy the god's favour.

Varro's definition of Jupiter as the god who has under his jurisdiction the full blown stage of expression of every being (penes Iovem sunt summa) reflects indeed the sovereign nature of the god as opposed to the jurisdiction of Janus, god of passages and change, on their beginning (penes Ianum sunt prima).

Archaic Triad



The so-called Archaic Triad is a theological structure or system made up by the gods Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus. It was first described by Wissowa, and the concept developed further by Dumézil. The three-functional hypothesis of Indo-european society
Proto-Indo-European religion
Proto-Indo-European religion is the hypothesized religion of the Proto-Indo-European peoples based on the existence of similarities among the deities, religious practices and mythologies of the Indo-European peoples. Reconstruction of the hypotheses below is based on linguistic evidence using the...

 advanced by Dumézil holds that in prehistoric times society was divided into three classes— the priests, the warriors, and the craftsmen and merchants—which had as their religious counterpart the divine figures of the sovereign god, the warrior god and the civil god. The sovereign function, embodied by Jupiter, entailed omnipotence, thence a domain extended over every aspect of nature and life. The colour of the sovereign function is white.

The three functions are interrelated with one anther and overlap to some extent: particularly the sovereign function, even though being essentially religious in nature, is involved in many ways in areas pertaining to the other two. So Jupiter is the almighty magic player in the founding of the Roman state and the fields of war, agricultural plenty, human fertility and welfare.

Capitoline Triad




The Capitoline triad was introduced to Rome by the Tarquins. Scholars think it might have been an Etruscan or even local creation, on the basis of Vitruvius' treatise on architecture, in which the three deities are associated as the most important. It is possible that the Etruscans gave particular relevance to Menrva
Menrva
Menrva was an Etruscan goddess of war, art, wisdom and health. She contributed much of her character to Roman Minerva....

 (Minerva) as a goddess of destiny beside the royal couple Uni (Juno) and Tinia (Jupiter). In Rome, Minerva later took on more military connotations under the influence of Athena Pallas (Polias). Dumézil argues that with the advent of the Republic, Jupiter becomes the only king of Rome, no longer just the first of the great gods.

Janus



The relation of Jupiter to Janus is problematic. Varro defines Jupiter as the god who has potestas ("power") over the causes by which anything happens in the world. Janus, however, has the privilege of being invoked first in rites since in his power are the beginnings of things (prima).

Saturn



The Latins considered Saturn to be the predecessor of Jupiter. Saturn had reigned in Latium
Latium
Lazio is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the central peninsular section of the country. With about 5.7 million residents and a GDP of more than 170 billion euros, Lazio is the third most populated and the second richest region of Italy...

 during a mythical Golden Age
Golden Age
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, and Iron Ages, and then the present, a period of decline...

 that was reenacted every year on the festival of the Saturnalia
Saturnalia
Saturnalia is an Ancient Roman festival/ celebration held in honour of Saturn , the youngest of the Titans, father of the major gods of the Greeks and Romans, and son of Uranus and Gaia...

. Saturn also retained primary functionality in matters of agriculture and money. Unlike the Greek tradition of Cronus
Cronus
In Greek mythology, Cronus or Kronos was the leader and the youngest of the first generation of Titans, divine descendants of Gaia, the earth, and Uranus, the sky...

 and Zeus, the usurpation of Saturn as king of the gods by Jupiter was not viewed by the Latins as violent or hostile. Saturn continued to be revered in his temple at the foot of the Capitol Hill, which continued to have the alternative name Saturnius into the time of Varro.

Fides



The abstract personification Fides ("Faith, Trust") was one of the most ancient gods associated with Jupiter. As guarantor of public faith, Fides had her temple on the Capitol, in the close proximity of that of Capitoline Jupiter.

Dius Fidius



Dius Fidius is sometimes considered a theonym for Jupiter, and sometimes a separate entity, known in Rome also as Semo Sancus
Sancus
In ancient Roman religion, Sancus was the god of trust , honesty, and oaths. His cult is one of the most ancient of the Romans, probably derived from Umbrian influences.-Oaths:...

 Dius Fidius. Wissowa argued that while Jupiter is the god of the Fides Publica Populi Romani as Iuppiter Lapis, by whom the most important oaths are sworn, Dius Fidius is a peculiar deity established for the everyday use, and was in charge of the protection of good faith in private affairs. Dius Fidius would thus correspond to Zeus Pistios. The association with Jupiter may be a matter divine filiation; some scholars see him as a form of Hercules.) Both Jupiter and Dius Fidius are wardens of oaths and wielders of lightning bolts, and both require an opening in the roof of their temples.

The functionality of Sancus occurs consistently within the sphere of fides, oaths and respect for contracts and of the divine sanction guarantee against their breach. Wissowa suggested that Semo Sancus is the Genius
Genius (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion, the genius was the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place or thing.-Nature of the genius:...

 of Jupiter, but the concept of the Genius of a deity is a development of the Imperial period.

Some aspects of the ritual of the oath for Dius Fidius, such as the proceedings under the open sky or in the compluvium of private residences and the fact the temple of Sancus had no roof, may suggest that the oath sworn by Dius Fidius predated that for Iuppiter Lapis or Iuppiter Feretrius.

Genius



Augustine quotes Varro as explaining the Genius as "the god who is in charge and has the power of the generating everything" and "the rational spirit of everyone, thence everybody has his own". Augustine concludes that Jupiter should thence be considered the Genius of the universe.

Summanus



The god of nocturnal lightning has been interpreted as an aspect of Jupiter, either a chthonic
Chthonic
Chthonic designates, or pertains to, deities or spirits of the underworld, especially in relation to Greek religion. The Greek word khthon is one of several for "earth"; it typically refers to the interior of the soil, rather than the living surface of the land or the land as territory...

 manifestation of the god or an independent god of the underworld. A statue of Summanus stood on the roof of the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, and Iuppiter Summanus is one of the epithets of Jupiter. G. Dumézil sees the opposition Dius Fidius Summanus as complementary interpreting it in the light of his theory of an original ambiguity of the sovereign god, exemplified in the opposition of the couple Mitra-Varuna in Vedic religion. The complementarity of the epithets is shown in inscriptions often found on a puteal or bidental reciting either fulgur Dium conditum or fulgur Summanum conditum. This fact tallies also with the supposed etymology of Summanus as deriving from sub and mane, i.e. denoting the time before the morning.

Liber



Iuppiter had an association with Liber
Liber
In ancient Roman religion and mythology, Liber , also known as Liber Pater was a god of viticulture and wine, fertility and freedom. He was a patron deity of Rome's plebeians and was part of their Aventine Triad. His festival of Liberalia became associated with free speech and the rights...

 through his epithet of Liber, association which has not yet been fully explained by scholars owing to the scarceness of early documentation.

In the past it has been maintained that Liber was nothing else than a progressively detached hypostasis of Jupiter and consequently that the festivals of vintage were to be attributed only to Iuppiter Liber. Such a hypotheseis has been rejected by Wissowa as groundless even though he himself has been a supporter of the jovian origin of Liber. Olivier de Cazanove opines it is very difficult to admit that Liber, who is present in the most ancient calendars, that of Numa, in the Liberalia and in the month of Liber at Lavinium be a derivation from another deity. Moreover such a derivation would find support only in epigraphic documents mainly from the Osco-Sabellic area: the association Iuppiter Liber is testified first in Oscan and Sabellic territory: Wissowa sets the position of Iuppiter Liber within the frame he draws of an agrarian Jupiter. The god had a temple under this name also on the Aventine in Rome which was restored by Augustus and dedicated on September 1. Here the god was sometimes named Liber sometimes Libertas. Wissowa opines the relationship should be sought in the concept of creative abundance through which the supposedly severed Liber might have been connected to Greek god Dionysos, even though both deities might not have been since the beginning related to viticulture.

Other scholars opine that there was no other Liber than a god of wine since the most ancient times. O. de Cazanove has argued that the domain of the sovereign god Jupiter was that of sacred, sacrificial wine (vinum inferium), while that of Liber and Libera was confined to profane wine (vinum spurcum), obtained through two distinct fermentation processes. The offer of wine to Liber was made possible by naming the mustum (grape juice) stored in amphors sacrima.
Sacred wine was obtained by the natural fermentation of the juice of grapes that were absolutely free from flaws of any type, either religious (e. g. those striken by lightningbolts, come into contact with corpses or wounded people, coming from an undressed grapryard) or other, by only cutting it with old wine, profane wine might be obtained through many kinds of manipulation (e.g. by adding honey mulsum, using raisins passum, by boiling defrutum) however the sacrima used at the time of the offer to the two gods for the conservation of grapeyards, vessels and wine itself after the pressing was obtained only by pouring the juice into amphors. The mustum was considered spurcum dirty, and as such not usable in sacrifices. The amphor, itself not an item of sacrifice, allowed the presentation of the content on atable or could added to asacrifice; this happened at the auspicatio vindamiae for the first grape and for ears of corn of the praemetium on a dish (lanx) at the
temple of Ceres
Ceres (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion, Ceres was a goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility and motherly relationships. She was originally the central deity in Rome's so-called plebeian or Aventine Triad, then was paired with her daughter Proserpina in what Romans described as "the Greek rites of Ceres"...

.

Dumézil on the other hand sees the relationship between Jupiter and Liber as grounded in the social and political relevance of the two gods, who were both considered patrons of freedom: the Liberalia of March were since the earliest times the occasion for the ceremony of the wearing of the toga virilis or libera, which marked the acquiring of the status of adult citizens by the youngsters. Augustine relates that these festivals had a particularly obscene character: a phallus was taken to the fields on a cart and then back in triumph to town. In Lavinium
Lavinium
Lavinium was a port city of Latium, to the south of Rome, at a median distance between the Tiber river at Ostia and Anzio. The coastline then, as now, was a long strip of beach. Lavinium was on a hill at the southernmost edge of the Silva Laurentina, a dense laurel forest, and the northernmost...

 they lasted a whole month during which everybody uttered baudry jokes. The most honest matronae were supposed to publicly crown the phallus with flowers in order to ensure a good harvest and repeal the fascinatio (evil eye). In Rome in the temple of the couple Liber Libera were placed representations of the sex organs. The couple in fact presided over the male and female components of generation and the liberation of the semen. This complex of rites and beliefs shows the divine couple's jurisdiction extended over fertility in general and not only that of grapes. The etymology of Liber (archaic form Loifer, Loifir) was explained by Émile Benveniste as formed on the IE theme *leudh- plus suffix -es-: its original meaning is "the one of germination, he who ensures the sprouting of crops".

The relationship of Jupiter with freedom was however a common belief of all the Roman people as is proved by the dedication of the Mons Sacer to the god after the first secession of the plebs. Later inscriptions also show the unabated popular belief in Jupiter as bestower of freedom in the imperial era.

Veiove


Scholars have always been puzzled by Ve(d)iove (or Veiovis
Veiovis
Vejovis or Vejove is a Roman god.-Representation and worship:Vejovis is portrayed as a young man, holding a bunch of arrows, pilum, in his hand, and is accompanied by a goat. Romans believed that Vejovis was one of the first gods to be born. He was a god of healing, and became associated with...

 or Vedius) and unwilling to discuss his identity, claiming our knowledge of this god is insufficient. Most do agree though that Veiove is a sort of anti-Iove or an underworld Jupiter, on the basis of the information given by Gellius, who states his name is made up by adding the prefix ve, here denoting deprivation or negation, added to Iove , whose name in turn Gellius supposes to be rooted in verb iuvo, I benefit. Dario Sabbatucci has stressed the feature of bearer of instability and of antithesis to the cosmic order of this god, who threatens the kingly power of Jupiter as Stator and Centumpeda and whose presence occurs side by side with Janus's on January 1. Preller ha dsuggested the hypothesis Veiovis might be the sinister double of Jupiter.

In fact the god, under the name Vetis, is placed in the last case (no. 16) of the outer rim of the Piacenza Liver, before Cilens (Nocturnus) who ends (or in the Etruscan vision begins) the disposition of the gods. In Martianus Capella
Martianus Capella
Martianus Minneus Felix Capella was a pagan writer of Late Antiquity, one of the earliest developers of the system of the seven liberal arts that structured early medieval education...

's division of Heaven he is to be found in region XV (together with the dii publici): as such he numbers among the infernal or antipodal gods. The location of his two temples in Rome, near those of Jupiter (one on the Capitoline Hill, in the low between the arx and the Capitolium, between the two groves where the asylum
Asylum
- Politics and society :* Asylum , places of refuge in ancient Greece and Rome* Right of asylum or political asylum* Church asylum or sanctuary, a right to be safe from arrest in the sanctuary of a church or temple...

 founded by Romulus stood, the other on the Tiber Island near that of Iuppiter Iurarius, later also known as temple of Aesculapius) may be significant in this respect along with the fact that he is considered the father of Apollo, perhaps because he was depicted carrying a bunch of arrows. He is also considered to be the unbearded Jupiter. The date of his festivals seems to support the same complex, as they fall on January 1, March 7 and May 21, the first date being the recurrence of the Agonalia
Agonalia
In Ancient Roman religious tradition, Agonalia, or Agonia, was a festival celebrated several times a year, in honor of various divinities, such as Janus and Agonius, whom the Romans used to invoke upon their undertaking any business of importance...

 dedicated also to Janus, that were celebrated by the king with a sacrifice of a ram. The question of the sacrifice to the god too is debated: Gellius states capra she goat, some scholars though think it should be a ram. This sacrifice happened rito humano which may mean with the rite proper to a human sacrifice. Gellius concludes his passage stating this god is one of those who receive sacrifices in order to obtain their refraining from causing harm.

The arrow was an ambivalent symbol as it was used in the ritual of the devotio
Devotio
In ancient Roman religion, the devotio was an extreme form of votum in which a Roman general vowed to sacrifice his own life in battle along with the enemy to chthonic gods in exchange for a victory. The most extended description of the ritual is given by the Augustan historian Livy, regarding the...

: the general who vowed himself had to stand on an arrow. It is on the grounds of the character of the arrow that Gellius considers Veiove as a god who must receive worship to obtain his abstention from doing harm, along with Robigus and Averruncus
Averruncus
In ancient Roman religion, Averruncus or Auruncus is a god of averting harm. Aulus Gellius says that he is one of the potentially malignant deities who must be propitiated for their power to both inflict and withhold disaster from people and the harvests....

. Maurice Besnier has remarked that a temple to Iuppiter was vowed by praetor Lucius Furius Purpureo before the battle of Cremona
Battle of Cremona (200 BC)
The Battle of Cremona was fought in 200 BC between the Roman Republic and Cisalpine Gaul. The Roman force was victorious.During the end of the Second Macedonian War, tribes in Cisalpine Gaul rebelled against the Republic, sacking the city of Placentia...

 against the Celtic Cenomani of Cisalpine Gaul
Cenomani (Cisalpine Gaul)
The Cenomani , was an ancient tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, who occupied the tract north of the Padus , between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. Their territory appears to have extended from the river Addua to the Athesis...

. An inscription found at Brescia
Brescia
Brescia is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. It is situated at the foot of the Alps, between the Mella and the Naviglio, with a population of around 197,000. It is the second largest city in Lombardy, after the capital, Milan...

 in 1888 shows that Iuppiter Iurarius was worshipped there and one found on the south tip of Tiber Island in 1854 that there was a cult to the god on the spot. Besnier speculates that L. Furius had evocated the chief god of the enemy and built a temple to him in Rome outside the pomerium. The Fasti Praenestini too on January 1 record the festivals of Aesculapius and Vediove on the Island while Ovid in the Fasti speaks of Jupiter and his grandson. Livy records that in 192 BC duumvir Q. Marcus Ralla dedicated to Jupiter on the Capitol the two temples promised by L. Furius Purpureo, one of which was that vowed during the war against the Gauls. Besnier would accept a correction to Livy's passage proposed by Jordan so as to read aedes Veiovi in aedes duae Iovi 's stead. Such a correction though concerns the temples dedicated on the Capitol and does not bear on the question of the dedication of the temple on the Island, which is the vexed point since the place is attested as dedicated to the cult of Iuppiter Iurarius and also of Vediove in the Fasti Praenestini epigraphically and to Jupiter in Ovid's words. It looks that the two gods may have been seen as equivalent: Iuppiter Iurarius is a sort of awesome and vengeful god, parallel to the Greek Zeus Orkios, the avenger of perjury.

Victoria


Victoria was a personified entity strictly connected to Iuppiter Victor in his role of bestower of military victory. Jupiter as the sovereign god was naturally considered as having the power of conquering anybody and anything in a supernatural, magic wise, wherefore his contribution to military victory was different from that of Mars, god of military valour . Victoria appears first on the coins of the first Punic War on the reverse of coins representing Venus, driving the quadriga of Jupiter, with her head crowned and with the palm in her hand. Sometimes she is also represented walking and carrying a trophy.

A temple was afterwards dedicated to the goddess on the Palatine, testifying her high station in the Romans's mind. When Hieron of Syracuse presented a golden statuette of the goddess to Rome the senate had it placed in the temple of Capitoline Jupiter, among the highest and most sacred deities.

Even though Victoria played a foremost role in the religious ideology of the late Republic and of the Empire she is not attested in earlier times. A function similar to hers might have been played by the little known Vica Pota
Vica Pota
In ancient Roman religion, Vica Pota was a goddess whose shrine was located at the foot of the Velian Hill, on the site of the domus of Publius Valerius Publicola. This location would place the temple on the same side of the Velia as the forum and perhaps not far from the Regia...

.

Terminus



Juventas and Terminus were the gods that according to legend refused to be exaugurated and to leave their sites on the Capitol when the construction of the temple of Jupiter was undertaken. Thence they had to be reserved a sacellum within the new temple. Their stubborness was considered a good omen as it would guarantee youth, stability and safety to Rome on its site. This legend is generally thought by scholars to reflect their strict connexion with Jupiter. In Fact an inscription has been found near Ravenna
Ravenna
Ravenna is the capital city of the Province of Ravenna in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy and the second largest comune in Italy by land area, although, at , it is little more than half the size of the largest comune, Rome...

 reading Iuppiter Ter., showing Terminus is nothing else than an aspect of Jupiter, i. e. the affinity between the boundary stone and the god.

Terminus is usually considered the god of boundaries public and private and he is so portrayed in literature. The religious value of the boundary stone is well expounded by Plutarch who ascribes to king Numa the construction of temples to Fides and Terminus and the delimitation of the Roman territory. Ovid gives a vivid description of the rural rite at the boundary of fields of neighbouring peasants on February 23, the day of the Terminalia
Terminus (mythology)
In Roman religion, Terminus was the god who protected boundary markers; his name was the Latin word for such a marker. Sacrifices were performed to sanctify each boundary stone, and landowners celebrated a festival called the "Terminalia" in Terminus' honor each year on February 23...

. On that day the Roman pontiffs and magistrates held a ceremony at the sixth mile of the Via Laurentina
Via Laurentina
Via Laurentina, an ancient road of Italy, leading southwards from Rome. The question of the nomenclature of the group of roads between the Via Ardeatina and the Via Ostiensis is somewhat difficult, and much depends on the view taken as to the site of Laurentum...

, ancient border of the Roman ager, which preserved a religious value.

However this festival marked in fact the end of the year and as such was linked to time more directly than to space, fact testified by Augustine's apologetical discussion of the role of god Janus in respect to endings. Dario Sabbatucci and has underlined the temporal affiliation of Terminus of which a reminder should be found in the rite of the regifugium.

G. Dumézil on the other hand views the function of this god as associated to the legalistic aspect of the sovereign function of Jupiter: Terminus would be the counterpart of Vedic minor sovereign god Bagha, who oversees the just and fair division of goods (flock) among citizens.

Iuventas



Along with Terminus Iuventas (also known as Iuventus and Iuunta, archaic) should represent an aspect of Jupiter, as the legend of her refusal to leave the Capitol Hill shows. Her name has the same root of Juno
Juno (mythology)
Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. She is a daughter of Saturn and sister of the chief god Jupiter and the mother of Mars and Vulcan. Juno also looked after the women of Rome. Her Greek equivalent is Hera...

 (from Iuu-, young, youngster) and in fact the cerimonial litter bearing the sacred goose of Juno Moneta stopped before her sacellum on the festival of the goddess. Later she was identified with Greek Hebe
Hebe (mythology)
In Greek mythology, Hēbē is the goddess of youth . She is the daughter of Zeus and Hera. Hebe was the cupbearer for the gods and goddesses of Mount Olympus, serving their nectar and ambrosia, until she was married to Heracles ; her successor was the young Trojan prince Ganymede...

. The fact that Jupiter himself is strictly related with the concept of youth is shown by his epithets Puer, Iuuentus and Ioviste (interpreted as the youngest by some scholars). Dumézil remarked the presence of the two minor sovereign deities Bagha and Aryaman
Aryaman
Aryaman is one of the early Vedic deities . His name signifies "bosom friend". He is the third son of Aditi. He is an Aditya, a solar deity. He is supposed to be the chief of the manes and the Milky Way is supposed to be his path.Aryaman is another name for Surya or the Sun God...

 beside Vedic sovereign gods Varuna and Mitra, though more associated with Mitra: this couple would be reflected in Rome in Terminus and Iuventas. Aryaman is in fact the god of the young soldiers: similarly the function of Iuventas is that of protectress of the iuvenes, the novi togati of the year, who are required to go and offer a sacrifice to Jupiter on the Capitol and also the Roman soldiers, function later attributed to Juno. King Servius Tullius in reforming the Roman social organisation required that every adolescent upon entering the class of the adults to offer a coin to the goddes of Youth.

In Dumézil's analysis the function of Iuventas, personification of youth, was thence be the control of the entranc e of young men in society and their protection til they are in the age of iuvenes or iuniores, i. e. of serving the state as soldiers.

A temple of Iuventas was vowed in 207 BC by consul Marcus Livius Salinator
Marcus Livius Salinator
Marcus Livius Drusus Salinator , the son of Marcus , was a Roman consul who fought in both the First Punic wars and Second Punic wars most notably during the Battle of Zama....

and dedicated in 191 BC

Penates



Arnobius citing Caesius states the Etruscan Penates were named Fortuna, Ceres, Genius Iovialis and Pales, but also that according to Nigidius Figulus they included those of Jupiter, Neptune, of the infernal gods and of mortal men. This complex conception is reflected in Martianus Capella 's division of Heaven found in book I of his work De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae who places the Di Consentes Penates in region I along with the Favores Opertanei, in region V Ceres and Genius, in region VI Pales, Favor and Genius again, in region VII Secundanus Pales, in region XI Fortuna and Favor Pastor. The disposition of these divine entities and their repetitions in different locations might be due to the fact that Penates belonging to different categories (heavenly in region I, earthly in region V, human and of the underworld) or are intended. Favor(es) may be an Etruscan male equivalent of Fortuna.