Ridda wars

Ridda wars

Overview
The Ridda wars also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabian tribes launched by the Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 during 632
632
Year 632 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 632 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Asia :* January 27 – Annular eclipse of the...

 and 633
633
Year 633 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 633 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Europe :* Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda.* Osric...

 AD, after prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 died.
The revolts, in Islamic historiography later interpreted as religious, were in reality mainly political. However, these revolts also had a religious aspect: Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 had become the centre of a social and political system, of which religion was an integral part; consequently it was inevitable that any reaction against this system would have a religious aspect.

In about the middle of May 632, Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

, now ailing, ordered a large expedition to be prepared against the Roman empire in order to ward against Roman conquest.
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Encyclopedia
The Ridda wars also known as the Wars of Apostasy, were a series of military campaigns against the rebellion of several Arabian tribes launched by the Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 during 632
632
Year 632 was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 632 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Asia :* January 27 – Annular eclipse of the...

 and 633
633
Year 633 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 633 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.- Europe :* Oswald of Bernicia becomes Bretwalda.* Osric...

 AD, after prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

 died.
The revolts, in Islamic historiography later interpreted as religious, were in reality mainly political. However, these revolts also had a religious aspect: Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 had become the centre of a social and political system, of which religion was an integral part; consequently it was inevitable that any reaction against this system would have a religious aspect.

Prelude


In about the middle of May 632, Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

, now ailing, ordered a large expedition to be prepared against the Roman empire in order to ward against Roman conquest. All Muslims were to join it. Usama ibn Zaid, a young man and son of Zayd ibn Harithah
Zayd ibn Harithah
Zayd ibn Harithah or Zayd mawla Muhammad was a prominent figure in the early Islamic community and the only one of sahaba whose name is spelled directly in the Qur'an. As he was the adopted son of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, before Islam abolished adoption in exchange of Kafala. He was an...

, was appointed as commander of this force. However, Muhammad died in June 632 and Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 was chosen by the other sahaba
Sahaba
In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

 as Caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

.

On the first day of his caliphate, Abu Bakr ordered the army of Usama to prepare for march. Although Abu Bakr was under great pressure regarding this expedition, due to rising rebellion and apostasy across Arabia, he was adamant. Before his march, Usama sent Umar
Umar
`Umar ibn al-Khattāb c. 2 November , was a leading companion and adviser to the Islamic prophet Muhammad who later became the second Muslim Caliph after Muhammad's death....

 to Caliph Abu Bakr and is reported to have said:However, Abu Bakr refused. He was moved to this decision by nothing other than his desire to carry out the last military wish of Muhammad.

On June 26, 632 the army of Usama broke camp and moved out. After leaving Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

, Usama had marched to Tabuk. Most of the tribes in this region opposed him fiercely but were defeated by Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

s. Usama raided far and wide in the region of Northern Arabia, starting with the Quza'a and then made his way to Dawmatu l-Jandal (modern Al Jawf, Saudi Arabia
Al Jawf, Saudi Arabia
Skaka is a city in the north of Saudi Arabia. It is the capital of Al Jawf Province.See Sakakah for full description-External links:* , Splendid Arabia: A travel site with photos and routes...

). Abu Bakr gave the order to respect life, to never kill women, nor children, old people or Christian priests. He said to even respect trees and orchards.

As a result of his operations, several apostate tribes resubmitted to Medina and re-embraced Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

. But the Quza'a remained rebellious and unrepentant, and had to be dealt with again a short while later by 'Amr ibn al-'As
'Amr ibn al-'As
`Amr ibn al-`As was an Arab military commander who is most noted for leading the Muslim conquest of Egypt in 640. A contemporary of Muhammad, and one of the Sahaba , who rose quickly through the Muslim hierarchy following his conversion to Islam in the year 8 AH...

.

Usama next marched to Mu'tah, fought the Christian Arabs of the tribes of Banu Kalb
Banu Kalb
The Banu Kalb was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era. The Banu Kalb claimed descent from the Yemenites. According to the hadith of the Islamic prophet Muhammad they will be among the first people to follow the Sufyani....

 and Ghassanids
Ghassanids
The Ghassanids were a group of South Arabian Christian tribes that emigrated in the early 3rd century from Yemen to Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and the Holy Land....

 and avenged the death of his father. There was, however, no major battle. Then he returned to Medina, bringing with him a large number of captives and a considerable amount of wealth, part of which comprised the spoils of war and part the taxes paid by the repentant tribes. The Islamic army remained out of Medina for 40 days.

Defense of Medina


The concentrations of apostates nearest Medina were located in two areas: Abraq, 72 miles north-east of Medina, and Dhu Qissa, 24 miles east of Medina. These concentrations consisted of the tribes of Banu Ghatafan
Banu Ghatafan
Banu Ghatafan are a massive ancient tribe north of Medinah and from them come the tribes of Banu Abs and Ashga and Banu Thibyaan. They were one of the Arab tribes that interacted with Muhammad. They are notable for allying themselves with the Banu Quraish in the Battle of the trench....

, the Hawazin
Hawazin
Ha'wa zin was a sub-division from the Qais Ailan tribe, Hawazin is the mighty Pre-Islamic Arabian tribe concentrated in the area around Ta’if in the Arabian Peninsula. Its descendants are scattered across the Middle-East and North Africa as many of its members were dispatched after the Muslim...

, and the Tayy
Tayy
Tayy is a large and ancient Arabian tribe belonging to the southern or Qahtanite branch of Arab tribes. Their original homeland was the area of the two mountains Aja and Salma in north central Arabia , though, like all Qahtanite tribes, it is believed they originally moved there from Yemen...

. Abu Bakr sent envoys to all the apostate tribes, calling upon them to remain loyal to Islam and continue to pay their Zakat
Zakat
Zakāt , one of the Five Pillars of Islam, is the giving of a fixed portion of one's wealth to charity, generally to the poor and needy.-History:Zakat, a practice initiated by Muhammed himself, has played an important role throughout Islamic history...

.

A week or two after the departure of the Islamic army under Usama, the apostates surrounded Medina, knowing that there were few fighting forces in city. Meanwhile, Tulayha
Tulayha
Tulayha ibn Khuwaylid ibn Nawfal al-Asadi belonged to the Bani Assad tribe. He was a wealthy chief and a great warrior. In 625 he was defeated in the Expedition of Qatan . He also took part in the Battle of the Trench in 627.-History:...

, a self-proclaimed prophet , reinforced the apostates at Dhu Qissa. In the third week of July 632, the apostate army moved from Dhu Qissa to Dhu Hussa, from where they prepared to launch an attack on Medina.

Abu Bakr received intelligence of this move of rebels, and immediately prepared for the defense of Medina. As the main army was out of Medina under Usama, Abu Bakr scraped together a fighting force, mainly from the clan of Mohammad, the Banu Hashim
Banu Hashim
Banū Hāshim was a clan in the Quraysh tribe. Muhammad, was a member of this clan; his great-grandfather was Hashim, for whom the clan is named. Members of this clan are referred to by the Anglicised version of their name as Hashemites, or Huseini or Hasani...

. The army had stalwarts like Talha ibn Ubaidullah and Zubair ibn al-Awam
Zubair ibn al-Awam
Zubair ibn al-Awwam, was a companion of Muhammad, father to Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and later one of the most successful commanders of the Rashidun army and served under the Rashidun caliphs Abu Bakr and Umar.Zubair, who was a cousin of the prophet Muhammad, was an early convert to Islam.He served...

, who would later (in the 640s) conquer Egypt
Muslim conquest of Egypt
At the commencement of the Muslims conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. However, it had been occupied just a decade before by the Persian Empire under Khosrau II...

. Each of them was appointed as commander of one-third of the newly organised force. Before the apostates could do anything, Abu Bakr launched his army against their outposts and drove them back to Dhu Hussa.

The following day, Abu Bakr marched from Medina with the main army and moved towards Dhu Hussa. As the riding camel
Camel
A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. There are two species of camels: the dromedary or Arabian camel has a single hump, and the bactrian has two humps. Dromedaries are native to the dry desert areas of West Asia,...

s were all gone with Usama's army, he could only muster inferior pack camels, and the army mounted these camels. These pack camels, being untrained for battle, bolted when Hibal, the apostate commander at Zhu Hussa, made a surprise attack from the hills on the Muslims; and the Muslims retreated to Medina. The apostates recaptured the outposts that they lost few days before. At Medina Abu Bakr reorganised the army for the battle and attacked the apostates during the night, taking them by surprise. The apostates retreated from Dhu Hussa to Dhu Qissa. On the morning Abu Bakr led his forces to Dhu Qissa and defeated the apostate tribes and captured Dhu Qissa on 1 August 632.

The defeated apostate tribes retreated to Abraq, where more clansmen of the Ghatfan, the Hawazin, and the Tayy were gathered. Abu Bakr left a detachment under An-Numan ibn Muqarrin at Dhu Qissa and returned with his main army to Medina. On 4 August 632, Usama's army arrived in Medina. The army had been away for 40 days.

Abu Bakr ordered Usama to rest his men in Medina and re-equip them to fight against the rebels. Meanwhile in the second week of August 632 Abu Bakr with his army moved to Zhu Qissa. Taking the detachment of Numan ibn Muqarrin under his command, he moved to Abraq, where the retreated apostates had gathered, and defeated them. The remaining apostates retreated to Buzakha, whither Tulayha had moved with his army from Samira.

Abu Bakr's Strategy


In the fourth week of August 632, Abu Bakr moved to Zhu Qissa with all available fighting forces. There he planned the strategy of the Campaign of the Apostasy to deal with the various enemies who occupied the entire land of Arabia except for the small area in the possession of the Muslims.
The battles which he had fought recently against the apostate concentrations at Zhu Qissa and Abraq were in the nature of immediate preventive action to protect Medina and discourage further offensives by the enemy. These actions enabled Abu Bakr to secure a base from which he could fight the major campaign that lay ahead, thus gaining time for the preparation and launching of his main forces.
Abu Bakr had to fight not one but several enemies: Tulayha at Buzakha, Malik bin Nuwaira at Butah, Musaylima at Yamamah. He had to deal with widespread apostasy on the eastern and southern coasts of Arabia: in Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

, in Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, in Mahra
Mahra
Mahra may refer to:* Mahra a Jat clan found in Pakistani Punjab* Al Mahrah Governorate* Mahra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a town in Pakistan* Mahra Sultanate* The Mehri language* Meheri people...

, in Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut, Hadhramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt is the formerly independent Qu'aiti state and sultanate encompassing a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards from Yemen to the borders of the Dhofar region of Oman...

 and in Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

. There was apostasy in the region south and east of Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 and by the Quza'a in northern Arabia.

Abu Bakr formed the army into several corps. The strongest corps, and this was the main punch of the Muslims, was the corps of Khalid ibn Walid. This was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel forces. Other corps were given areas of secondary importance in which to subdue the less dangerous apostate tribes.
The first corps to go into action was that of Khalid, and the timing of the despatch of other corps hinged on the operations of Khalid, who was given the task of fighting the strongest enemy forces one after the other. Abu Bakr's plan was first to clear the area of west central Arabia (the area nearest to Medina), then tackle Malik bin Nuwaira, and finally concentrate against the most dangerous and powerful enemy: the self-proclaimed prophet Musaylima.

Campaign of Apostasy


The caliph formed 11 main corps, each under its own commander. A standard was given to each corps. The available manpower was distributed among these corps, and while some commanders were given immediate missions, others were given missions for which they would be launched later. The 11 corps commanders and their assigned objectives were as follows:
  • Khalid Ibn Walid: First Tulaiha bin Khuwailad Al-Asdee (طُلیحہ بن خویلد الاسدی) from the Asad Tribe (بنو اسد) at Buzaakhah (بزاخہ), then Malik bin Nuwaira, at Butah.
  • Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
    Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
    Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl was an important early Muslim leader and companion of Muhammad. As the son of Abu Jahl, Ikrimah was at first, one of the chief Mecca opponents to Muhammad....

    : Contact Musaylima at Yamamah but not to get involved until more forces were built up.

  • Amr ibn al-As: The apostate tribes of Quza'a and Wadi'a in the area of Tabuk and Daumat-ul-Jandal.
  • Shurahbil bin Hasanah: Follow Ikrimah and await the Caliph's instructions.
  • Khalid bin Saeed: Certain apostate tribes on the Syrian frontier.
  • Turaifa bin Hajiz: The apostate tribes of Hawazin and Bani Sulaim in the area east of Medina and Mecca.
  • Ala bin Al Hadhrami: The apostates in Bahrain.
  • Hudhaifa bin Mihsan: The apostates in Oman.
  • Arfaja bin Harsama: The apostates in Mahra.
  • Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah: The apostates in the Yemen, then the Kinda in Hadhramaut.
  • Suwaid bin Muqaran: The apostates in the coastal area north of the Yemen.


As soon as the organisation of the corps was complete, Khalid marched off, to be followed a little later by Ikrimah and 'Amr ibn al-'As. The other corps were held back by the caliph and despatched weeks and even months later. Their despatch was conditioned by the progress of Khalid's operations against the hard core of enemy opposition.

Before the various corps left Zhu Qissa, however, envoys were sent by Abu Bakr to all apostate tribes in a final attempt to induce them to submit.

Apart from their specific objectives, the corps commanders were given the following instructions:
  1. Seek the tribes which are your objectives
  2. Call the Azaan.
  3. If the tribe answers with the Azaan, do not attack. After the Azaan, ask the tribe to confirm its submission, including the payment of zakat. If confirmed, do not attack.
  4. Those who submit will not be attacked.
  5. Those who do not answer with the Azaan, or after the Azaan do not confirm full submission, will be dealt with by the sword.
  6. All apostates who have killed Muslims will be killed.


With these instructions Abu Bakr launched the forces of Islam against the apostates.

Central Arabia


Apostasy and rebellion in central Arabia was led by Musaylima, a self proclaimed prophet, in the fertile region of Yamamah. He was mainly supported by the powerful tribe of Banu Hanifa
Banu Hanifa
Banu Hanifa were an ancient Arab tribe inhabiting the area of al-Yamama in the central region of modern-day Saudi Arabia. The tribe belonged to the great Rabi'ah branch of North Arabian tribes, which also included 'Anizzah, Abd al-Qays, Bakr, and Taghlib...

. At Buzakha in north central Arabia, another self-proclaimed prophet, Tulaiha, a tribal chief of Bani Asad, led the rebellion against Medina aided by the allied tribes of Banu Ghatfan, the Hawazin
Hawazin
Ha'wa zin was a sub-division from the Qais Ailan tribe, Hawazin is the mighty Pre-Islamic Arabian tribe concentrated in the area around Ta’if in the Arabian Peninsula. Its descendants are scattered across the Middle-East and North Africa as many of its members were dispatched after the Muslim...

, and the Tayy
Tayy
Tayy is a large and ancient Arabian tribe belonging to the southern or Qahtanite branch of Arab tribes. Their original homeland was the area of the two mountains Aja and Salma in north central Arabia , though, like all Qahtanite tribes, it is believed they originally moved there from Yemen...

. At Najd
Najd
Najd or Nejd , literally Highland, is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula.-Boundaries :The Arabic word nejd literally means "upland" and was once applied to a variety of regions within the Arabian Peninsula...

, Malik ibn Nuweira led the tribes of Banu Tamim
Banu Tamim
Banī Tamīm Tamim is one of the largest of all Arab tribes. Their history goes back to pre-Islamic times....

 against the authority of Medina.

Buzakha


On receiving intelligence of the Muslims preparations, Tulayha too prepared for a battle, and was further reinforced by the contingents of the allied tribes.
Before launching Khalid against Tulayha, Abu Bakr sought ways and means of reducing the latter's strength, so that the battle could be fought with the maximum prospects of victory. Nothing could be done about the tribes of Bani Assad and Banu Ghatafan
Banu Ghatafan
Banu Ghatafan are a massive ancient tribe north of Medinah and from them come the tribes of Banu Abs and Ashga and Banu Thibyaan. They were one of the Arab tribes that interacted with Muhammad. They are notable for allying themselves with the Banu Quraish in the Battle of the trench....

, which stood solidly behind Tulayha, but the Tayy
Tayy
Tayy is a large and ancient Arabian tribe belonging to the southern or Qahtanite branch of Arab tribes. Their original homeland was the area of the two mountains Aja and Salma in north central Arabia , though, like all Qahtanite tribes, it is believed they originally moved there from Yemen...

 were not so staunch in their support of Tulayha, and their chief, Adi ibn Hatim, was a devout Muslim. Adi was appointed by Abu Bakr to negotiate with the tribal elders to withdraw their contingent from Tulayha's army. The negotiations were a success, and Adi brought with him 500 horsemen of his tribe to reinforce Khalid's army.
Khalid next marched against another apostate tribe, Jadila. Here again Adi ibn Hatim offered his services to persuade the tribe to submit without bloodshed. Bani Jadila submitted, and their 1000 warriors joined Khalid's army.
Khalid, now much stronger than when he had left Zhu Qissa, marched for Buzakha. There, in mid-September 632 CE, he defeated Tulayha in the Battle of Buzakha
Battle of Buzakha
The Battle of Buzakha took place between Khalid ibn al-Walid and Tulieha, in September 632.- General Engagement :Khalid at the beginning of the battle challenged Tulieha for a duel. After a brief encounter with Khalid he ran for shelter towards his own army. The battle was a slogging contest in...

. The remaining army of Tulayha retreated to Ghamra, 20 miles from Buzakha, and were defeated in the Battle of Ghamra
Battle of Ghamra
The Battle of Ghamra took place between Khalid ibn al-Walid and the remaining army of Buzakha, 20 miles from Buzakha.-On-line Resources:-References:...

 in the third week of September 632 CE. Several tribes submitted to the Caliph after Khalid's decisive victories. Moving south from Buzakha, Khalid reached Naqra in October 632 CE, with an army now 6000 strong, and defeated the rebel tribe of Banu Saleem in the Battle of Naqra
Battle of Naqra
The Battle of Naqra took place in October 633 between rebel armies and Khalid ibn al-Walid's army during the Ridda Wars.-On-line Resources:-References:...

. 632 In third week of October 632 CE, Khalid defeated a tribal mistress, Salma, in the battle of Zafar
Battle of Zafar
The Battle of Zafar took place in 633 AD between Khalid ibn al-Walid and a tribal mistress called Salma. Khalid defeated her and she died on the battlefield. The battle was part of the Ridda Wars.This apostate leader was riding on a camel surrounded by her loyal guard. Khalid ibn al-Walid...

. Afterwards he moved to Najd against the rebel tribe of Banu Tamim
Banu Tamim
Banī Tamīm Tamim is one of the largest of all Arab tribes. Their history goes back to pre-Islamic times....

 and their Sheikh
Sheikh
Not to be confused with sikhSheikh — also spelled Sheik or Shaikh, or transliterated as Shaykh — is an honorific in the Arabic language that literally means "elder" and carries the meaning "leader and/or governor"...

 Malik ibn Nuwayrah
Malik ibn Nuwayrah
Malik ibn Nuwaira , also spelled as Malik ibn Nuwera, was a chief of the Bani Yarbu', a large section of the powerful tribe of Bani Tamim which inhabited the north-eastern region of Arabia, above Bahrain. Being close to Persia, some elements of the Bani Tamim had embraced Zoroastrianism, but by and...

.

Najd


At Najd
Najd
Najd or Nejd , literally Highland, is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula.-Boundaries :The Arabic word nejd literally means "upland" and was once applied to a variety of regions within the Arabian Peninsula...

, getting the news of Khalid's decisive victories against apostates in Buzakha, many clans of Banu Tamim
Banu Tamim
Banī Tamīm Tamim is one of the largest of all Arab tribes. Their history goes back to pre-Islamic times....

 hastened to visit Khalid, but the Banu Yarbu', a branch of Bani Tamim, under their chief, Malik ibn Nuwayrah
Malik ibn Nuwayrah
Malik ibn Nuwaira , also spelled as Malik ibn Nuwera, was a chief of the Bani Yarbu', a large section of the powerful tribe of Bani Tamim which inhabited the north-eastern region of Arabia, above Bahrain. Being close to Persia, some elements of the Bani Tamim had embraced Zoroastrianism, but by and...

, hung back. Malik was a chief of some distinction: a warrior, noted for his generosity, and a famous poet. Bravery, generosity, and poetry were the three qualities most admired among the Arabs.

After the death of Muhammad, he broke in open revolt against Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

.

At the time of Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

, he had been appointed as a tax collector for the tribe of Banu Tamim
Banu Tamim
Banī Tamīm Tamim is one of the largest of all Arab tribes. Their history goes back to pre-Islamic times....

. As soon as Malik heard of the death of Muhammad, he gave back all the tax to his tribespeople, saying, "Now you are the owner of your wealth." His riders were stopped by Khalid's army at the town of Buttah. Khalid asked them about the signing of pact with Sajjah; they said it was just because they wanted revenge against their terrible enemies. When Khalid reached Najd
Najd
Najd or Nejd , literally Highland, is the central region of the Arabian Peninsula.-Boundaries :The Arabic word nejd literally means "upland" and was once applied to a variety of regions within the Arabian Peninsula...

 he found no opposing army. He sent his cavalry
Cavalry
Cavalry or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the third oldest and the most mobile of the combat arms...

 to nearby villages and ordered them to call the Azaan (call for prayers) to each party they meet. Zirrar bin Azwar, a squadron leader, arrested the family of Malik, claiming they did not answer the call to prayer.
Malik avoided direct contact with Khalid's army and ordered his followers to scatter, and he and his family apparently moved away across the desert. He also collected taxes and send his men to Madina to deliver them.
Nevertheless, Malik was accused of rebellion against the state of Madina. He was also to be charged for his entering in an anti-Caliphate alliance with Sajjah, a self-proclaimed prophetess. Malik was arrested along with his clan men, Malik was asked by Khalid about his crimes. Malik's response was "your master said this your master said that" referring to Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

. Khalid declared Malik a rebel apostate and ordered his execution. Khalid bin Walid killed Malik ibn Nuwayra and raped his wife, Layla bint al-Minhal
Layla bint al-Minhal
Layla bint al-Minhal was a sahaba of Muhammad and the wife of Malik ibn Nuwayra.Layla was the daughter of Al Minhal and was later also known as Umm Tamim. She was acclaimed as one of the most beautiful girls in Arabia, for her gorgeous eyes. When she came of age, she was pursued by many men, but...

. Shias claim that Islamically, Khalid would have had to wait for her to complete the waiting period iddah (which can last from 4 months to 1 year) before Khalid would have been able to marry her. Sunnis believe that since Malik and his tribe were judged apostates, they were taken captives and Idda rules do not apply to apostates.
Shias also claim that Abu Qatada Ansari was so shocked at Malik's murder by Khalid that he immediately returned to Medina, and told Abu Bakr that he would not serve under a commander who had killed a Muslim.
The death of Malik and Khalid's taking of his wife Layla created a controversy. Some officers of his army—including a prominent companion of Muhammad, Abu Qatadah—believed that Khalid killed Malik to take his wife. After the pressure exerted by Umar—Khalid's cousin and one of Caliph Abu Bakr's main advisors—Abu Bakr called Khalid back to Madina to explain himself.
In Medina, ‘Umar told Khâlid: “You enemy of Allâh! You killed a Muslim man and thereafter took his wife. By Allâh, I will stone you.
Unlike the Shias, Sunnis believe that slandering the Prophet's companions is prohibited and that we cannot judge them right or wrong. The fact that Abu Bakr and Umar, the most prominent companions, did not appoint any penalty on Khalid Bin Walid means that after investigation they found him correct and not guilty, and that is sufficient for us to know that Khalid Bin Walid was correct in his judgment.

Yamamah


Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
Ikrimah ibn Abi-Jahl
Ikrimah ibn Abi Jahl was an important early Muslim leader and companion of Muhammad. As the son of Abu Jahl, Ikrimah was at first, one of the chief Mecca opponents to Muhammad....

, one of the corps commanders, was instructed to make contact with Musaylima at Yamamah, but not to engage in fighting until Khalid joined him. Abu Bakr's intention in giving Ikrimah this mission was to tie Musaylima down at Yamamah. With Ikrimah on the horizon, Musaylima would remain in expectation of a Muslim attack, and thus not be able to leave his base. With Musaylima so committed, Khalid would be free to deal with the apostate tribes of north-central Arabia without interference from Yamamah. Meanwhile Abu Bakr sent Shurhabil's corps to reinforce Ikrama at Yamamah.
Ikrimah, however, in early September 632 A.D attacked Musaylima's forces and was defeated. He wrote the details of his actions to Abu Bakr, who, both pained and angered by the rashness of Ikrimah and his disobedience, ordered him to proceed with his force to Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

 to assist Hudaifa; once Hudaifa had completed his task, to march to Mahra
Mahra
Mahra may refer to:* Mahra a Jat clan found in Pakistani Punjab* Al Mahrah Governorate* Mahra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, a town in Pakistan* Mahra Sultanate* The Mehri language* Meheri people...

 to help Arfaja, and thereafter go to Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

 to help Muhajir.
Meanwhile Abu Bakr sent orders to Khalid to march against Musaylima. Shurhabil's corps, that was stationed at Yamamah, was to reinforce Khalid's corps. In addition to this Abu Bakr assembled a fresh army of Ansar
Ansar (military)
Anṣâr refer to a class of warriors who are renowned for their arsenal of weapons and for their speed and mobility on the battlefield. The quality of the Arabian horses quickly led to these soldiers dominating the battlefield, making ample use of their array of weaponry, which consisted of...

 and Muhajireen in Medina that joined Khalid's corps at Butah. From Butah Khalid marched to Yamamah to join with Shurhabil's corps.
Though Abu Bakr had instructed Shurhabil not to engage Musaylima's forces until the arrival of Khalid, shortly before the arrival of Khalid, Shurhabil engaged Musaylima's forces and was defeated too. Khalid joined with the corps of Shurhabil early in December 632.
The combined force of Muslims, now 13,000 strong, defeated Musaylima's army in the Battle of Yamama
Battle of Yamama
The Battle of Yamama was fought in December AD 632 as part as the Ridda or apostate wars on the plain of Aqraba in the region of Yamama between the forces of Muslim Caliph Abu Bakr and Musaylimah, an apostate.-Background:...

, which was fought in the third week of December 632 CE. The fortified city of Yamamah surrendered peacefully later that week.
Khalid established his headquarter at Yamamah, from where he despatched columns to all over the plain of Aqraba
Aqraba
Aqraba is a Palestinian town in the Nablus Governorate, located eighteen kilometers southeast of Nablus in the northern West Bank. According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics , Aqraba had a population of approximately 8,180 inhabitants in 2007.Nearby hamlets surrounding Aqraba for...

 to subdue the region around Yamamah and to kill or capture all who resisted. Thereafter all of central Arabia submitted to Medina.
What remained of the apostasy in the less vital areas of Arabia was rooted out by the Muslims in a series of well planned campaigns within five months.

Oman


In mid-September 632, Abu Bakr dispatched Hudaifa bin Mihsan's corps to Oman to tackle the apostasy in Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, where the tribe of Azd
Azd
The Azd or Al Azd, are an Arabian tribe. They were a branch of the Kahlan tribe, which was one of the two branches of Qahtan the other being Himyar.In the ancient times, they inhabited Ma'rib, the capital city of the Sabaean Kingdom in modern-day Yemen...

, that dominated the region of Oman, had revolted under their chief Laqeet bin Malik, known more commonly as "Dhu'l-Taj", i.e. "the Crowned One." According to some reports, he also claimed prophethood. Hudaifa entered the province of Oman, but not having strong enough forces to fight Dhu'l-Taj, he decided to wait for reinforcement, and wrote to the Caliph accordingly. The Caliph sent Ikrimah to aid him in late September 632. Ikrimah marched from Yamamah to Oman, and the combined forces of these two generals defeated Dhu'l-Taj at the Battle of Daba, fought in late November 632 at Dibba
Dibba
Dibba , sometimes spelled Diba or Daba, is a coastal region at the northeastern tip of the United Arab Emirates/Oman peninsula on the Gulf of Oman...

, a strong hold of Dhu'l-Taj. Dhu'l-Taj was killed in battle.
Being appointed governor of Oman, Hudaifa next set about the re-establishment of law and order. Ikrimah, having no local administrative responsibility, used his corps to subdue the neighbourhood of Daba, and in a number of small actions succeeded in breaking the resistance of those of the Azd who had continued to defy the authority of Medina.

Northern Arabia


Some time in October 632, Amr's corps were dispatched to Syrian border to subdue the apostates tribes, most importantly the tribes of Quza'a and the Wadi'a (a section of Bani Kalb), in the region around Tabuk and Daumat-ul-Jandal (Al-Jawf). Amr was not able to beat the tribes into submission until Shurhabil joined him in January after Battle of Yamamah.

Yemen


The Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

 had been the first province to rebel against the authority of Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 when the tribe of Ans rose in arms under the leadership of its chief and self-proclaimed prophet Al-Aswad, the Black One, who was killed by Fairoz the Persian
Fayruz al-Daylami
Fayruz al-Daylami was a Companion of Muhammad.He was sent out by Muhammad to assassinate Aswad Ansi, who claimed prophethood in Yemen.-External links:* from USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts....

, while the Prophet Mohammad still lived, and thereafter Fairoz had acted as governor of Yemen at San'a.
When word arrived that the Prophet Mohammad had died, the people of the Yemen again revolted, this time under the leadership of a man named Qais bin Abd Yaghus. The avowed aim of the apostates was to drive the Muslims out of the Yemen, and they decided to achieve this objective by assassinating Fairoz and other important Muslim leaders, thus rendering the Muslim community leaderless. Fairoz somehow managed to escape and took shelter in the mountains. This happened in June or July 632.
For the next six months Fairoz remained in his mountainous stronghold, where over the months he was joined by thousands of Muslims of Yeman.
When he felt strong enough, Fairoz led his men against Qais, and marched to San'a and defeated Qais, who retreated with his remaining men northeast to Abyan, where they all surrendered and were subsequently pardoned by the Caliph.

Mahra


From Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, following the orders of Abu Bakr, Ikrimah marched to Mahra to aid Arfaja bin Harthama. As Arfajar had not yet arrived, Ikrimah, instead of waiting for him, tackled the local apostasy on his own.
At Jairut Ikrimah met two rebel armies preparing for battle. Here he persuaded the weaker to embrace Islam and then joined up with them to defeat their opponents.
Having re-established Islam in Mahra, Ikrimah moved his corps to Abyan, where he rested his men and awaited further developments.

Bahrain


After the Battle of Yamamah, Abu Bakr sent Ula bin Al Hadhrami's corps against the rebels of Bahrain
Bahrain
' , officially the Kingdom of Bahrain , is a small island state near the western shores of the Persian Gulf. It is ruled by the Al Khalifa royal family. The population in 2010 stood at 1,214,705, including 235,108 non-nationals. Formerly an emirate, Bahrain was declared a kingdom in 2002.Bahrain is...

.
Ula arrived in Bahrain to find the apostate forces gathered at Hajr and entrenched in a strong position. Ula mounted a surprise attack one night and captured the city. The rebels retreated to the coastal regions, where they made one more stand but were decisively defeated.
Most of them surrendered and re-entered Islam.
This operation was completed at about the end of January 633.

Hadhramaut


The last of the great revolts of the apostasy was that of the powerful tribe of Kinda
Kinda
Kinda may refer to:*Kinda , a 1982 serial from the television programme Doctor Who*Kinda Municipality, a municipality in Sweden*Kinda Hundred, a hundred in Sweden*Kindah, an ancient central Arabian kingdom...

, which inhabited the region of Najran
Najran
Najran , formerly known as Aba as Sa'ud, is a city in southwestern Saudi Arabia near the border with Yemen. It is the capital of Najran Province. Designated a New town, Najran is one of the fastest-growing cities in the kingdom; its population has risen from 47,500 in 1974 and 90,983 in 1992 to...

, Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut, Hadhramout, Hadramawt or Ḥaḍramūt is the formerly independent Qu'aiti state and sultanate encompassing a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards from Yemen to the borders of the Dhofar region of Oman...

, and eastern Yemen. They did not break into revolt until January 633.

Ziyad bin Lubaid, Muslim governor of Hadhramaut, operated against them and raided Riyaz, after which the whole of the Kinda broke into revolt under Ash'as bin Qais and prepared for war. However, the strength of the two forces, i.e. apostate and Muslim, was so well balanced that neither side felt able to start serious hostilities. Ziyad waited for reinforcements before attacking the rebels.
Reinforcements were on the way. Muhajir bin Abi Umayyah, the last of the corps commanders to be despatched by Abu Bakr, defeated some rebel tribes in Najran, south-eastern Arabia, and was directed by Abu Bakr to march to Hadhramaut and join Ziyad against the Kinda. The Caliph also instructed Ikrimah, who was at Abyan, to join Ziyad and Muhajir's forces.
In late January 633 the forces of Muhajir and Ziyad combined at Zafar, capital of Hadhramaut, under the overall command of the former, and defeated Ash'as, who retreated to the fortified town of Nujair.
Just after this battle the corps of Ikrimah also arrived. The three Muslim corps, under the overall command of Muhajir, advanced on Nujair and laid siege to the fortified city.
Nujair was captured some time in mid-February 633.
With the defeat of the Kinda at Nujair the last of the great apostate movements collapsed. Arabia was safe for Islam.
The Campaign of the Apostasy was fought and completed during the 11th year of the Hijra. The year 12 Hijri dawned, on March 18, 633, with Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at Medina.
This campaign was Abu Bakr's greatest political and military triumph.

Aftermath


With the collapse of the rebellions and Arabia united under the central authority of the Caliph at Medina, Caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 now decided to expand the empire. It is unclear what his intentions were; whether it was a full scale expansion plan or preemptive attacks to secure more territory to create a buffer zone between the Islamic state and the powerful Sassanid and Byzantine empires. This set the stage for the Islamic conquest of Persia
Islamic conquest of Persia
The Muslim conquest of Persia led to the end of the Sassanid Empire in 644, the fall of Sassanid dynasty in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia...

 to begin.

Khalid was sent to the Persian Empire with an army consisting of 18,000 volunteers to conquer the richest province of the Persian empire: Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

. After the successful conquest of Iraq, Abu Bakr sent his armies to invade Roman Syria, a main province of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

.

Further reading

  • Fred McGraw Donner: The Early Islamic Conquests. Princeton University Press
    Princeton University Press
    -Further reading:* "". Artforum International, 2005.-External links:* * * * *...

    , 1986.ISBN 0691053278
  • Elias S. Shoufani: Al-Riddah and the Muslim conquest of Arabia. Toronto, 1973. ISBN 0802019153
  • Meir J. Kister: The struggle against Musaylima and the conquest of Yamama. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam
    Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam
    Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam is a peer reviewed, international academic journal devoted to the study of classical Islam, Islamic religious thought, Arabic language and literature, the origins of Islamic institutions, and the interaction between Islam and other civilizations. The founding...

    , 27 (2002)
  • Ella Landau-Tasseron: The Participation of Tayyi in the Ridda. In: Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam, 5 (1984)

External links