Sahaba

Sahaba

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In Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, the ("Companions", -- from the verb صَحِبَ -- accompany, keep company with, associate with) were the companions, disciples, scribes
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 and family
Family
In human context, a family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children...

 of the Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

 
{{redirect|Sahabi|the surname|Sahabi (name)}}
{{islam}}
{{Muhammad}}
In
Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, the {{unicode|aṣ-Ṣaḥāba}} ("Companions", {{lang-ar|الصحابة}} -- from the verb صَحِبَ -- accompany, keep company with, associate with) were the companions, disciples, scribes
Scribes
Scribes is a minimalist and extensible text editor for GNOME that combines simplicity with power. Scribes focuses on ways workflow and productivity can be intelligently automated and radically improved...

 and family
Family
In human context, a family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children...

 of the Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

 
{{redirect|Sahabi|the surname|Sahabi (name)}}
{{islam}}
{{Muhammad}}
In
Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, the {{unicode|aṣ-Ṣaḥāba}} ("Companions", {{lang-ar|الصحابة}} -- from the verb صَحِبَ -- accompany, keep company with, associate with) were the companions, disciples, scribes
Scribes
Scribes is a minimalist and extensible text editor for GNOME that combines simplicity with power. Scribes focuses on ways workflow and productivity can be intelligently automated and radically improved...

 and family
Family
In human context, a family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children...

 of the Islamic prophet
Prophets of Islam
Muslims identify the Prophets of Islam as those humans chosen by God and given revelation to deliver to mankind. Muslims believe that every prophet was given a belief to worship God and their respective followers believed it as well...

 {{unicode
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

. This form is plural; the singular is masculine {{unicode|ṣaḥābiyy}}, feminine {{unicode|ṣaḥābiyyah}}.

Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 was revealed and various important matters of Islamic history
Muslim history
Muslim history is the history of Muslim people. In the history of Islam the followers of the religion of Islam have impacted political history, economic history, and military history...

 and practice. The testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through chains of trusted narrators (isnads), was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions (hadith
Hadith
The term Hadīth is used to denote a saying or an act or tacit approval or criticism ascribed either validly or invalidly to the Islamic prophet Muhammad....

) of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life (sunnah
Sunnah
The word literally means a clear, well trodden, busy and plain surfaced road. In the discussion of the sources of religion, Sunnah denotes the practice of Prophet Muhammad that he taught and practically instituted as a teacher of the sharī‘ah and the best exemplar...

), the code of conduct (sharia
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

) it requires and the jurisprudence
Jurisprudence
Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal theorists , hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions...

 (fiqh
Fiqh
Fiqh is Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh is an expansion of the code of conduct expounded in the Quran, often supplemented by tradition and implemented by the rulings and interpretations of Islamic jurists....

) by which Muslim communities should be regulated. The two largest Islamic denominations
Islamic schools and branches
Muslims are basically divided in two major factions, Sunnis and Shias, that are further divided into various Schools of Jurisprudence and orders of Imamate. All other movements within such as Salafi, Modernists, the Mystical Sufi Orders, Deobandi and Barelvi are either Sunni or Shia or both...

, the Sunni and Shi'a, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimony, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different constructed views about the Sahabah.

Definitions


The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who saw Muhammad, believed in him and died a Muslim
Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

. Anyone who died after rejecting Islam
Apostasy in Islam
Apostasy in Islam is commonly defined in Islam as the rejection in word or deed of one's former religion by a person who was previously a follower of Islam...

 and becoming an apostate
Apostasy
Apostasy , 'a defection or revolt', from ἀπό, apo, 'away, apart', στάσις, stasis, 'stand, 'standing') is the formal disaffiliation from or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person. One who commits apostasy is known as an apostate. These terms have a pejorative implication in everyday...

 is not considered a companion. Those that saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered Sahaba but Tabi`in. Shi'a Muslims make no distinction between these as regards their trustworthiness

However, scholars like Javed Ghamidi and Amin Ahsan Islahi
Amin Ahsan Islahi
Amin Ahsan Islahi was a Pakistani Muslim scholar, famous for his Urdu exegeses of Qur'an, Tadabbur-i-Qur’an—an exegesis that he based on Hamiduddin Farahi's idea of thematic and structural coherence in the Qur'an.-Early life:...

 state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered as a Companion. In their view, the Quran has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the Sahabah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, and took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing. This view has implications in Islamic law since narrations of Muhammad transmitted through the Sahabah acquire a greater status of authenticity.

Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most closely associated with Muhammad. However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad, and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's (Muḥammad ibn Sa'd) early {{unicode|Kitāb at-Tabāqat al-Kabīr}} (The book of The Major Classes). The book entitled {{unicode|Istî’âb fî ma’rifat-il-Ashâb}} by Hafidh Yusuf bin Muhammad bin Qurtubi (death 1071) consists of 2,770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female Sahaba. According to an observation in the book entitled Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, an untold number of persons had already converted to Islam by the time Muhammad died. There were 10,000 by the time Mecca was conquered and 70,000 during the Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Tabouk
The Battle of Tabouk was a military expedition, which, according to Muslim biographies, was initiated by the Prophet Muhammad in October, AD 630. Muhammad led a force of as many as 30,000 north to Tabouk in present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia, with the intention of engaging the Byzantine army...

 in 630. Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed The Farewell Sermon
The Farewell Sermon
The Farewell Sermon , also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad on the 9th Dhu al-Hijjah, 10 AH in the Uranah valley of Mount Arafat The Farewell Sermon , also known as Muhammad's Final Sermon or The Last Sermon, was delivered by Muhammad on the 9th...

 Muhammad delivered after making his last pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage was the last and only Hajj pilgrimage the Islamic prophet Muhammad participated in, in 632 CE .-Preparations:...

 (hajj
Hajj
The Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is one of the largest pilgrimages in the world, and is the fifth pillar of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so...

) to Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

.

Two important groups among the companions are called the Muhajirun
Muhajirun
Muhajirun are the early, initial Muslims who followed Muhammad on his Hijra . The early Muslims from Medina are called the Ansar .-List:*Muhammad*Ali*Umar *Abu Bakr .*Salman the Persian*Bilal ibn Ribah...

or "exiles" - those who had faith in Muhammad when he began to preach in Mecca
Mecca
Mecca is a city in the Hijaz and the capital of Makkah province in Saudi Arabia. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level...

 who fled with him when he was persecuted there - and the Ansar
Ansar (Islam)
Ansar is an Islamic term that literally means "helpers" and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arrival to the city after the migration to Medina...

- people of Medina
Medina
Medina , or ; also transliterated as Madinah, or madinat al-nabi "the city of the prophet") is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia, and serves as the capital of the Al Madinah Province. It is the second holiest city in Islam, and the burial place of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad, and...

 who welcomed Muhammad and his companions and stood as their protectors. Chapter (sura
Sura
A sura is a division of the Qur'an, often referred to as a chapter. The term chapter is sometimes avoided, as the suras are of unequal length; the shortest sura has only three ayat while the longest contains 286 ayat...

) 9 of the Qur'an ("Repentance" (at-Tawba)), verse (ayah
Ayah
Ayah or Aayah is the Arabic word for sign or proof:"These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth...

) 100 says;
"The vanguard - the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and those who follow them in good deeds, &ndash well-pleased is God with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity."


and continues;
"God turned with favour to the Prophet, the Muhajirs, and the Ansar who followed him in a time of distress – after that the hearts of a part of them had nearly swerved but He turned to them...

1 As Sabiqoon Al Awaloon (Badriyans)


The people who were muslims at the time of Badar
They are further classified into two :1. Muhajreen (Imigrants - from Mecca) 2. Ansar (Helpers - inhabitants of Madinah (previously known as Yathrib))
They are ideals for the other Muslims because they are "Whom God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

 is pleased with" ({{lang-ar|رضي الله عنه}} {{unicode|raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu}})see ch # 9 ver # 100
"Those who believed, and went into exile and fought for God's cause with their property and their persons, as well as those who sheltered and helped them,- these shall be friends, one of another."

"...and be not divided among yourselves; and remember with gratitude Allah's favour on you; for you were enemies and He joined your hearts in love

"those who are with him are strong against unbelievers but compassionate among themselves. You will see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer)...

2 Major Sahabah (Kubbar)


The people who were Muslims before victory of Makkah and and went into exile and fought for God's cause in most of the wars.
They are also high in degree especilly those who were present at Hudabiyah.
They are also "Whom God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

 is pleased with" ({{lang-ar|رضي الله عنه}} {{unicode|raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu}})see ch # 48 ver # 18 to 29

3 As'habuttulaqa (Forgiven people)


They were non-Muslim at the time of victory of Makkah; after that, they were forgiven by Muhammad, then they become Muslims.
They are lower in degrees as compared to other two mentioned above.
see ch # 57 ver # 10

Status


According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, and they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings. If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence even briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just ({{unicode|udul}}) unless they are proven otherwise; that is, Sunni scholars do not believe that companions would lie or fabricate hadith unless they are proven liars, untrustworthy or opposed to Islam. "Whom God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

 is pleased with" ({{lang-ar|رضي الله عنه}} {{unicode|raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu}}) is usually mentioned by Sunnis after the names of the Sahaba.

Some Qur'anic references are important to Sunni Muslim views of the reverence due to all companions;
"and He has restrained the hands of men from you that it may be a sign for believers",


While sura 8 ("The Spoils" (al-Anfal)), ayat 74-5 reads;
"Those who believe and adopt exile and fight for the Faith in the cause of God, as well as those who give (them) asylum and aid, these are in very truth the believers: for them is the forgiveness of sins and a provision most generous.... And those who accept Faith subsequently, and adopt exile, and fight for the Faith in your company, they are of you.


In another place the Qur'an distinguishes between the community in honour;

{{Quote|... Not equal among you are those who spent (freely) and fought, before the Victory
Conquest of Mecca
Mecca was conquered by the Muslims in January 630 AD .-Background:In 628 the Meccan tribe of Quraysh and the Muslim community in Medina signed a 10 year truce called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah....

, (with those who did so later). Those are higher in rank than those who spent (freely) and fought afterwards. But to all has Allah promised a goodly (reward)...|Qur'an Sura 57 (al-Hadid), ayah 10}}

It sometimes admonishes them, as when Aisha
Aisha
Aisha bint Abu Bakr also transcribed as was Muhammad's favorite wife...

, daughter of the first Sunni caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

 Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

 and the wife of Muhammed, was accused of infidelity;
"Why did not the believers - men and women - when ye heard of the affair,- put the best construction on it in their own minds and say "this (charge) is an obvious lie"? .... Behold, you received it on your tongues and said out of your mouths things of which you had no knowledge, and ye thought it to be a light matter". (sura 24 ("The Light", an-Nur
An-Nur
Surat Al-Nur is the 24th sura of the Qur'an with 64 ayat.- Background :The general agreement of scholars is that this sura was revealed shortly before or after the Battle of the Trench in 5 AH-Content:...

), ayat 11-20)

"And from among those who are round about you of the dwellers of the desert there are hypocrites, and from among the people of Medina (also); they are stubborn in hypocrisy; you do not know them; We know them; We will chastise them twice then shall they be turned back to a grievous chastisement."


In view of such admonitions Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished. They do not accept that the testimony of nearly all Sahaba
Sahaba
In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

 is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the Sahaba were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad. Shias further argue that the righteousness of Sahaba
Sahaba
In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

 can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Quran Surah 33 Verse 33 and the hadith of the Cloak.

Muhammad's wives


{{Wives of Muhammad}}
{{main|Wives of Muhammad}}
Muhammad's wives are called the "mothers" of the believers and are themselves exhorted to special piety;
"O Consorts of the Prophet! ...God only wishes to remove all abomination from you, you members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.


Shias support their argument that one must discriminate between the virtues of the companions by verses relating to Muhammad's wives:
O wives of the prophet! whoever of you commits an open indecency, the punishment shall be increased to her doubly; and this is easy to Allah. And whoever of you is obedient to Allah and His Messenger and does good, We will give to her her reward doubly, and We have prepared for her an honorable sustenance.


The injunction to regard them as mothers overrules this in Sunni thought, particularly as regards Aisha
Aisha
Aisha bint Abu Bakr also transcribed as was Muhammad's favorite wife...

, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr was a senior companion and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE when he became the first Muslim Caliph following Muhammad's death...

.

Tradition


Because the hadith were not properly written down until many years after the death of Muhammad, although there were many individual written copies, the isnads, or chains of transmission, always have several links. The first link is preferably a companion, who had direct contact with Muhammad. The companion then related the tradition to a Tabi‘un, the companion of the companion. Tabi‘un had no direct contact with Muhammad, but did have direct contact with the {{unicode|Ṣahāba}}. The tradition then would have been passed from the Tabi‘un to the {{unicode, the third link.

The second and third links in the chain of transmission were also of great interest to Muslim scholars, who treated of them in biographical dictionaries and evaluated them for bias and reliability. Shi'a and Sunni
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam. Sunni Muslims are referred to in Arabic as ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Ǧamāʿah or ʾAhl ūs-Sunnah for short; in English, they are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis or Sunnites....

 apply different metrics.

Regard for the companions is evident from the hadith:{{quote|It was narrated from {{unicode
Abd Allah ibn Mas'ud
Abdullah ibn Masud was one of the first converts to Islam after Muhammad started preaching in Mecca. He remained one of the closest companions of Muhammad during his lifetime....

 that Muhammad said: "The best of the people are my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them."}}Sunni Muslim scholars classified companions into many categories, based on a number of criteria. The hadith quoted above shows the rank of {{unicode|ṣaḥābah, tābi‘īn}}, and {{unicode|tābi‘ at-tābi‘īn}}. Al-Suyuti
Al-Suyuti
Jalaluddin Al-Suyuti also known as Ibn al-Kutub was an Egyptian writer, religious scholar, juristic expert and teacher whose works deal with a wide variety of subjects in Islamic theology. He was precocious and was already a teacher in 1462. In 1486, he was appointed to a chair in the mosque of...

 recognized eleven levels of companionship. Shia do not have a ranking system dependent on when the Sahabi embraced Islam but according to what they did during their life. If a Sahaba made Muhammad angry or questioned his decision several times then he is viewed as unrealiable. Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad is claimed to have absolved all Sahaba from sin is a false report by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt is an Arabic phrase literally meaning People of the House, or family of the House. The phrase "ahl al-bayt" was used in Arabia before the advent of Islam to refer to one's clan, and would be adopted by the ruling family of a tribe. Within the Islamic tradition, the term refers to the...

.

The Shi'a believe that after the death of Muhammad, the majority of the sahabah turned aside from true Islam and deviated from Muhammad's family, instead electing the caliph
Caliph
The Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the ruler of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah. It is a transcribed version of the Arabic word   which means "successor" or "representative"...

 by themselves at a place called Bani Saqeefa, they did this by a majority vote and elected Abu Bakr as the first Caliph. Although some of the sahabah repented later, only a few of the early Muslims held fast to Ali
Ali
' |Ramaḍān]], 40 AH; approximately October 23, 598 or 600 or March 17, 599 – January 27, 661).His father's name was Abu Talib. Ali was also the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and ruled over the Islamic Caliphate from 656 to 661, and was the first male convert to Islam...

, whom Shi'a Muslims regard as the rightful successor to Muhammad
Succession to Muhammad
The Succession to Muhammad concerns the various aspects of successorship of Muhammad after his death, comprising who might be considered as his successor to lead the Muslims, how that person should be elected, the conditions of legitimacy, and the role of successor...

. Shi'a scholars therefore deprecate hadith believed to have been transmitted through unjust companions, and place much more reliance on hadith believed to have been related by Muhammad's family members and companions who supported Ali. The Shi'a believe that Muhammad announced his succession during his lifetime at Dawat Zul Asheera then many times during his prophethood and finally at Ghadeer e Khum.

See also

  • List of Sahaba
  • List of non-Arab Sahaba
  • Muadh ibn Jabal
  • Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi
    Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi
    Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi was the ruler of Bahrain and Qatar during the age of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. In the 7th century AD, when Muhammad and his companions started preaching Islam throughout the world, the message of Islam was sent by Muhammad to Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi.Prior to Islam,...

     — became Muslim, but not a Sahaba
    Sahaba
    In Islam, the ' were the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet...

    .

External links



{{sahaba}}
{{Islam topics|state=collapsed}}