Johns Hopkins University

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The Johns Hopkins University, commonly referred to as Johns Hopkins, JHU, or simply Hopkins, is a private
Private university
Private universities are universities not operated by governments, although many receive public subsidies, especially in the form of tax breaks and public student loans and grants. Depending on their location, private universities may be subject to government regulation. Private universities are...

 research university based in Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

, Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Johns Hopkins maintains campuses in Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

, Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

.

The university was founded on January 22, 1876 and named for its benefactor, the philanthropist
Philanthropist
A philanthropist is someone who engages in philanthropy; that is, someone who donates his or her time, money, and/or reputation to charitable causes...

 Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins was a wealthy American entrepreneur, philanthropist and abolitionist of 19th-century Baltimore, Maryland, now most noted for his philanthropic creation of the institutions that bear his name, namely the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and the Johns Hopkins University and its associated...

. Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academician, who was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, and who subsequently served as one of the earliest presidents of the University of California, the first president of Johns Hopkins University, and as...

 was inaugurated as first president on February 22, 1876.

Johns Hopkins pioneered the concept of the modern research university in the United States and has ranked among the world's top such universities throughout its history. The National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health...

 (NSF) has ranked Johns Hopkins #1 among U.S. academic institutions in total science, medical and engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 spending for 31 consecutive years. As of 2011, thirty-seven Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 winners have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins, and the university's research is among the most cited in the world.

The philanthropist and the founding



On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins
Johns Hopkins was a wealthy American entrepreneur, philanthropist and abolitionist of 19th-century Baltimore, Maryland, now most noted for his philanthropic creation of the institutions that bear his name, namely the Johns Hopkins Hospital, and the Johns Hopkins University and its associated...

, a Quaker entrepreneur
Entrepreneur
An entrepreneur is an owner or manager of a business enterprise who makes money through risk and initiative.The term was originally a loanword from French and was first defined by the Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon. Entrepreneur in English is a term applied to a person who is willing to...

 and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated primarily from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad. It came into being mostly because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which...

, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States.

The first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins, who named his own son Samuel Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons after his father and that son would be the university's benefactor.

In his 2001 undergraduate commencement address, university president William R. Brody
William R. Brody
William Ralph Brody is an American radiologist and academic administrator. He is the President of the Salk Institute and former President of The Johns Hopkins University, a position which he had held from 1996 to 2009....

 said about the name: "In 1888, just 12 years after the university was founded, Mark Twain
Mark Twain
Samuel Langhorne Clemens , better known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American author and humorist...

 wrote about this university in a letter to a friend. He said: 'A few months ago I was told that the Johns Hopkins University had given me a degree. I naturally supposed this constituted me a Member of the Faculty and so I started in to help as I could there. I told them I believed they were perfectly competent to run a college as far as the higher branches of education are concerned, but what they needed was a little help here and there from a practical commercial man. I said the public is sensitive to little things and they wouldn't have full confidence in a college that didn't know how to spell the name John.' More than a century later, we continue to bestow diplomas upon individuals of outstanding capabilities and great talent. And we continue to spell Johns with an s."

Milton Eisenhower, once the university' president, once spoke to a convention in Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Pittsburgh is the second-largest city in the US Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Allegheny County. Regionally, it anchors the largest urban area of Appalachia and the Ohio River Valley, and nationally, it is the 22nd-largest urban area in the United States...

. Making a common mistake, the Master of Ceremonies
Master of Ceremonies
A Master of Ceremonies , or compere, is the host of a staged event or similar performance.An MC usually presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the event moving....

 introduced him as "President of John Hopkins." Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh."

Early years and Daniel Coit Gilman


The original board opted for an entirely novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States. Its success eventually shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The university was intended to be national in scope to strengthen ties across a divided country in the aftermath of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. Therefore, the university's official inauguration took on great significance: 1876 was the nation's centennial year and February 22 was George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

's birthday.

The University's viability depended on its first president, Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academician, who was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, and who subsequently served as one of the earliest presidents of the University of California, the first president of Johns Hopkins University, and as...

, recruited from the presidency of the University of California
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U.S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-tier public higher education system, which also includes the California State University...

. Gilman launched what many at the time considered to be an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research. He dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are usually those who are free, competent and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the biologist H. Newell Martin; the physicist Henry A. Rowland
Henry Augustus Rowland
Henry Augustus Rowland was a U.S. physicist. Between 1899 and 1901 he served as the first president of the American Physical Society...

 (the first president of the American Physical Society
American Physical Society
The American Physical Society is the world's second largest organization of physicists, behind the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft. The Society publishes more than a dozen scientific journals, including the world renowned Physical Review and Physical Review Letters, and organizes more than 20...

), the classical scholars Basil Gildersleeve and Charles D. Morris; the economist Richard T. Ely
Richard T. Ely
Richard Theodore Ely was an American economist, author, and leader of the Progressive movement who called for more government intervention in order to reform what they perceived as the injustices of capitalism, especially regarding factory conditions, compulsory education, child labor, and labor...

; and the chemist Ira Remsen
Ira Remsen
Ira Remsen was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg, discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University.-Biography:...

, who became the second president of the university in 1901.
Gilman focused on the expansion of knowledge, graduate education and support of faculty research. To Gilman, Johns Hopkins existed not for the sake of God, the state, the community, the board, the parents, or even the students, but for knowledge. Faculty who added to such knowledge were rewarded. A complementary focus on graduate education fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral
PHD
PHD may refer to:*Ph.D., a doctorate of philosophy*Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*PHD finger, a protein sequence*PHD Mountain Software, an outdoor clothing and equipment company*PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations with the founding of the first university press
University press
A university press is an academic, nonprofit publishing house that is typically affiliated with a large research university, and publishes work that has been reviewed by scholars in the field. It produces mainly scholarly works...

 in 1878.

With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland . It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins...

 in 1889 and the medical school
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

 in 1893, the university's research–focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of academic medicine, including William Osler
William Osler
Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet was a physician. He was one of the "Big Four" founding professors at Johns Hopkins Hospital as the first Professor of Medicine and founder of the Medical Service there. Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a physician. He was...

, William Halsted, Howard Kelly, and William Welch
William H. Welch
William Henry Welch, M.D. was an American physician, pathologist, and medical school administrator. He was one of the "Big Four" founding professors at Johns Hopkins Hospital. William Henry Welch, M.D. (April 8, 1850 - April 30, 1934) was an American physician, pathologist, and medical school...

. During this period Hopkins made more history by becoming the first medical school to admit women on an equal basis with men and to require a Bachelors degree, based on the efforts of Mary E. Garrett
Mary Garrett
Mary Garrett was an American suffragist and philanthropist.- Biography :Mary Garrett was the daughter of John W. Garrett, a philanthropist and president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad . She became the wealthiest "spinster woman" in the country with demise of her father.Garrett helped found...

, who had endowed the school at Gilman's request.

In his will and in his instructions to the trustees of the university and the hospital, Hopkins requested that both institutions be built upon the vast grounds of his Baltimore estate, Clifton. When Gilman assumed the presidency, he decided that it would be best to use the university's endowment for recruiting faculty and students, deciding to "build men, not buildings." In his will Hopkins stipulated that none of his endowment should be used for construction; only interest on the principal could be used for this purpose. Unfortunately, stocks in The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was one of the oldest railroads in the United States and the first common carrier railroad. It came into being mostly because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which...

 from which most of the interest would have been generated became virtually worthless soon after Hopkins's death. The university's first home was thus in Downtown Baltimore
Baltimore
Baltimore is the largest independent city in the United States and the largest city and cultural center of the US state of Maryland. The city is located in central Maryland along the tidal portion of the Patapsco River, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is sometimes referred to as Baltimore...

 delaying plans to site the university in Clifton. This decision became the only major criticism of Gilman's presidency. In the early 1900s the university outgrew its buildings and the trustees began to search for a new home. Developing Clifton for the university was too costly, and so the estate became a public park. In the end, the 140 acres (56.7 ha) estate in north Baltimore known as Homewood was purchased as the university's new campus with assistance from prominent Baltimore citizens.

Since the 1910s, Johns Hopkins University has famously been a "fertile cradle" to Arthur Lovejoy's history of ideas
History of ideas
The history of ideas is a field of research in history that deals with the expression, preservation, and change of human ideas over time. The history of ideas is a sister-discipline to, or a particular approach within, intellectual history...

.
Presidents of the university
NameTerm
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman
Daniel Coit Gilman was an American educator and academician, who was instrumental in founding the Sheffield Scientific School at Yale College, and who subsequently served as one of the earliest presidents of the University of California, the first president of Johns Hopkins University, and as...

May 1875 – August 1901
Ira Remsen
Ira Remsen
Ira Remsen was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg, discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University.-Biography:...

September 1901 – January 1913
Frank Goodnow October 1914 – June 1929
Joseph Sweetman Ames
Joseph Sweetman Ames
Joseph Sweetman Ames was a physics professor at Johns Hopkins University, provost of the university from 1926 until 1929, and university president from 1929 until 1935.He was born at Manchester, Vermont...

July 1929 – June 1935
Isaiah Bowman
Isaiah Bowman
Isaiah Bowman, AB, Ph. D. was an American geographer...

July 1935 – December 1948
Detlev Bronk
Detlev Bronk
Detlev Wulf Bronk was President of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland from 1949 to 1953 and President of the National Academy of Sciences from 1950 to 1962. Bronk is credited with reshaping the postwar university environment at Hopkins...

January 1949 – August 1953
Lowell Reed
Lowell Reed
Lowell Reed was 7th president of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.He had a long career as a research scientist in biostatistics and public health administration at Hopkins, where he was previously dean and director of the School of Public Health and later as vice president in...

September 1953 – June 1956
Milton S. Eisenhower
Milton S. Eisenhower
Milton Stover Eisenhower, served as president of three major American universities: Kansas State University, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Johns Hopkins University. He was the younger brother of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Edgar N. Eisenhower, and Earl D...

July 1956 – June 1967
Lincoln Gordon
Lincoln Gordon
Abraham Lincoln Gordon was a United States Ambassador to Brazil and the 9th President of the Johns Hopkins University . Gordon had a career both in government and in academia, becoming a Professor of International Economic Relations at Harvard University in the 1950s, before turning his attention...

July 1967 – March 1971
Milton S. Eisenhower
Milton S. Eisenhower
Milton Stover Eisenhower, served as president of three major American universities: Kansas State University, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Johns Hopkins University. He was the younger brother of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Edgar N. Eisenhower, and Earl D...

March 1971 – January 1972
Steven Muller
Steven Muller
Steven Muller was the president of the Johns Hopkins University, serving from 1972 to 1990.He came to the United States in 1940, and he has been a naturalized citizen of the U.S. since 1949....

February 1972 – June 1990
William C. Richardson
William C. Richardson
William Chase Richardson is a director of American electricity company Exelon, a position that he has held since March 2005. He serves on Exelon's Audit, Compensation, Risk Oversight and Corporate Governance Committees. Dr. Richardson received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Trinity College and a...

July 1990 – July 1995
Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans was an American microbiologist.He was born in Wilmington, Delaware, the last of nine children born to Russian Jewish immigrant parents. During the Great Depression his father lost his small business and was unemployed for a long period of time...

June 1995 – August 1996
William R. Brody
William R. Brody
William Ralph Brody is an American radiologist and academic administrator. He is the President of the Salk Institute and former President of The Johns Hopkins University, a position which he had held from 1996 to 2009....

August 1996 – February 2009
Ronald J. Daniels
Ronald J. Daniels
Ronald J. Daniels is President of the Johns Hopkins University, a position which he assumed on March 2, 2009. Previously, Mr. Daniels was the Vice President and Provost at the University of Pennsylvania, and prior to this was Dean of the Faculty of Law at the University of Toronto. Mr. Daniels...

March 2009–Present

Institutions


The Johns Hopkins University Press
Johns Hopkins University Press
The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press in the United States. The Press publishes books, journals, and electronic databases...

, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press
University press
A university press is an academic, nonprofit publishing house that is typically affiliated with a large research university, and publishes work that has been reviewed by scholars in the field. It produces mainly scholarly works...

 in continuous operation. Along with the hospital, Hopkins established one of the nation's oldest schools of nursing
Johns Hopkins School of Nursing
The Johns Hopkins School of Nursing is part of the Johns Hopkins University located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established in 1889, it is one of the nation’s oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education ranking first in the nation; it is also among the top recipients of...

 in 1889. The school of medicine
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., is the academic medical teaching and research arm of Johns Hopkins University. Hopkins has consistently been the nation's number one medical school in the amount of competitive research grants awarded by the National...

 was the nation's first coeducational, graduate-level medical school and the prototype for academic medicine which emphasized bedside learning, research projects, and laboratory training. In 1909, the university was among the first to start adult continuing education
Continuing education
Continuing education is an all-encompassing term within a broad spectrum of post-secondary learning activities and programs. The term is used mainly in the United States and Canada...

 programs and in 1916 it founded the US' first school of public health
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

. Programs in international studies and the performing arts were established in 1950 and 1977 when the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies , a division of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., is one of the world's leading and most prestigious graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and...

 in Washington D.C and the Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
The Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University is a renowned conservatory and preparatory school located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland at the corner of Charles and Monument Streets at Mount Vernon Place.-History:...

 in Baltimore became divisions of the university.

African-Americans


Hopkins was a prominent abolitionist who supported Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 during the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. After his death his conviction was reported to be a decisive factor in enrolling Hopkins' first African-American student, Kelly Miller
Kelly Miller (scientist)
Kelly Miller was an African American mathematician, sociologist, essayist, newspaper columnist, author, and an important figure in the intellectual life of black America for close to half a century.-Career:...

, a graduate student in physics, astronomy and mathematics, and in admitting Harvard-trained physician Whitfield Winsey and two other African-American physicians to Maryland's Medical and Chirurgical Society MedChi. These physicians could attend meetings only because they were held on campus. As the memory of Hopkins faded and trustees like King died, Hopkins became like other Baltimore institutions, particularly in terms of race. The Johns Hopkins University chronology stated that on March 15, 1892, an administrator hired by Gilman recommended that the hospital should have a "separate ward for colored patients". Johns Hopkins Hospital subsequently became a segregated facility. Johns Hopkins' "separate but equal" stance was evident when it came to these segregated wards: "Special care will be taken to see that the heating and ventilation apparatus is as perfect as possible. A sun balcony will be erected on each floor on the east side, for convalescents, while a sun bay-window will be constructed at the south end of the south wing. On each floor there will be a dining room, kitchen, lavatory and bath-rooms...The building will be fireproof
Fireproof
-Track List for Original 2002 Release:# "Fireproof" – 3:46# "Just 2 Get By" – 4:17# "Echelon" – 3:25# "Stay Up" – 3:40# "Behind Closed Doors" – 2:55# "Epidemic" – 3:14# "Hindsight" – 2:57# "Light at My Feet" – 3:28# "A Shame" – 3:17...

 throughout."

As segregation grew within Johns Hopkins institutions, it affected pay, hiring and promotions. Staff in segregated wards and those employed in the lower rungs of the service industries had the longest history within the Johns Hopkins Institutions. Johns Hopkins' students, physicians, administrators and staff of African descent had a much shorter history within these institutions.
The first black undergraduate was Frederick Scott
Frederick Scott
Frederick Scott was a British designer who was best known for creating the Supporto chair. The Supporto was designed in 1976 and released in 1979, and was complemented by other seating and tables in the Supporto range....

 who entered the school in 1945. In 1967 the first black students earned graduate degrees. Dr. James Nabwangu a British-trained Kenya
Kenya
Kenya , officially known as the Republic of Kenya, is a country in East Africa that lies on the equator, with the Indian Ocean to its south-east...

n, was the first black graduate of the medical school. A second was earned by Robert Gamble.

The first African-American instructor was laboratory supervisor Vivien Thomas
Vivien Thomas
Vivien Theodore Thomas was an African-American surgical technician who developed the procedures used to treat blue baby syndrome in the 1940s...

, who also invented and developed research instruments, served as an assistant in surgery to surgeon Alfred Blalock
Alfred Blalock
Alfred Blalock was a 20th-century American surgeon most noted for his research on the medical condition of shock and the development of the Blalock-Taussig Shunt, surgical relief of the cyanosis from Tetralogy of Fallot—known commonly as the blue baby syndrome—with Vivien Thomas and pediatric...

 and worked closely with Blalock and Helen Taussig in developing and conducting the first successful blue baby operation
Blue baby syndrome
Blue baby syndrome is a layman's term used to describe newborns with cyanotic heart lesions, such as* Persistent Truncus Arteriosus* Transposition of the great vessels* Tricuspid atresia* Tetralogy of Fallot...

. Black students and professionals were rare at Johns Hopkins Institutions and Maryland's state medical societies until after the 1940s. Diversity increased only in the 1960s and 1970s. African-Americans and women were labeled "The Uninvited" in the second major history of the university.

Women


Hopkins' most well–known battle for women's rights was the one led by daughters of trustees of the university; Mary E. Garrett
Mary Garrett
Mary Garrett was an American suffragist and philanthropist.- Biography :Mary Garrett was the daughter of John W. Garrett, a philanthropist and president of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad . She became the wealthiest "spinster woman" in the country with demise of her father.Garrett helped found...

, M. Carey Thomas
M. Carey Thomas
Martha Carey Thomas was an American educator, suffragist, and second President of Bryn Mawr College.-Early life:...

, Mamie Gwinn, Elizabeth King, and Julia Rogers. They donated and raised the funds needed to open the medical school, and required Hopkins' officials to agree to their stipulation that women would be admitted. Unfortunately, this stipulation applied only to the medical school. Other graduate schools were opened to women by president Ira Remsen
Ira Remsen
Ira Remsen was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg, discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University.-Biography:...

 only in 1907. Christine Ladd-Franklin
Christine Ladd-Franklin
Christine Ladd-Franklin was the first American woman psychologist, logician, and mathematician.-Early Life and Early Education:...

 was the first woman to earn a PhD
PHD
PHD may refer to:*Ph.D., a doctorate of philosophy*Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*PHD finger, a protein sequence*PHD Mountain Software, an outdoor clothing and equipment company*PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 at Hopkins, in mathematics in 1882. The trustees denied her the degree and refused to change the policy about admitting women; she finally received her degree 44 years later. In 1893 Florence Bascomb became the university's first female PhD.

The nursing school
Nursing school
A nursing school is a type of educational institution, or part thereof, providing education and training to become a fully qualified nurse. The nature of nursing education and nursing qualifications varies considerably across the world.-United Kingdom:...

 opened in 1889 and accepted women and men as students.

The decision to admit women at undergraduate level was not considered until the late 1960s and was eventually adopted in October 1969; in the fall of 1970, 90 females, five of them African-American, became undergraduates. In the academic year 1970–1971, 4.7% of students in the Arts and Sciences programs were women. In the year 1985–1986 the proportion of female students in the Arts and Sciences programs had increased to around 38%. As of 2009–2010, the undergraduate population was 47% female and 53% male.

Campuses

Main Campuses & Divisions
Homewood East Baltimore
(Medical Institutions Campus)
Downtown Baltimore Washington D.C. Laurel, Maryland
School of Arts and Sciences
Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences
The Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts & Sciences, located in Baltimore, Maryland, is one of nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University, in the United States. Located at the university’s Homewood campus at the Charles Village neighborhood in northern Baltimore...


1876
School of Education
Johns Hopkins University School of Education
The Johns Hopkins School of Education is one of the nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The largest provider of master’s degrees in education throughout the state of Maryland, it is known for its emphasis on flexible learning formats that encourage...


1909
School of Engineering
Whiting School of Engineering
The G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering, is a division of the Johns Hopkins University located in the university's Homewood campus in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...


1913
School of Nursing
Johns Hopkins School of Nursing
The Johns Hopkins School of Nursing is part of the Johns Hopkins University located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established in 1889, it is one of the nation’s oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education ranking first in the nation; it is also among the top recipients of...


1889
School of Medicine
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., is the academic medical teaching and research arm of Johns Hopkins University. Hopkins has consistently been the nation's number one medical school in the amount of competitive research grants awarded by the National...


1893
School of Public Health
1916
Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
The Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University is a renowned conservatory and preparatory school located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland at the corner of Charles and Monument Streets at Mount Vernon Place.-History:...


1857
School of Business
Carey Business School
The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School, also referred to as Carey Business School or JHCBS, is one of the academic schools of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland...


2007
School of Advanced International Studies
Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies , a division of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., is one of the world's leading and most prestigious graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and...


1943
Applied Physics Laboratory
Applied Physics Laboratory
The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory , located in Howard County, Maryland near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center employing 4,500 people. APL is primarily a defense contractor. It serves as a technical resource for the Department of...


1942

Homewood



  • Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences
    Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences
    The Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts & Sciences, located in Baltimore, Maryland, is one of nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University, in the United States. Located at the university’s Homewood campus at the Charles Village neighborhood in northern Baltimore...

    : The Krieger School offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and minors and more than 40 graduate programs.
  • G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering
    Whiting School of Engineering
    The G.W.C. Whiting School of Engineering, is a division of the Johns Hopkins University located in the university's Homewood campus in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

    : The Whiting School contains 14 undergraduate and graduate engineering programs and 12 additional areas of study.
  • School of Education
    Johns Hopkins University School of Education
    The Johns Hopkins School of Education is one of the nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The largest provider of master’s degrees in education throughout the state of Maryland, it is known for its emphasis on flexible learning formats that encourage...

    : Originally established in 1909 as The School of Professional Studies in Business and Education, the divisions of Education and Business became separate schools in 2007.


The first campus was located on Howard Street. Eventually, they relocated to Homewood, in northern Baltimore, the estate of Charles Carroll, son of the oldest surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence was a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. John Adams put forth a...

. Carroll's Homewood House is considered to be one of the finest examples of Federal residential architecture. The estate then came to the Wyman family, which participated in making it the park-like main campus of the schools of arts and sciences and engineering at the turn of the 20th century. Most of its architecture was modeled after the Federal style
Federal architecture
Federal-style architecture is the name for the classicizing architecture built in the United States between c. 1780 and 1830, and particularly from 1785 to 1815. This style shares its name with its era, the Federal Period. The name Federal style is also used in association with furniture design...

 of Homewood House. Homewood House is preserved as a museum. Most undergraduate programs are here.

East Baltimore



Collectively known as Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI) campus, the East Baltimore facility occupies several city blocks spreading from the Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland . It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins...

 trademark dome.
  • School of Nursing
    Johns Hopkins School of Nursing
    The Johns Hopkins School of Nursing is part of the Johns Hopkins University located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established in 1889, it is one of the nation’s oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education ranking first in the nation; it is also among the top recipients of...

    : The School of Nursing is is one of America's oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education. It has consistently ranked first in the nation.
  • School of Medicine
    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
    The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., is the academic medical teaching and research arm of Johns Hopkins University. Hopkins has consistently been the nation's number one medical school in the amount of competitive research grants awarded by the National...

    : The School of Medicine is widely regarded as one of the best medical schools and biomedical research
    Biomedical research
    Biomedical research , in general simply known as medical research, is the basic research, applied research, or translational research conducted to aid and support the body of knowledge in the field of medicine...

     institutes in the world.
  • Bloomberg School of Public Health: The Bloomberg School was founded in 1916, the world's first and largest public health school. It has consistently been ranked first in its field.

Downtown Baltimore


  • Carey Business School
    Carey Business School
    The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School, also referred to as Carey Business School or JHCBS, is one of the academic schools of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland...

    : The Carey Business School was established in 2007, incorporating divisions of the former School of Professional Studies in Business and Education. It was originally located on Charles Street
    Maryland Route 139
    Maryland Route 139, known locally for most of its existence as North Charles Street, runs through Baltimore City and through the Towson area of Baltimore County. On the north end it terminates at a traffic circle with Bellona Avenue near Interstate 695 and at the south end it terminates in Federal...

    , but relocated to the Legg Mason building in Harbor East in 2011.
  • Peabody Institute
    Peabody Institute
    The Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University is a renowned conservatory and preparatory school located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland at the corner of Charles and Monument Streets at Mount Vernon Place.-History:...

    : founded in 1857, is the US' oldest continuously active music conservatory; it became a division of Johns Hopkins in 1977. The Conservatory retains its own student body and grants degrees in musicology and performance, though both Hopkins and Peabody students may take courses at both institutions. It is located on East Mount Vernon Place.

Washington, D.C.


  • Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
    Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
    The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies , a division of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., is one of the world's leading and most prestigious graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and...

     (SAIS)
    is located on the Washington D.C. campus near Dupont Circle
    Dupont Circle
    Dupont Circle is a traffic circle, park, neighborhood, and historic district in Northwest Washington, D.C. The traffic circle is located at the intersection of Massachusetts Avenue NW, Connecticut Avenue NW, New Hampshire Avenue NW, P Street NW, and 19th Street NW...

    . SAIS is devoted to international studies, particularly international relations
    International relations
    International relations is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations , international nongovernmental organizations , non-governmental organizations and multinational corporations...

    , diplomacy
    Diplomacy
    Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states...

    , and economics
    Economics
    Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek from + , hence "rules of the house"...

    . SAIS has full-time international campuses in Bologna, Italy and Nanjing, China
    Hopkins-Nanjing Center
    The Hopkins-Nanjing Center , an international campus of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, is a joint educational venture between Johns Hopkins University and Nanjing University that opened in Nanjing, China in 1986...

    . Founded in 1943, SAIS became a part of the university in 1950. In a 2005 survey 65% of respondents ranked SAIS as the nation's top Master's Degree
    Master's degree
    A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

     program in International Relations
    International relations
    International relations is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations , international nongovernmental organizations , non-governmental organizations and multinational corporations...

    .
  • The Krieger School of Arts and Sciences' Advanced Academic Programs (AAP)
  • Carey Business School
    Carey Business School
    The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School, also referred to as Carey Business School or JHCBS, is one of the academic schools of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland...


The Washington, D.C. campus is on Massachusetts Avenue
Massachusetts Avenue (Washington, D.C.)
Massachusetts Avenue is a major diagonal transverse road in Washington, D.C., and the Massachusetts Avenue Historic District is a historic district that includes part of it....

.

Laurel, Maryland


  • Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)
    Applied Physics Laboratory
    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory , located in Howard County, Maryland near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center employing 4,500 people. APL is primarily a defense contractor. It serves as a technical resource for the Department of...

    : The APL in Laurel, Maryland, specializes in research for the U.S. Department of Defense
    United States Department of Defense
    The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

    , NASA
    NASA
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

     and other government and civilian research agencies. It has developed more than 100 biomedical devices, many in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. It is also linked to the Space Telescope Science Institute
    Space Telescope Science Institute
    The Space Telescope Science Institute is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and for the James Webb Space Telescope...

     on the Homewood campus which controls, analyzes, and collects data from the Hubble Space Telescope
    Hubble Space Telescope
    The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by a Space Shuttle in 1990 and remains in operation. A 2.4 meter aperture telescope in low Earth orbit, Hubble's four main instruments observe in the near ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared...

    .


The Applied Physics Laboratory, a division of the university co-equal to the nine schools but with a non-academic mission, lies between Baltimore and Washington in Laurel
Laurel, Maryland
Laurel is a city in northern Prince George's County, Anne Arundel County, and Howard County, Maryland, United States, located midway between Washington, D.C. and Baltimore. Incorporated in 1870, the city maintains a historic district including its Main Street...

, Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

.

Other campuses

see also List of Johns Hopkins University Research Centers and Institutes

Domestic

  • Columbia, Maryland Center
    Columbia, Maryland
    Columbia is a planned community that consists of ten self-contained villages, located in Howard County, Maryland, United States. It began with the idea that a city could enhance its residents' quality of life. Creator and developer James W. Rouse saw the new community in terms of human values, not...

     (Branches of The Carey Business School
    Carey Business School
    The Johns Hopkins Carey Business School, also referred to as Carey Business School or JHCBS, is one of the academic schools of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland...

     and The School of Education
    Johns Hopkins University School of Education
    The Johns Hopkins School of Education is one of the nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The largest provider of master’s degrees in education throughout the state of Maryland, it is known for its emphasis on flexible learning formats that encourage...

    )
  • Montgomery County
    Montgomery County, Maryland
    Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Maryland, situated just to the north of Washington, D.C., and southwest of the city of Baltimore. It is one of the most affluent counties in the United States, and has the highest percentage of residents over 25 years of age who hold post-graduate...

    , Maryland
    Maryland
    Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

     Campus (Part-time programs in Biosciences, Engineering, Business & Education)

International

  • The SAIS Bologna Center, Italy
  • The SAIS Hopkins-Nanjing Center for Chinese and American Studies, China
    Hopkins-Nanjing Center
    The Hopkins-Nanjing Center , an international campus of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, is a joint educational venture between Johns Hopkins University and Nanjing University that opened in Nanjing, China in 1986...

  • Yong Siew Toh Conservatory of Music (Collaboration between the Peabody Institute
    Peabody Institute
    The Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University is a renowned conservatory and preparatory school located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland at the corner of Charles and Monument Streets at Mount Vernon Place.-History:...

     and the National University of Singapore
    National University of Singapore
    The National University of Singapore is Singapore's oldest university. It is the largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered....

    )


In 2009, JHU ranked fifth among US universities in private fund–raising, collecting $
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

433.39 million.

The President is JHU's chief executive officer, and the university is organized into nine academic divisions.

Campus environmental initiatives


Johns Hopkins University has implemented a number of sustainability
Sustainability
Sustainability is the capacity to endure. For humans, sustainability is the long-term maintenance of well being, which has environmental, economic, and social dimensions, and encompasses the concept of union, an interdependent relationship and mutual responsible position with all living and non...

 initiatives.

In 2011, the Sustainable Endowments Institute gave Johns Hopkins a College Sustainability Report Card grade of "C+." In particular the Institute criticized JHU for failing to disclose its endowment's holdings and proxy voting record on environmental issues.

Transportation


In 2007 carbon emissions were inventoried and electric vehicles were used for some campus transportation needs.

Food


As of 2007 dining services managers sought locally–sourced produce and seafood, and integrated organic food into menus. In addition, the smaller cafés around campus sell exclusively organic, shade–grown coffees. A small pilot composting program operated on the undergraduate campus.

Buildings


In 2007 the university was pursuing LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings, homes and neighborhoods....

 certification for several buildings. Energy retrofits in certain buildings have resulted in over 50% less energy consumption. Retrofits included a green roof, experimentation with waterless urinals and low-flow shower heads, and upgraded fluorescent lighting that reduced electricity for lighting on one campus by over 40 percent. Similar lighting retrofits were underway at all campuses.

Water


In 2004, one campus completed a water conservation retrofit that annually saved over 8000000 gallons (30,283,296 l) of water.

Student support


As of 2010 students contributed significantly to environmental initiatives, setting up the JHU recycling program, hosting a national "Greening" conference, launching a transportation shuttle service between campuses and making the campus more bike-friendly. Each year, students conduct the "S.E.X.:I.T." competition to see which dormitory can save the most electricity.

Organization


The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986. The latter has grown to be the bigger entity, with fiscal year 2005 consolidated net revenue of $3.3 billion, employing 27,700 people, including some 4,700 full–time physicians.

JHU's bylaws specify a Board of Trustees of between 18 and 65 voting members. Trustees serve six–year terms subject to a two–term limit. The alumni select 12 trustees. Four recent alumni serve 4-year terms, one per year, typically from the graduating class. The bylaws prohibit students, faculty or administrative staff from serving on the Board, except the President as an ex–officio trustee.
The Johns Hopkins Health System has a separate Board of Trustees, many of whom are doctors or health care executives. Some JHU Trustees also serve on the Johns Hopkins Health System Board.

Academics



The full-time, four year undergraduate program is "most selective" with low transfer-in and a high graduate co-existence. The university is one of fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities
Association of American Universities
The Association of American Universities is an organization of leading research universities devoted to maintaining a strong system of academic research and education...

 (AAU); it is also a member of the Consortium on Financing Higher Education (COFHE) and the Universities Research Association
Universities Research Association
The Universities Research Association, Inc. is a consortium of 87 leading research oriented universities, primarily in the United States, with members in Canada, Japan, and Italy. It is based in Washington, D.C.- History and purpose :...

 (URA).

Undergraduate Admissions

Johns Hopkins University
C/O 2015 Applicants 19,355
C/O 2015 Admitted 3,550 (18.3%)
SAT Median (2400) 720R, 760M, 730W
ACT Median (36) 33
Freshman Class Size 1,235

In 2010, 87% of admitted students graduated in the top tenth of their high school class and the inter-quartile range on the SAT
SAT
The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still...

 reading was 670–750, math was 690–780, and writing was 670–770. 97% of freshmen returned after the first year, 84% of students graduated in 4 years and 92% graduated in 6 years. Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily. As a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased. Early Decision
Early decision
Early decision is a common early admission policy used in college admissions in the United States for admitting freshmen to undergraduate programs. It is used to indicate to the University or College that the candidate considers that institution to be his or her top choice...

 is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice. These students, if admitted, are required to enroll. This application is due November 1. Most students do, however, apply Regular Decision which is a traditional non-binding round. These applications are due January 1 and students are notified April 1.
Population
Year Applicants Growth Acceptance rate Accepted Enrolled Yield
2011 19,355 4.04% 18.3% 3,550 1,272 37%
2010 18,455 14.5% 20.4% 3,764 1,235 33%
2009 16,123 0.7% 26.8% 4,318 1,350 31%
2008 16,006 7.7% 25.3% 4,056 1,238 31%
2007 14,858 7.17% 24.2% 3,603 1,206 33%
2006 13,863 22.9% 27% 3,698 1,235 33%
2005 11,278 1.58% 35% 3,910 1,155 30%
2004 11,102 10.75% 30% 3,322 1,050 32%
2003 10,024 -% 31% 3,071 1,050 34%

Rankings



At the undergraduate level, Hopkins was ranked #13 among National Universities by U.S. News and World Report (USNWR). It is ranked #6 in the nation in the high school counselor reputation rankings. The 2010 Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

 (ARWU)
ranked Hopkins #18 internationally (#16 nationally) and 3rd in the world for Clinical Medicine and Pharmacy. In 2010, Johns Hopkins ranked 13th in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings
Times Higher Education World University Rankings
The Times Higher Education World University Rankings is an international ranking of universities published by the British magazine Times Higher Education in partnership with Thomson Reuters, which provided citation database information...

 and 16th in the 2011 QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 500 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004....

. Johns Hopkins also placed #2 in the 2010 University Ranking by Academic Performance (URAP), #2 in the 2011 HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities
HEEACT – Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities
The Performance Ranking of Scientific Papers for World Universities is a ranking system of 500 world universities by scientific paper volume, impact, and performance output. The ranking is published by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan The project employs...

, ranked #7 among Top Performing Schools according to the Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index
Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index
The Faculty Scholarly Productivity Index , a product of Academic Analytics, is a metric designed to create benchmark standards for the measurement of academic and scholarly quality within and among United States research universities....

 (FSPI)
in 2008, and was listed #9 among research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance
Center for Measuring University Performance
The Center for Measuring University Performance is a research center at Arizona State University. The Center is best known for an annual report it produces, The Top American Research Universities, that ranks American universities on nine different measures: Total Research, Federal Research,...

in 2007.

For medical and public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

 research U.S. News and World Report ranks the School of Medicine
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine , located in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S., is the academic medical teaching and research arm of Johns Hopkins University. Hopkins has consistently been the nation's number one medical school in the amount of competitive research grants awarded by the National...

 #3 and has consistently ranked the Bloomberg School of Public Health
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, United States...

 #1 in the nation. The School of Nursing
Johns Hopkins School of Nursing
The Johns Hopkins School of Nursing is part of the Johns Hopkins University located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established in 1889, it is one of the nation’s oldest and pre-eminent schools for nursing education ranking first in the nation; it is also among the top recipients of...

 was ranked #1 nationally among peer institutions. The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked Johns Hopkins University #3 in the world for biomedicine
Biomedicine
Biomedicine is a branch of medical science that applies biological and other natural-science principles to clinical practice,. Biomedicine, i.e. medical research, involves the study of physiological processes with methods from biology, chemistry and physics. Approaches range from understanding...

 and life sciences
Life sciences
The life sciences comprise the fields of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. While biology remains the centerpiece of the life sciences, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of...

. Hopkins ranks #1 nationally in receipt of federal research funds and the School of Medicine is #1 among medical schools in receipt of extramural awards from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health are an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and are the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. Its science and engineering counterpart is the National Science Foundation...

. Newsweek named Johns Hopkins as the "Hottest School for Pre-meds" in 2008. The Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland . It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins...

 was ranked as the top hospital in the United States for the eighteenth year in a row by the U.S. News and World Report annual ranking of American hospitals.

The university's graduate programs in the areas of Biological & Biomedical Sciences, Engineering (Biomedical
Biomedical engineering
Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine: It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve...

, Electrical
Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical...

 & Environmental
Environmental engineering
Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improve the natural environment , to provide healthy water, air, and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to remediate polluted sites...

), Human Development
Developmental psychology
Developmental psychology, also known as human development, is the scientific study of systematic psychological changes, emotional changes, and perception changes that occur in human beings over the course of their life span. Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to...

 & Family Studies
Sociology of the family
The Sociology of the family examines the family, as an institution and a unit of socialisation, through various sociological perspectives, particularly with regard to the relationship between the nuclear family and industrial capitalism, and the distinct gender roles and concepts of childhood which...

, Health Sciences, Humanities
Humanities
The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

, Physical & Mathematical Sciences
Mathematical sciences
Mathematical sciences is a broad term that refers to those academic disciplines that are primarily mathematical in nature but may not be universally considered subfields of mathematics proper...

 and International Affairs
International relations
International relations is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations , international nongovernmental organizations , non-governmental organizations and multinational corporations...

 & Development
International development
International development or global development is a concept that lacks a universally accepted definition, but it is most used in a holistic and multi-disciplinary context of human development — the development of greater quality of life for humans...

 all rank among the top-10 of their respective disciplines.

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies
The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies , a division of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., is one of the world's leading and most prestigious graduate schools devoted to the study of international affairs, economics, diplomacy, and policy research and...

 (SAIS) ranked #1 (2005), #2 (2007), and #2 (2009), by College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
The College of William & Mary in Virginia is a public research university located in Williamsburg, Virginia, United States...

's surveys conducted once every two years beginning in 2005, for its MA program among the world's top schools of International Affairs for those who want to pursue a policy career.

The School of Education
Johns Hopkins University School of Education
The Johns Hopkins School of Education is one of the nine academic divisions of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. The largest provider of master’s degrees in education throughout the state of Maryland, it is known for its emphasis on flexible learning formats that encourage...

 is ranked #6 nationally by U.S. News and World Report. Although no formal rankings exist for music conservatories
Music school
The term music school refers to an educational institution specialized in the study, training and research of music.Different terms refer to this concept such as school of music, music academy, music faculty, college of music, music department or conservatory.Music instruction can be provided...

, the Peabody Institute
Peabody Institute
The Peabody Institute of the Johns Hopkins University is a renowned conservatory and preparatory school located in the Mount Vernon neighborhood of Baltimore, Maryland at the corner of Charles and Monument Streets at Mount Vernon Place.-History:...

 is generally considered one of the most prestigious conservatories in the country, along with Juilliard and the Curtis Institute.

Johns Hopkins is ranked the #1 Social Media College by StudentAdvisor primarily due to the Hopkins Interactive website which use social media platforms such as Blogs, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr to reach outside prospective audiences.

Libraries


The Johns Hopkins University Library system houses more than 3.6 million volumes. It includes ten main divisions: the Sheridan Libraries at Homewood, the Medical Institutions Libraries, the School of Nursing Library, Abraham M. Lilienfeld Library at the Bloomberg School, the Peabody Institute Library, the Carey Business School and School of Education libraries, the School of Advanced International Studies Libraries (Sydney R. and Elsa W. Mason Library and Bologna Center Library), the R.E. Gibson Library at the Applied Physics Laboratory Library and other minor satellite locations, as well as the archives.

The Milton S. Eisenhower Library, located on the Homewood campus, is the main library. It was built in the 1960s. It houses over 2.6 million volumes and over 20,000 journal subscriptions. The Eisenhower Library is a member of the university's Sheridan Libraries encompassing collections at the Albert D. Hutzler Reading Room (called "The Hut" by students) in Gilman Hall, the John Work Garrett Library at Evergreen House, and the George Peabody Library at Mount Vernon Place. Together these collections provide the major research library resources for the university, serving Johns Hopkins academic programs worldwide. The library was named for Milton S. Eisenhower
Milton S. Eisenhower
Milton Stover Eisenhower, served as president of three major American universities: Kansas State University, the Pennsylvania State University, and the Johns Hopkins University. He was the younger brother of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Edgar N. Eisenhower, and Earl D...

, former president of the university and brother of former U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States, from 1953 until 1961. He was a five-star general in the United States Army...

. JHU's library was originally housed in Gilman Hall, and the library stacks in that building continue to house certain collections.

Only two of the Eisenhower library's six stories are above ground, though architects designed the building so that every level has windows and natural light. The design accords with a bit of traditional campus lore which says no structure can be taller than Gilman Hall, the oldest academic building, although no written rule limits building height. In December 2008, an addition directly to the south of the library was announced. The six-and-a-half-story expansion will be named the Brody Learning Commons in honor of University President William R. Brody
William R. Brody
William Ralph Brody is an American radiologist and academic administrator. He is the President of the Salk Institute and former President of The Johns Hopkins University, a position which he had held from 1996 to 2009....

 and will function as a "collaborative learning space". It is scheduled to be completed by 2012.

Research


The opportunity to participate in important research is one of the distinguishing characteristics of Hopkins' undergraduate education. About 80 percent of undergraduates perform independent research, often alongside top researchers. In FY 2009, Johns Hopkins received $1.856 billion in federal research grants—more than any other US university. Thirty-three (33) Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 winners have been affiliated with the university as alumni or faculty members. JHU views its academic strengths as being in art history, biological, physical and other natural sciences, biomedical engineering, creative writing, English, history, economics, international studies, medicine, music, neuroscience, nursing, political theory, public health, public policy, and the Romance languages
Romance languages
The Romance languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family, more precisely of the Italic languages subfamily, comprising all the languages that descend from Vulgar Latin, the language of ancient Rome...

.

Between 1999 and 2009, Johns Hopkins was among the most cited institutions in the world. It attracted nearly 1,222,166 citations and produced 54,022 papers under its name, ranking #3 globally behind Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 and Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

 with the highest total citations published in Thomson Reuters-indexed journals over 22 fields in America.

In FY 2000, Johns Hopkins received $95.4 million in research grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), making it the leading recipient of NASA research and development
Research and development
The phrase research and development , according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, refers to "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society, and the use of this stock of...

 funding. In FY 2002, Hopkins became the first university to cross the $1 billion threshold on either list, recording $1.14 billion in total research and $1.023 billion in federally sponsored research. In FY 2008, Johns Hopkins University performed $1.68 billion in science, medical and engineering research, making it the leading U.S. academic institution in total R&D spending for the 30th year in a row, according to a National Science Foundation
National Science Foundation
The National Science Foundation is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. Its medical counterpart is the National Institutes of Health...

 (NSF) ranking. These totals include grants and expenditures of JHU's Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland.

Divisional

  • School of Medicine (28)
  • School of Public Health (70)
  • School of Nursing (2)
  • School of Arts and Sciences (27)
  • School of Advanced International Studies (17)
  • School of Engineering (16)
  • School of Education (3)
  • Applied Physics Laboratory
    Applied Physics Laboratory
    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory , located in Howard County, Maryland near Laurel and Columbia, is a not-for-profit, university-affiliated research center employing 4,500 people. APL is primarily a defense contractor. It serves as a technical resource for the Department of...



Medical

  • Johns Hopkins Hospital
    Johns Hopkins Hospital
    The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland . It was founded using money from a bequest by philanthropist Johns Hopkins...

  • Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
    Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center
    Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, formerly known as Francis Scott Key Medical Center, is a hospital and medical office center in East Baltimore.It is located along Eastern Avenue near Bayview Boulevard...

  • Johns Hopkins Singapore International Medical Centre
    Johns Hopkins Singapore International Medical Centre
    Johns Hopkins Singapore International Medical Centre is a hospital and a member of the National Healthcare Group in Singapore. Located in Tan Tock Seng Hospital, it was opened in 2000 and is the only facility owned and managed by Johns Hopkins Medicine International outside the United States.The...

  • Howard County General Hospital
    Howard County General Hospital
    Howard County General Hospital is a 227-bed, not-for-profit health care provider located in Columbia, Maryland. The hospital was opened in 1973...

  • Suburban Hospital
  • Sibley Memorial Hospital
    Sibley Memorial Hospital
    Sibley Memorial Hospital is a non-profit hospital located in NW Washington D.C.. It is fully accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, and is licensed by the District of Columbia Department of Health and Human Services. The hospital specializes in surgery,...

  • All Children's Medical Center


Others

  • Center for Biotechnology
  • The Center for Language and Speech Processing
    Center for Language and Speech Processing
    The Johns Hopkins Center for Language and Speech Processing was established at Johns Hopkins University in 1992 with support from the U.S. government...

  • Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies
    Johns Hopkins Institute for Policy Studies
    The is a leading public policy school affiliated with Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. It seeks to improve the response of government, businesses, and nonprofit institutions locally, nationally, and internationally to such challenges as poverty, urban decline, and regional changes...

  • The Berman Institute of Bioethics
  • Johns Hopkins Information Security Institute
  • Space Telescope Science Institute
    Space Telescope Science Institute
    The Space Telescope Science Institute is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope and for the James Webb Space Telescope...

  • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs
  • Center for Talented Youth
    Center for Talented Youth
    The Center for Talented Youth is a gifted education program for school-age children, founded in 1979 by Dr. Julian Stanley at Johns Hopkins University. It was initially a research study of the rate at which gifted children can learn new material and became the first program of its kind to identify...

    - Summer institute for gifted students

Johns Hopkins University Press


The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University. It was founded in 1878 and holds the distinction of being the oldest continuously running university press
University press
A university press is an academic, nonprofit publishing house that is typically affiliated with a large research university, and publishes work that has been reviewed by scholars in the field. It produces mainly scholarly works...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. To date the Press has published more than 6,000 titles and currently publishes 65 scholarly periodicals and over 200 new books each year. Since 1993, the Johns Hopkins University Press has run Project MUSE
Project MUSE
Project MUSE is an online database of current and back issues of peer-reviewed humanities and social sciences journals. It was founded in 1993 by Todd Kelley and Susan Lewis and is a project of the Johns Hopkins University Press and the Milton S. Eisenhower Library. It had support from the Mellon...

, an online collection of over 250 full–text, peer–reviewed journals in the humanities and social sciences. The Press also houses the Hopkins Fulfilment Services (HFS), which handles distribution for a number of university presses and publishers. Taken together, the three divisions of the Press—Books, Journals (including MUSE) and HFS—make it one of the largest of America's university presses.

Student life



The Johns Hopkins Student Government Association represents undergraduates in campus issues and projects. It is elected annually. Blueprints for a new programming board called The Hopkins Organization for Programming ("The HOP") were drawn up during the summer and fall of 2006.

In addition Charles Village
Charles Village, Baltimore
Charles Village is a neighborhood located in the north-central area of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. It is a middle-class area with many single-family homes that is in proximity to many of Baltimore's urban amenities. The neighborhood began in 1869 when of land were purchased for development...

, the region of North Baltimore surrounding the university, has undergone several restoration projects, and the university has gradually bought the property around the school for additional student housing and dormitories. The Charles Village Project, scheduled for completion in 2008, brought new commercial spaces to the neighborhood. The project included Charles Commons, a new, modern residence hall that includes popular retail franchises.

Hopkins invested in improving campus life with an arts complex in 2001, the Mattin Center, and a three–story sports facility, the O'Connor Recreation Center. The large on–campus dining facilities at Homewood were renovated in the summer of 2006.

Quality of life is enriched by the proximity of neighboring academic institutions, including Loyola College
Loyola College in Maryland
Loyola University Maryland is a Roman Catholic, Jesuit private university in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established as Loyola College in Maryland by John Early and eight other members of the Society of Jesus in 1852, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges...

, Maryland Institute College of Art (MICA)
Maryland Institute College of Art
Maryland Institute College of Art is an art and design college in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. It was founded in 1826 as the Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts, making it one of the first and oldest art colleges in the United States. In 2008, MICA was ranked #2 in the nation...

, UMBC, Goucher College
Goucher College
Goucher College is a private, co-educational, liberal arts college located in the northern Baltimore suburb of Towson in unincorporated Baltimore County, Maryland, on a 287 acre campus. The school has approximately 1,475 undergraduate students studying in 31 majors and six interdisciplinary...

, and Towson University
Towson University
Towson University, often referred to as TU or simply Towson for short, is a public university located in Towson in Baltimore County, Maryland, U.S...

, as well as nearby Inner Harbor
Inner Harbor
The Inner Harbor is a historic seaport, tourist attraction, and iconic landmark of the City of Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Described by the Urban Land Institute in 2009 as “the model for post-industrial waterfront redevelopment around the World.” The Inner Harbor is actually the end of the...

.

Annually, the Johns Hopkins Spring Fair is held on the Homewood campus over a three day weekend in mid to late April. Food, arts and crafts, and non–profit vendors, along with a popular musical act and various other activities attract nearly 25,000 people from the greater Baltimore–Washington area. The Spring Fair is the largest entirely student–run fair in the country.

Housing


Living on campus is required for first- and second-year students, except for commuter students who live with a parent or legal guardian. Housing is not guaranteed for juniors or seniors at Johns Hopkins.

Freshmen housing is centered around Freshman Quad which consists of three major residence hall complexes: The Alumni Memorial Residences (AMR I and AMR II), Building A and Building B. AMR I was built in 1923 and includes Royce, Sylvester, Vincent, Willard, Wilson and Wood houses; AMR II in 1954, holding Adams, Baker, Clark, Gildersleeve, Griffin, Hollander, Jennings, Lazear houses. The houses were named for Hopkins Alumni who died in World Wars I and II. While each house has its own outside entrance, there are no dividers indoors that distinguish them. In 1983, Buildings A and B were added to Freshmen Quad. They have not yet been dedicated. Freshmen are also housed in Wolman Hall and the terrace floor of McCoy Hall, located on the other side of North Charles Street.

Freshman enter a housing lottery in their spring semester to determine where they will live during their sophomore year. Juniors and seniors may choose between entering the campus housing lottery or moving into nearby apartments or row houses. They occupy one of four buildings. The first, McCoy Hall, is located next to Wolman Hall on North Charles Street. McCoy Hall is predominantly composed of sophomores and transfer students. Apartment-style housing is offered in the Bradford Apartments, one block east of campus on St. Paul Street, and in the Homewood Apartments, two blocks south on North Charles Street. The last is Charles Commons, the newest and largest university–owned dormitory, located at the corner of North Charles and East 33rd. It was completed in 2006 to house 618 students and represented a major step by the university towards offering on–campus housing to students. Charles Commons consists of two 11–story towers connected by a bridge, residential suites and features a ballroom, fitness center and several conference rooms. Nolan's on 33rd, a dining hall specializing in dinner services, is also located in the building.

JHU rents several buildings on North Charles Street to house students when necessary. At full capacity, dormitory buildings can house approximately 60% of undergraduates. Privately–owned apartment buildings around Homewood are usually filled with Hopkins upperclassmen, so despite the lack of university–owned dormitories, housing is available.

Fraternities and Sororities


The University Office of Greek Life recognizes thirteen fraternities and eight sororities, which include approximately 25% of the student body. Greek life has been a part of the university culture since 1877, when Beta Theta Pi
Beta Theta Pi
Beta Theta Pi , often just called Beta, is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded in 1839 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. It has over 138 active chapters and colonies in the United States and Canada...

 fraternity became the first to form a chapter on campus. Sororities arrived at Hopkins in 1982. As with all Hopkins programs, Greek discrimination on the basis of "marital status, pregnancy, race, color, ethnicity, national origin, age, disability, religion, sexual orientation, veteran status" is prohibited. JHU also has an anti–hazing policy and prohibits alcohol at recruitment activities. Hopkins does not permit "city–wide" chapters, and requires all members of a JHU recognized fraternity or sorority to be a JHU student.

As of Spring 2011, 1,208 students were members of one of Hopkins' fraternities or sororities. The All–Greek Average GPA was 3.31, above the undergraduate average GPA. In Spring 2010 the university was considering construction of a "fraternity row" of houses to consolidate the groups on campus.

All Johns Hopkins fraternities and sororities belong to one of four Councils: the Inter–Fraternity Council, the National Panhellenic Conference
National Panhellenic Conference
The National Panhellenic Conference , founded in 1902, is an umbrella organization for 26 national women's sororities.Each member group is autonomous as a social, Greek-letter society of college women and alumnae...

, the National Pan-Hellenic Council
National Pan-Hellenic Council
The National Pan-Hellenic Council is a collaborative organization of nine historically African American, international Greek lettered fraternities and sororities. The nine NPHC organizations are sometimes collectively referred to as the "Divine Nine"...

and the Multicultural Council.

The Inter–Fraternity Council includes eleven fraternities:
  • ΑΔΦ – Alpha Delta Phi
    Alpha Delta Phi
    Alpha Delta Phi is a Greek-letter social college fraternity and the fourth-oldest continuous Greek-letter fraternity in the United States and Canada. Alpha Delta Phi was founded on October 29, 1832 by Samuel Eells at Hamilton College and includes former U.S. Presidents, Chief Justices of the U.S....

     fraternity, chapter founded 1889.
  • ΑΕΠ – Alpha Epsilon Pi
    Alpha Epsilon Pi
    Alpha Epsilon Pi , the Global Jewish college fraternity, has 155 active chapters in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Israel with a membership of over 9,000 undergraduates...

     fraternity, Psi chapter founded 1936. Jewish interest.
  • ΒΘΠ – Beta Theta Pi
    Beta Theta Pi
    Beta Theta Pi , often just called Beta, is a social collegiate fraternity that was founded in 1839 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, USA, where it is part of the Miami Triad which includes Phi Delta Theta and Sigma Chi. It has over 138 active chapters and colonies in the United States and Canada...

     fraternity, Alpha Chi chapter founded 1877.
  • ΛΦΕ – Lambda Phi Epsilon
    Lambda Phi Epsilon
    Lambda Phi Epsilon is an internationally-recognized fraternity in the United States and Canada. With a total of 53 chapters, it is the largest Asian-interest fraternity in North America...

     fraternity, Upsilon chapter founded 1994. Asian–American interest.
  • ΦΔΘ – Phi Delta Theta
    Phi Delta Theta
    Phi Delta Theta , also known as Phi Delt, is an international fraternity founded at Miami University in 1848 and headquartered in Oxford, Ohio. Phi Delta Theta, Beta Theta Pi, and Sigma Chi form the Miami Triad. The fraternity has about 169 active chapters and colonies in over 43 U.S...

     fraternity, Maryland Delta chapter founded 2008.
  • FIJI – Phi Gamma Delta
    Phi Gamma Delta
    The international fraternity of Phi Gamma Delta is a collegiate social fraternity with 120 chapters and 18 colonies across the United States and Canada. It was founded at Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, in 1848, and its headquarters are located in Lexington, Kentucky, USA...

     fraternity, Beta Mu chapter founded 1891.
  • ΦΚΨ – Phi Kappa Psi
    Phi Kappa Psi
    Phi Kappa Psi is an American collegiate social fraternity founded at Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania on February 19, 1852. There are over a hundred chapters and colonies at accredited four year colleges and universities throughout the United States. More than 112,000 men have been...

     fraternity, Maryland Alpha chapter founded 1879.
  • ΠΚΑ – Pi Kappa Alpha
    Pi Kappa Alpha
    Pi Kappa Alpha is a Greek social fraternity with over 230 chapters and colonies and over 250,000 lifetime initiates in the United States and Canada.-History:...

     fraternity, Iota Tau chapter founded 1994.
  • ΣΑΕ – Sigma Alpha Epsilon
    Sigma Alpha Epsilon
    Sigma Alpha Epsilon is a North American Greek-letter social college fraternity founded at the University of Alabama on March 9, 1856. Of all existing national social fraternities today, Sigma Alpha Epsilon is the only one founded in the Antebellum South...

     fraternity, Maryland Phi chapter founded 1994.
  • ΣΧ – Sigma Chi
    Sigma Chi
    Sigma Chi is the largest and one of the oldest college Greek-letter secret and social fraternities in North America with 244 active chapters and more than . Sigma Chi was founded on June 28, 1855 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio when members split from Delta Kappa Epsilon...

     fraternity, Kappa Upsilon chapter founded 2003.
  • ΣΦΕ – Sigma Phi Epsilon
    Sigma Phi Epsilon
    Sigma Phi Epsilon , commonly nicknamed SigEp or SPE, is a social college fraternity for male college students in the United States. It was founded on November 1, 1901, at Richmond College , and its national headquarters remains in Richmond, Virginia. It was founded on three principles: Virtue,...

     fraternity, Maryland Alpha chapter founded 1929.

The National Panhellenic Conference includes four sororities:
  • ΑΦ – Alpha Phi
    Alpha Phi
    Alpha Phi International Women's Fraternity was founded at Syracuse University on September 18, 1872. Alpha Phi currently has 152 active chapters and over 200,000 initiated members. Its celebrated Founders' Day is October 10. It was the third Greek-letter organization founded for women. In Alpha...

     sorority, Zeta Omicron chapter founded 1982.
  • ΚΚΓ – Kappa Kappa Gamma
    Kappa Kappa Gamma
    Kappa Kappa Gamma is a collegiate women's fraternity, founded at Monmouth College, in Monmouth, Illinois, USA. Although the groundwork of the organization was developed as early as 1869, the 1876 Convention voted that October 13, 1870 should be recognized at the official Founders Day, because no...

     sorority, Eta Epsilon chapter founded 1999.
  • ΦM – Phi Mu
    Phi Mu
    Phi Mu is the second oldest female fraternal organization established in the United States. It was founded at Wesleyan College in Macon, Georgia. The organization was founded as the Philomathean Society on January 4, 1852, and was announced publicly on March 4 of the same year...

     sorority, Gamma Tau chapter founded 1982.
  • ΠBΦ – Pi Beta Phi
    Pi Beta Phi
    Pi Beta Phi is an international fraternity for women founded as I.C. Sorosis on April 28, 1867, at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. Its headquarters are located in Town and Country, Missouri, and there are 134 active chapters and over 330 alumnae organizations across the United States and...

     sorority, Maryland Gamma chartered November 20, 2010.


The National Pan–Hellenic Council includes two historically African–American groups:
  • ΑΦΑ – Alpha Phi Alpha
    Alpha Phi Alpha
    Alpha Phi Alpha is the first Inter-Collegiate Black Greek Letter fraternity. It was founded on December 4, 1906 at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Its founders are known as the "Seven Jewels". Alpha Phi Alpha developed a model that was used by the many Black Greek Letter Organizations ...

     fraternity, Sigma Sigma chapter founded 1991.
  • ΣΓP – Sigma Gamma Rho
    Sigma Gamma Rho
    Sigma Gamma Rho Sorority, Inc. was founded on the campus of Butler University on November 12, 1922, by seven school teachers in Indianapolis, Indiana...

     sorority, Rho Omega chapter founded 2009.


The Multicultural Council includes four groups:
  • αΚΔΦ – Alpha Kappa Delta Phi
    Alpha Kappa Delta Phi
    alpha Kappa Delta Phi is an Asian American interest sorority founded at the University of California, Berkeley.-History:...

     sorority, associate chapter founded 1997. Asian–American interest.
  • ΔΞΦ – Delta Xi Phi
    Delta Xi Phi
    Delta Xi Phi is a national multicultural Sorority that was founded at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by 15 women on April 20, 1994. The sorority comprises women from all ethnic, cultural, religious and socio-economic backgrounds. Defined by diversity, Delta Xi Phi is not only...

     sorority, Lambda chapter founded 2003. Multicultural interest.
  • INΔ – Iota Nu Delta fraternity, chapter founded 2008. South Asian interest.
  • ΣΟΠ – Sigma Omicron Pi
    Sigma Omicron Pi
    The sisterhood of ΣΟΠ was founded in 1930 to further the awareness of women in Asian culture. As strong women participating in various social, academic, and community activities, ΣΟΠ maintain the objectives of unity, friendship, leadership, and community service established over 70 years...

     sorority, Lambda chapter founded 2002. Asian–American interest.


Delta Phi
Delta Phi
Delta Phi is a fraternity founded in 1827 at Union College in Schenectady, New York. Founded as part of the Union Triad, along with the Kappa Alpha Society and Sigma Phi Society, Delta Phi was the third and last member of the Triad...

 Fraternity, also known as St. Elmo's, maintains a chapter exclusive to students at Johns Hopkins, though it is not recognized by the Office of Greek Life.

Unrecognized Alpha Kappa Alpha
Alpha Kappa Alpha
Alpha Kappa Alpha is the first Greek-lettered sorority established and incorporated by African American college women. The sorority was founded on January 15, 1908, at Howard University in Washington, D.C., by a group of nine students, led by Ethel Hedgeman Lyle...

 and Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta is a non-profit Greek-lettered sorority of college-educated women who perform public service and place emphasis on the African American community. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority was founded on January 13, 1913 by twenty-two collegiate women at Howard University...

 African–American interest sororities often recruit Johns Hopkins undergraduates, in their city–wide chapters. Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta
Delta Sigma Theta is a non-profit Greek-lettered sorority of college-educated women who perform public service and place emphasis on the African American community. Delta Sigma Theta Sorority was founded on January 13, 1913 by twenty-two collegiate women at Howard University...

 was the first National Pan–Hellenic Council member to charter on the campus in 1976, as well as the first sorority of any kind on the JHU campus.

Kappa Alpha Theta
Kappa Alpha Theta
Kappa Alpha Theta , also known as Theta, is an international fraternity for women founded on January 27, 1870 at DePauw University, formerly Indiana Asbury...

, a National Panhellenic Conference
National Panhellenic Conference
The National Panhellenic Conference , founded in 1902, is an umbrella organization for 26 national women's sororities.Each member group is autonomous as a social, Greek-letter society of college women and alumnae...

 (NPC) sorority, was disbanded by its national headquarters on April 14, 2009 after twelve years on campus. The removal was due to repeated risk management violations.

In March 2010, Johns Hopkins University officially opened for NPC extension. In May 2010, the University Panhellenic Council selected Pi Beta Phi
Pi Beta Phi
Pi Beta Phi is an international fraternity for women founded as I.C. Sorosis on April 28, 1867, at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois. Its headquarters are located in Town and Country, Missouri, and there are 134 active chapters and over 330 alumnae organizations across the United States and...

, which opened in the fall of 2010.

Recruitment for Inter–Fraternity Council and Panhellenic Conference fraternities and sororities takes place during the spring semester for freshmen, though some groups recruit upperclassmen during the fall semester. All participants must have completed one semester and must be in good academic standing.

Many of the fraternities maintain houses off campus, but no sororities do. Baltimore City allows housing to be zoned specifically for use as a fraternity or sorority house, but in practice this zoning code has not been awarded for at least 50 years. Only Sigma Phi Epsilon's building has this zoning code due to its consistent ownership since the 1920s.

Student publications



Hopkins has many student publications.
  • The Johns Hopkins News-Letter
    The Johns Hopkins News-Letter
    The Johns Hopkins News-Letter is the independent student newspaper of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. Published since 1896, it is one of the nation's oldest continuously published, weekly student-run college newspapers....

    , founded in 1896, is one of the oldest continuously published weekly college newspapers in the nation with a press run of 5,200. The News-Letter won a Associated Collegiate Press Newspaper Pacemaker award for four–year, non–daily college newspapers in 2007.

  • The Hopkins Donkey is a political newspaper with a Democratic
    Democratic Party (United States)
    The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

     perspective on international, national and state–wide political topics.

  • The Carrollton Record is a political newspaper with an American conservative
    American conservatism
    Conservatism in the United States has played an important role in American politics since the 1950s. Historian Gregory Schneider identifies several constants in American conservatism: respect for tradition, support of republicanism, preservation of "the rule of law and the Christian religion", and...

     perspective on campus and city–wide politics.

  • Epidemic Proportions is the university's public health research journal, designed to highlight JHU research and field work in public health. Combining research and scholarship, the journal seeks to capture the breadth and depth of the JHU undergraduate public health experience.

  • Thoroughfare, Zeniada and j.mag are literary magazines. Prometheus is the undergraduate philosophy journal.

  • Frame of Reference is an annual magazine that focuses on film and film culture.

  • The New Diplomat is the multi–disciplinary international relations journal. Foundations is the undergraduate history journal.

  • Américas is the Latin American Studies journal.

  • Argot is the undergraduate anthropology journal.

  • The Triple Helix is the university's journal to address issues concerning science, law and society.

  • Perspectives is the official newsletter of the Black Student Union.

  • The Black & Blue Jay is among the nation's oldest campus humor magazines. It was founded in 1920. According to The Johns Hopkins News–Letter, the magazine's name led the News–Letter to first use the moniker Blue Jays to refer to a Hopkins athletic team in 1923. While the magazine enjoyed popularity among students, it received repeated opposition from the university administration, reportedly for its vulgar humor. In October 1934, Dean Edward R. Berry removed financial support for the magazine; without funding, the magazine continued under the name The Blue Jay until Berry threatened to expel the editors in 1939. The magazine had a revival in 1984, and has appeared intermittently since then.

Student–Run Businesses


Hopkins Student Enterprises (HSE) is a startup incubator with the goal of fostering student innovation and encouraging the development of student–run businesses. Currently, 4 businesses are in operation:
  • Hopkins Consulting Agency
    Hopkins Consulting Agency
    Hopkins Consulting Agency , formerly known as "Hopkins Technology Commercialization Agency" , is an entirely student-run non-profit business and technology consulting company based at the Johns Hopkins University Homewood Campus...

     (HCA)—Business and technology consulting company that prepares technology commercialization reports and business plans.

  • Hopkins Student Movers (HSM)—Moving and storage company that serves JHU faculty, staff, and students and the broader Baltimore community.

  • Hopkins Student Creative Services (HSCS)—Full service graphic design company.


Athletics


Athletic teams are called Blue Jays. Even though sable
Sable (heraldry)
In heraldry, sable is the tincture black, and belongs to the class of dark tinctures, called "colours". In engravings and line drawings, it is sometimes depicted as a region of crossed horizontal and vertical lines or else marked with sa. as an abbreviation.The name derives from the black fur of...

 and gold
Or (heraldry)
In heraldry, Or is the tincture of gold and, together with argent , belongs to the class of light tinctures called "metals". In engravings and line drawings, it may be represented using a field of evenly spaced dots...

 are used for academic robes
Academic dress
Academic dress or academical dress is a traditional form of clothing for academic settings, primarily tertiary education, worn mainly by those that have been admitted to a university degree or hold a status that entitles them to assume them...

, the university's athletic colors are Columbia blue
Columbia blue
Columbia blue, also known as Jordy blue, is a light blue tertiary color named after Columbia University. The typical Columbia blue is defined by Pantone Columbia Blue 3 .- Usage, symbolism, colloquial expressions :...

 (PMS 284) and black
Black
Black is the color of objects that do not emit or reflect light in any part of the visible spectrum; they absorb all such frequencies of light...

. Hopkins celebrates Homecoming
Homecoming
Homecoming is the tradition of welcoming back alumni of a school. It most commonly refers to a tradition in many universities, colleges and high schools in North America...

 in the spring to coincide with the height of the lacrosse
Lacrosse
Lacrosse is a team sport of Native American origin played using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick, mainly played in the United States and Canada. It is a contact sport which requires padding. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh...

 season. The Men's and Women's lacrosse teams are in National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States...

 (NCAA) Division I. Other teams are in Division III and participate in the Centennial Conference
Centennial Conference
The Centennial Conference is an athletic conference which competes in the NCAA's Division III. Member teams are located in Maryland and Pennsylvania....

. JHU is also home to the Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame
Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame
The US Lacrosse Museum and National Hall of Fame, located in Baltimore, Maryland, on the campus of Johns Hopkins University, is operated by US Lacrosse...

, maintained by US Lacrosse
US Lacrosse
US Lacrosse is the national governing body of men and women's lacrosse in the United States, primarily serving the youth game. It provides a leadership role in virtually every aspect of the game, boasts 63 chapters throughout the United States, and offers programs and services to inspire...

.

Men's lacrosse




The school's most prominent team is its men's lacrosse
Lacrosse
Lacrosse is a team sport of Native American origin played using a small rubber ball and a long-handled stick called a crosse or lacrosse stick, mainly played in the United States and Canada. It is a contact sport which requires padding. The head of the lacrosse stick is strung with loose mesh...

 team. The team does not belong to a conference. The team has won 44 national titles – nine Division I (2007, 2005, 1987, 1985, 1984, 1980, 1979, 1978, 1974), 29 United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association
United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association
The United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association is an association of institutions with varsity college lacrosse programs in all three NCAA divisions, founded in 1885.-Awards:...

 (USILA
United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association
The United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association is an association of institutions with varsity college lacrosse programs in all three NCAA divisions, founded in 1885.-Awards:...

), and six Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (ILA) titles. Hopkins' primary national rivals are Princeton University
Princeton University
Princeton University is a private research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The school is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution....

, Syracuse University
Syracuse University
Syracuse University is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States. Its roots can be traced back to Genesee Wesleyan Seminary, founded by the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1832, which also later founded Genesee College...

, and the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, founded by Thomas Jefferson...

; its primary intrastate rivals are Loyola College
Loyola College in Maryland
Loyola University Maryland is a Roman Catholic, Jesuit private university in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Established as Loyola College in Maryland by John Early and eight other members of the Society of Jesus in 1852, it is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Colleges...

 (competing in what is called the "Charles Street Massacre"), Towson University
Towson University
Towson University, often referred to as TU or simply Towson for short, is a public university located in Towson in Baltimore County, Maryland, U.S...

, the United States Naval Academy
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in Annapolis, Maryland, United States...

, and the University of Maryland
University of Maryland, College Park
The University of Maryland, College Park is a top-ranked public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C...

. The rivalry with Maryland is the oldest. The schools have met 103 times since 1899, twice in playoff matches.

Women's lacrosse



The women's team is a member of the American Lacrosse Conference
American Lacrosse Conference
The American Lacrosse Conference is a NCAA Division I women's lacrosse-only college athletic conference whose members are located in the Midwest, on the East Coast, and increasingly in the Southeastern states from Illinois to Florida....

 (ALC). The team is developing into a top twenty team. The Lady Blue Jays were ranked number 19 in the 2008 Inside Lacrosse Women's DI Media Poll (ILWDIMP). They ranked number 8 in both the 2007 Intercollegiate Women's Lacrosse Coaches Association (IWLCA) Poll for Division I and the ILWDIMP. In 2006, they were ranked 14th in the ILWDIMP, in 2005, they were 11th, and, in 2004, they were 9th. However, recently the team has struggled and finished with a record of 5 wins and 12 losses in the 2009 season.

Other teams


Hopkins has notable Division III Athletic teams. In 2009–2010, Hopkins won 8 Centennial Conference titles in Women's Cross Country, Women's Track & Field, Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Football, and Men's and Women's Tennis. The Women's Cross Country team became the first women's team at Hopkins to achieve a #1 National ranking. In 2006–2007 teams won Centennial Conference titles in Baseball, Men's and Women's Soccer, Men's and Women's Tennis and Men's Basketball.
Hopkins has an acclaimed fencing
Fencing
Fencing, which is also known as modern fencing to distinguish it from historical fencing, is a family of combat sports using bladed weapons.Fencing is one of four sports which have been featured at every one of the modern Olympic Games...

 team, which ranked in the top three Division III teams in the past few years and in both 2008 and 2007 defeated the University of North Carolina
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States...

, a Division I team. In 2008, they defeated UNC and won the MACFA championship. The Swimming
Swimming (sport)
Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

 team ranked in the top two of Division III for the last 10 years.

The Men's Swimming team placed second at DIII Nationals in 2008. The Water Polo team was number one in Division III for several of the past years, playing a full schedule against Division I opponents. Hopkins also has a century-old rivalry with McDaniel College
McDaniel College
McDaniel College is a private four-year liberal arts college in Westminster, Maryland, located 30 miles northwest of Baltimore. The college also has a satellite campus located in Budapest, Hungary. Until July 2002, it was known as Western Maryland College...

 (formerly Western Maryland College), playing the Green Terrors 83 times in football since the first game in 1894. In 2009 the football team reached the quarterfinals of the NCAA Division III tournament. In 2008, the baseball team ranked second, losing in the final game of the DIII College World Series
College World Series
The College World Series or CWS is an annual baseball tournament held in Omaha, Nebraska that is the culmination of the NCAA Division I Baseball Championship, which determines the NCAA Division I college baseball champion. The eight teams are split into two, four-team, double-elimination brackets,...

 to Trinity College.

Nobel laureates



As of 2011, there had been 37 Nobel
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

 Laureates, who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were faculty members. Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

, who received his PhD from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was Hopkins' first affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize
Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel.-Background:According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who...

 in 1919. Twenty-three laureates were faculty members, five earned PhDs, eight earned M.D.
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 while Francis Peyton Rous
Francis Peyton Rous
Peyton Rous born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1879 and received his B.A. and M.D. from Johns Hopkins University. He was involved in the discovery of the role of viruses in the transmission of certain types of cancer...

 and Martin Rodbell
Martin Rodbell
Martin Rodbell was an American biochemist and molecular endocrinologist who is best known for his discovery of G-proteins. He shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Alfred G...

 earned undergraduate degrees.

Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category. Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot
George Minot
George Richards Minot was an American medical researcher who shared the 1934 Nobel Prize with George Hoyt Whipple and William P. Murphy for their pioneering work on pernicious anemia.-Life:...

 and George Whipple
George Whipple
George Hoyt Whipple was an American physician, pathologist, biomedical researcher, and medical school educator and administrator...

 won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger
Joseph Erlanger was an American physiologist.Erlanger was born on January 5, 1874, at San Francisco, California. He completed his B.S. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley and completed his M.D. in 1899 from the Johns Hopkins University...

 and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans
Daniel Nathans was an American microbiologist.He was born in Wilmington, Delaware, the last of nine children born to Russian Jewish immigrant parents. During the Great Depression his father lost his small business and was unemployed for a long period of time...

 and Hamilton O. Smith
Hamilton O. Smith
Hamilton Othanel Smith is an American microbiologist and Nobel laureate.Smith was born on August 23, 1931, and graduated from University Laboratory High School of Urbana, Illinois. He attended the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, but in 1950 transferred to the University of California,...

 won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and David H. Hubel
David H. Hubel
David Hunter Hubel is the John Franklin Enders Professor of Neurobiology, Emeritus, at Harvard Medical School. He was co-recipient with Torsten Wiesel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system; the prize was...

 and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

See also


  • Johns Hopkins University in Popular Culture
    Johns Hopkins University in Popular Culture
    - In non-fiction :*The HBO film Something the Lord Made , based on the true story of Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas , depicts their work as pioneers of cardiac surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital....

  • DirectHit
    DirectHit
    DirectHit is a pharmacodiagnostic test used to determine the tumor sensitivity or resistance to drug regimens recommended for the treatment of breast cancer by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. It is a noninvasive test performed on small amounts of tissue removed during the original...

    - pharmacodiagnostic test for breast cancer developed by researchers from Johns Hopkins University


External links