Master of Ceremonies

Master of Ceremonies

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Encyclopedia
A Master of Ceremonies or compere, is the host of a staged event or similar performance.
An MC usually presents performers, speaks to the audience, and generally keeps the event moving.
An MC may also tell jokes or anecdotes. The MC sometimes also acts as the protocol officer during an official state function. In hip hop music
Hip hop music
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music or hip-hop music, is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted...

, rock music and electronic dance music
Electronic dance music
Electronic dance music is electronic music produced primarily for the purposes of use within a nightclub setting, or in an environment that is centered upon dance-based entertainment...

, an MC is a music artist and/or performer who usually creates and performs vocals for his own original ml (not to be confused with a DJ who plays party music and creates music mixes).

Origins



The term originates from the Catholic Church. The Master of Ceremonies is an official of the Papal Court
Papal court
The Papal Household or Pontifical Household , called until 1968 the Papal Court , consists of dignitaries who assist the Pope in carrying out particular ceremonies of either a religious or a civil character....

 responsible for the proper and smooth conduct of the elegant and elaborate rituals involving the Pope and the sacred liturgy
Liturgy
Liturgy is either the customary public worship done by a specific religious group, according to its particular traditions or a more precise term that distinguishes between those religious groups who believe their ritual requires the "people" to do the "work" of responding to the priest, and those...

. He may also be an official involved in the proper conduct of protocols and ceremonials involving the Roman Pontiff, the Papal Court
Roman Curia
The Roman Curia is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See and the central governing body of the entire Catholic Church, together with the Pope...

, and other dignitaries and potentates. Examples of official liturgical book
Liturgical book
A liturgical book is a book published by the authority of a church, that contains the text and directions for the liturgy of its official religious services.-Roman Catholic:...

s prescribing the rules and regulations of liturgical celebrations are Cæremoniale Romanum and Cæremoniale Episcoporum
Cæremoniale Episcoporum
The Cæremoniale Episcoporum is a book that describes the Church services to be performed by Bishops of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church....

.

The office of the Master of Ceremonies itself is very old. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia and the Original Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in the United States. The first volume appeared in March 1907 and the last three volumes appeared in 1912, followed by a master index...

, the most ancient ceremonials and rituals of the Catholic Church are the so-called Ordines Romani
Ordines romani
The Ordines Romani are collections of documents that are the rubrics for various liturgical services, including the early Medieval Mass, of the Roman Rite...

. Names of Masters of Ceremonies are known since the late Middle Ages (15th century) and the Renaissance
Renaissance
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

 (16th century). However, copies of books prescribing the forms of rituals, rites and customs of pontifical ceremonies are known to have been given to Charles Martel
Charles Martel
Charles Martel , also known as Charles the Hammer, was a Frankish military and political leader, who served as Mayor of the Palace under the Merovingian kings and ruled de facto during an interregnum at the end of his life, using the title Duke and Prince of the Franks. In 739 he was offered the...

 in the 8th century. The rules and rituals themselves are known to have been compiled or written by the pontifical masters of ceremonies whose contents date back to the time of Pope Gelasius I
Pope Gelasius I
Pope Saint Gelasius I was pope from 492 until his death in 496. He was the third and last bishop of Rome of African origin in the Catholic Church. Gelasius was a prolific writer whose style placed him on the cusp between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages...

 (492–496) with modifications and additions made by Pope Gregory the Great (590–604). It is reasonable to assume that the ceremonials themselves pre-date Gelasius I and the origins of the Master of Ceremonies may have developed from the time Emperor Constantine the Great gave the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
The Lateran Palace , formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran , is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main Papal residence....

 to the popes (324) or from the time Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 (380), and was influenced no doubt by imperial practices, customs and norms. However, documentary evidence from the late Roman period are scarce or lost. The ceremonies and practices of the Byzantine emperors are also known to have influenced the papal court. The accumulation of elaboration and complication since the Renaissance and Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 eras were carried well into the 20th century until some of the ceremonies (i.e. the court, the rituals and norms) were simplified or completely eliminated by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
Paul VI , born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church from 21 June 1963 until his death on 6 August 1978. Succeeding Pope John XXIII, who had convened the Second Vatican Council, he decided to continue it...

 in the 1970s after Vatican II; much of the Renaissance pomp and ceremony has been completely abandoned by the popes of the modern era.

At a large Catholic church or cathedral, the Master of Ceremonies organises and rehearses the proceedings and ritual of each Mass
Mass (liturgy)
"Mass" is one of the names by which the sacrament of the Eucharist is called in the Roman Catholic Church: others are "Eucharist", the "Lord's Supper", the "Breaking of Bread", the "Eucharistic assembly ", the "memorial of the Lord's Passion and Resurrection", the "Holy Sacrifice", the "Holy and...

. He may also have responsibility for the physical security of the place of worship during the liturgy. At major festivities such as Christmas and Easter, when the liturgies are long and complex, the Master of Ceremonies plays a vital role in ensuring that everything runs smoothly.

The current papal Master of Ceremonies is Monsignor Guido Marini
Guido Marini
Guido Marini is a Roman Catholic priest, currently serving as the Master of Pontifical Liturgical Celebrations . He was appointed to this post on 1 October 2007, replacing Piero Marini...

 who succeeded Archbishop Piero Marini
Piero Marini
Piero Marini is a Roman Catholic archbishop who is president of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses. For twenty years he served as Master of Pontifical Liturgical Celebrations, in charge of the Office for the Liturgical Celebrations of the Supreme Pontiff...

 to whom he is not related.

Masters of ceremonies at weddings and private affairs have also been in charge of the coordination of events. Wedding MCs will often work directly with catering staff to ensure the event runs smoothly.

Monarchies


Historically certain European royal court
Royal court
Royal court, as distinguished from a court of law, may refer to:* The Royal Court , Timbaland's production company*Court , the household and entourage of a monarch or other ruler, the princely court...

s maintained senior offices known as Masters of Ceremonies (or some variants thereof), responsible for conducting stately ceremonies such as coronation
Coronation
A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia...

s and receptions of foreign ambassadors. Examples included:
  • British Empire: Master of the Ceremonies
    Master of the Ceremonies
    The office of Master of the Ceremonies was established by King James I/VI. The master's duties were to receive foreign dignitaries and present them to the monarch at court...

  • France: Grand Master of Ceremonies
    Grand Master of Ceremonies
    The Grand Master of Ceremonies of France or Grand maître des cérémonies de France was one of the Great Officers of the Maison du Roi during the Ancien Régime and Bourbon Restoration...

  • Japan: Master of Ceremonies
    Master of Ceremonies (Japan)
    The is one of the major positions in the Japanese Imperial Household Agency. The function of the Imperial ceremonial master predates the Heian period; and the role continued to be filled continuously since those ancient times. Formerly, the title and position were conferred in the name of the...

  • Russian Empire: see Table of Ranks

Comedy clubs



In the context of a comedy club
Comedy club
A comedy club is a venue, typically a nightclub, bar, or restaurant where people watch or listen to performances, including stand-up comedians, improvisational comedians, impersonators, magicians, ventriloquists and other comedy acts...

, the role of MC is traditionally filled by a "compère". In any comedy show, the compère is the host of the evening's events, but the precise role and responsibilities will vary depending on the country, venue and style of event. The compère is usually a working comedian, and whilst they may incorporate elements of their regular set, the role broadly requires a greater level of improvisation – creating a sense of place and community, interacting with the audience, dealing with any heckler
Heckler
A heckler is a person who harass and try to disconcert others with questions, challenges, or gibes.Hecklers are often known to shout disparaging comments at a performance or event, or interrupts set-piece speeches, for example at a political meeting, with intent to disturb its performers or...

s and encouraging them to focus on the other acts. The compère will normally do longer bits at the start of the show and after any interval, and shorter bits between acts. They may also be required to make announcements, such as birthdays, anniversaries and bar promotions.

Boy Scouts of America


In the Boy Scouts of America
Boy Scouts of America
The Boy Scouts of America is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with over 4.5 million youth members in its age-related divisions...

, the Master of Ceremonies is an adult or a scout who leads a Court of Honor, specifically an Eagle Scout Court of Honor (one which is held to present a scout with an Eagle Scout
Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America)
Eagle Scout is the highest rank attainable in the Boy Scouting program of the Boy Scouts of America . A Scout who attains this rank is called an Eagle Scout or Eagle. Since its introduction in 1911, the Eagle Scout rank has been earned by more than 2 million young men...

 rank). It is optional to award merit badges
Merit badge (Boy Scouts of America)
Merit badges are awards earned by youth members of the Boy Scouts of America , based on activities within an area of study by completing a list of periodically updated requirements. The purpose of the merit badge program is to allow Scouts to examine subjects to determine if they would like to...

 or rank advancements at the Eagle Scout Court of Honor, rather than making the rest of the troop wait for another, non-Eagle, Court of Honor.

Hip hop


In the late 1970s, the term MC (or M.C. in some uses), stood for Master of Ceremonies. It became another alternative for a rapper, for the position's role within hip hop music
Hip hop music
Hip hop music, also called hip-hop, rap music or hip-hop music, is a musical genre consisting of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted...

 and culture. An MC uses rhyming verses, pre-written or ad lib ('freestyled
Freestyle rap
Freestyle rap commonly refers to rap lyrics which are improvised through a acapella or with instrumental beats, i.e. performed with no previously composed lyrics, or "off the top of the head"...

'), to introduce the DJ with whom they work, to keep the crowd entertained or to glorify themselves. As hip hop progressed, the title MC became a backronym
Backronym
A backronym or bacronym is a phrase constructed purposely, such that an acronym can be formed to a specific desired word. Backronyms may be invented with serious or humorous intent, or may be a type of false or folk etymology....

 for a number of phrases such as 'microphone controller', 'microphone checker', 'music commentator', and one who 'moves the crowd'. A recent neologistic acronym, gaining use, is 'mentor to child'. Some use this word interchangeably with the term rapper or emcee, while for others the term denotes a conception and demonstration of the role indicative of skill and of connection to the wider culture, while the latter term does not.

MC can often be used as a term of distinction; referring to an artist with good performance skills. As Kool G Rap
Kool G Rap
Nathaniel Thomas Wilson , better known by his stage names Kool G Rap , Kool G. Rap, and Giancana , is an American rapper, from the Corona neighborhood of Queens, New York. He began his career in the mid-1980s as one half of the group Kool G Rap & DJ Polo and as a member of the Juice Crew...

 notes, "masters of ceremony, where the word 'M.C.' comes from, means just keeping the party alive"[sic].

As with some rappers, there was a distinction, such as for MC Hammer
MC Hammer
Stanley Kirk Burrell , better known by his stage name MC Hammer , is an American rapper, entertainer, business entrepreneur, dancer and actor. He had his greatest commercial success and popularity from the late 1980s until the mid-1990s...

 who acquired the nickname "MC" for being a "Master of Ceremonies" which he used when he began performing at various clubs while on the road with the Oakland A's
Oakland Athletics
The Oakland Athletics are a Major League Baseball team based in Oakland, California. The Athletics are a member of the Western Division of Major League Baseball's American League. From to the present, the Athletics have played in the O.co Coliseum....

, and eventually in the military (United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

). It was within the lyrics of a rap song called "This Wall" that Hammer first identified himself as M.C. Hammer and later marketed it on his debut album Feel My Power
Feel My Power
Feel My Power is an EP by M.C. Hammer, produced by Felton Pilate and released in 1987. This album sold over 60,000 copies, which led to several offers from major labels.-Album history:...

.

Uncertainty over the acronym
Acronym and initialism
Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word. These components may be individual letters or parts of words . There is no universal agreement on the precise definition of the various terms , nor on written usage...

's expansion may be considered evidence for the ubiquity of the acronym: the full master of ceremonies is very rarely used in the hip hop scene. This confusion prompted the hip hop group A Tribe Called Quest
A Tribe Called Quest
A Tribe Called Quest is an American hip hop group, formed in 1985, and is composed of rapper/producer Q-Tip , rapper Phife Dawg , and DJ/producer Ali Shaheed Muhammad. A fourth member, rapper Jarobi White, left the group after their first album but rejoined in 2006...

 to include this statement in the liner notes to their 1993 album Midnight Marauders
Midnight Marauders
- Additional credits :- Accolades :The information is taken from Acclaimedmusic.netand other website links below. designates lists which are unordered.-Cover art:...

:


The use of the term MC when referring to a rhyming wordsmith originates from the dance halls of Jamaica
Jamaica
Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

. At each event, there would be a master of ceremonies who would introduce the different musical acts and would say a toast in style of a rhyme, directed at the audience and to the performers. He would also make announcements such as the schedule of other events or advertisements from local sponsors. The term MC continued to be used by the children of women who moved to New York City to work as maids in the 1970s. These MCs eventually created a new style of music called hip-hop based on the rhyming they used to do in Jamaica and the breakbeats used in records. MC has also recently been accepted to refer to all who engineer music.