Medical school

Medical school

Overview
A medical school is a tertiary education
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

al institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine is a professional doctoral degree for physicians in the United States. Holders of the MD degree, Doctor of Medicine, have the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as osteopathic physicians in the United States.The American Osteopathic Association’s Commission...

, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

, Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...

, master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

, or other post-secondary education. Many medical schools also offer a physician assistant
Physician assistant
A physician assistant/associate ' is a healthcare professional trained and licensed to practice medicine with limited supervision by a physician.-General description:...

/associate program. Medical schools can also employ medical researchers and operate hospitals. The entry criteria, structure, teaching methodology, and nature of medical programs offered at medical schools vary considerably around the world.
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Encyclopedia
A medical school is a tertiary education
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

al institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine is a professional doctoral degree for physicians in the United States. Holders of the MD degree, Doctor of Medicine, have the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as osteopathic physicians in the United States.The American Osteopathic Association’s Commission...

, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

, Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...

, master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

, or other post-secondary education. Many medical schools also offer a physician assistant
Physician assistant
A physician assistant/associate ' is a healthcare professional trained and licensed to practice medicine with limited supervision by a physician.-General description:...

/associate program. Medical schools can also employ medical researchers and operate hospitals. The entry criteria, structure, teaching methodology, and nature of medical programs offered at medical schools vary considerably around the world. Medical schools are often highly competitive, using standardized entrance examination
Entrance examination
An entrance examination is an examination that many educational institutions use to select students for admission. These exams may be administered at any level of education, from primary to higher education, although they are more common at higher levels....

s to narrow the selection criteria for candidates.

In most countries, the study of medicine is completed as an undergraduate degree not requiring prerequisite undergraduate coursework. However, an increasing number of places are emerging for graduate entrants who have completed an undergraduate degree including some required courses. In the United States and Canada, almost all medical degrees are second entry degree
Second entry degree
A second entry degree is a term used for an academic degree that requires at minimum 1-3 years of pre-requisite university courses for admission. It is most commonly used to refer to first professional degree programs in Canada and the United States....

s, and require at least several years of previous study at the university level.

Medical degrees are awarded to medical students after the completion of their degree program, which typically lasts five or more years for the undergraduate model and four years for the post-undergraduate model. Curricula are usually divided into preclinical sciences, where students study subjects such as biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

, genetics
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

, pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function...

, anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

 and physiology
Physiology
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

, among others, and clinical rotations, which usually include internal medicine
Internal medicine
Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

, general surgery
General surgery
General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal organs, e.g., intestines including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland . They also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft...

, pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

, psychiatry
Psychiatry
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities...

, and obstetrics and gynecology, among others.

Although medical schools confer upon graduates a medical degree, a physician typically may not legally practice medicine until licensed by the local government authority. Licensing may also require passing a test, undergoing a criminal background check, checking references, paying a fee, and undergoing several years of postgraduate training. Medical schools are regulated by each country and may appear in the AVICENNA Directory for medicine or the FAIMER International Medical Education Directory
International Medical Education Directory
The International Medical Education Directory is a public database of worldwide medical schools. The IMED is published as a joint collaboration of the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates and the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research...

.

Egypt


In Egypt, medical school is a faculty of a university. Medical education lasts for 6 years, at the end of which the student is granted a MB BCh (بكالريوس الطب و الجراحة). After graduating, there is a mandatory 12-month full-time internship at one of the University or Government Teaching hospitals, after which medical licensure as a General Practitioner (GP) is obtained. After that, the doctor has to register with the Ministry of Health, and the Egyptian Medical Syndicate (نقابة الأطباء). The first 3 years of medical school cover the basic medical sciences, while the last 3 years are focused on clinical sciences.

Admission depends on the score of the applicant in his last 2 years of Egyptian Secondary Schoolالثانوية) العامة). Students having taken either the IGCSE
IGCSE
The International General Certificate of Secondary Education is an internationally recognised qualification for school students, typically in the 14–16 age group. It is similar to the GCSE in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, Standard Grade in Scotland or Junior Certificate in the Republic of...

 or the SAT
SAT
The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still...

 can also apply, however there is a very strict quota to the number of students that get accepted by the admission office, which regulates entry into public universities. This quota does not apply to private universities. There are no entrance exams required for entry.

Ghana


There are four medical schools in Ghana: The University of Ghana Medical School in Accra, the KNUST School of Medical Sciences in Kumasi, the University of Cape Coast Medical School and University for Development Studies School of Medicine in Tamale.

Basic Medical education lasts 6 years in all the medical schools. Entry into these medical schools are highly competitive and it is usually based on successful completion of the Senior High School Examinations. The University of Ghana Medical School has however introduced a graduate entry medical program to admit students with mainly science - related degrees into a 4 year medical school program.

Students graduating from any of these medical schools get the MBChB degree and the title "Dr". The University of Ghana and the KNUST offer an additional intercalated degree of BSc.(Medical Science) and BSc.(Human Biology) respectively.
Medical graduates are then registered provisionally with the Medical and Dental Council (MDC) of Ghana as House Officers (Interns). Upon completion of the mandatory 2-year housemanship, these medical doctors are permanently registered with the MDC and can practice as medical officers (General Practitioners) anywhere in the country. The housemanship training is done only in hospitals accredited for such purposes by the Medical and Dental Council of Ghana

Following the permanent registration with the medical and dental council, doctors can specialize in any of the various fields that is organized by either the West African college of Physicians and Surgeons or the Ghana College of Physician and Surgeons.

Medical officers are also sometimes hired by the Ghana Health Service
Ghana Health Service
The Ghana Health Service is a Ghanian government body established in 1996 as part of the Health Sector Reform of Ghana. The Health Service is under the Ministry of Health. The Health service primarily administrates the health services provided by the government and in implementing government...

 to work in the Districts/Rural areas as Primary Care Physicians.

Kenya


In Kenya, there are four established medical schools:
  • University of Nairobi (oldest, established 1967)
  • Moi University in Eldoret (established in 1980s with major support from the Indiana University School of Medicine - USA, and with whom there remain significant ties)
  • Egerton University in Nakuru (established in 2007)
  • Kenyatta University at Kahawa (established 2008)


Admissions are considered after completion of a high school education. The first two years are basic science years and the three remaining years clinical. On completion, a bachelors degree in Medicine and Surgery is awarded, MBChB. This is followed by a one-year period of internship.

Both Nairobi and Moi Universities run post graduate medical training programs that run over 3 years and lead to the award of master of medicine, MMed, in the respective specialty.

There has been progress made by the Aga Khan University
Aga Khan University
The Aga Khan University is a coeducational research university spread over three continents. It was granted its charter in 1983 as Pakistan's first private, autonomous university. AKU was founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, and is part of the Aga Khan Development Network...

 in Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and the Aga Khan University Hospital
Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi
The Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi is part of the Aga Khan Health Services . Established in 1958, the Hospital is a 254-bed long-term care facility offering quality general medical services, specialist clinics and high-tech diagnostic services....

 (AKUH) in Nairobi
Nairobi
Nairobi is the capital and largest city of Kenya. The city and its surrounding area also forms the Nairobi County. The name "Nairobi" comes from the Maasai phrase Enkare Nyirobi, which translates to "the place of cool waters". However, it is popularly known as the "Green City in the Sun" and is...

 towards the establishment of a Health Sciences University in Kenya with an associated medical school. AKUH in Nairobi, already offers post graduate, MMed programmes. These are run over 4 years.

Completion of formal specialty training in Kenya is followed by two years of supervised clinical work before one can apply for recognition as a specialist, in their respective field, by the medical board.

Nigeria


There are several medical schools in this populous nation. Amongst the best are: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Anambra state,Bayero University Kano,University of Benin, University of Nigeria, University of Lagos, University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, Lagos State University College of medicine, University of Maiduguri, Obafemi Awolowo College of Health Sciences (Olabisi Onabanjo University- former Ogun State University),University of Port-Harcourt, University of Ilorin, University of Calabar, College of Medicine Enugu State University of science and technology,University of Jos, Ahmadu Bello University and the Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island Amasomma, Bayelsa State. Entrance into these schools is highly competitive. Candidates graduating from high school must attain high grades from the West African Examination Council's (WAEC) Senior School Certificate Exam (SSCE/GCE) and high scores in four subjects (Physics, English, Chemistry, and Biology) in the University Matriculation Examination (UME). Students undergo rigorous training for 6 grueling years and culminate with a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS/MBChB). The undergraduate program is six years and one year of work experience in government hospitals. After medical school, graduates are mandated to spend one year of housemanship (internship) and one year of community service before they are eligible for residency.

South Africa


There are eight medical schools in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, each under the auspices of a public university
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

. As the country is a former British colony, most of the institutions follow the British-based undergraduate method of instruction, admitting students directly from high school into a 6 or occasionally five-year program. Some universities such as the University of the Witwatersrand
University of the Witwatersrand
The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg is a South African university situated in the northern areas of central Johannesburg. It is more commonly known as Wits University...

 in Johannesburg
Johannesburg
Johannesburg also known as Jozi, Jo'burg or Egoli, is the largest city in South Africa, by population. Johannesburg is the provincial capital of Gauteng, the wealthiest province in South Africa, having the largest economy of any metropolitan region in Sub-Saharan Africa...

 and the University of Cape Town
University of Cape Town
The University of Cape Town is a public research university located in Cape Town in the Western Cape province of South Africa. UCT was founded in 1829 as the South African College, and is the oldest university in South Africa and the second oldest extant university in Africa.-History:The roots of...

 have started offering post-graduate medical degrees that run concurrently with their undergraduate programs. In this instance, a student having completed an appropriate undergraduate degree with basic sciences can enter into a four-year post graduate program.

Most South African medical schools award the MBChB degree (except the University of the Witwatersrand, which styles its degree MBBCh). Some universities allow students to earn an intercalated degree, completing a BSc (Medical) with an additional year of study after the second year of the MBChB. Following successful completion of study, all South African medical graduates need to complete a two-year internship as well as a further year of community service in order to register with the Health Professions Council and practice as a doctor in the country.

Specialisation is usually a five- to seven-year training process (depending on the specialty) requiring registering as a medical registrar attached to an academic clinical department in a large teaching hospital with appropriate examinations. The specialist degree may be conferred as a Fellowship by the independent Colleges of Medicine of South Africa
Colleges of Medicine of South Africa
The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa is the custodian of the quality of medical care in South Africa. It is unique in the world in that its 27 constituent Colleges represent all the disciplines of medicine and dentistry. One route to specialisation in South Africa, is via a "Fellowship"...

 (CMSA), following British tradition, or as a Magisterial degree by the University (usually the M Med (Master of Medicine
Master of Medicine
Master of Medicine is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by medical schools to medical doctors following a period of instruction and examination. The degree is awarded by both surgical and medical subspecialties and usually includes a dissertation component involving original research...

) degree). The Medical schools and the CMSA also offer Higher Diploma
Higher diploma
A higher diploma is an academic award in Libya, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Ireland and Oman. In Libya the award is equivalent to a bachelor's degree in engineering or technology, in Hong Kong it is below the standard of the bachelor's degree, in Ireland it is above the standard of the bachelor's...

s in many fields. Research degrees are the M.Med and Ph.D.
Ph.D.
A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, an academic degree.Ph.D. may also refer to:* Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*Piled Higher and Deeper, a web comic strip*PhD: Phantasy Degree, a Korean comic series* PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 or M.D., depending on university.

Medical students from all over the world come to South Africa to gain practical experience in the country's many teaching hospitals and rural clinics. The language of instruction is English but a few indigenous languages are studied briefly.
See also Dental degree: South Africa

Tunisia


In Tunisia, education is free for all Tunisian citizens and for foreigners who have scholarships. Medical school is a faculty of the University of Tunis. There are four medicine faculties situated in the major cities. Admission is bound to the success and score in the baccalaureate examination. Admission score threshold is very high, based on competition among all applicants throughout the nation. Medical school curriculum consists of five years. The first two years are medical theory, containing all basic sciences related to medicine, and the last three years consists of clinical issues related to all medical specialties. During these last three years, the student gets the status of "Externe". The student has to attend at the university hospital every day, rotating around all wards. Every period is followed by a clinical exam regarding the student's knowledge in that particular specialty. After those five years, there are two years on internship, in which the student is a physician but under the supervision of the chief doctor; the student rotates over the major and most essential specialties during period of four months each. After that, student has the choice of either passing the residency national exam or extending his internship for another year, after which he gains the status of family physician. The residency program consists of four to five years in the specialty he qualifies, depending on his score in the national residency examination under the rule of highest score chooses first. Whether the student chooses to be a family doctor or a specialist, he has to make a doctorate thesis, which he will be defending in front of a jury, after which he gains his degree of Doctor of Medicine.

Uganda



, there are five (5) recognized medical schools in Uganda
Uganda
Uganda , officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. Uganda is also known as the "Pearl of Africa". It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by South Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by...

. Two more are expected to begin operations within the next three years. The list of Uganda medical schools include the following:
  1. Makerere University School of Medicine
    Makerere University School of Medicine
    Makerere University School of Medicine , also known as Makerere University Medical School is the school of medicine of Makerere University, Uganda's oldest university. The medical school is the oldest medical school in Eastern Africa, having been part of the Makerere University, since 1924...

     - Kampala
    Kampala
    Kampala is the largest city and capital of Uganda. The city is divided into five boroughs that oversee local planning: Kampala Central Division, Kawempe Division, Makindye Division, Nakawa Division and Lubaga Division. The city is coterminous with Kampala District.-History: of Buganda, had chosen...

     (Founded in 1924)
  2. Mbarara University School of Medicine - Mbarara
    Mbarara
    Mbarara is a town in Western Uganda. It is the main municipal, administrative and commercial center of Mbarara District and the location of the district headquarters. It is also the largest urban centre in Western Uganda.-Location:...

     (Founded in 1989)
  3. Gulu University School of Medicine
    Gulu University
    Gulu University , is a university in Uganda. It's one of the five public universities to be established by the Government of Uganda, along with Makerere University, Mbarara University, Kyambogo University and Busitema University...

     - Gulu
    Gulu
    Gulu is a city in Northern Uganda. It is the commercial and administrative centre of Gulu District. The city is located at 2˚46'48N 32˚18'00E, on the metre gauge railway from Tororo to Pakwach. Gulu is located approximately , by road, north of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city...

     - (Founded in 2004)
  4. Kampala International University School of Health Sciences
    Kampala International University
    Kampala International University is a private multi-campus university in Uganda.-Location:Kampala International University has its main campus at Kansanga, a location in the southeastern part of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. The coordinates of the university's main campus are:00 17...

     - Ishaka
    Bushenyi
    Bushenyi is a town in Western Uganda. It is the 'chief town' of Bushenyi District and the district headquarters are located there. The district is named after the town, in keeping with the practice in most of the districts in the country.-Location:...

     (Founded in 2003)
  5. Uganda Martyrs University School of Medicine
    Uganda Martyrs University
    -Location:The main campus of UMU is in Nkozi, a small town, approximately , by road, west of Kampala, the capital and largest city in Uganda, on the Kampala-Masaka Highway...

     - Nsambya
    Nsambya
    -Location:Nsambya is located approximately south-southeast of the central business district of Kampala, along the road to Ggaba, a suburb of the city. The coordinates of Nsambya Hill are: 00 17 57N, 32 35 17E.-Landmarks:The landmarks on Nsambya Hill include:...

     (Founded in 2010)
  6. International Health Sciences University School of Medicine
    International Health Sciences University
    International Health Sciences University is a private non-residential university in Uganda.-Location:IHSU has its main campus at 4686 St. Barnabas Road, Namuwongo, a southeastern section of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. IHSU's campus is located on the top floor of the building that...

     - Namuwongo
    Namuwongo
    -Location:Namuwongo is bordered by Lugogo to the north, Nakawa to the northeast, Kiswa and Bugoloobi to the east, Muyenga to the southeast, Kisugu and Kabalagala to the south, Kibuli to the west and Kololo to the northwest...

     (Coming in 2014)
  7. Muteesa I Royal University School of Medicine
    Muteesa I Royal University
    -Location:The university has two campuses. The main campus is located in the city of Masaka, approximately , by road, southwest of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. The second campus is located on Mengo Hill, the seat of the Buganda Government, within the city of Kampala. The coordinates...

     - Masaka
    Masaka
    Masaka is a town in Central Uganda, lying west of Lake Victoria. It is the chief town of Masaka District. Besides being the headquarters of Masaka District, the town is the regional headquarters and largest metropolitan area in Lyantonde District, Sembabule District, Lwengo District, Bukomansimbi...

     (Coming in 2015)


Admission:
Admission to medical school in Uganda requires the candidate to have attained the pre-requisite minimum score on the A-level national examinations leading to the award of the Uganda Advanced Certificate of Education or UACE, administered by the Uganda National Examination Board. Proficiency in Biology
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

 or Zoology
Zoology
Zoology |zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...

, Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

 and Physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

 at A-level standards are requirements for entry into Ugandan medical schools.

Medical training:
Training leading to the award of the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB) lasts five (5) years, if there are no re-takes.
  • The first year is spent on the Basic Sciences, i.e., Anatomy
    Anatomy
    Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

    , Physiology
    Physiology
    Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

    , and Biochemistry
    Biochemistry
    Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

    .
  • The second year is devoted to Histology
    Histology
    Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is performed by examining cells and tissues commonly by sectioning and staining; followed by examination under a light microscope or electron microscope...

    , Pathology
    Pathology
    Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek , pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and , -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling....

    , Microbiology
    Microbiology
    Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters or no cell at all . This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes...

    , Pharmacology
    Pharmacology
    Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function...

    , Psychology
    Psychology
    Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society...

    , and Introductory Psychiatry
    Psychiatry
    Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities...

    .
  • The third year is spent rotating through the four major clinical disciplines of Internal Medicine
    Internal medicine
    Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

    , Surgery
    Surgery
    Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

    , Pediatrics
    Pediatrics
    Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

    , and Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • The fourth year is devoted to Public Health
    Public health
    Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

     (including community health projects) and the surgical specialties of Otolaryngology
    Otolaryngology
    Otolaryngology or ENT is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders....

    , Orthopedics
    Orthopedics
    Orthopedics is the study of the musculoskeletal system. The Greek word 'ortho' means straight or correct and 'pedics' comes from the Greek 'pais' meaning children. For many centuries, orthopedists have been involved in the treatment of crippled children...

    , Urology
    Urology
    Urology is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are called urologists and are trained to diagnose, treat, and manage patients with urological...

    , Neurosurgery
    Neurosurgery
    Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spine, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.-In the United States:In...

    , and Ophthalmology
    Ophthalmology
    Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

    . Clinical Psychiatry
    Psychiatry
    Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities...

    , Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine
    Tropical medicine
    Tropical medicine is the branch of medicine that deals with health problems that occur uniquely, are more widespread, or prove more difficult to control in tropical and subtropical regions....

     are also covered.
  • The fifth year is spent rotating through the four major clinical disciplines, similar to the third year.


Examinations:
There is a major examination after the first year. If the candidate does not pass, the candidate will repeat first year. Another major examination is given after second year. A failing candidate will have to repeat second year. After each clinical rotation, the candidate is examined and failing candidates are required to repeat that rotation during the next vacation period.

The last major examination is the final 5th Year MBChB examination. This is divided into three parts:
  • A written Examination in each of the following disciplines: Internal Medicine
    Internal medicine
    Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

    , Surgery
    Surgery
    Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

    , Pediatrics
    Pediatrics
    Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

     and Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • A bedside clinical examination with living patients, involving a "long case" and a series of "short cases" in each of the four specialties.
  • An oral examination (also called a "viva"), before two clinical examiners, in each of the four subjects.


The final year clinical examinations in each of the four clinical disciplines are attended by an "External Examiner", often a professor of International or Regional repute, from a foreign medical school. The examiners arrange it so that the excelling students and those who are on the verge of failing are seen by the External Examiner in at least one of the clinical face-to-face encounters. So if you are a candidate and you go before the "External Examiner", it usually means that you are either excelling in your field or you are on the verge of failing that subject.

Internship:
After successfully passing the final 5th year examinations, one is awarded the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB). A year of internship in a hospital designated for that purpose, under the supervision of a specialist in that discipline is required before an unrestricted license to practice medicine and surgery is granted by the Uganda Medical and Dental Practitioners Council.

Six months of the internship must be spent in a medical discipline (either Internal Medicine or Pediatrics) and another six months in a surgical discipline (either Surgery or Obstetrics and Gynecology). Uganda has fifteen (16) hospitals, designated as "Internship Hospitals". These include the thirteen (13) Regional Referral Hospitals, Mulago National Referral Hospital, Mengo Hospital
Mengo Hospital
Mengo Hospital, also known as Namirembe Hospital, is a hospital in Kampala, the capital city of Uganda.-Location:The hospital is located on Namirembe Hill, in Lubaga Division, in the northwestern Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest metropolitan area. The travel distance, by road, from the city's...

, [Rubaga Hospital] and St Francis Hospital Nsambya
Nsambya Hospital
St. Francis Hospital Nsambya, commonly known as Nsambya Hospital, is a hospital in Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city.-Location:...

. There must be a specialist in the required field willing to supervise the intern at the particular hospital.

Postgraduate training
Specialization training, lasting three years, (provided there are no re-takes), leading to the award of the degree of Master of Medicine
Master of Medicine
Master of Medicine is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by medical schools to medical doctors following a period of instruction and examination. The degree is awarded by both surgical and medical subspecialties and usually includes a dissertation component involving original research...

 (MMed) in the particular discipline is available at Makerere University School of Medicine
Makerere University School of Medicine
Makerere University School of Medicine , also known as Makerere University Medical School is the school of medicine of Makerere University, Uganda's oldest university. The medical school is the oldest medical school in Eastern Africa, having been part of the Makerere University, since 1924...

 in several disciplines. Makerere University School of Public Health
Makerere University School of Public Health
Makerere University School of Public Health is one of the schools that constitute the Makerere University College of Health Sciences...

, offers the degree of Master of Public Health
Master of Public Health
The Master of Public Health and the Doctor of Public Health are multi-disciplinary professional degrees awarded for studies in areas related to public health....

 (MPH) following a twenty-two (22)-month period of study, which includes field work.

The degree of Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...

 (PhD
PHD
PHD may refer to:*Ph.D., a doctorate of philosophy*Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*PHD finger, a protein sequence*PHD Mountain Software, an outdoor clothing and equipment company*PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

) is awarded following a period of instruction, research and examination (typically three to five years), in select clinical disciplines. A recognized masters degree is required prior to admission into the PhD program.

Argentina



There are public and private universities which provide medical tuition in Argentina, with the fundamental and unresolved dispute being which system of education is of higher quality. A person who can afford to attend a private university, quite expensive for the average person, will choose that over public education. Nevertheless, quality of education is generally not the reason they make that choice: private universities have smaller groups of students in each class, which means the professor can deliver a more tailored education by not having to deal with hundreds of students at a time. The Universidad Adventista del Plata, for instance, has about 70 students in each class, turning classes into an environment in which the students feel freer to participate and ask questions. Another advantage of private over public is that it is considerably easier to be admitted. In general, the admission process for a public School of Medicine (which involves a very competitive examination) is more difficult than that of a private institution, the main reason being a large number of applicants in public universities and not enough place for all who apply. When it comes to educational quality, however, it is now generally believed that inequalities are not significant between public and private education.

The course usually takes six years to complete, with some private universities making it seven years long (Universidad Adventista del Plata, for example). Each one of the 3000 medical students who graduate each year in Argentina are required before graduation to dedicate a minimum of 8 months to community service without pay; although in some provinces (especially round the more developed south) there are government-funded hospitals who pay for this work. Some universities, either public or private, have cultural exchange programmes that allow a medical student in their final year to serve their community time overseas.

Upon graduation, one of the following degrees is obtained, according to the university: Doctor of Medicine, or both Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Surgery. Public universities usually confer both degrees, and private universities bestow only Doctor of Medicine. In daily practice, however, there is no substantial difference between what a Doctor of Medicine or a Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Surgery are allowed to do. When the degree is obtained, a record is created for that new doctor in the index of the National Ministry of Education (Ministerio Nacional de Educación) and the physician is given their corresponding medical practitioner's ID, which is a number that identifies him and his academic achievements. In addition, there is a provincial ID, i. e. a number to identify doctors in the province they practise medicine in.

Doctors wanting to pursue a speciality
Specialty (medicine)
A specialty in medicine is a branch of medical science. After completing medical school, physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a medical specialist.-History of medical specialization:To...

 must take entrance exams at the public/private institution of their choice that offers them. Again, it is with less difficulty that doctors can enter a residency at a private teaching hospital
Teaching hospital
A teaching hospital is a hospital that provides clinical education and training to future and current doctors, nurses, and other health professionals, in addition to delivering medical care to patients...

 than at a state-funded one, for the above stated reason. Speciality courses endure for about two to five years, depending on the branch of medicine the physician has chosen. There is no legal limit for the number of specialities a doctor can learn, although most doctors choose to do one and then they sub-specialise for further job opportunities and less overall competition, along with higher wages.

Brazil


There are 181 public or private medical schools in operation in Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

. Entrance is based on getting the higher grades on two university entrance exams Vestibular
Vestibular
The Vestibular is a competitive examination and is the primary and widespread system used by Brazilian universities to select their students. The Vestibular usually takes place from November to January, right before the start of school year in February or March, although certain universities hold...

 and or ENEM taken after the completion of high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 and is the most competitive entrance exam in most universities. The total number of applicants across the country is occasionally more than 100 times the number of students finally accepted. For example if there are 500 places at one Medical School; the 500 students that have applied for that university that gets the higher marks on the university entrance exams, are offered a place on the course. Applicants can only apply for two courses per year at government funded universities.

A medical student must complete a full-time program consisting of six years. The first four years are focused on pre-clinical and clinical subjects and the last two years are dedicated to internship practices at University Hospital, in which the students work under supervision of residents and fully licensed staff physicians
Attending physician
In the United States, an attending physician is a physician who has completed residency and practices medicine in a clinic or hospital, in the specialty learned during residency. An attending physician can supervise fellows, residents, and medical students...

.

Upon successful completion of the six years the degree 'Physician' is conferred. Informally, medical graduates are called "Doctors." After graduation, physicians can either work as General Practitioners or undertake a post-graduate medical training.

Graduate physicians must pass an exam in order to attend a residency program. Residencies are offered at various hospitals throughout Brazil, and at numerous medical specialities. They last at least two years, according to the chosen speciality. After this period, another exam must be taken.

Physicians who successfully complete the specialization may apply for sub-specialization programs in the respective speciality.

Bolivia


In Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

, all medical schools are faculties within a university and offer a five-year M.D. equivalent. To acquire a license to exercise medical science from the government, all students must also complete 1 year and 3 months of internship. This consists of 3 months each of surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

, internal medicine
Internal medicine
Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

, gynecology, pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

 and public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

. At least one of the internships must be done in a rural
Rural
Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture...

 area of the country. After getting the degree and license, a doctor may take a post-graduate residency in order to acquire a specialty.

Caribbean


In 2011, the International Medical Education Directory
International Medical Education Directory
The International Medical Education Directory is a public database of worldwide medical schools. The IMED is published as a joint collaboration of the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates and the Foundation for Advancement of International Medical Education and Research...

 listed 59 current medical schools in the Caribbean. 54 grant the MD degree, 3 grant the MBBS degree, and 2 grant either the MD or MBBS degree.

30 of the medical schools in the Caribbean are regional, which train students to practice in the country or region where the school is located. The remaining 29 Caribbean medical schools are known as offshore schools, which primarily train students from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 who intend to return home for residency and clinical practice after graduation. At most offshore schools, basic sciences are completed in the Caribbean while clinical clerkships are completed at teaching hospitals in the United States.

Several agencies may also accredit
Educational accreditation
Educational accreditation is a type of quality assurance process under which services and operations of educational institutions or programs are evaluated by an external body to determine if applicable standards are met...

 Caribbean medical schools, as listed in the FAIMER Directory of Organizations that Recognize/Accredit Medical Schools (DORA). 25 of the 29 regional medical schools in the Caribbean are accredited, while 14 of the 30 offshore medical schools are accredited.

Haiti


Medical schools in Haiti conduct training in French. The universities offering medical training in Haiti are the Université Notre Dame d'Haïti, Université Quisqueya, Université d'Etat d'Haïti and Université Lumière.

The Université Notre Dame d'Haïti (UNDH) is a private Catholic university established by the Episcopal Conference of Haiti. According to the UNDH website, "the UNDH is not just about academic degrees, it is mainly the formation of a new type of Haiti, which includes in its culture and moral values of the Gospel, essential for serious and honest people that the country needs today."

The other two private schools offering medical degrees are Université Quisqueya and Université Lumière. The Université d'Etat d'Haïti is a public school.

Attending medical school in Haiti
Haiti
Haiti , officially the Republic of Haiti , is a Caribbean country. It occupies the western, smaller portion of the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antillean archipelago, which it shares with the Dominican Republic. Ayiti was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island...

 may be less expensive than attending medical universities located in other parts of the world, but the impact of the country's political unrest should be considered, as it affects the safety of both visitors and Haitians.

Duration of basic medical degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

 course, including practical training: 6 years

Title of degree awarded: Docteur en Médecine (Doctor of Medicine)

Medical registration/license to practice: Registration is obligatory with the Ministère de la Santé publique
et de la Population, Palais des Ministères, Port-au-Prince. The license to practice medicine is granted to
medical graduates who have completed 1 year of social service. Those who have qualified abroad must
have their degree validated by the Faculty of Medicine in Haiti. Foreigners require special
authorization to practice.

Chile


In Chile
Chile
Chile ,officially the Republic of Chile , is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far...

, there are 18 medical schools. The pre-grade studies are distributed in 7 years, where the last 2 are the internship, that include at least surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

, internal medicine
Internal medicine
Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

, gynecology and pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

. After getting the degree of Licenciate in Medicine (General Medicine) the M.D. must pass the EUNACOM "Examen Único de Conocimientos de Medicina" and can take a direct specialty or work before in primary attention in order to gain access to a residency.

Canada



In 2010, the Association of American Medical Colleges
Association of American Medical Colleges
The Association of American Medical Colleges is a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC and established in 1876. It administers the Medical College Admission Test...

 lists 17 accredited MD-granting medical schools in Canada.

In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, a medical school is a faculty or school of a university that offers a three- or four-year Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 (M.D. or M.D.C.M.) degree. Generally, medical students begin their studies after receiving a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 in another field, often one of the biological sciences. Minimum requirements for admission vary by region from two to four years of post-secondary study. The Association of Faculties of Medicine of Canada publishes a detailed AFMC.ca, guide to admission requirements of Canadian faculties of medicine on a yearly basis.

Admission offers are made by individual medical schools, generally on the basis of a personal statement, undergraduate record (GPA), scores on the Medical College Admission Test
Medical College Admission Test
The Medical College Admission Test is a computer-based standardized examination for prospective medical students in the United States and Canada. It is designed to assess problem solving, critical thinking, written analysis, and writing skills in addition to knowledge of scientific concepts and...

 (MCAT), and interviews. Volunteer work is often an important criterion considered by admission committees. All four medical schools in Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

 and two Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 schools (University of Ottawa, Northern Ontario School of Medicine) do not require the MCAT.

The first half of the medical curriculum is dedicated mostly to teaching the basic sciences relevant to medicine. Teaching methods can include traditional lecture
Lecture
thumb|A lecture on [[linear algebra]] at the [[Helsinki University of Technology]]A lecture is an oral presentation intended to present information or teach people about a particular subject, for example by a university or college teacher. Lectures are used to convey critical information, history,...

s, problem-based learning
Problem-based learning
Problem-based learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject in the context of complex, multifaceted, and realistic problems...

, laboratory sessions, simulated patient
Simulated patient
A simulated patient, standardized patient or sample patient , in health care, is an individual who is trained to act as a real patient in order to simulate a set of symptoms or problems. Simulated patients have been successfully used in medical education, nursing education, evaluation, and...

 sessions, and limited clinical experiences. The remainder of medical school is spent in clerkship
Medical clerkship
In medical education, a clerkship, or rotation, refers to the practice of medicine by medical students during their latter years of study. Usually, the first half of medical school trains students in the classroom setting, and the second half takes place in a teaching hospital...

. Clinical clerks participate in the day-to-day management of patients. They are supervised and taught during this clinical experience by residents and fully licensed staff physicians
Attending physician
In the United States, an attending physician is a physician who has completed residency and practices medicine in a clinic or hospital, in the specialty learned during residency. An attending physician can supervise fellows, residents, and medical students...

.

Students enter into the Canadian Resident Matching Service, commonly abbreviated as CaRMS in the fall of their final year. Students rank their preferences of hospitals and specialties. A computerized matching system determines placement for residency positions
Residency (medicine)
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a medical degree , Podiatric degree , Dental Degree and who practices...

. 'Match Day' usually occurs in March, a few months before graduation. The length of post-graduate training varies with choice of specialty.

During the final year of medical school, students complete part 1 of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination (MCCQE). Upon completion of the final year of medical school, students are awarded the degree of M.D. Students then begin training in the residency program designated to them by CaRMS. Part 2 of the MCCQE, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination
Objective Structured Clinical Examination
An Objective Structured Clinical Examination is a modern type of examination often used in health sciences...

, is taken following completion of twelve months of residency training. After both parts of the MCCQE are successfully completed, the resident becomes a Licentiate of the Medical Council of Canada. However, in order to practice independently, the resident must complete the residency program and take a board examination pertinent to his or her intended scope of practice. In the final year of residency training, residents take an exam administered by either the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada ' , French: Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada, is a national, private, nonprofit organization established in 1929 by a special Act of Parliament to oversee the medical education of specialists in Canada...

 or the College of Family Physicians of Canada
College of Family Physicians Canada
The College of Family Physicians of Canada is a professional association and the legal certifying body for family medicine in Canada. This national organization of family physicians was founded in 1954 and currently numbers over 25,000 members....

, depending on whether they are training for specialty or family practice.

El Salvador



The Universidad de El Salvador (University of El Salvador), which has the most prestigious school of medicine in the country has a program of 8 years for the students who wants to study medicine, each year is divided in two semesters, after complete successfully the 8 years of medicine, the students decide to continue to take an specialization (surgery, podiatry, etc.) for 3 years more.

Panama


The system of Medical education in Panama usually takes students from high school directly into Medical School for a 6 year course typically with an internship year .
ISMS only takes students after a bachelor's degree.
The International School of Medical Sciences (ISMS) offers university level classes in English and is dedicated to the development of professional physicians, preparing graduates to work on becoming qualified doctors in the United States. The School is a private institution dedicated to enlighten students in scientific research, employing the highest university-level teaching standards.http://www.isms.edu.pa/

United States


In 2011, the Association of American Medical Colleges
Association of American Medical Colleges
The Association of American Medical Colleges is a non-profit organization based in Washington, DC and established in 1876. It administers the Medical College Admission Test...

 and American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
The American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine is a non-profit organization that supports the nation's colleges of osteopathic medicine and serves as a unifying voice for osteopathic medical education. Governed by its Board of Deans and led by President Stephen C...

 listed 134 accredited MD-granting and 26 accredited DO-granting medical schools in the United States.

Admission to medical school in the United States is based mainly on a GPA, MCAT score, admissions essay, interview, clinical work experience, and volunteering activities, along with research and leadership roles in an applicant's history. While obtaining an undergraduate degree is not an explicit requirement for a few medical schools, virtually all admitted students have earned at least a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

. A few medical schools offer pre-admittance to students directly from high-school by linking a joint 3-year accelerated undergraduate degree and a standard 4-year medical degree with certain undergraduate universities, sometimes referred to as a "7-year program", where the student receives a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 after their first year in medical school.

As undergraduates, students must complete a series of prerequisites, consisting of biology
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

, physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, and chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

 ("freshmen" chemistry and organic
Organic chemistry
Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives...

). Many medical schools have additional requirements including calculus
Calculus
Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem...

, genetics
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

, statistics
Statistics
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments....

, biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

, English
English studies
English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language , English linguistics English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S.,...

, and/or humanities
Humanities
The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

 classes. In addition to meeting the pre-medical
Pre-medical
Pre-medical is a term used to describe a track an undergraduate student in the United States pursues prior to becoming a medical student...

 requirements, medical school applicants must take and report their scores on the MCAT, a standardized test
Standardized test
A standardized test is a test that is administered and scored in a consistent, or "standard", manner. Standardized tests are designed in such a way that the questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent and are administered and scored in a...

 that measures a student's knowledge of the sciences and the English language. Some students apply for medical school following their third year of undergraduate education while others pursue advanced degrees or other careers prior to applying for medical school.

In the nineteenth century, there were over four hundred medical schools in the United States. By 1910, the number was reduced to one hundred and forty-eight medical schools and by 1930 the number totaled only seventy-six. Many early medical schools were criticized for being diploma mills that turned out quacks. This and other problems led to the creation of the American Medical Association
American Medical Association
The American Medical Association , founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of medical doctors and medical students in the United States.-Scope and operations:...

 in 1847 for the purpose of self-regulation of the profession. Abraham Flexner (who in 1910 released the Flexner report
Flexner Report
The Flexner Report is a book-length study of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by the professional educator Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation...

 with the Carnegie Foundation), the Rockefeller Foundation
Rockefeller Foundation
The Rockefeller Foundation is a prominent philanthropic organization and private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue, New York City. The preeminent institution established by the six-generation Rockefeller family, it was founded by John D. Rockefeller , along with his son John D. Rockefeller, Jr...

 and the AMA are credited with laying the groundwork for what is now known as the modern medical curriculum.

The standard U.S. medical school curriculum is four years long. Traditionally, the first two years are composed mainly of classroom basic sciences education, while the last two years primarily include rotations in clinical settings where students learn patient care firsthand. Today, clinical education is still spread across all four years, with the final years being more heavily weighted towards clinical rotations.

Upon successful completion of medical school, students are granted the title of Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine is a professional doctoral degree for physicians in the United States. Holders of the MD degree, Doctor of Medicine, have the same rights, privileges and responsibilities as osteopathic physicians in the United States.The American Osteopathic Association’s Commission...

 (D.O.). Residency
Residency (medicine)
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a medical degree , Podiatric degree , Dental Degree and who practices...

 training, which is a supervised training period of three to seven years (usually incorporating the 1st year internship), is typically completed for specific areas of specialty. Physicians who sub-specialize or who desire more supervised experience may complete a fellowship
Fellowship (medicine)
A fellowship is the period of medical training in the United States and Canada that a physician may undertake after completing a specialty training program . During this time , the physician is known as a fellow...

, which is an additional one to four years of supervised training in their area of expertise.

Unlike many other countries, US medical students finance their education with personal debt. In 1992, the average debt of a medical doctor after residency was $25,000. For the class of 2009, the average debt of a medical student is $157,990 and 25.1% of students had debt in excess of $200,000 (prior to residency). For the past decade the cost of attendance has increased 5-6% each year (roughly 1.6 to 2.1 times inflation).

Licensing of medical doctors in the United States is co-ordinated at the state level. Most states require that prospective licensees complete the following requirements:
  • Graduation from an accredited medical school granting the degree of DO or MD
    • United States and Canada schools must be accredited by the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
      American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
      The American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine is a non-profit organization that supports the nation's colleges of osteopathic medicine and serves as a unifying voice for osteopathic medical education. Governed by its Board of Deans and led by President Stephen C...

       or the Liaison Committee on Medical Education
      Liaison Committee on Medical Education
      The Liaison Committee on Medical Education is an accrediting body for educational programs at schools of medicine in the United States and Canada. The LCME accredits only the schools that grant a doctor of medicine degree; osteopathic medical schools are accredited by the Commission on...

      .
    • Foreign medical school graduates generally must complete some training within the United States.
  • Satisfactory completion of at least one year of an AOA
    American Osteopathic Association
    The American Osteopathic Association is the representative member organization for the over 78,000 osteopathic medical physicians in the United States...

    - or ACGME
    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education is the body responsible for the accreditation for graduate medical training programs for medical doctors in the United States. It is a non-profit private council that evaluates and accredits medical residency and internship programs...

    -approved residency.
  • Passing the United States Medical Licensing Examination or the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE, COMLEX, or simply "the boards"). USMLE and COMLEX both consist of four similar parts:
    • Step I is taken at the end of the second year of medical school and tests students' mastery of the basic sciences as they apply to medicine.
    • Step II CK is taken during the fourth year of medical school and tests students' mastery of the management of ill patients.
    • Step II CS is taken during the fourth year of medical school and tests students' mastery of clinical skills using a series of standardized patient encounters.
    • Step III is taken after the first year of a residency program and tests physicians' ability to independently manage the care of patients.

Australia



In Australia, students wishing to study medicine have two options: they can either attempt to gain entry through the UMAT exam, High School (Year 12) score, and interview to a five-year or six-year undergraduate MBBS or BMed
Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae , are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries...

 program; or complete an undergraduate degree and then attempt to gain entry to a graduate entry
Graduate entry
A graduate entry degree is term used for an academic degree that requires at minimum a previous bachelors degree for admission. It is most commonly used to refer to first professional degree programs...

 program, which requires a student to sit the GAMSAT
GAMSAT
The Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test is a test used to select candidates applying to study medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary science at Australian, British, and Irish universities for admission to their Graduate Entry Programmes The Graduate Australian Medical School...

 exam and interview to a four-year graduate entry
Graduate entry
A graduate entry degree is term used for an academic degree that requires at minimum a previous bachelors degree for admission. It is most commonly used to refer to first professional degree programs...

 BMBS or MBBS
Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae , are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries...

. The first four-year graduate entry medical program in Australia was at Flinders University
Flinders University
Flinders University, , is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of navigator Matthew Flinders, who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century.The university has established a reputation as a leading research...

 in South Australia. Graduate entry
Graduate entry
A graduate entry degree is term used for an academic degree that requires at minimum a previous bachelors degree for admission. It is most commonly used to refer to first professional degree programs...

 medicine is now an option that is present at most Australian medical schools.

Bangladesh


In Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

, admission to medical colleges is organized by the Governing Body of Dhaka University. A single admission test is held for both government and private colleges. These exams are super-competitive and the total number of applicants across the country is usually around 78 times the number of students finally accepted. Admission is based on the entrance examination and academic records, which have minor consequences.
The exam consists of 100 marks of objective type questions with a time limit of one hour. Subjects and marks are biology 30, chemistry 25, physics 20, English 15, and general knowledge 10, and then another 100 marks based on previous SSC and HSC exam syllabus. In case of English-medium students who seek admission to medical schools, they usually prepare themselves for the admission test ahead of time as the O Level and A Level exams does not cover the required syllabus.
The undergraduate program consists of 5 years, followed by one-year internship (rotating houseman-ship). The degree granted is Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.). Further postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as Diploma or Degree (MS or MD), M.Phil
Master of Philosophy
The Master of Philosophy is a postgraduate research degree.An M.Phil. is a lesser degree than a Doctor of Philosophy , but in many cases it is considered to be a more senior degree than a taught Master's degree, as it is often a thesis-only degree. In some instances, an M.Phil...

 and FCPS.

Commonwealth of Northern Marianas Islands


University of Loyola at CNMI is a medical school on the island of Saipan.

Hong Kong


In Hong Kong, prospective medical students enter either one of the two faculties of medicine available (University of Hong Kong or the Chinese University of Hong Kong) from high school. The medical program consists of 5 years, leading to a degree of bachelors of medicine and surgery (MBBS or MBChB). An entry level exam specific to medicine is unnecessary, as the schools evaluate students based on the results obtained from the Hong Kong's Advanced Level Examination test (HKALE). After a 5 year degree, one year of internship follows in order to be eligible to practice in Hong Kong.

India




In India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, admission to medical colleges is organized both by the central government CBSE as well as the state governments through rigorous tests known as entrance examination
Entrance examination
An entrance examination is an examination that many educational institutions use to select students for admission. These exams may be administered at any level of education, from primary to higher education, although they are more common at higher levels....

. Students who have successfully completed their 10+2 education (higher secondary school) can appear for the tests the same year.

The All-India Pre Medical/Dental Test for filling up of 15% of total MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

 seats in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, conducted by CBSE (Central Board for Secondary Education) in the month of April/May intakes about only 2,500 students out of a total applicants of over 200,000. The Supreme Court Of India
Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India...

 has mandated the necessity of entrance examination
Entrance examination
An entrance examination is an examination that many educational institutions use to select students for admission. These exams may be administered at any level of education, from primary to higher education, although they are more common at higher levels....

 based upon multiple choice questions and negative marking for wrong answers with subsequent merit over 50% for selection into MBBS as well as higher medical education. The entrance exams are highly competitive and students start preparing for them from grade 4.

The graduate program consists of three professionals consisting of 9 semesters, followed by one-year internship (rotating housemanship). The degree granted is Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.) of five years and six months.

The graduate degree of MBBS is divided into 3 professionals, with each professional ending with a professional exam conducted by the university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 (a single university may have up to dozens of medical colleges offering various graduate/post-graduate/post-doctoral degrees). After clearing this the student moves into the next professional. Each professional exam consists of a theory exam and a practical exam conducted not only by the same college but also external examiners. The exams are tough and many students are unable to clear them, thereby prolonging their degree time. The first professional is for 1 year and includes preclinical subjects, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry. The second professional is for 1 and a half year and has subjects pathology, pharmacology, microbiology (including immunology) and forensic medicine. Clinical exposure starts in the second professional. The third professional is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, and PSM (preventive and social medicine) and part 2 consists of general-medicine, general-surgery, pediatrics and gynaecology and obstetics. This is followed by one-year of compulsory internship (rotatory house-surgeonship). After internship, the degree of MBBS is awarded by the respective university. Some states have made rural service compulsory for a certain period of time after MBBS.

Selection for higher medical education is through entrance examination
Entrance examination
An entrance examination is an examination that many educational institutions use to select students for admission. These exams may be administered at any level of education, from primary to higher education, although they are more common at higher levels....

s as mandated by the Supreme Court Of India
Supreme Court of India
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal as established by Part V, Chapter IV of the Constitution of India...

. Further postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as Post-graduate Diploma
Diploma
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to...

 of two years residency or Doctoral Degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

 (MS
Master of Surgery
The Master of Surgery is an advanced qualification in surgery. It is most commonly abbreviated Ch.M. or M.S., as well as M.Ch. and M.Chir. from its Latin name, Magister Chirurgiae or the English form of Master of Surgery....

: Master of Surgery, or MD
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

) of three years of residency under the aegis of the Medical Council of India. 50% of all MD/MS seats in India are filled up through "All-India Post-Graduate Medical Entrance Examination conducted by AIIMS (All-India Institute Of Medical Sciences) under the supervision of the Directorate General Of Health Services. Theses/Dissertations are mandatory to be submitted and cleared by university along with examinations(written and clinicals) to obtain MD/MS degree. Further sub-speciality post-doctoral qualification (DM
DM
-Academia:* Doctor of Management, an academic management degree* Doctorate in Medicine, an academic medical degree* Doctor of Music, an academic music-performance degree, also known as D.M.A-Science:* Adamsite, a chemical agent used in riot control...

 - Doctor of Medicine, or MCh
MCH
MCH can refer to:* Machala, Ecuador * March, in National Rail abbreviations.* March railway station, England; National Rail station code MCH.* Mean corpuscular hemoglobin or Mean cell hemoglobin* Maternal and child health...

 - Magister of Chirurgery) of three years of residency followed by university examinations may also be obtained.

PG (post-graduate) qualification is equivalent to M.D./M.S., consisting of two/three-years residency after MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

. A PG diploma may also be obtained through the National Board of Examinations, which also offers three-years residency for sub-specialisation. All degrees by NBE are called DNB
DNB
DNB is short for:* De Nederlandsche Bank, the Dutch central bank* Den norske Bank, a Norwegian bank * Departure from nucleate boiling in boiling heat transfer* Deutsche Nationalbibliothek, the German national library...

 (Diplomat of National Board). DNB's are awarded only after clearance of theses/dissertations and examinations. DNBs equivalent to DM/MCh have to clear examinations mandatorily.

Indonesia


In Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, high school graduates who want to enroll to national medical schools must take entrance test called "SPMB" arranged by Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education. For private medical school, the entrance test is conducted independently by each university.

The standard Indonesian medical school curriculum is six years long. The four years undergraduate program is composed mainly of classroom education, continued with the last two years in professional program primarily includes rotations in clinical settings where students learn patient care firsthand. If they pass undergraduate program they will have "S.Ked" in their title and if they finished the professional program and pass the national examination arranged by IDI (Indonesian Medical Association) they will become general physician and receive "dr. (doctor)" title.

Upon graduation, a physician planning to become a specialist in specific field of medicine must complete a residency
Residency (medicine)
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a medical degree , Podiatric degree , Dental Degree and who practices...

, which is a supervised training with period of three to four years. A physician who sub-specializes or who desires more supervised experience may complete a fellowship
Fellowship (medicine)
A fellowship is the period of medical training in the United States and Canada that a physician may undertake after completing a specialty training program . During this time , the physician is known as a fellow...

, which is an additional one to three years of supervised training in his/her area of expertise.

Israel


There are five university medical schools in Israel, including the Technion in Haifa, Ben Gurion University in Be'er Sheva, Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University
Tel Aviv University is a public university located in Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel. With nearly 30,000 students, TAU is Israel's largest university.-History:...

 and the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. They all follow the European 6 year model. However, as of 2009, Tel Aviv University has introduced a four-year program similar to the US system for students with a bachelor's degree in certain biological sciences. The entrance requirements of the various schools of medicine are very strict. Israeli students require a high school Baccalaureate
Bagrut
Te'udat Bagrut is the official Israeli matriculation certificate. The bagrut is similar to the British A-levels, German Abitur, French Baccalauréat, and Austrian Matura...

 average above 100 and psychometric examination
Psychometric Entrance Test
The Psychometric Entrance Test is a standardized test in Israel, generally taken as a higher education admission exam. The PET covers three areas: quantitative reasoning, verbal reasoning and the English language...

 grade over 740. The demand for medical education is strong and growing and there is a lack of doctors in Israel. The Technion Medical School, Ben Gurion University, and Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine offer 4-year MD programs for American students who have American college degrees and have taken the MCAT interested in completing rigorous medical education in Israel before returning to the US or Canada.

Japan


In Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, medical schools are faculties of universities and thus they are undergraduate programs that generally last for six years. Admission is based on an exam taken at the end of high school and an entrance exam at the university itself, which is the most competitive.

Medical students study Liberal Arts and Science for the first 1–2 years, which include Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, and Foreign Languages together with 2 years long Basic Medicine (Anatomy, Physiology, Pharmacology, Immunology), Clinical Medicine, Public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

, and Forensics
Forensics
Forensic science is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action...

 for the next two years.

Medical students train in the University Hospital for the last two years. Clinical training is a part of the curriculum. Upon completion of the graduation examination, students are awarded an M.D. Medical graduates are titled as Doctor, as are Ph.D. holders. The University does have an MD/PhD program that enables Doctors of Medicine to become Ph.D. holders, as well.

At the end, Medical students take the National Medical License examination and, if they pass it, become a Physician and register in the record in the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. The scope of this exam encompasses every aspect of medicine.

Jordan


The Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae , are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries...

 (MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

) degree is awarded in Jordan
Jordan
Jordan , officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan , Al-Mamlaka al-Urduniyya al-Hashemiyya) is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan. The country borders Saudi Arabia to the east and south-east, Iraq to the north-east, Syria to the north and the West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing...

 after completion of six years comprising three years of medical sciences and three clinic
Clinic
A clinic is a health care facility that is primarily devoted to the care of outpatients...

al years. Currently, four state supported universities
Public university
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities. A national university may or may not be considered a public university, depending on regions...

 include a medical school and grant the degree, which are:
  • Jordan University of Science and Technology
    Jordan University of Science and Technology
    The Jordan University of Science and Technology , often abbreviated JUST, is a comprehensive, state-supported university located on the outskirts of Irbid at Ar Ramtha region, in northern Jordan....

     in Irbid
    Irbid
    Irbid , known in ancient times as Arabella or Arbela , is the capital and largest city of the Irbid Governorate. It also has the second largest metropolitan population in Jordan after Amman, with a population of around 660,000, and is located about 70 km north of Amman on the northern ridge of...

  • University of Jordan
    University of Jordan
    The University of Jordan , is a government-supported University located in Amman, Jordan...

     in Amman
    Amman
    Amman is the capital of Jordan. It is the country's political, cultural and commercial centre and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. The Greater Amman area has a population of 2,842,629 as of 2010. The population of Amman is expected to jump from 2.8 million to almost...

  • Mutah University
    Mutah University
    Mu’tah University is located in Kerak Governorate in Jordan, it was founded on 22 March 1981 by Royal Decree, to be a national institution for military and civilian higher education.-Academics:...

     in Al Karak
    Al Karak
    Karak is a city in Jordan that is known for the famous crusader castle Kerak. The castle is one of the three largest castles in the region, the other two being in Syria...

  • Hashemite University
    Hashemite University
    The Hashemite University is a university in Zarqa, Jordan. It is named after the Jordanian royal family — the Hashemites — and was established by royal decree in 1992.- History :...

     in Zarqa
    Zarqa
    Az-Zarqāʔ is a city in Jordan located to the northeast of Amman. With a population of more than one million 1000,000. It is the country's second largest city after Amman. Zarqa is the capital of Zarqa Governorate . Its name means "the blue one".- Overview :Zarqa is Jordan's industrial centre, home...

Further Information: Medical education in Jordan
Medical education in Jordan
Medical education in Jordan includes educational activities involved in the education and training of Bachelors of Medicine and Surgery in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, from entry-level training through to continuing education of qualified specialists.The history of Jordanian medical education...

.

Kyrgyzstan


In Kyrgyzstan, the International School of Medicine at the International University of Kyrgyzstan offers a five year medical program, with a requisite for English knowledge, that is recognized by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

, GMC
GMC
GMC may refer to:* Ganglion mother cell, a cell in the developing nervous system that divides once to produce two neurons* General motion control, a field of motion control concerned with single- and multi-axis motion controllers, intelligent drives, servo and stepper motors* Generalized Method of...

, and UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

. The medical school is also partnered with the University of South Florida School of Medicine
University of South Florida
The University of South Florida, also known as USF, is a member institution of the State University System of Florida, one of the state's three flagship universities for public research, and is located in Tampa, Florida, USA...

, the University of Heidelberg (Germany), the Novosibirsk Medical University (Russia), and the University of Sharjah
University of Sharjah
The University of Sharjah is a semi-governmental higher educational institution. Its founder, Supreme President and Chairman is the Ruler of Sharjah Sheikh Dr. Sultan bin Mohamed Al-Qasimi himself. Founded 1997, the University of Sharjah aims to meet the Emirate of Sharjah's educational and...

 (UAE).

Other medical schools located in Kyrgyzstan include the Asian Medical Institute, Kyrgyzstan
Asian Medical Institute, Kyrgyzstan
The Asian Medical Institute, located in Kant, Kyrgyzstan, trains specialists in the medical sphere.-Organisation:Currently, the Asian Medical Institute has students from over 10 countries including India, Russia, Germany, Pakistan, and Nigeria...

 and the Medical Institute, Osh State University
Medical Institute, Osh State University
The Medical Institute, Osh State University is a public medical institute located in Osh, Kyrgyzstan. It was opened in 1992 as of the reorganisation of the Osh State Pedagogical Institute into Osh State University....


Malaysia


In Malaysia, getting into medical school is regarded as difficult, due to high fees and a rigorous selection process. Some new medical schools do offer a foundation in medicine course before admission into a full time medical programme. Most government, and some private medical schools offer MD, and others mostly offer MBBS degrees. In a recent government's assessment on the quality of institutions in Malaysia, International Medical University
International Medical University
The International Medical University is a private international medical university in Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It offers courses such as Medicine, Pharmacy, and Nursing as well as postgraduate studies...

 and Monash University, Malaysia have a gained TIER 5, which is the second highest grade.

Myanmar


There are five medical institutions - UM 1, UM 2, DSMA, UM Mdy, and UM Mgy - in Myanmar. Myanmar medical schools are government-funded and require Myanmar citizenship for eligibility. No private medical school exists at this moment. In Myanmar
Myanmar
Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

, admission to medical colleges is organized under the Department of Health Science, which is the branch of Ministry of Health of Myanmar. A student can join one of the Five medical universities of Myanmar if he gets the highest scores in the science combination of the matriculation examination. This exam is highly competitive. Entrance is solely based on this examination and academic records have very minor consequences on an application. The undergraduate program is five years plus one year for work experience in government hospitals. After medical school, Myanmar medical graduates are under contract to spend one year of internship and three years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for most residency positions. The degree granted is Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.). Further postgraduate qualifications may be obtained as a Degree (M.Med. Sc) and (Dr.Med.Sc).

Nepal


In Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

, medical studies start at undergraduate level. The program is of five and half years duration. There are three main medical bodies in Nepal:
  • Tribhuvan University
    Tribhuvan University
    Tribhuvan University [त्रिभुवन विश्वविध्यालय] is a public university located in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal...

     (own college: Institute of Medicine Maharajgunj, affiliated colleges: National Medical College, Janaki Medical College, Universal College of Medical Sciences)
  • Kathmandu University
    Kathmandu University
    Kathmandu University is the third oldest university in Nepal located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35Km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership"...

     (own college: Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences
    Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences
    Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences is one of the six schools of Kathmandu University running medical, nursing and allied health science program. KUSMS is a collaborative program of Kathmandu University and Dhulikhel Hospital. The main office of KUSMS is on the premises of Dhulikhel...

     (KUSMS), Affiliated colleges: Manipal College of Medical Sciences
    Manipal College of Medical Sciences
    Manipal College of Medical Sciences is the first private medical school in Nepal. Established in 1994 and located in Pokhara, the school is affiliated with Kathmandu University...

    , Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal Medical College
    Nepal Medical College
    Nepal Medical College & Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital form two sides of the same health institution, established primarily for imparting Medical including Health Sciences Education for the Daughters & Sons of Nepal in particular and the Daughters & Sons of the Global Community in general...

    , Nepalgunj Medical College, College of Medical Sciences, Nobel Medical College, Lumbini Medical College)
  • B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
    B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences
    B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences is a medical institute located in Dharan, Nepal....

    .


The first two years of studies are called "Basic Sciences" followed by two and half years of "clinical sciences" and one year of internship. After the successful completion of this course, a student is awarded Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degree.

New Zealand





New Zealand medical programs are undergraduate-entry programs of six years duration. Students are considered for acceptance only after a year of undergraduate basic sciences or, as alternative, following the completion of a bachelor's degree. There are two main medical schools in New Zealand: the University of Auckland
University of Auckland, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
The University of Auckland's Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences was established in 1968 at its present site in Grafton, Auckland...

 and the University of Otago
University of Otago Dunedin School of Medicine
The Dunedin School of Medicine is one of three medical schools that make up the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Otago. All Otago University medical students who gain entry after a first year "Health Sciences" program, or who gain graduate entry spend their second and third years studying...

. Each of these has subsidiary medical schools such as Otago's Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences
University of Otago Wellington School of Medicine
The Wellington School of Medicine and Health Sciences is one of three medical schools that make up the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Otago. All Otago University medical students who gain entry after a first year "Health Sciences" program, or who gain graduate entry spend their second and...

 and Auckland's Waikato Clinical School.

The first year of the medical degree is the basic sciences year, which comprises study in chemistry, biology, physics, and biochemistry as well as population health and behavioural sciences. The following two years are spent studying human organ systems and pathological processes in more detail as well as professional and communication development. Toward the end of the third year, students begin direct contact with patients in hospital settings.

The clinical years begin fully at the beginning of year 4, where students rotate through various areas of general clinical medicine with rotation times varying from between two and six weeks. Year 5 continues this pattern, focusing more on specialized areas of medicine and surgery. Final medical school exams (exit exams) are actually held at the end of year 5, which is different from most other countries, where final exams are held near the very end of the medical degree. Final exams must be passed before the student is allowed to enter year 6.

The final year (Year 6) of medical school is known as the "Trainee Intern" year, wherein a student is known as a "Trainee Intern" (commonly referred to in the hospitals as a "T.I."). Trainee interns repeat most rotations undertaken in years 4 and 5 but at a higher level of involvement and responsibility for patient care. Trainee interns receive a stipend grant from the New Zealand government (not applicable for international students). At the current time, this is $NZ 26,756/year (about $US 18,500). Trainee interns have responsibility under supervision for the care of about one-third the patient workload of a junior doctor. However, all prescriptions and most other orders (e.g., radiology requests and charting of IV fluids) made by trainee interns must be countersigned by a registered doctor.

New Zealand medical schools currently award the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBChB).

Upon completion of the 6th year, students go on to become "House Officers," also known as "House Surgeons" for 1–2 years where they rotate through specialities in the first year and then begin to narrow down to what they'd like to do for speciality training in the second year. After 2 years of house officer work they apply to get into a training scheme and start to train towards the speciality.

Pakistan


In Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 a medical school is more often referred to as a medical college. A medical college is affiliated with a university as a department. There are however several medical universities and medical institutes with their own medical colleges. All medical colleges and universities are regulated by the respective provincial department of health. They however have to be recognized after meeting a set criteria by a central regulatory authority called Pakistan Medical and Dental Council
Pakistan Medical and Dental Council
Pakistan Medical and Dental Council is the statutory regulatory authority for medical and dental education and practitioners in Pakistan. PMDC was established under Pakistan Medical and Dental Council Ordinance 1962 as a body corporate. It is part of International Community of Medical Regulatory...

 (PMDC) in Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

. There are almost equal number of government and private medical colleges and universities, with their number exceeding 50.Admission to a government medical college is highly competitive. Entrance in to the medical colleges is based on merit under the guidelines of PMDC. Both the academic performance at the college (high school, grades 11-12) level and an entrance test like MCAT are taken into consideration for the eligibility to enter most of the medical colleges. After successfully completing five years of academic and clinical training in the medical college and affiliated teaching hospitals the graduates are awarded a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

) degree. The graduates are then eligible to apply for a medical license from the PMDC. A house job of one year duration is mandatory in a teaching hospital after completing five years of academic and clinical training in the medical college.

People's Republic of China


Medical education is normally a five-year Bachelor degree, including one-year internship (or clinical rotation, during which students are actively involved in patient care) before the final degree is awarded. Clinical specialization usually involves a two- or three-year Master degree. Acceptance is based on the national entrance examination used for all universities. There are a few colleges that teach in English and accept foreign medical students. Some of those universities have increased their course duration to 6 years.

Philippines



The Dominicans, under the Spanish Government, established the oldest Medical School in the Philippines in 1871, known as the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine and Surgery
The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Medicine and Surgery is the medical school of the University of Santo Tomas, the oldest and largest Catholic university in Manila, Philippines....

 of the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas in Intramuros, Manila.
Medical education in the Philippines became widespread under the American
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 administration. The Americans, led by the insular government's Secretary of the Interior, Dean Worcester, built the University of the Philippines
University of the Philippines
The ' is the national university of the Philippines. Founded in 1908 through Act No...

's College of Medicine and Surgery in 1905. By 1909, nursing instruction was also begun at the Philippine Normal School. At present there are a number of medical schools in the Philippines, notable examples including the University of the Philippines Manila, Our Lady of Fatima University
Our Lady of Fatima University
Our Lady of Fatima University, formerly known as Our Lady of Fatima College, and also formerly known as Fatima Medical Science Foundation, Incorporated is a private university in the Philippines. It has three main campuses, one based in Valenzuela City, the other in Quezon City, and the third in...

, Far Eastern University - Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation
Far Eastern University - Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation
The Far Eastern University - Dr. Nicanor Reyes Medical Foundation or FEU-NRMF Institute of Medicine is a medical school in West Fairview, Quezon City, Philippines.-History:...

, Saint Louis University International College of Medicine in Baguio City, the De La Salle Health Sciences Institute, the University of Santo Tomas
University of Santo Tomas
The Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas, The Catholic University of the Philippines , is a private Roman Catholic university run by the Order of Preachers in Manila. Founded on April 28, 1611 by archbishop of Manila Miguel de Benavides, it has the oldest extant university charter in the...

, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila, University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center
University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center
The University of the East - Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center is a university in Quezon City, Philippines. Founded in 1956, the university is one of the two extension campuses of the University of the East. UERMMMC is a non-stock, non-profit foundation and a memorial to President Ramon...

, St. Luke's College of Medicine-William H. Quasha Memorial, Cebu Doctors' University
Cebu Doctors' University
Cebu Doctors' University is a private university located in Mandaue City, Cebu, Philippines. It was founded in 1975 at Cebu City, as Cebu Doctors' College, with the opening of its College of Nursing, one of the first nursing colleges in Cebu. CDU was granted university status by 2005 and moved to...

, Cebu Institute of Medicine
Cebu Institute of Medicine
Cebu Institute of Medicine is a medical school in Cebu City, Philippines.-History:The Cebu Institute of Medicine is a non-stock, non-profit institution established in June 1957, then known as Cebu Institute of Technology, College of Medicine...

, Southwestern University
Southwestern University (Philippines)
-History:In summer of 1946, when the Philippines was in the rehabilitation process after World War II, Southwestern University was founded with the name Southwestern Colleges...

, West Visayas State University
West Visayas State University
West Visayas State University ,WVSU, is a state university in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines with its main campus in La Paz, Iloilo City. It is one of the twenty accredited Philippine Universities of the University Mobility in Asia and the Pacific...

 in Iloilo City, Davao Medical School Foundation in Davao City, Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan, Dr. Jose P. Rizal School of Medicine in Cagayan De Oro and University of Northern Philippines (Vigan City).

Any college graduate may apply for medical school as long as he or she as accumulated a set number of units in biology, chemistry, physics, and math. There is also a test known as the National Medical Admission Test
National Medical Admission Test (Philippines)
The National Medical Admission Test is a nationwide examination required for the entrance to any medical school in the Philippines....

 or NMAT. Scores are given on a percentile basis and a high ranking is a must to enter the top medical schools in the country.

In most institutions, medical education lasts for four years. Basic subjects are taken up in the first and second years, while clinical sciences are studied in the second and third years. In their fourth year, students rotate in the various hospital departments, spending up to two months each in the fields of internal medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and pediatrics, and several weeks in the other specialties. After this, students graduate with a Doctorate in Medicine and apply for postgraduate internship in an accredited hospital of their choice. After PGI, the student is eligible to take the Medical Licensure Examination. Passing the examinations confers the right to practice medicine as well as to apply in a Residency Training Program.

Republic of China (Taiwan)


The medical education in the Republic of China (Taiwan)
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 is usually 7 years in duration, starting right after high school. The reason for such a long period of study is because Taiwanese medical schools include undergraduate education. Currently, only Kaohsiung Medical University
Kaohsiung Medical University
The Kaohsiung Medical University , originally known as Kaohsiung Medical College, is a private university located in Kaohsiung, Republic of China .-History:...

 offers a 4-year medical program, similar to the US medical school system, for university degree holders.
The first 2 years in the 7-year system is composed of basic sciences and liberal art courses. Especially, all the medical schools there compete with each other on how enthusiastic their graduates become. Massive doctor-patient classes are emphasized, and most schools require compulsory amounts of volunteer hours.
Clinical sciences are compressed into a two year program in the 3rd and 4th years. Many medical students in Taiwan call this 2-year hell.
The duration of clerkships and internships varies from school to school, but all of them end at the 7th grade.

Saudi Arabia


In Saudi Arabia medical education is free for all Saudi citizens. A medical student must pass an entrance examination and complete a 1-year pre-medical course containing some basic medical subjects including: Biology, Organic Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Physics, Medical Biostatistics, and English for medical uses. Passing this year is commonly considered as the most challenging. It offers an MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery) degree. after one pre-medical course, five medical years and one training year.
By 2010, there are 24 medical schools in KSA- 21 nonprofit and three private medical schools
the last college opened was Sulaiman Alrajhi colleges with its partnership with Maastricht in the Netherlands.

South Korea


Currently, there are fifty medical schools in South Korea. Medical programs in South Korea used to be direct-entry programs such as in the UK, taking six years to complete. However, most universities are currently going through a transition from direct-entry to a 4+4 year system, such as those found in the United States and Canada.

Some argue that Oriental medical colleges and schools in South Korea should be considered to be typical medical schools. However, the licensing procedures and curricula of Oriental medical schools are quite different from medical schools that teach Western medicine (leading to an M.D. degree). However, in South Korea, both doctors of Western medicine and doctors of Oriental medicine can diagnose patients, prescribe medicine, and publish a death certificate which is fully effective under the law.

Sri Lanka


There are eight medical schools in Sri Lanka that teach evidence based (sometimes called "western") medicine. The oldest medical school is the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo
Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo
Established in 1870 as the Colombo Medical School, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, is the second oldest medical school in South Asia.-History:...

, established as Ceylon Medical School in 1870. There are medical faculties in Peradeniya, Kelaniya, Sri Jayawardanepura, Galle, Batticaloa, Jaffna and Rajarata as well.

Kelaniya Medical Faculty initially started as the North Colombo Medical College (NCMC), a private medical institution. It was one of the earliest private higher educational institutions (1980). Heavy resistance by the Maxist JVP political movement to private sector growth led to its nationalization and to its renaming as the Kelaniya Medical Faculty.

Faculty of Health-Care Sciences is the faculty that offers MBBS together with other para-medical courses. It is an entity of the Eastern University - Sri Lanka.

Graduates from these medical schools revive Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery degree, MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

, which takes a period of five to six years plus a residency period of one year for full registration. Due to the limited intake a large number of students go abroad to study medicine, these include commonwealth countries, as well as in recent years Bangladesh, Russia and China. However private medical schools are in the process of being established at present. Postgraduate Institute of Medicine
Postgraduate Institute of Medicine
The Postgraduate Institute of Medicine of the University of Colombo is a graduate school that provides specialist training of medical doctors. The only type of its kind, it is similar to the Royal Medical Colleges of the United Kingdom. It was established in 1976 as the Institute of Postgraduate...

 (PGIM) is the only institution that provides specialist training of medical doctors.

The Institute of Indigenous Medicine
Institute of Indigenous Medicine
The Institute of Indigenous Medicine is an affiliated institute of the University of Colombo, specialising in Ayurveda and the Sri Lankan traditional medicine. Founded as a modern College of Indigenous Medicine in 1929, it became part of the University of Colombo adopting its current name in 1977...

 of the University of Colombo
University of Colombo
The University of Colombo is a public research university located primarily in Colombo, Sri Lanka...

, the Gampaha Wickramarachchi Ayurvedhic Medicine Institute of the University of Kelaniya
University of Kelaniya
The University of Kelaniya is a state university of Sri Lanka. Situated just outside the municipal limits of Colombo, in the ancient and historic city of Kelaniya, the University has two major campuses, seven locations, six faculties and four institutions....

 and the Faculty of Siddha Medicine, University of Jaffna
University of Jaffna
Jaffna University is a public university in the city of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.- Overview :Jaffna University has four campuses; Thirunelveli, Marathanamadam, Kaithady and Vavuniya...

 teach Ayurvedha/ Unani
Unani
Unani-tibb or Unani Medicine also spelled Yunani Medicine means "Greek Medicine", and is a form of traditional medicine widely practiced in South Asia...

 / Siddha
Siddha
A Siddha सिद्ध in Sanskrit means "one who is accomplished" and refers to perfected masters who, according to Hindu belief, have transcended the ahamkara , have subdued their minds to be subservient to their Awareness, and have transformed their bodies into a different kind of body dominated by...

 Medicine. Medicina Alternativa or the Open University of Complementary Medicine teaches acupuncture and homeopathy.

Thailand


The first medical school in Thailand has been established back in 1890 at Siriraj Hospital
Siriraj Hospital
Siriraj Hospital is the oldest hospital in Thailand, located in Bangkok on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River, opposite Thammasat University's Tha Phrachan campus...

, which is now become Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. At the current time, there are 20 medical programs offers nationwide. Most of the Thai medical schools are government-funded and require Thai citizenship for eligibility. Only one private medical school exists at the moment. Some Thais choose to attend the private medical school or attend a medical school in a foreign country due to relatively few openings and high college entrance examination scores required for enrollment in public medical schools.

The Thai medical education is 6 years system, consisting of 1 year in basic-science, 2 years in pre-clinical training, and 3 year for clinical training. Upon graduation, all medical students must pass national medical licensing examinations and a university-based comprehensive test. After medical school, newly graduated doctor are under contract to spend a year of internship and 2 years of tenure in rural areas before they are eligible for any other residency positions or specialized training.

The students will receive Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 (MD) degree. However the degree is equivalent to Master's degree in Thailand.

Belarus


There are 4 Medical Schools (Medical Universities) in Belarus:
  • Belarusian State Medical University
    Belarusian State Medical University
    The Belarusian State Medical University is a university in Minsk, Belarus. In 1921 it became affiliated Medicine Department of the Belarusian State University...

    , Minsk (byelorussian: Беларускі дзяржаўны медыцынскі ўніверсітэт; Russian: Белорусский государственный медицинский университет) - http://www.bsmu.by/english/, which contains the famous Bosef Institute for AIDS Research.
  • Gomel State Medical University (byelorussian: Гомельскі дзяржаўны медыцынскі ўніверсітэт; Russian: Гомельский государственный медицинский университет) - http://www.medinstitut.gomel.by/index.php?module=documents&item=379
  • Grodno State Medical University (byelorussian: Гродненскі дзяржаўны медыцынскі ўніверсітэт; Russian: Гродненский государственный медицинский университет) - http://www.grsmu.by/eng/
  • Vitebsk State Order of Peoples' Friendship Medical University (byelorussian: Віцебскі дзяржаўны медыцынскі ўніверсітэт; Russian: Витебский государственный ордена Дружбы народов медицинский университет) - http://www.vgmu.vitebsk.by/eng/index.html

Bosnia and Herzegovina



There are five Medical Schools (Medicinski Fakultet) in Bosnia and Herzegovina:
  • University of Banja Luka
    University of Banja Luka
    The University of Banja Luka is a public university located in Banja Luka, Bosnia-Herzegovina...

     School of Medicine
  • University of Sarajevo
    University of Sarajevo
    The University of Sarajevo is the first university in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was originally established in 1531 as a Madrasah or Islamic Law college, with a modern university being established and expanded on top of that in 1949. Today, with 23 faculties and around 55,000 enrolled students, it...

     Medical School
  • University of Tuzla
    University of Tuzla
    University of Tuzla is a public university located in the city of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The university was founded in 1958. It became a proper university in 1976, and today is one of the major institutions of higher learning in Bosnia.-History:...

     Medical School
  • University of East Sarajevo
    University of East Sarajevo
    University of East Sarajevo is a public university located in east part of East Sarajevo city, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is derived from the University of East Sarajevo....

     Medical School (Foca)
  • University of Mostar
    University of Mostar
    The University of Mostar is the only Croatian language university in Bosnia and Herzegovina.Roots of University of Mostar date back to 1895 when the Franciscan theological school was established. In 1950 Higher teacher-training school started with its work in Mostar...

     Medical School


These medical schools are usually affiliated with regional hospitals.

The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. Students are conferred degree Doctor of Medicine (MD) upon graduation.

Admissions


Entry to BH Medical Schools are very competitive due to limited places imposed by the government quota.
Students are required to complete Secondary School Leaving Diploma (Gimnazija-Gymnasium (school)
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

 or Medicinska skola matura
Matura
Matura or a similar term is the common name for the high-school leaving exam or "maturity exam" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia,...

/svedocanstvo/svjedodzba).

Entrance examination is usually held in June/July. Combined score of Secondary School Diploma assessment (on scale 1-5, with 2 minimum passing grade and 5 maximum grade) and entrance examination is taken into consideration. Usually, 5 in Chemistry, Biology, Mathematics, and Physics are required for entry to medicine.

Curriculum


Course structure is more traditional and divided in pre-clinical (year 1-3) /clinical part (year 3-6) and subject-based.

Practical examinations are held throughout the degree (Anatomy, Biochemistry,Pathology, Physiology practicals etc.). Dissection is part of all medical curricula in Bosnian and Herz. Medical Schools.

Course content in BH Medical Schools:
  • Biophysics
  • Biology and Human Genetics
  • Medical Chemistry
  • Sociology
  • Statistics and Computer Science in Medicine
  • Ethics in Medicine
  • Social Medicine
  • English Language
  • Anatomy
  • Biochemistry
  • Histology and Embryology
  • Physiology
  • Microbiology and Immunology
  • Pathological Anatomy
  • Pathological Physiology
  • Basic of Oncology
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Clinical Propaedeutic
    Propaedeutics
    Propaedeutics or propedeutics is a historical term for an introductory course into a discipline: art, science, etc. Etymology: pro- + Greek: paideutikós, "pertaining to teaching"....

  • Epidemiology
  • Radiology
  • Neurology
  • Psychiatry
  • Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Dermatovenereology
  • Internal Medicine
  • Gynaecology
  • Surgery
  • Medical Ecology
  • Pediatrics
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery
  • Ophthalmology
  • Physical Medicine and General Rehabilitation
  • Primary Health Care and Occupational Medicine

Bulgaria


In Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, a medical school is a type of college or a faculty of a university. The medium of instruction is officially in Bulgarian. A six- to one-year course in Bulgarian language is required prior to admittance to the medical program. For European candidates, an exam in Biology and Chemistry in Bulgarian is also required. While a number of Bulgarian medical schools have now started offering medical programmes in English, Bulgarian is still required during the clinical years.

Students join medical school after completing high-school. Admission offers are made by individual medical schools. Bulgarian applicants have to pass entrance examinations in the subjects of Biology and Chemistry. The competitive result of every candidate is the based on their marks these exams plus their secondary-school certificate marks in the same subjects. Those applicants with the highest results achieved are classified for admission.

The course of study is offered as a six year program. The first 2 years are pre-clinical, the next 3 years are clinical training and the sixth year is the internship year, during which students work under supervision at the hospitals. During the sixth year, students have to appear for 'state exams' in the 5 major subjects of Internal Medicine, Surgery, Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Social Medicine, and Pediatrics. Upon successful completion of the six years of study and the state exams the degree of 'Physician' is conferred.

For specialization, graduates have to appear for written tests and interviews to obtain a place in a specialization program. For specialization in general medicine, general practice lasts three years, cardiology lasts four years, internal medicine lasts five years, and general surgery lasts five years.

Croatia


In Croatia
Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

, there are four out of seven universities that offer a medical degree, the University of Zagreb
University of Zagreb
The University of Zagreb is the biggest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe...

 (also offers medical studies in English), University of Rijeka
University of Rijeka
The University of Rijeka is situated in the city of Rijeka with faculties also located in cities throughout the regions of Primorje, Istria and Lika....

, University of Split
University of Split
The University of Split is a university located in Split, Croatia. It was founded in 1974. and is organized in 13 faculties and 124 faculty programmes...

, and the University of Osijek
University of Osijek
The Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek is a university located in Osijek, Croatia. It was founded in 1975 and is organized in 11 faculties.-History:...

. The Medical schools are a faculties of those four universities. Medical students enroll into medical school after finishing secondary education, typically after a Gymnasium
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

, or after a four-year nursing school, or any other high school lasting four years. During the application process, their high school grades, and the grades of their matriculation exam at the end of high school (Matura
Matura
Matura or a similar term is the common name for the high-school leaving exam or "maturity exam" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia,...

) and the score at the obligatory admission exam are taken into account, and the best students are enrolled.

The course of study lasts 6 years or 12 semesters. During the first 3 years, students are engaged in pre-clinical courses (Anatomy, Histology, Chemistry, Physics, Cell Biology, Genetics, Physiology, Biochemistry, Immunology, Pathologic Physiology And Anatomy, Pharmacology, Microbiology, etc.). Contact with patients begins at the third year. The remaining 3 years are composed of rotations at various departments, such as Internal Medicine, Neurology, Radiology, Dermatology, Psychiatry, Surgery, Pediatrics, Gynecology and Obstetrics, Anesthesiology, and others. During each academic year, students also enroll into two or three elective courses. After each rotation, the students take a total of about 60 exams. In the end, the students must pass a final multiple-choice exam comprising questions about clinical courses, after which they finally gain an MD, and the title of Doctor of Medicine, which they put after their name. Now the doctors must complete a one-year, supervised, paid internship in a hospital of their choice, after which they take the state (license) examination, which is an eight-part oral examination containing the eight most important clinical branches. After that, the doctors are eligible to practice medicine as general practitioners. Residencies are offered at various hospitals throughout Croatia, and at numerous medical specialities.

Finland


In Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

, basic medical education is given in five universities: Helsinki
University of Helsinki
The University of Helsinki is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku in 1640 as The Royal Academy of Turku, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the oldest and largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available...

, Kuopio, Oulu
University of Oulu
The University of Oulu is one of the largest universities in Finland, located in the city of Oulu. It was founded on July 8, 1958. The university has around 16,000 students and 3,000 staff...

, Tampere
University of Tampere
The University of Tampere is a university in Tampere, Finland. It has 15,400 degree students and 2,100 employees. It was originally founded in 1925 in Helsinki as a Civic College , and from 1930 onwards it was known as a School of Social Sciences...

 and Turku
University of Turku
The University of Turku , located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrollment, after University of Helsinki. It was established in 1920 and also has faculties at Rauma, Pori and Salo...

. Admission is regulated by an entrance examination. Studies involve an initial two-year preclinical period of mainly theoretical courses in anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology etc. However, students have contact with patients from the beginning of their studies. The preclinical period is followed by a four-year clinical period, when students participate in the work of various hospitals and health care centres, learning necessary medical skills. Some Finnish universities have integrated clinical and preclinical subjects along the six-year course, diverging from the traditional program. A problem-based learning method is widely used, and inclusion of clinical cases in various courses and preclinical subjects is becoming common. All medical schools have research programs for students who wish to undertake scientific work. The duration of basic medical education is six years and the course leads to the degree of Licentiate of Medicine.

France


Medical studies in France are organized as follow:

Right after graduating from High School with a Baccalaureat
Baccalauréat
The baccalauréat , often known in France colloquially as le bac, is an academic qualification which French and international students take at the end of the lycée . It was introduced by Napoleon I in 1808. It is the main diploma required to pursue university studies...

, any student can register at a university of medicine (there are about 30 of them throughout the country). At the end of first year, an internal ranking examination takes place in each of these universities in order to implement the numerus clausus
Numerus clausus
Numerus clausus is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. In many cases, the goal of the numerus clausus is simply to limit the number of students to the maximum feasible in some particularly sought-after areas of studies.However, in some cases,...

.
First year consists mainly of theoretical classes such as biophysics
Biophysics
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems. Studies included under the branches of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems...

 and biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

, anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

, ethics
Ethics
Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...

 or histology
Histology
Histology is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals. It is performed by examining cells and tissues commonly by sectioning and staining; followed by examination under a light microscope or electron microscope...

. Passing first year is commonly considered as challenging and requires hard and continuous work. Each student can only try twice. For example, the Université René Descartes welcomes about 2000 students in first year and only 300 after numerus clausus.

The second and third year are usually mainly quite theoretical although the teachings are often accompanied by placements in the field (e.g. internships as nurses or in the emergency room, depending on the university).

During 4th, 5th and 6th years, medical students get a special status called 'Externe' (In some universities, such as Pierre et Marie Curie, the 'Externe' status is given starting in the 3rd year). They work as interns every morning at the hospital plus a few night shifts a month and study in the afternoon. Each internship lasts between 3 and 4 month and takes place in a different department. Med students get 5 weeks off a year.

At the end of sixth year, they need to pass a national ranking exam, which will determine their specialty. Indeed, the first student gets to choose first, then the second et cetera. Usually students work pretty hard during 5th and 6th years in order to train properly for the national ranking exam. During these years, actual practice at the hospital and some theoretical courses are meant to balance the training.
Such interns' average wage stands between 100 and 300 euros a month.

After that ranking exams, students can start as residents in the specialty they have been able to pick. That is the point from which they also start getting paid.

Germany



In Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, admission to medical schools is currently administered jointly by the (SfH), a centralized federal organization, and the universities themselves. The most important criterion for admission is the Numerus clausus
Numerus clausus
Numerus clausus is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. In many cases, the goal of the numerus clausus is simply to limit the number of students to the maximum feasible in some particularly sought-after areas of studies.However, in some cases,...

, the final GPA scored by the applicant on the Abitur
Abitur
Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years.The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as...

 (highest secondary school diploma). However, in light of the recent gain in influence of medical schools in regards to applicant selection, additional criteria are being used to select students for admission. These criteria vary among medical faculties and the final Abitur GPA is always a core indicator and strongly influences admission. Admission remains highly competitive.

The first two years of medical school consist of the so-called pre-clinical classes. During this time, the students are instructed in the basic sciences (e.g. physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, biology
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

, anatomy
Anatomy
Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that is the consideration of the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy , and plant anatomy...

, physiology
Physiology
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

, biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

, etc.) and must pass a federal medical exam (), administered nationally. Upon completion, the students advance to the clinical stage, where they receive three years of training and education in the clinical subjects (e.g., internal medicine
Internal medicine
Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

, surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

, obstetrics
Obstetrics
Obstetrics is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy , childbirth and the postnatal period...

 and gynecology, pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

, pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function...

, pathology
Pathology
Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek , pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and , -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling....

, etc.). The last year of medical school consists of the so-called "practical year" (). Students are required to spend four month clerkships, two of them in a hospital, one in a doctor's office and one elective.

After at least six years of medical school, the students graduate with a final federal medical exam (). Graduates receive the license to practice medicine and the professional title of physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 (). The academic degree Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 (Dr.med., an equivalent to the PhD
PHD
PHD may refer to:*Ph.D., a doctorate of philosophy*Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*PHD finger, a protein sequence*PHD Mountain Software, an outdoor clothing and equipment company*PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

)is awarded if the graduate has, in addition, successfully completed a scientific study and dissertation. Many medical students opt to perform their thesis during their studies at medical school, but only a fraction of them is able to finish the dissertation-process during their studies.
If physicians wish to open up a doctor's office, they are required to further complete residency in order to fulfill the federal requirements of becoming Facharzt (specialized in a certain field of medicine like internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics e.g.).

There are 36 medical faculties in Germany.

Hungary


Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 has four medical schools, in Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

, Debrecen
Debrecen
Debrecen , is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. Debrecen is the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar county.- Name :...

, Pécs and Szeged
Szeged
' is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county town of Csongrád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary....

. Medical school takes six years to complete, of which the last year is a practical year. Students receive the degree dr. med. univ. or dr. for short, equivalent to the MD degree upon graduation.

Iceland


In Iceland
Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

, admission to medical school requires passing an organized test, controlled by the University of Iceland
University of Iceland
The University of Iceland is a public research university in Reykjavík, Iceland, and the country's oldest and largest institution of higher education. Founded in 1911, it has grown steadily from a small civil servants' school to a modern comprehensive university, providing instruction for about...

, which anyone with a gymnasium
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

 degree can take. Only the top 48 scores on the exam are granted admission each year. Medical school in Iceland takes 6 years to complete. Students receive a cand.med.
Cand.med.
Candidate of Medicine , Candidata Medicinae , abbreviated Cand. Med.) is an academic degree awarded in Denmark, Iceland and Norway following a six-year medical school education....

 degree upon graduation. Following this, Icelandic regulations require 12 months of clinical internship before granting a full medical license. This internship consists of internal medicine (4 months), surgery (2 months), family medicine (3 months) and a three month elective period. Upon receiving a license to practice, a physician can start specialist training, in Iceland or abroad.

Ireland


There are six medical schools in Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

. They are at Trinity College Dublin, the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland , is a Dublin-based medical institution, situated on St. Stephen's Green. The college is one of the five Recognised Colleges of the National University of Ireland...

, University College Dublin
University College Dublin
University College Dublin ) - formally known as University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin is the Republic of Ireland's largest, and Ireland's second largest, university, with over 1,300 faculty and 17,000 students...

, University College Cork, University of Limerick
University of Limerick
The University of Limerick is a university in Ireland near the city of Limerick on the island's west coast. It was established in 1972 as the National Institute for Higher Education, Limerick and became a university by statute in 1989 in accordance with the University of Limerick Act 1989...

 and the National University of Ireland, Galway
National University of Ireland, Galway
The National University of Ireland, Galway is a constituent university of the National University of Ireland...

 (the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

 is the degree-awarding institution for all except the University of Limerick and Trinity College). Training lasts four, five or six years, with the last two years in the affiliated teaching hospitals (UCD - St. Vincents University Hospital, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital) (Trinity - St. James's Hospital, Adelaide and Meath Hospitals incorporating the National Children's Hospital) (UCC - Cork University Hospital)(RCSI - Beaumont Hospital, Conolly Hospital, Waterford Regional Hospital). For Programmes that are six years in length, entry is based on secondary school qualifications. Programmes that are four years in length require previous university degrees. The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and the University of Limerick were the first medical institutions to offer Graduate Entry Medicine of four years in duration in the Ireland
Republic of Ireland
Ireland , described as the Republic of Ireland , is a sovereign state in Europe occupying approximately five-sixths of the island of the same name. Its capital is Dublin. Ireland, which had a population of 4.58 million in 2011, is a constitutional republic governed as a parliamentary democracy,...

. This is now also offered in University College Dublin and University College Cork. The National University of Ireland, Galway will launch a graduate entry programme in 2010.

Medical education is regulated by the Irish Medical Council, the statutory body that is also responsible for maintaining a register of medical practitioners. After graduation with the degrees of BM BS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) or MB BCh BAO (Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus in Chirurgia, Baccalaureus in Arte Obstetricia), a doctor is required to spend one year as an intern under supervision before full registration is permitted. Graduates of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
The Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland , is a Dublin-based medical institution, situated on St. Stephen's Green. The college is one of the five Recognised Colleges of the National University of Ireland...

 also receive the traditional "Licenciate of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons and Physicians in Ireland" (LRCP&SI), which was awarded before the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland became an Affiliate of the National University of Ireland
National University of Ireland
The National University of Ireland , , is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, and significantly amended by the Universities Act, 1997.The constituent universities are...

 and thus was allowed grant degrees, under the Medical Practitioners Act (1978).

Italy


In Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, the contents of the medical school admission test is decided each year by the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research
Ministry of Education, Universities and Research
The Ministry of Education, Universities and Research is the ministry of the Italian government for the national education system, the Italian universities and research...

 (MIUR) and consists of eighty questions divided in five categories: logics and "general education ("cultura generale"), mathematics
Mathematics
Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

, physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

, chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, and biology
Biology
Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy. Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines...

. The test is usually taken in early September, following the conclusion of a 5-year high school cycle in July.

Each medical school administers the test separately, and the result of the test is only valid for entry in the medical school where the test was taken. As a general rule, all state-run medical schools in the country administer it on the same day, whereas all privately run medical school administer it on another day, so that a candidate may take the test once at a state-run school and once at a private school of his/her choice, but no more.

Medicine is one of the university faculties implementing numerus clausus
Numerus clausus
Numerus clausus is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. In many cases, the goal of the numerus clausus is simply to limit the number of students to the maximum feasible in some particularly sought-after areas of studies.However, in some cases,...

 ("numero chiuso"): the overall number of medical students admitted every year is constant, as each medical school is assigned a maximum number of new admission per year by MIUR.

Medical school lasts 6 years (12 semesters). Traditionally, the first three years are devoted to "biological" subjects (physics, chemistry, biology, biochemistry, genetics, anatomy, physiology, immunology, pathophysiology, microbiology, and usually English language courses), whereas the later three years are devoted to "clinical" subjects. However, most schools are increasingly devoting the second semester of the third year to clinical subjects and earlier patient contact. In most schools, there are about 36 exams over the 6-year cycle, as well as a number of compulsory rotations and elective activities.

At the end of the cycle, students have to discuss a final thesis before a board of professors; the subject of this thesis may be a review of academic literature or an experimental work, and usually takes more than a year to complete, with most students beginning an internato (internship) in the subject of their choice in their fifth or sixth year. The title awarded at the end of the discussion ceremony is that of "Dottore in Medicina e Chirurgia" ("Doctor of Medicine and Surgery"), which in accordance with the Bologna process
Bologna process
The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

 is comparable with a master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 qualification.

After graduating, new doctors must complete a three-month, unpaid, supervised tirocinio post-lauream ("post-degree placement") consisting of two months in their university hospital (one month in a medical service and one in a surgical service) as well as one month shadowing a general practitioner
General practitioner
A general practitioner is a medical practitioner who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education for all ages and both sexes. They have particular skills in treating people with multiple health issues and comorbidities...

. After getting a statement of successful completion of each month from their supervisors, new doctors take the esame di stato ("state exame") to obtain full license to practise medicine. They will then have to register with one of the branches of the Ordine dei Medici ("Order of Physicians"), which are based in each of the Provinces of Italy
Provinces of Italy
In Italy, a province is an administrative division of intermediate level between a municipality and a region .-Overview:...

.

Registration makes new doctors legally able practice medicine without supervision. They will then have to choose between various career paths, each usually requiring a specific admission exam: Most either choose to train as general practitioner (a 3-year course run by each Region
Regions of Italy
The regions of Italy are the first-level administrative divisions of the state, constituting its first NUTS administrative level. There are twenty regions, of which five are constitutionally given a broader amount of autonomy granted by special statutes....

, including both general practice and rotation at non-university hospitals), or choose to enter a Scuola di Specializzazione ("specialty school") at a university hospital 5-year or 6-year course.

Netherlands and Belgium


In the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 and Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, medical students receive respectively 6 and 7 years of university education prior to their graduation.

In the Netherlands, students used to receive four years of preclinical training, followed by two years of clinical training (co-assistentschappen, or co-schappen for short) in hospitals. However, for a number of medical schools this has recently changed to three years of preclinical training, followed by three years of clinical training. At at least one medical faculty, that of Utrecht University
Utrecht University
Utrecht University is a university in Utrecht, Netherlands. It is one of the oldest universities in the Netherlands and one of the largest in Europe. Established March 26, 1636, it had an enrollment of 29,082 students in 2008, and employed 8,614 faculty and staff, 570 of which are full professors....

, clinical training already begins in the third year of medical school. After 6 years, students graduate as basisartsen (comparable to Doctors of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

). As a result of the Bologna process
Bologna process
The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

, medical students in the Netherlands now receive a bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 after three years in medical school and a master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

 upon graduation. Prospective students can apply for medical education directly after finishing the highest level of secondary school, vwo
Voorbereidend Wetenschappelijk Onderwijs
Voorbereidend wetenschappelijk onderwijs or pre-university secondary education is the highest variant in the secondary educational system of the Netherlands. After leaving elementary school students are enrolled in different types of secondary schools, according to their academic ability...

; previous undergraduate education is not a precondition for admittance.

The Belgian medical education is much more based on theoretical knowledge than the Dutch system. In the first 3 years, which are very theoretical and lead to a university bachelor degree, general scientific courses are taken such as chemistry, biophysics, physiology, biostatistics, anatomy, virology, etc. To enter the bachelor course in Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

, prospective students have to pass an exam, as a result of the numerus clausus
Numerus clausus
Numerus clausus is one of many methods used to limit the number of students who may study at a university. In many cases, the goal of the numerus clausus is simply to limit the number of students to the maximum feasible in some particularly sought-after areas of studies.However, in some cases,...

. In the French-speaking part
French Community of Belgium
The French Community of Belgium is one of the three official communities in Belgium along with the Flemish Community and the German speaking Community. Although its name could suggest that it is a community of French citizens in Belgium, it is not...

 of Belgium, only the best students that pass the first year of the bachelor course in medicine are admitted to the second and third year.

After the bachelor courses, students are allowed to enter the 'master in medicine' courses, which consist of 4 years of theoretical and clinical study. In general, the first 2 master years are very theoretical and teach the students in human pathology, diseases, pharmacology. The third year is a year full of internships in a wide range of specialities in different clinics. The seventh, final year serves as a kind of 'pre-specialization' year in which the students are specifically trained in the specialty they wish to pursue after medical school. This contrasts with the Dutch approach, in which graduates are literally 'basic doctors' (basisartsen) who have yet to decide on a specialty.

Norway


Medical education in Norway begins with a six- to six-and-a-half-year undergraduate university program. Admission requires a relatively high GPA from secondary school. Upon completion, students are awarded a candidatus/candidata medicinae (cand. med.) degree. Following this, the Norwegian Registration Authority for Health Personnel (Statens autorisasjonskontor for helsepersonell) requires a minimum of 18 months of internship (turnustjeneste) before granting a medical license. Once the doctor has got a license to practice, he or she is able to apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 43 recognized medical specialties in Norway.

Portugal


Universidade do Minho, Braga

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra

Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde, Covilhã

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa

Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa

Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Porto

Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute
Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute
The Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar - ICBAS is a medical school , veterinary sciences school and also a school of marine biology, located in Porto, Portugal...

, Porto

Romania


In Romania, medical school is a department of a medical university, which typically includes Dentistry and Pharmacy departments as well. The name facultate is used for departments in their universities too, but the Medicine departments distinguish themselves by the length of studies (6 years), which grants to graduates a status equivalent to that of a Master in Science. The Medicine departments are also marked by reduced flexibility - in theory, a student in a regular university can take courses from different departments, like Chemistry and Geography (although it usually does not happen, majors being clearly defined), while the medical universities do not have any extra offers for their students, due to their specialization. Admission to medical faculty is usually awarded by passing a Human Biology, Organic Chemistry and/or Physics test. The program lasts 6 years, with first 2 years being preclinical and last 4 years being mostly clinical. After these six years, one has to take the national licence exam (which consists of mostly clinically-oriented questions, but some questions also deal with basic sciences) and has to write a thesis in any field he/she studied. Final award is Doctor-Medic (titlu onorific) (shortened Dr.), which is not an academic degree (similar to Germany). All graduates have to go through residency and specialization exams after that in order to practice, although older graduates had different requirements and training (e.g., clinical rotations similar to sub-internship) and might still be able to practice Family Medicine / General Medicine.

Sweden


Medical education in Sweden begins with a five-and-a-half-year undergraduate university program leading to the degree "Master of Science in Medicine" . Following this, the National Board of Health and Welfare requires a minimum of 18 months of clinical internship before granting a medical license. This internship consists of surgery (3–6 months), internal medicine (3–6 months), psychiatry (three months) and family medicine (six months). Upon receiving a license to practice, a physician is able to apply for a post to start specialist training. There are currently 52 recognized medical specialties in Sweden. The specialist training has a duration of minimum five years, which upon completion grants formal qualification as a specialist.

Turkey


All high school graduates who wish to pursue further education are required to take an MCQ exam. The exam covers most of the high school and secondary school curricula. Currently there are disputes about the exam's objectivity. A student who scores high enough gets a place in a faculty of his/her desire. Entrance to medical schools is extremely competitive, only very top scoring students are accepted to medical schools.

Medical education takes six years, first three years being Pre-clinical years and the latter three being Clinical years. Right after graduation, graduates can either work as GPs or take another exam called TUS (Medical Specialization Examination) to do residency in a particular department of a particular hospital.

Most of the medical schools in Turkey are state schools but the number of private schools is on the rise. MCQ exam(YGS and LYS) scores required to be accepted to private medical schools are lower compared to their public counterparts. The language of instruction is, in general, Turkish, but few universities also offer schools with English as the language of instruction. This makes Turkey a popular place to study medicine for students from nearby areas like the Balkans, the Middle East, and to a lesser extent North Africa.

Ukraine


Medical degrees in Ukraine were offered only in institutions called medical universities, which are separate from traditional universities. However, some medical schools are now associated with classical universities. These include:
  • Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University
    Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University
    Danylo Halytsky Lviv National Medical University , — formerly known as the Lvov State Medical Institute, earlier the Faculty of Medicine of the John Casimir University and, before that, Faculty of Medicine of the Francis I University — is one of the oldest and biggest medical...

  • Kharkiv National Medical University
    Kharkiv National Medical University
    Kharkiv National Medical University , formerly known as Kharkov Medical Institute and Kharkov State Medical University, is a medical university in Kharkiv, Ukraine.At present, over 700 teachers work at the departments of the university...

  • Dnipropetrovsk State Medical Academy
  • Ivano-Frankivsk State Medical University
  • Bukovynian State Medical University
  • Zaporizhia State Medical University
  • Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy
    Ukrainian medical stomatological academy
    Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy is the leading state higher education institution in training physicians and dentists.-History:...

  • Donetsk National Medical University
  • I. Y. Gorbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University
  • Bogomolets National Medical University Of Ukraine
  • Crimea State Medical University
  • Luhansk State Medical University
  • Odessa State Medical University
    Odessa State Medical University
    The Odessa National Medical University is a government university in the city of Odessa, Ukraine.- External links :* * * * *...

  • National Pirogov Memorial Medical University
  • School of Medicine of V N Karazin Kharkiv National University
  • Medical Faculty of Sumy State University
  • Medical Faculty of Uzhgorod University
  • Medical Faculty of Dnipropetrovsk National University
  • Kyiv Medical Institute of non traditional Medicine

United Kingdom


There are currently 32 institutions that offer medical degrees in the United Kingdom. Completion of a medical degree in the UK results in the award of the degrees of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery. Admission requirements to the schools varies; most insist on solid A-Levels/Highers, a good performance in an aptitude test such as the UKCAT
UKCAT
The UK Clinical Aptitude Test is a test that is beginning to be used in the selection process by a consortium of UK university Medical and Dental Schools. It is run by the UKCAT Consortium in partnership with Pearson VUE...

, the BMAT or the GAMSAT
GAMSAT
The Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test is a test used to select candidates applying to study medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary science at Australian, British, and Irish universities for admission to their Graduate Entry Programmes The Graduate Australian Medical School...

, and usually an interview. As of 2008 the UK has approximately 8000 places for medical students.

Methods of education are diverse, with some courses offering problem-based learning
Problem-based learning
Problem-based learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject in the context of complex, multifaceted, and realistic problems...

, some having a more traditional pre-clinical/clinical structure, and others combining several approaches in an integrated approach.

Following qualification, UK doctors enter a generalised two-year, competency-based "foundation programme
Modernising Medical Careers
Modernising Medical Careers is a programme for postgraduate medical training introduced in the UK from 2005 onwards. The programme replaced the traditional grades of medical career before the level of Consultant. The different stages of the programme contribute towards a "Certificate of...

", gaining full GMC (General Medical Council
General Medical Council
The General Medical Council registers and regulates doctors practising in the United Kingdom. It has the power to revoke or restrict a doctor's registration if it deems them unfit to practise...

) registration at the end of foundation year one, and applying for specialist training (in medicine, surgery, general practice etc.) after foundation year two.

Many medical schools offer intercalated degree programmes to allow students to focus on an area of research outside their medical degree for a year.

Most medical schools offer graduate entry programmes, which are typically accelerated (i.e. four years in length). These may restrict entry to those who hold degrees in, or have previously worked in, other areas of healthcare, or may require a degree (not specifically in a science subject). Moreover, medical schools typically admit many more students into undergraduate programs than into graduate entry programmmes. For example, each year, the Newcastle University School of Medicine has 322 positions for the typical five year course and only 25 positions for its four year “graduate entry programme” course.

Medical students


A person accepted into a medical school and enrolled in an educational program in medicine, with the goal of becoming a medical doctor, is referred to as a medical student or student doctor. Medical students are generally considered to be at the earliest stage of the medical career pathway. In some locations they are required to be registered with a government body.

Medical students typically engage in both basic science and practical clinical coursework during their tenure in medical school. Course structure and length vary greatly among countries (see above).

Upon completion of medical school in the United States, students transition into residency programs through the National Resident Match Program (NRMP). Each year, approximately 16,000 US medical school students participate in the residency match. An additional 18,000 independent applicants—former graduates of US medical schools, US osteopathic students, US podiatry students, Canadian students, and graduates of foreign medical schools—compete for the approximately 25,000 available residency positions.

Bullying



Medical students, perhaps being vulnerable because of their relatively low status in health care settings, commonly experience verbal abuse
Verbal abuse
Verbal abuse is best described as a negative defining statement told to you or about you; or by withholding any response thus defining the target as non-existant...

, humiliation
Humiliation
Humiliation is the abasement of pride, which creates mortification or leads to a state of being humbled or reduced to lowliness or submission. It can be brought about through bullying, intimidation, physical or mental mistreatment or trickery, or by embarrassment if a person is revealed to have...

 and harassment
Harassment
Harassment covers a wide range of behaviors of an offensive nature. It is commonly understood as behaviour intended to disturb or upset, and it is characteristically repetitive. In the legal sense, it is intentional behaviour which is found threatening or disturbing...

 (nonsexual or sexual). Discrimination
Discrimination
Discrimination is the prejudicial treatment of an individual based on their membership in a certain group or category. It involves the actual behaviors towards groups such as excluding or restricting members of one group from opportunities that are available to another group. The term began to be...

 based on gender and race are less common.

Burnout and depression


A US study estimated that approximately 50% of students experience burnout
Burnout (psychology)
Burnout is a psychological term for the experience of long-term exhaustion and diminished interest. Research indicates general practitioners have the highest proportion of burnout cases; according to a recent Dutch study in Psychological Reports, no less than 40% of these experienced high levels of...

 during medical school, as measured by depersonalization, emotional exhaustion, and feelings of professional inadequacy. Burnout in medical students, in addition, seems to be associated with increased likelihood of subsequent suicidal ideation
Suicidal ideation
Suicidal ideation is a common medical term for thoughts about suicide, which may be as detailed as a formulated plan, without the suicidal act itself. Although most people who undergo suicidal ideation do not commit suicide, some go on to make suicide attempts...

.

It has been estimated by a US study that approximately 14% of medical students have symptoms of moderate to severe depression
Depression (mood)
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behaviour, feelings and physical well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, or restless...

, and roughly 5% have suicidal thoughts at some point during training. In a South Korean study, 40% of medical students appeared to have depression. Medical students with more severe depression also may be less likely to seek treatment, largely from fear that faculty members would view them as being unable to handle their responsibilities. Students who feel that they lack a social support system are 10 times more likely to be depressed compared with students that consider themselves to have good social support.

Approximately 10% experience suicidal ideation during medical school.

See also

  • American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
    American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine
    The American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine is a non-profit organization that supports the nation's colleges of osteopathic medicine and serves as a unifying voice for osteopathic medical education. Governed by its Board of Deans and led by President Stephen C...

     (AACOM)
  • American Medical College Application Service
    American Medical College Application Service
    The American Medical College Application Service, abbreviated AMCAS, is a service run by the Association of American Medical Colleges through which prospective medical students can apply to various medical schools in the United States...

     (AMCAS)
  • American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine
    American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine
    American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine is the collective union for the nine colleges of podiatric medicine in the United States and the more than 200 hospitals and institutions that offer postdoctoral training in podiatric medicine...

     (AACPM)
  • Bimaristan
    Bimaristan
    Bimaristan is a Persian word meaning hospital, with Bimar- from Middle Persian of vīmār or vemār, meaning "sick" plus -stan as location and place suffix...

     (historical medical schools)
  • Flexner Report
    Flexner Report
    The Flexner Report is a book-length study of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by the professional educator Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the aegis of the Carnegie Foundation...

  • Graduate Australian Medical Schools Admissions Test
    GAMSAT
    The Graduate Australian Medical School Admissions Test is a test used to select candidates applying to study medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary science at Australian, British, and Irish universities for admission to their Graduate Entry Programmes The Graduate Australian Medical School...

     (GAMSAT) [Australia, Ireland, UK]
  • International medical graduate
    International medical graduate
    An International Medical Graduate or "IMGs", earlier known as a Foreign Medical Graduate or "FMGs", is a term used to describe a physician who has graduated from a medical school outside of the country in which he or she intends to practice...

  • List of medical schools
  • Medical College Admission Test
    Medical College Admission Test
    The Medical College Admission Test is a computer-based standardized examination for prospective medical students in the United States and Canada. It is designed to assess problem solving, critical thinking, written analysis, and writing skills in addition to knowledge of scientific concepts and...

     (MCAT) [United States, Canada]
  • Society of General Internal Medicine
    Society of General Internal Medicine
    Society of General Internal Medicine SGIM is an American professional society composed of physicians engaged in internal medicine research and teaching. It was originally named The Society for Research and Education in Primary Care Internal Medicine , at its inaugural meeting in 1978...

     (SGIM)
  • Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test
    Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test
    The Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test is a test administered by the Australian Council for Educational Research in Australia and New Zealand to assist in the selection of students into certain health science courses including most medical and Dentistry courses, as well...

    (UMAT) [Australia]

External links