United States Department of Defense

United States Department of Defense

Overview
The United States Department of Defense (Defense Department, USDOD, DOD or DoD, initially the National Military Establishment (NME)) is the U.S. federal department allocated the largest level of budgetary resources and charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security
National security
National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed mostly in the United States of America after World War II...

 and the United States armed forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

. The organization and functions of the DoD are set forth in Title 10
Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense...

 of the United States Code
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal laws of the United States...

.

The DoD is the major tenant of The Pentagon
The Pentagon
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. As a symbol of the U.S. military, "the Pentagon" is often used metonymically to refer to the Department of Defense rather than the building itself.Designed by the American architect...

 building near Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, and has three main components: the Departments of the Army
United States Department of the Army
The Department of the Army is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency which the United States Army is organized within, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has...

, Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

, and Air Force.
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Encyclopedia
The United States Department of Defense (Defense Department, USDOD, DOD or DoD, initially the National Military Establishment (NME)) is the U.S. federal department allocated the largest level of budgetary resources and charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security
National security
National security is the requirement to maintain the survival of the state through the use of economic, diplomacy, power projection and political power. The concept developed mostly in the United States of America after World War II...

 and the United States armed forces
United States armed forces
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States. They consist of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Coast Guard.The United States has a strong tradition of civilian control of the military...

. The organization and functions of the DoD are set forth in Title 10
Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense...

 of the United States Code
United States Code
The Code of Laws of the United States of America is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal laws of the United States...

.

The DoD is the major tenant of The Pentagon
The Pentagon
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia. As a symbol of the U.S. military, "the Pentagon" is often used metonymically to refer to the Department of Defense rather than the building itself.Designed by the American architect...

 building near Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, and has three main components: the Departments of the Army
United States Department of the Army
The Department of the Army is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency which the United States Army is organized within, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has...

, Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

, and Air Force. Among the many DoD agencies are the Missile Defense Agency
Missile Defense Agency
The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States government's Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. The agency has its origins in the Strategic Defense Initiative, which was established in 1983 and was headed by Lt...

, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military...

 (DARPA), the Pentagon Force Protection Agency
Pentagon Force Protection Agency
The Pentagon Force Protection Agency is a civilian Defense Agency within the Department of Defense charged with protecting and safeguarding the occupants, visitors, and infrastructure of the Pentagon, Navy Annex and other assigned Pentagon facilities.This mission is accomplished with law...

 (PFPA), the Defense Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
The Defense Intelligence Agency is a member of the Intelligence Community of the United States, and is the central producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense, employing over 16,500 U.S. military and civilian employees worldwide...

 (DIA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was formerly known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ...

 (NGA), and the National Security Agency
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency/Central Security Service is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S...

 (NSA). The department also operates several joint
Jointness
Jointness is an expression coined by the US Services to describe cross service cooperation in all stages of the military processes, from research, through procurement and into operations. Today, it is accepted by many advanced militaries including the Israeli Security Forces...

 service schools, including the National War College
National War College
The National War College of the United States is a school in the National Defense University. It is housed in Roosevelt Hall on Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C., the third-oldest Army post still active. It was officially established on July 1, 1946, as an upgraded replacement for the...

.

History



In 1945, specific plans for the proposed DoD were put forth by the Army, the Navy, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Joint Chiefs of Staff is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the President on military matters...

. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of state defense. A proposal went to Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 in April 1946, but was held up by the Naval Affairs Committee
Committee on Naval Affairs
Committee on Naval Affairs may refer to:*United States House Committee on Naval Affairs*United States Senate Committee on Naval Affairs...

hearings in July 1946, which raised objections to the concentration of power in a single department. Truman eventually sent new legislation to Congress in February 1947, where it was debated and amended for several months.

DoD was created in 1947 as the National Military Establishment with a single secretary as its head to preside over the former Department of War
United States Department of the Army
The Department of the Army is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency which the United States Army is organized within, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has...

 (founded in 1789) and Department of the Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

 (founded in 1798; formerly the Board of Admiralty, founded in 1780). The Department of the Air Force was also created as a new service (previously under the War Department as the Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
The United States Army Air Forces was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force....

). DoD was created in order to reduce interservice rivalry
Interservice rivalry
Interservice rivalry is a military term referring to rivalries that can arise between different branches of a country's armed forces, such as between a nation's land forces , naval and air forces. It also applies to the rivalries between a country's intelligence services, Central Intelligence...

, which was believed to have reduced military effectiveness during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

.

On July 26, 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947
National Security Act of 1947
The National Security Act of 1947 was signed by United States President Harry S. Truman on July 26, 1947, and realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II...

, which set up the "National Military Establishment" to begin operations on September 18, the day after the Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense. The Establishment had the unfortunate abbreviation "NME" (with a pronunciation
Pronunciation
Pronunciation refers to the way a word or a language is spoken, or the manner in which someone utters a word. If one is said to have "correct pronunciation", then it refers to both within a particular dialect....

 virtually identical to "enemy
Enemy combatant
Enemy combatant is a term historically referring to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. Prior to 2008, the definition was: "Any person in an armed conflict who could be properly detained under the laws and customs of war." In the case of a civil war or an...

"), and was renamed the "Department of Defense" (also described in the Act under "Title II - The Department of Defense", and later abbreviated as "DoD") on August 10, 1949 -- though the new title was not without its own criticism.

In addition, the Secretary of Defense was given greater authority over three of the branches of the military (Army, Navy, and Air Force). Prior to the creation of the National Military Establishment/Department of Defense, the Armed Forces of the U.S. were separated into different cabinet-level departments without much central authority. The Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 remained as a separate service under the Department of the Navy, and the Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven U.S. uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, military, multi-mission service unique among the military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency...

 was under Department of Transportation, ready to be shifted to the Navy Department during time of declared war (as it was in both world wars).

2000s personnel expansion



To meet the growing demands in the Middle East and around the world, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
Dr. Robert Michael Gates is a retired civil servant and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011. Prior to this, Gates served for 26 years in the Central Intelligence Agency and the National Security Council, and under President George H. W....

 proposed to President George W. Bush to increase the overall size of the military by approximately 92,000 troops over the course of five years. Specifically, the proposal called for an Army troop cap of 550,000 active-duty soldiers and a troop cap of 202,000 active-duty Marines. The total active duty force of the U.S. after the buildup would be about 1,479,000. There are also about 1.1 million reserve troops. There have also been calls to increase the sizes of the other branches of the military to match the increase in the Marines and Army.

Organization


The Department includes the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, as well as non-combat agencies such as the National Security Agency
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency/Central Security Service is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S...

 and the Defense Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
The Defense Intelligence Agency is a member of the Intelligence Community of the United States, and is the central producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense, employing over 16,500 U.S. military and civilian employees worldwide...

, including the NORAD base in Colorado Springs. The DoD's annual budget was roughly US$786 billion in 2007. This figure does not include tens of billions more in supplemental expenditures allotted by Congress throughout the year, particularly for the war in Iraq, or expenditures by the Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

 on nuclear weapons design and testing.

Civilian control
Civilian control of the military
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. One author, paraphrasing Samuel P...

 over matters other than operations is exercised through the three service departments, the Department of the Army
United States Department of the Army
The Department of the Army is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency which the United States Army is organized within, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has...

, the Department of the Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

 (which includes the Marine Corps), and the Department of the Air Force. Each is led by a service secretary, who is below Cabinet
United States Cabinet
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, which are generally the heads of the federal executive departments...

 rank.

In wartime the Department of Defense has authority over the Coast Guard, which is under the control of the Department of Homeland Security
United States Department of Homeland Security
The United States Department of Homeland Security is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the United States and protectorates from and responding to...

 (DHS) in peacetime. Prior to the creation of DHS, the Coast Guard was under the control of the Department of Transportation
United States Department of Transportation
The United States Department of Transportation is a federal Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transportation. It was established by an act of Congress on October 15, 1966, and began operation on April 1, 1967...

, and earlier under the Department of the Treasury. According to the U.S. Code, the Coast Guard is at all times considered one of the five armed services of the United States. During times of declared war (or by Congressional direction), the Coast Guard operates as a part of the Navy; this has not happened since World War II, but members have served in undeclared wars and conflicts since then while the service remained in its peacetime department.

The Pentagon, in Arlington County
Arlington County, Virginia
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia. The land that became Arlington was originally donated by Virginia to the United States government to form part of the new federal capital district. On February 27, 1801, the United States Congress organized the area as a subdivision of...

, Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, across the Potomac River
Potomac River
The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. The river is approximately long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles...

 from Washington, D.C., is the headquarters of the Department of Defense. The Department of Defense is protected by the Pentagon Force Protection Agency
Pentagon Force Protection Agency
The Pentagon Force Protection Agency is a civilian Defense Agency within the Department of Defense charged with protecting and safeguarding the occupants, visitors, and infrastructure of the Pentagon, Navy Annex and other assigned Pentagon facilities.This mission is accomplished with law...

, which ensures law enforcement and security for the Pentagon and various other jurisdictions throughout the National Capital Region (NCR).

Chain of Command



The President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 is, according to the Constitution, the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Armed Forces and Chief Executive of the Federal Government. The Secretary of Defense
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the head and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in other countries...

 is the "Principal Assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense", and is vested with statutory authority to lead the Department of Defense and all of its component agencies, including military command authority second only to the President.

The President and the Secretary of Defense exercise authority and control of the Armed Forces through two distinct branches of the chain of command. One branch runs from the President, through the Secretary of Defense, to the Combatant Commanders
Unified Combatant Command
A Unified Combatant Command is a United States Department of Defense command that is composed of forces from at least two Military Departments and has a broad and continuing mission. These commands are established to provide effective command and control of U.S. military forces, regardless of...

 for missions and forces assigned to their commands. The other branch, used for purposes other than operational direction of forces assigned to the combatant commands, runs from the President through the Secretary of Defense to the Secretaries of the Military Departments, i.e., the Secretary of the Army
United States Secretary of the Army
The Secretary of the Army is a civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States of America with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and...

 , the Secretary of the Navy
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy of the United States of America is the head of the Department of the Navy, a component organization of the Department of Defense...

 , and the Secretary of the Air Force
United States Secretary of the Air Force
The Secretary of the Air Force is the Head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate...

 . The Military Departments, organized separately within the Department of Defense, operate under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of that Military Department. The Secretaries of the Military Departments exercise authority through their respective Service Chiefs (i.e., Chief of Staff of the Army
Chief of Staff of the United States Army
The Chief of Staff of the Army is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army; and is in...

, Chief of Naval Operations
Chief of Naval Operations
The Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy. The office is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy...

, Commandant of the Marine Corps
Commandant of the Marine Corps
The Commandant of the Marine Corps is normally the highest ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff...

, and Chief of Staff of the Air Force
Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the...

) over forces not assigned to a Combatant Command
Unified Combatant Command
A Unified Combatant Command is a United States Department of Defense command that is composed of forces from at least two Military Departments and has a broad and continuing mission. These commands are established to provide effective command and control of U.S. military forces, regardless of...

. The Service Chiefs, except as otherwise prescribed by law, perform their duties under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretaries of their respective Military Departments, to whom they are directly responsible.

In the Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986, Congress clarified the command line to the combatant commanders and preserved civilian control of the military
Civilian control of the military
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers. One author, paraphrasing Samuel P...

. The Act states that the operational chain of command runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense to the Combatant Commanders. The Act permits the President to direct that communications pass through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, and is the principal military adviser to the President of the United States, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council and the Secretary of Defense...

 from the Secretary of Defense, and to the Combatant Commanders. This authority places the Chairman in the communications chain. Further, the Act gives the Secretary of Defense wide latitude to assign the Chairman oversight responsibilities for the activities of the Combatant Commanders.

Civilian control


Article II Section 2 of the Constitution designates the President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 as "Commander in Chief" of the Army, Navy and state militias.
The President exercises this supreme command authority through the civilian Secretary of Defense
United States Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is the head and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in other countries...

, who by federal law is the head of the department, has authority direction, and control over the Department of Defense, and is the principal assistant to the President in all matters relating to the Department of Defense. The Secretary's principal deputy is the equally civilian Deputy Secretary of Defense
United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
The Deputy Secretary of Defense is the second-highest ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Deputy Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate...

 who is delegated full powers to act for the Secretary of Defense. The Office of the Secretary of Defense
Office of the Secretary of Defense
The Office of the Secretary of Defense is a headquarters-level staff of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. It is the principal civilian staff element of the Secretary of Defense, and it assists the Secretary in carrying out authority, direction and control of the Department...

 (OSD) is the Secretary and Deputy Secretary's civilian staff, which includes several Under Secretaries and Assistant Secretaries of Defense with functional oversight responsibilities. The Secretaries of the Military Departments (i.e. Secretary of the Army
United States Secretary of the Army
The Secretary of the Army is a civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States of America with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and...

, Secretary of the Navy
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy of the United States of America is the head of the Department of the Navy, a component organization of the Department of Defense...

, and Secretary of the Air Force
United States Secretary of the Air Force
The Secretary of the Air Force is the Head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate...

) are subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. They have the authority under Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense...

 to conduct all the affairs of their respective departments (Department of the Army
United States Department of the Army
The Department of the Army is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency which the United States Army is organized within, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has...

, Department of the Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

, and Department of the Air Force) within which the military services are organized.

Historically, there have been challenges to civilian control. Most notably, during the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

, General Douglas MacArthur
Douglas MacArthur
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur was an American general and field marshal of the Philippine Army. He was a Chief of Staff of the United States Army during the 1930s and played a prominent role in the Pacific theater during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the...

 ignored civilian instructions regarding advancing troops toward the Yalu River, which triggered an introduction of massive forces from China
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

. Also, on April 5, 1950, Representative
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 Joseph William Martin, Jr.
Joseph William Martin, Jr.
Joseph William Martin, Jr. was a Republican Congressman and Speaker of the House from North Attleborough, Massachusetts. He was notably the only Republican to serve as Speaker between 1931 and 1995....

, the Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives
Minority leader of the United States House of Representatives
The House Minority Leader is one of the party leaders of the United States House of Representatives. This title is currently held by Democratic Representative Nancy Pelosi of California....

, released copies of a letter from MacArthur critical of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman was the 33rd President of the United States . As President Franklin D. Roosevelt's third vice president and the 34th Vice President of the United States , he succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when President Roosevelt died less than three months after beginning his...

's limited-war strategy to the press and read it aloud on the floor of the house. President Truman relieved MacArthur of command, and MacArthur then explored political options against Truman. The Revolt of the Admirals
Revolt of the Admirals
The Revolt of the Admirals is a name given to an episode that took place in the late 1940s in which several United States Navy admirals and high-ranking civilian officials publicly disagreed with the President and the Secretary of Defense's strategy and plans for the military forces in the early...

 is another example in the same era of a challenge to civilian control.

DoD policies and directives protect the policy of civilian control by establishing strict limitations on the political activities of members of the military. For example, DoD Directive 1344.10 prohibits active-duty members of the military from running for office or making political appearances in uniform. However, enforcing this strict separation between the military and politics has been problematic. For example, over the years, many elected officials, including members of Congress, continued serving in the reserves while holding elected office. As another example, at a September 14, 2007, rally for Republican Presidential candidate John McCain in New Hampshire, seven on-duty uniformed Army personnel addressed the gathering. As another example, although DOD Directive 1344.10 prohibits political appearances by active-duty military members in uniform, Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell
Bob McDonnell
Robert Francis "Bob" McDonnell is an American politician who has been the 71st Governor of Virginia since January 2010. A former lieutenant colonel in the United States Army, McDonnell served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1993 to 2006 and served as Attorney General of Virginia from 2006...

 invited a uniformed Army Staff Sergeant to stand behind him during his televised Republican response to the 2010 State of the Union Address
2010 State of the Union Address
The 2010 State of the Union Address was given by United States President Barack Obama on January 27, 2010, to a joint session of Congress. It was aired on all the major networks starting at 9 p.m. ET...

.

Senior Leaders

  • Secretary of Defense
    United States Secretary of Defense
    The Secretary of Defense is the head and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. This position corresponds to what is generally known as a Defense Minister in other countries...

    • Deputy Secretary of Defense
      United States Deputy Secretary of Defense
      The Deputy Secretary of Defense is the second-highest ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Deputy Secretary of Defense is appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate...

      • Deputy Chief Management Officer of the Department of Defense
      • Immediate Office of the Deputy Secretary
      • Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization
        Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization
        The Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization is a joint entity and jointly manned activity of the U.S. Department of Defense established to reduce or eliminate the effects of all forms of improvised explosive devices used against U.S...

    • Executive Secretariat
    • Immediate Office of the Secretary

Office of the Secretary of Defense



Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
  • Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
    Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
    The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

    • Department of Defense Test Resource Management Center
    • Defense Technical Information Center
      Defense Technical Information Center
      The Defense Technical Information Center is the premier repository for research and engineering information for the United States Department of Defense. DTIC's Suite of Services is available to DoD personnel, defense contractors, potential defense contractors, federal government personnel and...

    • Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
      Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
      The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military...

    • Missile Defense Agency
      Missile Defense Agency
      The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States government's Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. The agency has its origins in the Strategic Defense Initiative, which was established in 1983 and was headed by Lt...

    • Defense Contract Management Agency
      Defense Contract Management Agency
      The Defense Contract Management Agency is the agency of the United States federal government responsible for performing contract administration services for the Department of Defense and other authorized federal agencies. Its headquarters is at Fort Lee, Va...

    • Defense Logistics Agency
      Defense Logistics Agency
      The Defense Logistics Agency is an agency in the United States Department of Defense, with more than 26,000 civilian and military personnel throughout the world...

    • Defense Threat Reduction Agency
      Defense Threat Reduction Agency
      The Defense Threat Reduction Agency is an agency within the United States Department of Defense and is the official Combat Support Agency for countering weapons of mass destruction . DTRA's main functions are threat reduction, threat control, combat support, and technology development...

    • Office of Economic Adjustment
      Office of Economic Adjustment
      The Office of Economic Adjustment is the U.S. Department of Defense's primary source for assisting communities that are adversely impacted by Defense program changes, including base closures or realignments, base expansions, and contract or program cancellations...

    • Defense Acquisition University
      Defense Acquisition University
      The Defense Acquisition University is a United States military training establishment that trains and enables the 147,705 military and civilian Department of Defense personnel in the fields of acquisition, technology, and logistics, including leadership, program management and bureaucratic...

    • Operational Test and Evaluation Directorate (DOT&E)

Policy
  • Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
    Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
    The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters...

    • Defense Security Cooperation Agency
      Defense Security Cooperation Agency
      The Defense Security Cooperation Agency , as part of the United States Department of Defense , provides financial and technical assistance, transfer of defense matériel, training and services to allies, and promotes military-to-military contacts....

    • Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee
      Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee
      The Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, also referred to as the Defense Policy Board is a federal advisory committee to the United States Department of Defense. Their charter is available online through the office of the Director of Administration and Management of the Department of Defense...

    • Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office
      Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office
      The Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office , as part of the United States Department of Defense, reports to the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy through the Assistant Secretary of Defense . DPMO provides centralized management of prisoner of war/missing personnel affairs within the...

    • Defense Technology Security Administration
      Defense Technology Security Administration
      The Defense Technology Security Administration is a United States Department of Defense field activity . DTSA creates and enforces Department of Defense technology security policies related to international transfers of defense-related goods, services, and technologies. DTSA authorizes foreign...


Comptroller
  • Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer
    • Defense Contract Audit Agency
      Defense Contract Audit Agency
      The Defense Contract Audit Agency , under the authority, direction, and control of the United States Under Secretary of Defense , is responsible for performing all contract audits for the United States Department of Defense , and providing accounting and financial advisory services regarding...

    • Defense Finance and Accounting Service
      Defense Finance and Accounting Service
      The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is an agency of the United States Department of Defense that provides finance and accounting services for the civil and military members of the Department. Headquartered in Indianapolis, IN, it was activated on Jan. 18, 1991...


Personnel and Readiness
  • Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
    Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
    The Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness, or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the United States Department of Defense responsible for advising the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on recruitment, career development, pay and...

    • Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
      • Department of Defense Education Activity
        Department of Defense Education Activity
        The Department of Defense Education Activity is a civilian agency of the United States Department of Defense that manages all schools for military children and teenagers, as well as foreign service children and teenagers, in the United States and also overseas at American military bases worldwide...

        • Department of Defense Dependents Schools
          Department of Defense Dependents Schools
          The Department of Defense Dependents Schools are a network of schools, both primary and secondary, that serve dependents of United States military - and other non-US - personnel outside the United States. The schools themselves are operated by the Department of Defense Education Activity...

    • Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
      Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
      The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs is chartered under United States Department of Defense Directive 5136.1 in 1994. This DoDD states that the ASD is the principal advisor to the U.S...

      • Military Health System
        • TRICARE Management Activity
    • Defense Commissary Agency
      Defense Commissary Agency
      The Defense Commissary Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense that operates more than 250 commissaries worldwide...

    • Defense Human Resources Activity
      Defense Human Resources Activity
      The Defense Human Resources Activity is a United States Department of Defense Field Activity chartered to support the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness...

    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences is a health science university run by the U.S. federal government. The primary mission of the school is to prepare graduates for service to the U.S. at home and abroad in the medical corps....

    • Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute
      Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute
      The Defense Equal Opportunity Management Institute is a U.S. Department of Defense joint services school located at Patrick Air Force Base, Florida, offering both resident and off-site courses in areas including equal opportunity, intercultural communication, and religious, racial, gender, and...

    • Office of the Chancellor for Education and Professional Development

Intelligence
  • Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
    Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
    The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to intelligence...

    • Defense Intelligence Agency
      Defense Intelligence Agency
      The Defense Intelligence Agency is a member of the Intelligence Community of the United States, and is the central producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense, employing over 16,500 U.S. military and civilian employees worldwide...

    • Defense Security Service
      Defense Security Service
      The Defense Security Service is an agency of the United States Department of Defense . Within areas of DoD responsibility, DSS is tasked with facilitating personnel security investigations, supervising industrial security, and performing security education and awareness training. It is not a...

    • National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
      National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
      The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was formerly known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ...

    • National Reconnaissance Office
      National Reconnaissance Office
      The National Reconnaissance Office , located in Chantilly, Virginia, is one of the 16 U.S. intelligence agencies. It designs, builds, and operates the spy satellites of the United States government.-Mission:...

    • National Security Agency
      National Security Agency
      The National Security Agency/Central Security Service is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S...

  • Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration
    Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration
    The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration provides management and oversight of all DoD information technology, including national security systems...

    • Defense Information Systems Agency
      Defense Information Systems Agency
      The Defense Information Systems Agency is a United States Department of Defense agency that provides information technology and communications support to the President, Vice President, Secretary of Defense, the military Services, and the Combatant Commands.As part of the Base Realignment and...


Other OSD Offices
  • Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs
    Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs
    The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, or ASD is the principal staff advisor and assistant to the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense for public information, internal information, community relations, information training, and audiovisual matters in support of...

    • Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense, Internal Communications
    • Defense Media Activity
      Defense Media Activity
      The Defense Media Activity falls under the Department of Defense and tries to modernize DoD media operations by consolidating military service and DoD media components into a single, integrated and transformed organization.-Divisions:...

  • Director of Administration and Management
    Director of Administration and Management (DoD)
    The Director of Administration and Management, or DA&M, is a position within the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Department of Defense...

    • Pentagon Force Protection Agency
      Pentagon Force Protection Agency
      The Pentagon Force Protection Agency is a civilian Defense Agency within the Department of Defense charged with protecting and safeguarding the occupants, visitors, and infrastructure of the Pentagon, Navy Annex and other assigned Pentagon facilities.This mission is accomplished with law...

    • Washington Headquarters Services
      Washington Headquarters Services
      Washington Headquarters Services was established as a U.S. Department of Defense Field Activity on October 1, 1977 as part of a DoD headquarters streamlining initiative. Approximately 1,300 WHS staff are organized into 7 Directorates and 2 Offices...

  • Director, Program Analysis and Evaluation
    Director, Program Analysis and Evaluation
    The Director of Cost Assessment and Program Evaluation is a principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense in the Office of the Secretary of Defense...

    • Office of Net Assessment
      Office of Net Assessment
      The United States Department of Defense's Office of Net Assessment was created in 1973. The Director of Net Assessment is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on net assessment matters...

  • General Counsel of the Department of Defense
    General Counsel of the Department of Defense
    The General Counsel of the Department of Defense serves as the chief legal officer of the Department of Defense , advising both the Secretary and Deputy Secretary on all legal matters and services, and providing legal advice to OSD organizations and, as appropriate, other DOD components...

    • Defense Legal Services Agency

Defense Agencies



Defense Agencies are established as DoD Components by law, the President, or the Secretary of Defense to provide for the performance, on a DoD-wide basis, of a supply or service activity that is common to more than one Military Department when it is determined to be more effective, economical, or efficient to do so, pursuant to sections 101, 191(a), and 192 of Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense...

 or when a responsibility or function is more appropriately assigned to a Defense Agency. Pursuant to section 191(b) Title 10, such organizations are designated as Defense Agencies. Each Defense Agency operates under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, through a Principal Staff Assistant in the Office of the Secretary of Defense
Office of the Secretary of Defense
The Office of the Secretary of Defense is a headquarters-level staff of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. It is the principal civilian staff element of the Secretary of Defense, and it assists the Secretary in carrying out authority, direction and control of the Department...

.
Seal or Logo Name Acronym Charter Under the Authority of Headquarters
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military...

DARPA DoDD 5134.10 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Arlington, VA
Defense Commissary Agency
Defense Commissary Agency
The Defense Commissary Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense that operates more than 250 commissaries worldwide...

DeCA DoDD 5105.55 Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
The Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness, or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the United States Department of Defense responsible for advising the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on recruitment, career development, pay and...

Fort Lee
Fort Lee
Fort Lee may refer to:* Fort Lee, New Jersey* Battle of Fort Lee was fought on November 19, 1776 between American and British forces.* Fort Lee , a United States Army post...

, VA
Defense Contract Audit Agency
Defense Contract Audit Agency
The Defense Contract Audit Agency , under the authority, direction, and control of the United States Under Secretary of Defense , is responsible for performing all contract audits for the United States Department of Defense , and providing accounting and financial advisory services regarding...

DCAA DoDD 5105.36 Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir is a United States Army installation and a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Originally, it was the site of the Belvoir plantation. Today, Fort Belvoir is home to a number of important United States military organizations...

, VA
Defense Contract Management Agency
Defense Contract Management Agency
The Defense Contract Management Agency is the agency of the United States federal government responsible for performing contract administration services for the Department of Defense and other authorized federal agencies. Its headquarters is at Fort Lee, Va...

DCMA DoDD 5105.64 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Alexandria, VA
Defense Finance and Accounting Service
Defense Finance and Accounting Service
The Defense Finance and Accounting Service is an agency of the United States Department of Defense that provides finance and accounting services for the civil and military members of the Department. Headquartered in Indianapolis, IN, it was activated on Jan. 18, 1991...

DFAS DoDD 5118.5 Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) Arlington, VA
Defense Information Systems Agency
Defense Information Systems Agency
The Defense Information Systems Agency is a United States Department of Defense agency that provides information technology and communications support to the President, Vice President, Secretary of Defense, the military Services, and the Combatant Commands.As part of the Base Realignment and...

DISA DoDD 5105.19 Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks & Information Integration provides management and oversight of all DoD information technology, including national security systems...

Arlington, VA
Defense Intelligence Agency
Defense Intelligence Agency
The Defense Intelligence Agency is a member of the Intelligence Community of the United States, and is the central producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense, employing over 16,500 U.S. military and civilian employees worldwide...

DIA DoDD 5105.21 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to intelligence...

The Pentagon
Defense Legal Services Agency DLSA DoDD 5145.4 General Counsel of the Department of Defense
General Counsel of the Department of Defense
The General Counsel of the Department of Defense serves as the chief legal officer of the Department of Defense , advising both the Secretary and Deputy Secretary on all legal matters and services, and providing legal advice to OSD organizations and, as appropriate, other DOD components...

The Pentagon
Defense Logistics Agency
Defense Logistics Agency
The Defense Logistics Agency is an agency in the United States Department of Defense, with more than 26,000 civilian and military personnel throughout the world...

DLA DoDD 5105.22 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir is a United States Army installation and a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Originally, it was the site of the Belvoir plantation. Today, Fort Belvoir is home to a number of important United States military organizations...

, VA
Defense Security Cooperation Agency
Defense Security Cooperation Agency
The Defense Security Cooperation Agency , as part of the United States Department of Defense , provides financial and technical assistance, transfer of defense matériel, training and services to allies, and promotes military-to-military contacts....

DSCA DoDD 5105.65 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters...

The Pentagon
Defense Security Service
Defense Security Service
The Defense Security Service is an agency of the United States Department of Defense . Within areas of DoD responsibility, DSS is tasked with facilitating personnel security investigations, supervising industrial security, and performing security education and awareness training. It is not a...

DSS DoDD 5105.42 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to intelligence...

Alexandria, VA
Defense Threat Reduction Agency
Defense Threat Reduction Agency
The Defense Threat Reduction Agency is an agency within the United States Department of Defense and is the official Combat Support Agency for countering weapons of mass destruction . DTRA's main functions are threat reduction, threat control, combat support, and technology development...

DTRA DoDD 5105.62 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir is a United States Army installation and a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Originally, it was the site of the Belvoir plantation. Today, Fort Belvoir is home to a number of important United States military organizations...

, VA
Missile Defense Agency
Missile Defense Agency
The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States government's Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. The agency has its origins in the Strategic Defense Initiative, which was established in 1983 and was headed by Lt...

MDA DoDD 5134.9 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

The Pentagon
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing and distributing geospatial intelligence in support of national security. NGA was formerly known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency ...

NGA DoDD 5105.60 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to intelligence...

Springfield, VA
National Reconnaissance Office
National Reconnaissance Office
The National Reconnaissance Office , located in Chantilly, Virginia, is one of the 16 U.S. intelligence agencies. It designs, builds, and operates the spy satellites of the United States government.-Mission:...

NRO DoDD 5105.23 (classified) Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to intelligence...

Chantilly, VA

National Security Agency
National Security Agency
The National Security Agency/Central Security Service is a cryptologic intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting U.S...


Central Security Service
Central Security Service
The Central Security Service is an agency of the United States Department of Defense, established in 1972 by a Presidential Directive to promote full partnership between the National Security Agency and the Service Cryptologic Elements of the United States Armed Forces.-Organization:The blue...

NSA/CSS DoDD 5100.20 Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence
The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to intelligence...

Fort George G. Meade
Fort George G. Meade
Fort George G. Meade is a United States Army installation that includes the Defense Information School, the United States Army Field Band, and the headquarters of United States Cyber Command, the National Security Agency, and the Defense Courier Service...

, MD
Pentagon Force Protection Agency
Pentagon Force Protection Agency
The Pentagon Force Protection Agency is a civilian Defense Agency within the Department of Defense charged with protecting and safeguarding the occupants, visitors, and infrastructure of the Pentagon, Navy Annex and other assigned Pentagon facilities.This mission is accomplished with law...

PFPA DoDD 5105.68 Director of Administration and Management
Director of Administration and Management (DoD)
The Director of Administration and Management, or DA&M, is a position within the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Department of Defense...

The Pentagon

Department of Defense Field Activities


Department of Defense Field Activities are established as DoD Components by law, the President, or the Secretary of Defense to provide for the performance, on a DoD-wide basis, of a supply or service activity that is common to more than one Military Department when it is determined to be more effective, economical, or efficient to do so, pursuant to sections 101, 191(a), and 192 of Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code
Title 10 of the United States Code outlines the role of armed forces in the United States Code.It provides the legal basis for the roles, missions and organization of each of the services as well as the United States Department of Defense...

. Pursuant to section 191(b) of Title 10, such organizations are designated as DoD Field Activities. Each DoD Field Activity operates under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretary of Defense, through a Principa Staff Assistant in the Office of the Secretary of Defense
Office of the Secretary of Defense
The Office of the Secretary of Defense is a headquarters-level staff of the Department of Defense of the United States of America. It is the principal civilian staff element of the Secretary of Defense, and it assists the Secretary in carrying out authority, direction and control of the Department...

.
Seal or Logo Name Acronym Charter Under the Authority of Headquarters
Defense Media Activity
Defense Media Activity
The Defense Media Activity falls under the Department of Defense and tries to modernize DoD media operations by consolidating military service and DoD media components into a single, integrated and transformed organization.-Divisions:...

DMA DoDD 5105.74 Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, or ASD is the principal staff advisor and assistant to the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense for public information, internal information, community relations, information training, and audiovisual matters in support of...

Alexandira, VA
Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office
Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office
The Defense Prisoner of War/Missing Personnel Office , as part of the United States Department of Defense, reports to the Undersecretary of Defense for Policy through the Assistant Secretary of Defense . DPMO provides centralized management of prisoner of war/missing personnel affairs within the...

DPMO DoDD 5110.10 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters...

The Pentagon
Defense Technical Information Center
Defense Technical Information Center
The Defense Technical Information Center is the premier repository for research and engineering information for the United States Department of Defense. DTIC's Suite of Services is available to DoD personnel, defense contractors, potential defense contractors, federal government personnel and...

DTIC DoDD 5105.73 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir
Fort Belvoir is a United States Army installation and a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. Originally, it was the site of the Belvoir plantation. Today, Fort Belvoir is home to a number of important United States military organizations...

, VA
Defense Technology Security Administration
Defense Technology Security Administration
The Defense Technology Security Administration is a United States Department of Defense field activity . DTSA creates and enforces Department of Defense technology security policies related to international transfers of defense-related goods, services, and technologies. DTSA authorizes foreign...

DTSA DoDD 5105.72 Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
Under Secretary of Defense for Policy
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters...

The Pentagon
Department of Defense Education Activity
Department of Defense Education Activity
The Department of Defense Education Activity is a civilian agency of the United States Department of Defense that manages all schools for military children and teenagers, as well as foreign service children and teenagers, in the United States and also overseas at American military bases worldwide...

DoDEA DoDD 1342.20 Principal Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness Arlington, VA
Department of Defense Human Resources Activity DoDHRA DoDD 5100.87 Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness
The Under Secretary for Personnel and Readiness, or USD is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the United States Department of Defense responsible for advising the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on recruitment, career development, pay and...

Arlington, VA
Department of Defense Test Resource Management Center TRMC DoDD 5105.71 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Office of Economic Adjustment
Office of Economic Adjustment
The Office of Economic Adjustment is the U.S. Department of Defense's primary source for assisting communities that are adversely impacted by Defense program changes, including base closures or realignments, base expansions, and contract or program cancellations...

OEA DoDD 3030.01 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics - USD - is a senior official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense of the United States of America...

Arlington, VA
TRICARE Management Activity TMA DoDD 5136.12 Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs
The Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs is chartered under United States Department of Defense Directive 5136.1 in 1994. This DoDD states that the ASD is the principal advisor to the U.S...

Falls Church, VA
Washington Headquarters Services
Washington Headquarters Services
Washington Headquarters Services was established as a U.S. Department of Defense Field Activity on October 1, 1977 as part of a DoD headquarters streamlining initiative. Approximately 1,300 WHS staff are organized into 7 Directorates and 2 Offices...

WHS DoDD 5110.4 Director of Administration and Management
Director of Administration and Management (DoD)
The Director of Administration and Management, or DA&M, is a position within the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Department of Defense...

The Pentagon

Department of the Army

The Department of the Army
United States Department of the Army
The Department of the Army is one of the three military departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Army is the Federal Government agency which the United States Army is organized within, and it is led by the Secretary of the Army who has...

 includes all elements of the U.S. Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

  • Secretary of the Army
    United States Secretary of the Army
    The Secretary of the Army is a civilian official within the Department of Defense of the United States of America with statutory responsibility for all matters relating to the United States Army: manpower, personnel, reserve affairs, installations, environmental issues, weapons systems and...


Headquarters, Department of the Army
  • Office of the Secretary of the Army
    • Under Secretary of the Army
      United States Under Secretary of the Army
      The United States Under Secretary of the Army is the second-highest ranking civilian official of the United States Department of the Army, serving directly under the United States Secretary of the Army...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Army (Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology)
        United States Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology
        The Office of the United States Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology is known as OASA...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works)
        Assistant Secretary of the Army (Civil Works)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Army , abbreviated ASA, is an office of the United States Department of the Army responsible for overseeing the civil functions of the United States Army...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller)
        Assistant Secretary of the Army (Financial Management and Comptroller)
        Assistant Secretary of the Army is a civilian office in the United States Department of the Army.-History and Mission:...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Energy and Environment)
        Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Energy and Environment)
        Assistant Secretary of the Army is a civilian office in the United States Department of the Army....

      • Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)
        Assistant Secretary of the Army (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Army — abbreviated ASA — is a civilian official in the United States Department of the Army.U.S...

      • General Counsel of the Army
        General Counsel of the Army
        The General Counsel of the Army is the General Counsel of the United States Department of the Army and the chief legal counselor of the United States Secretary of the Army...

      • Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army
        Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army
        The Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army has a primary mission, as specified in Title 10 of the United States Code and reiterated in General Orders #3 and Regulations, to provide direct support to the Secretary of the Army, the Under Secretary of the Army and other...

      • Inspector General of the Army
  • The Army Staff
    • Chief of Staff of the Army
      Chief of Staff of the United States Army
      The Chief of Staff of the Army is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Army, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army; and is in...

      • Vice Chief of Staff of the Army
        Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army
        The Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Army is the principal advisor and assistant to the Army Chief of Staff, the second-highest ranking officer in the US Army. He handles the day to day administration of the Army bureaucracy, freeing the Chief of Staff to attend to the interservice...

      • Sergeant Major of the Army
        Sergeant Major of the Army
        The Sergeant Major of the Army is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Army. The holder of this rank is the most senior enlisted member of the Army, unless an Army NCO is serving as the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman, when in that case that NCO will be the most senior...

      • Director of the Army Staff
        • Judge Advocate General of the Army
        • Provost Marshal General
          United States Army Provost Marshal General
          The Provost Marshal General is a United States Army staff position that handles investigations and incarcerations of U.S. Army personnel. It is the senior-most Provost Marshal position in the U.S. Army, reporting to the Chief of Staff of the United States Army. The position brings all aspects of...

          • United States Army Criminal Investigation Command

Army Field Organizations

(See Structure of the United States Army
Structure of the United States Army
The Structure of the United States Army is complex, and able to be seen in several different ways: active/reserve, operational/administrative, and headquarters/field....

)
  • Army Commands
  • Army Component Commands
  • Field Operating Agencies
  • Direct Reporting Units
  • United States Army Corps of Engineers
    United States Army Corps of Engineers
    The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 38,000 civilian and military personnel, making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency...


Department of the Navy

The Department of the Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

 includes all elements of the U.S. Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 and the U.S. Marine Corps
  • Secretary of the Navy
    United States Secretary of the Navy
    The Secretary of the Navy of the United States of America is the head of the Department of the Navy, a component organization of the Department of Defense...


Navy Department
  • Office of the Secretary of the Navy
    • Under Secretary of the Navy
      Under Secretary of the Navy
      The Under Secretary of the Navy is the second-highest ranking civilian official in the United States Department of the Navy. The Under Secretary, called the "Under" in Pentagon slang, reports to the Secretary of the Navy ....

      • Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Financial Management and Comptroller)
        Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Financial Management and Comptroller)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Navy is a civilian office of the United States Department of the Navy...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment)
        Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Installations and Environment)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Navy is a civilian office in the United States Navy established in 1990...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)
        Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Navy is a civilian office in the United States Department of the Navy...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisitions)
        Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Research, Development and Acquisitions)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Navy is a civilian office of the United States Department of the Navy...

      • General Counsel of the Navy
        General Counsel of the Navy
        The General Counsel of the Department of the Navy is the senior civilian lawyer in the United States Department of the Navy and is the senior legal adviser to the Secretary of the Navy. The Office of the General Counsel of the Navy provides legal advice to the Secretary, the Under Secretary of the...

        • Naval Criminal Investigative Service
          Naval Criminal Investigative Service
          The United States Naval Criminal Investigative Service is the primary security, counter-intelligence, counter-terrorism, and law enforcement agency of the United States Department of the Navy...

      • Judge Advocate General of the Navy
        Judge Advocate General of the Navy
        The Judge Advocate General of the Navy is the highest ranking uniformed lawyer in the United States Department of the Navy. The Judge Advocate General is the principal advisor to the Secretary of the Navy and the Chief of Naval Operations on legal matters pertaining to the Navy...

      • Naval Inspector General
      • Assistant for Administration to the Secretary of the Navy
  • Office of the Chief of Naval Operations
    • Chief of Naval Operations
      Chief of Naval Operations
      The Chief of Naval Operations is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy. The office is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy...

      • Vice Chief of Naval Operations
        Vice Chief of Naval Operations
        The Vice Chief of Naval Operations is the second highest ranking officer in the United States Navy. In the event that the Chief of Naval Operations is absent or is unable to perform his duties, the VCNO assumes the duties and responsibilities of the CNO. The VCNO may also perform other duties...

      • Director of Naval Reactors
        Naval Reactors
        Naval Reactors is an umbrella term for the U.S. government office that has comprehensive responsibility for the continued safe and reliable operation of the United States Navy's nuclear propulsion program and thus for United States Naval reactors...

      • Director of the Navy Staff
      • Chief of Naval Personnel
        Chief of Naval Personnel
        The Chief of Naval Personnel is responsible for overall manpower readiness for the United States Navy. The CNP also serves as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations and is one of four Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations, with the identification of N1/NT...

        • Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy
          Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy
          The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Navy, which has a paygrade of E-9. The holder of this rank and post is the most senior enlisted member of the U.S...

  • Headquarters Marine Corps
    Headquarters Marine Corps
    Headquarters Marine Corps is a headquarters staff within the Department of the Navy which includes the offices of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and various staff functions...

    • Commandant of the Marine Corps
      Commandant of the Marine Corps
      The Commandant of the Marine Corps is normally the highest ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff...

      • Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps
        Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps
        The Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps is the second highest ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps, and serves as a deputy for the Commandant of the Marine Corps...

      • Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
        Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
        Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is a unique non-commissioned rank and billet in the United States Marine Corps....

      • Director of the Marine Corps Staff

Marine Corps Field Organizations

(See Organization of the United States Marine Corps
Organization of the United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is organized within the Department of the Navy, which is led by the Secretary of the Navy . The most senior Marine officer is the Commandant of the Marine Corps, responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Marine Corps so that it is ready for...

)
  • Operating Forces
  • Support Establishment
  • Marine Forces Reserve
    United States Marine Corps Reserve
    The Marine Forces Reserve is the reserve force of the United States Marine Corps. It is the largest command in the U.S...


Navy Field Organizations

(See Structure of the United States Navy)
  • Operating Forces
  • Shore Establishment

Department of the Air Force

The Department of the Air Force includes all elements of the U.S. Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

  • Secretary of the Air Force
    United States Secretary of the Air Force
    The Secretary of the Air Force is the Head of the Department of the Air Force, a component organization within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate...


Headquarters Air Force
  • Office of the Secretary of the Air Force
    • Under Secretary of the Air Force
      United States Under Secretary of the Air Force
      The Under Secretary of the Air Force is the second-highest ranking civilian official in the Department of the Air Force of the United States of America, serving directly under the Secretary of the Air Force...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition)
        Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Acquisition)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force is a civilian office in the United States Department of the Air Force....

      • Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Financial Management & Comptroller)
        Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Financial Management & Comptroller)
        The Assistant Secretary of the Air Force is a civilian official in the United States Department of the Air Force.- Responsibilities :According to U.S...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations, Environment & Logistics)
        Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Installations, Environment & Logistics)
        Assistant Secretary of the Air Force is the title of a civilian office in the United States Department of the Air Force...

      • Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Manpower & Reserve Affairs)
        Assistant Secretary of the Air Force (Manpower & Reserve Affairs)
        Assistant Secretary of the Air Force is the title of a civilian office in the United States Department of the Air Force...

      • General Counsel of the Air Force
        General Counsel of the Air Force
        The General Counsel of the Air Force is the general counsel of the United States Department of the Air Force.By U.S. law, the General Counsel of the Air Force is appointed from civilian life by the President of the United States upon the advice and consent of the United States Senate...

      • Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Air Force
      • Inspector General of the Air Force
        • Air Force Office of Special Investigations
          Air Force Office of Special Investigations
          The Air Force Office of Special Investigations , is a Field Operating Agency of the United States Air Force that provides professional investigative services to commanders throughout the Air Force...

  • The Air Staff
    • Chief of Staff of the Air Force
      Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force
      The Chief of Staff of the Air Force is a statutory office held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the...

      • Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force
        Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force
        The Vice Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force is the second highest ranking military officer in the United States Air Force. In the event that the Chief of Staff of the Air Force is absent or is unable to perform his duties, the VCSAF assumes the duties and responsibilities of the CSAF...

      • Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
        Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force
        The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Air Force. The holder of this rank and post represents the highest enlisted level of leadership in the Air Force, and as such, provides direction for the enlisted corps and represents their interests,...

      • Assistant Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force
        • Judge Advocate General of the Air Force

Air Force Field Organizations
  • Major Commands
  • Direct Reporting Unit
    Direct Reporting Unit
    A Direct Reporting Unit is an agency of the United States Department of the Air Force that is outside the bounds of the standard organizational hierarchy by being exclusively and uniquely under the control of Air Force headquarters alone, rather than reporting through a Major Command...

    s
  • Field Operating Agencies

Organization of the Joint Chiefs of Staff

  • Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
    Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
    The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the highest ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, and is the principal military adviser to the President of the United States, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council and the Secretary of Defense...

    • Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
      Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
      The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is by law the second highest ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces ranking just below the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff...

      • Joint Requirements Oversight Council
        Joint Requirements Oversight Council
        Part of the United States Department of Defense acquisition process, the Joint Requirements Oversight Council reviews programs designated as JROC interest and supports the acquisition review process in accordance with law...

    • Joint Chiefs of Staff
      Joint Chiefs of Staff
      The Joint Chiefs of Staff is a body of senior uniformed leaders in the United States Department of Defense who advise the Secretary of Defense, the Homeland Security Council, the National Security Council and the President on military matters...

    • The Joint Staff
      • Director of the Joint Staff
        Director of the Joint Staff
        The Director of the Joint Staff is a three-star officer who assists the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff with the management of the Joint Staff, an organization composed of approximately equal numbers of officers contributed by the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, who have been...

        • DOM- Directorate of Management
        • J1 - Personnel and Manpower
        • J2 - Intelligence
        • J3 - Operations
          • National Military Command Center
            National Military Command Center
            Located in the Pentagon, the National Military Command Center houses the logistical and communications center for the National Command Authority of the United States of America. The facility, which is composed of several war rooms, is the principal command and control center of the Department of...

          • Alternate National Military Command Center
          • National Airborne Operations Center
        • J4 - Logistics
        • J5 - Strategic Plans and Policy
        • J6 - Command, Control, Communications and Computer Systems
        • J7 - Operational Plans and Joint Force Development
        • J8 - Force Structure, Resources, and Assessment
    • National Defense University
      National Defense University
      The National Defense University is an institution of higher education funded by the United States Department of Defense, intended to facilitate high-level training, education, and the development of national security strategy. It is chartered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, with Navy Vice Admiral...

      • College of International Security Affairs
      • Industrial College of the Armed Forces
        Industrial College of the Armed Forces
        The Industrial College of the Armed Forces is a U.S. military educational institution tasked with preparing military officers and civilian government officials for leadership and executive positions in the field of national security...

      • Information Resources Management College
        Information Resources Management College
        The Information Resources Management College is a group of educators working to inform leaders of the United States from the government and the private sector. A unit of the National Defense University , it is located at Fort McNair, Washington, DC...

      • Joint Forces Staff College
        Joint Forces Staff College
        The Joint Forces Staff College located in Norfolk, Virginia, was established as the Armed Forces Staff College in 1946 and incorporated into the National Defense University in August 1981. It educates and acculturates joint and multinational warfighters to plan and lead at the operational level...

      • National War College
        National War College
        The National War College of the United States is a school in the National Defense University. It is housed in Roosevelt Hall on Fort Lesley J. McNair, Washington, D.C., the third-oldest Army post still active. It was officially established on July 1, 1946, as an upgraded replacement for the...

    • U.S. Delegation to the Inter-American Defense Board
      Inter-American Defense Board
      The Inter-American Defense Board is an international committee of nationally appointed defense officials who develop collaborative approaches on common defense and security issues facing countries in North, Central, and South America...

    • U.S. Delegation to the United Nations
      United Nations
      The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

       Military Staff Committee
      Military Staff Committee
      The Military Staff Committee is the United Nations Security Council subsidiary body whose role, as defined by the United Nations Charter, is to plan UN military operations and assist in the regulation of armaments....

    • U.S. Representative at the NATO Military Committee
    • U.S. Section, Joint Mexico-U.S. Defense Commission

Unified Combatant Commands


There are nine Unified Combatant Command
Unified Combatant Command
A Unified Combatant Command is a United States Department of Defense command that is composed of forces from at least two Military Departments and has a broad and continuing mission. These commands are established to provide effective command and control of U.S. military forces, regardless of...

s; six regional and three functional. United States Africa Command became initially operational in October 2007, while Joint Forces Command
United States Joint Forces Command
United States Joint Forces Command was a former Unified Combatant Command of the United States Armed Forces. USJFCOM was a functional command that provided specific services to the military. The last commander was Army Gen. Raymond T. Odierno...

 was officially disestablished on August 4, 2011.
Seal Name Acronym Headquarters Area of Responsibility Other Role of CCDR
United States Africa Command
United States Africa Command
The United States Africa Command is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations and military relations with 53 African nations – an area of responsibility covering all...

AFRICOM Kelley Barracks
Kelley Barracks
thumb|U.S. Africa Command HQ.Kelley Barracks is a U.S. military installation in Stuttgart-Möhringen in Germany.Located ten miles southeast of Stuttgart, Kelley Barracks was built in 1938 and was known by the German Army as Hellenen Kaserne. Shortly after the end of World War II it was renamed in...

, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

, Germany; to be relocated to African continent or other location TBD
Africa excluding Egypt
United States Central Command
United States Central Command
The United States Central Command is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command unit of the U.S. armed forces, established in 1983 under the operational control of the U.S. Secretary of Defense...

CENTCOM MacDill Air Force Base
MacDill Air Force Base
MacDill Air Force Base is an active United States Air Force base located approximately south-southwest of downtown Tampa, Florida...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 through the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 region, into Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

United States European Command
United States European Command
The United States European Command is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. Its area of focus covers and 51 countries and territories, including Europe, Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and Israel...

EUCOM Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

Europe, including Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, and Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

Also Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR)
United States Northern Command
United States Northern Command
United States Northern Command is a Unified Combatant Command of the United States military. Created on 1 October 2002 in the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 attacks, its mission is to protect the United States homeland and support local, state, and federal authorities...

NORTHCOM Peterson Air Force Base
Peterson Air Force Base
Peterson Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force located at Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States and it provides runways for the adjacent City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport under a shared joint civil-military airport arrangement...

, Colorado
Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

North American homeland defense
Homeland defense
Homeland defense is the protection of U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression....

 and coordinating homeland defense with federal and state civil authorities.
Also Commander of North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command
North American Aerospace Defense Command is a joint organization of Canada and the United States that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and defense for the two countries. Headquarters NORAD is located at Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs, Colorado...

 (NORAD)
(bilateral
Bilateral
Bilateral may refer to any concept including two sides, in particular:*Bilateralism, the political and cultural relations between two states*Bilateral symmetry, symmetry between two sides of an organism...

 U.S.-Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 military command)
United States Pacific Command
United States Pacific Command
The United States Pacific Command is a Unified Combatant Command of the United States armed forces responsible for the Pacific Ocean area. It is led by the Commander, Pacific Command , who is the supreme military authority for the various branches of the Armed Forces of the United States serving...

PACOM Camp H. M. Smith
Camp H. M. Smith
Camp H. M. Smith is a United States Marine Corps installation in the Hawaiian town of Aiea on the island of Oahu, near the community of Halawa Heights...

, Oahu
Oahu
Oahu or Oahu , known as "The Gathering Place", is the third largest of the Hawaiian Islands and most populous of the islands in the U.S. state of Hawaii. The state capital Honolulu is located on the southeast coast...

, Hawaii
The Asia-Pacific region including Hawaii.
United States Southern Command
United States Southern Command
The United States Southern Command , located in Miami, Florida, is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands in the United States Department of Defense. It is responsible for providing contingency planning and operations in Central and South America, the Caribbean The United States Southern Command...

SOUTHCOM Miami, Florida
Miami, Florida
Miami is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625...

South
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

, Central America and the surrounding waters
U.S. Special Operations Command
United States Special Operations Command
The United States Special Operations Command is the Unified Combatant Command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Commands of the Army, Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps of the United States Armed Forces. The command is part of the Department of Defense...

SOCOM MacDill Air Force Base
MacDill Air Force Base
MacDill Air Force Base is an active United States Air Force base located approximately south-southwest of downtown Tampa, Florida...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

Provides special operations for the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marine Corps.
United States Strategic Command
United States Strategic Command
United States Strategic Command is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Department of Defense . The Command, including components, employs more than 2,700 people, representing all four services, including DoD civilians and contractors, who oversee the command's operationally...

STRATCOM Offutt Air Force Base
Offutt Air Force Base
Offutt Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force installation near Omaha, and lies adjacent to Bellevue in Sarpy County, Nebraska. It is the headquarters of the U.S...

, Nebraska
Nebraska
Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

Covers the strategic deterrent force and coordinates the use of space assets.
United States Transportation Command
United States Transportation Command
The United States Transportation Command is one of nine unified commands of the United States Department of Defense. The mission of USTRANSCOM is to provide air, land and sea transportation for the Department of Defense, both in time of peace and time of war.USTRANSCOM, located at Scott Air Force...

TRANSCOM Scott Air Force Base
Scott Air Force Base
Scott Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force in St. Clair County, Illinois, near Belleville.-Overview:The base is named after Corporal Frank S. Scott, the first enlisted person to be killed in an aviation crash...

, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

Covers global mobility of all military assets for all regional commands.





The Geographic Commands


In 2007, a new geographical command for Africa
United States Africa Command
The United States Africa Command is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations and military relations with 53 African nations – an area of responsibility covering all...

 was authorized. This proposed significant changes to the areas of responsibility for other adjacent geographical commands as shown in the accompanying graphic.

Office of the Inspector General of the Department of Defense



The Office of the Inspector General is an independent and objective unit within the Department of Defense that conducts and supervises audits and investigations relating to the programs and operations of the Department of Defense, pursuant to the responsibilities specified in title 5, U.S.C. Appendix and DoDD 5106.01.
  • Inspector General of the Department of Defense
    Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense
    The Department of Defense Inspector General is an independent, objective agency that provides oversight related to the programs and operations of the Department of Defense...

    • Defense Criminal Investigative Service
      Defense Criminal Investigative Service
      The Defense Criminal Investigative Service is the criminal investigative arm of the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense...


National Guard Bureau



The National Guard Bureau (NGB) is a joint activity of the Department of Defense. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau is a principal advisor to the Secretary of Defense, through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, on matters involving non-federalized National Guard forces, and other matters as determined by the Secretary of Defense. For NGB matters pertaining to the responsibilities of the Departments of the Army and Air Force in law or DoD policy, the Secretary of Defense normally exercises authority, direction, and control over the NGB through the Secretaries of the Army and the Air Force. The NGB is the focal point at the strategic level for National Guard matters that are not under the authority, direction, and control of the Secretaries of the Army or Air Force, including joint, interagency, and intergovernmental matters where the NGB acts through other DoD officials as specified in DoDD 5105.77.
  • Chief of the National Guard Bureau
    Chief of the National Guard Bureau
    The Chief of the National Guard Bureau is the head of the National Guard Bureau, which is a joint activity of the Department of Defense , and is the highest ranking officer in the National Guard and the National Guard of the United States ; the latter of which is a joint reserve component of the...


Other


The United States Naval Observatory
United States Naval Observatory
The United States Naval Observatory is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation, and Timing for the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Department of Defense...

 falls under the Chief of Naval Operations. In 2003 the National Communications System
National Communications System
The National Communications System is an office within the United States Department of Homeland Security charged with enabling national security and emergency preparedness communications using the national telecommunications system.-Background and history:The genesis of the NCS began in 1962...

 was moved to the Department of Homeland Security, but only for executive purposes; it still centralizes its activities within the Department of Defense, since the human resources required by NCS (example: Military Departments) still reside within the Department of Defense, or for retention of practical maintenance.

Expenditures




In the 2010 United States federal budget
2010 United States federal budget
The United States Federal Budget for Fiscal Year 2010, titled A New Era of Responsibility: Renewing America's Promise, is a spending request by President Barack Obama to fund government operations for October 2009–September 2010...

, entitled "A New Era of Responsibility," the DoD was allocated a base budget of $533.7 billion, with a further $75.5 billion adjustment in respect of 2009, and $130 billion for overseas contingencies. The subsequent 2010 DoD Financial Report shows DoD total budgetary resources for fiscal year 2010 were $1.2 trillion. Of these resources, $1.1 trillion were obligated and $994 billion were disbursed, with the remaining resources relating to multi-year modernization projects requiring additional time to procure.

Budgeted DoD expenditure for 2009 represented approximately 43% of global military spending, the U.S. ranking second in terms of per capita military spending behind the United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, abbreviated as the UAE, or shortened to "the Emirates", is a state situated in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman, and Saudi Arabia, and sharing sea borders with Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and Iran.The UAE is a...

. In FY 2010 DoD budgeted spending accounted for 21% of the U.S. Federal Budget, and 53% of federal discretionary spending
Discretionary spending
Discretionary spending is a spending category through which governments can spend through an appropriations act. This spending is optional as part of fiscal policy, in contrast to entitlement programs for which funding is mandatory....

, which represents funds not accounted for by pre-existing obligations.

As a percentage of its GDP, the U.S. spent 3% of GDP on military in the year 2000, ranking it 28th in the world. Budgeted 2010 expenditure (including the Global War on Terror supplemental) had risen to 4.5 % of Assumed Nominal GDP.

GAO audits


On February 26, 2002, the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense
Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense
The Department of Defense Inspector General is an independent, objective agency that provides oversight related to the programs and operations of the Department of Defense...

 has reported that DoD has not and will not account for $1.1 trillion of "unsupported accounting entries." In addition, there have been several high-profile Government Accountability Office
Government Accountability Office
The Government Accountability Office is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. It is located in the legislative branch of the United States government.-History:...

 (GAO) investigations of the Department of Defense
Government Accountability Office investigations of the Department of Defense
Government Accountability Office investigations of the Department of Defense are typically audits in which the Government Accountability Office , the United States Congress’ investigative arm, studies how the Department of Defense spends taxpayer dollars...

.

The Government Accountability Office
Government Accountability Office
The Government Accountability Office is the audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of the United States Congress. It is located in the legislative branch of the United States government.-History:...

 was unable to provide an audit opinion on the 2010 financial statements of the U.S. government because of "widespread material internal control weaknesses, significant uncertainties, and other limitations." The GAO cited as the principal obstacle to its provision of an audit opinion "serious financial management problems at the Department of Defense that made its financial statements unauditable."

In Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, six out of 33 DoD reporting entities received unqualified audit opinions.

Under Secretary of Defense
Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)
The Under Secretary of Defense is the Chief Financial Officer of the United States Department of Defense. The responsibilities of the Department of Defense's Chief Financial Officer include developing and implementing Department of Defense-wide financial policy, financial management systems, and...

 Robert F. Hale
Robert F. Hale
Robert F. Hale is the United States Under Secretary of Defense and former Assistant Secretary of the Air Force . Hale has over thirty years of experience as a professional financial manager serving in a wide range of national defense related roles...

 acknowledged enterprise-wide problems with systems and processes, while the DoD's Inspector General
Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense
The Department of Defense Inspector General is an independent, objective agency that provides oversight related to the programs and operations of the Department of Defense...

 reported "material internal control weaknesses ... that affect the safeguarding of assets, proper use of funds, and impair the prevention and identification of fraud, waste, and abuse." Further management discussion in the FY 2010 DoD Financial Report states "it is not feasible to deploy a vast number of accountants to manually reconcile our books" and concludes that "although the financial statements are not auditable for FY 2010, the Department's financial managers are meeting warfighter needs."

In addition to FY 2010, the Department of Defense's financial statements were either unauditable or such that no audit opinion could be expressed for FYs 2009-1998.

Reform


In a statement of 6 January 2011 Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates stated: "This department simply cannot risk continuing down the same path - where our investment priorities, bureaucratic habits and lax attitude towards costs are increasingly divorced from the real threats of today, the growing perils of tomorrow and the nation's grim financial outlook." Gates has proposed a budget which, if approved by the Congress, would reduce the costs of many DOD programs and policies, including reports, the IT infrastructure, fuel, weapon programs, DOD bureaucracies, and personnel.

The GAO is also interested in ways DoD can partner with other government agencies to save money and create efficiencies. One way was through use of the Veterans Administration
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. It is the United States government’s second largest department, after the United States Department of Defense...

's Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy
Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy
The Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy initiative of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs provides mail order prescriptions to veterans using facilities with highly automated distribution systems at strategic locations throughout the country.- History :During the 1970s and 1980s,...

 (CMOP) program. The CMOP fills continuation of therapy or refill prescriptions only. Initial prescriptions are written for veterans at one of the Veteran Administration’s health care facilities. When a refill is needed, the health care facilities process the prescriptions. The CMOP then uploads this information from multiple facilities in its region. Once filled, the United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service
The United States Postal Service is an independent agency of the United States government responsible for providing postal service in the United States...

 (USPS) delivers the prescriptions. The health care facility or clinic is notified of the prescription’s completion electronically. As of 2000, the annual workload was near 50 million prescriptions. Processing and filling prescriptions took two days; three more days were required for mail delivery.

The DoD and VA conducted a pilot program in FY 2003. In its 2005 report, GAO-05-555, the GAO found that the DOD could generate savings because CMOP's size allows it to negotiate volume discounts. The CMOP program is now serving the entire country from a number of locations including West Los Angeles, California; Bedford, Massachusetts
Bedford, Massachusetts
Bedford is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is within the Greater Boston area, north-west of the city of Boston. The population of Bedford was 13,320 at the 2010 census.- History :...

; Dallas, Texas
Dallas, Texas
Dallas is the third-largest city in Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States. The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the largest metropolitan area in the South and fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States...

; Hines, Illinois
Hines, Illinois
Hines is an unincorporated community in Cook County, Illinois, United States.The Edward Hines, Jr. VA Hospital, administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, is located at 5000 South Fifth Avenue in Hines.-Government and infrastructure:...

, Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

; Leavenworth, Kansas
Leavenworth, Kansas
Leavenworth is the largest city and county seat of Leavenworth County, in the U.S. state of Kansas and within the Kansas City, Missouri Metropolitan Area. Located in the northeast portion of the state, it is on the west bank of the Missouri River. As of the 2010 census, the city population was...

; and Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Murfreesboro, Tennessee
Murfreesboro is a city in and the county seat of Rutherford County, Tennessee, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the United States Census Bureau's 2010 U.S. Census, up from 68,816 residents certified during the 2000 census. The center of population of Tennessee is located in...

.

Energy use


DoD's Energy Conservation Investment Program (ECIP) improves the energy and water efficiency of existing Military Services' facilities. The program's projects help the Military Services save on energy usage and cost. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA and commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act, is an economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress in February 2009 and signed into law on February 17, 2009, by President Barack Obama.To...

 provided $120 million for the ECIP.

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009
The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, abbreviated ARRA and commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The Recovery Act, is an economic stimulus package enacted by the 111th United States Congress in February 2009 and signed into law on February 17, 2009, by President Barack Obama.To...

 has also given money for the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force, Army Reserve
United States Army Reserve
The United States Army Reserve is the federal reserve force of the United States Army. Together, the Army Reserve and the Army National Guard constitute the reserve components of the United States Army....

, Navy Reserve
United States Navy Reserve
The United States Navy Reserve, until 2005 known as the United States Naval Reserve, is the Reserve Component of the United States Navy...

, Marine Corps Reserve, Air Force Reserve, Army National Guard
Army National Guard
Established under Title 10 and Title 32 of the U.S. Code, the Army National Guard is part of the National Guard and is divided up into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories and the District of Columbia operating under their respective governors...

 and Air National Guard
Air National Guard
The Air National Guard , often referred to as the Air Guard, is the air force militia organized by each of the fifty U.S. states, the commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories of Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and the District of Columbia of the United States. Established under Title 10 and...

 facilities to invest in energy efficiency
Efficient energy use
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal of efforts to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services. For example, insulating a home allows a building to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain a comfortable temperature...

.

The Department of Defense uses 4600000000 gallons (17,412,895,200 l) of fuel annually, an average of 12600000 gallons (47,696,191.2 l) of fuel per day. A large Army division may use about 6000 gallons (22,712.5 l) per day. According to the 2005 CIA World Factbook, if it were a country, the DoD would rank 34th in the world in average daily oil use, coming in just behind Iraq and just ahead of Sweden.

In FY 2006, the DoD used almost 30,000 gigawatt hours (GWH) of electricity, at a cost of almost $2.2 billion. The DoD's electricity use would supply enough electricity to power more than 2.6 million average American homes. In electricity consumption, if it were a country, the DoD would rank 58th in the world, using slightly less than Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 and slightly more than Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 (CIA World Factbook, 2006).

The DoD uses 93% of all US government fuel consumption (Air Force: 52%; Navy: 33%; Army: 7%. Other DoD: 1%).

In 2010, DoD established the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Operational Energy Plans and Programs to coordinate energy issues. In July 2010, DoD also signed a Memorandum of Understanding
Memorandum of understanding
A memorandum of understanding is a document describing a bilateral or multilateral agreement between parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used in cases where parties either do not imply a legal commitment or in...

 with the U.S. Department of Energy
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

 to facilitate cooperation and accelerate research, development, and deployment of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies.

The Air Force
Air force
An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or...

 is the largest user of fuel energy in the federal government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

. The Air Force uses 10% of the nation's aviation fuel. (JP-8
JP-8
JP-8, or JP8 is a jet fuel, specified and used widely by the US military. It is specified by MIL-DTL-83133 and British Defence Standard 91-87, and similar to commercial aviation's Jet-A....

 accounts for nearly 90% of its fuels.) This fuel usage breaks down as such: 82% jet fuel, 16% facility management and 2% ground vehicle/equipment. To meet renewable energy goals, it plans to certify its entire fleet on coal-to-liquid synthetic fuel blends by 2011. By 2016, it plans to fuel half of its domestic transportation by US-produced synthetic blends, including blends of biofuels and jetfuels, known as Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ). The Air Force is currently the leading purchaser of renewable energy within the Federal government and has been a long time pioneer of renewable energy development and leadership. The Air Force is recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency as a Green Power Partner
Green Power Partnership
The United States Environmental Protection Agency's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program that supports the organizational procurement of green power by offering expert advice, technical support, tools and resources...

, one of the nation’s top purchasers of green power. The Air Force Energy Plan, published in May 2010, includes more information about the Air Force’s goals, including reducing demand, increasing supply, and changing the culture to include energy awareness.

The US Army has recently prioritized renewable energy strategies in Iraq. Strategies include the Tactical Garbage to Energy Refinery Program, which converts 1 ST (0.90718474 t) of waste to 11 US gal (41.6 l) of JP-8 fuel, a photovoltaic flexible, portable mat, insulating foam technology, hybrid-electric Manned Ground Vehicle
Future Combat Systems manned ground vehicles
The Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicles was a family of lighter and more transportable ground vehicles developed by BAE Systems Inc and General Dynamics as part of the United States Army's Future Combat Systems program. The ground vehicles were to be based on a common tracked vehicle...

s (MGV), and highly efficient portable cells. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act gave more than $150 million to develop these technologies. Stateside, the Army created the Net Zero program with a goal to have 30 installations achieve net-zero energy by 2030, including some that will also be net-zero in waste and water. In 2011, they opened the Base Camp Systems Integration Laboratory, which compares an energy efficient base camp with a traditional one and trains soldiers to use energy efficient technologies. The Army Energy Security Implementation Strategy, published in 2009, gives details about the Army’s energy goals.

The Department of the Navy
United States Department of the Navy
The Department of the Navy of the United States of America was established by an Act of Congress on 30 April 1798, to provide a government organizational structure to the United States Navy and, from 1834 onwards, for the United States Marine Corps, and when directed by the President, of the...

 established Task Force Energy to focus on meeting energy goals, which include reducing non-tactical petroleum use in the commercial fleet by 50 percent by 2015, producing at least 50 percent of shore based energy from alternative sources by 2050, acquiring 50 percent of total energy from alternative sources by 2020, and having 50 percent of Navy and Marine Corps installations be net-zero by 2020. The Navy hopes to demonstrate a Green Strike Group
Expeditionary Strike Group
The Expeditionary Strike Group, or ESG, is a concept introduced in the U.S. military in the early 1990s, based on the Naval Expeditionary Task Force. The U.S. Navy fields 12 Expeditionary Strike Groups and 11 Carrier Strike Groups, in addition to surface action groups...

 (fueled by biofuels and nuclear power) by 2012 and sail the Great Green Fleet by 2016. The Office of Naval Research
Office of Naval Research
The Office of Naval Research , headquartered in Arlington, Virginia , is the office within the United States Department of the Navy that coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the U.S...

 developed and deployed the Experimental Forward Operating Base (ExFOB), including photovoltaic energy, shelter insulation, small unit water purification, and energy efficient heating, lighting, and cooling.

The Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 established the Expeditionary Energy Office to increase combat effectiveness by reducing the need for liquid fossil fuel by 50 percent by 2025, using liquid fuel for mobility only.

Controversies


Gulf War Illness - During 2001 and 2002, Dr. Robert F. Garry of Tulane University in New Orleans, successfully developed the Anti-Squalene Antibody blood test (ASA Assay) which can detect Gulf War Illness (US patent 6,214,566). However, soon thereafter, the rights to the patent were "Optioned" by the US Department of Defense and as of April 2011, the DOD is still sitting on the test, although still making payments to hold onto the rights. Tulane University
Tulane University
Tulane University is a private, nonsectarian research university located in New Orleans, Louisiana, United States...

, Dr. Garry and Autoimmune Technologies (A third-party company which apparently holds some legal right to the test) have remained silent.

In fall of 2006, the U.S. Defense Department accidentally shipped ballistic missile components instead of helicopter batteries to Taiwan
Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

, it was reported on March 25, 2008. The parts were 1960s technology, designed for use with Minuteman ballistic missiles
LGM-30 Minuteman
The LGM-30 Minuteman is a U.S. nuclear missile, a land-based intercontinental ballistic missile . As of 2010, the version LGM-30G Minuteman-III is the only land-based ICBM in service in the United States...

. The missile components were first shipped from F.E. Warren Air Force Base in Wyoming
Wyoming
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States. The western two thirds of the state is covered mostly with the mountain ranges and rangelands in the foothills of the Eastern Rocky Mountains, while the eastern third of the state is high elevation prairie known as the High...

 to Hill Air Force Base
Hill Air Force Base
Hill Air Force Base is a major U.S. Air Force Base located in northern Utah, just south of the city of Ogden, and near the towns of Clearfield, Riverdale, Roy, Sunset, and Layton. It is about north of Salt Lake City. The base was named in honor of Major Ployer Peter Hill of the U.S. Army Air...

 in Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

 in 2005.

On April 20, 2008, The New York Times
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper founded and continuously published in New York City since 1851. The New York Times has won 106 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any news organization...

published an exposé accusing the U.S. Department of Defense of running a propaganda
Propaganda
Propaganda is a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position so as to benefit oneself or one's group....

 "message machine
Pentagon military analyst program
The Pentagon military analyst program was an information operation of the U.S. Department of Defense that was launched in early 2002 by then-Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs Victoria Clarke...

" to spread the administration's talking points on Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 by briefing retired military commanders for network television and cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 appearances, where they were presented as independent analysts.

The Guantanamo Bay detention camp is on a United States Department of Defense base and is run by the United States Department of Defense Joint Task Force Guantanamo
Joint Task Force Guantanamo
Joint Task Force Guantanamo is a U.S. military joint task force based at Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, Guantánamo Bay, Cuba on the southeastern end of the island. JTF-GTMO falls under US Southern Command...

, with the motto 'Honour Bound to Defend Freedom'. International calls for the closure of this facility due to accusations of torture
Torture
Torture is the act of inflicting severe pain as a means of punishment, revenge, forcing information or a confession, or simply as an act of cruelty. Throughout history, torture has often been used as a method of political re-education, interrogation, punishment, and coercion...

 perpetrated within have not been successful.

Related legislation

  • 1947: National Security Act of 1947
    National Security Act of 1947
    The National Security Act of 1947 was signed by United States President Harry S. Truman on July 26, 1947, and realigned and reorganized the U.S. Armed Forces, foreign policy, and Intelligence Community apparatus in the aftermath of World War II...

  • 1958: Department of Defense Reorganization Act
    Defense Reorganization Act of 1958
    The Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958 is a United States federal law which was created to provide for more effective administration for the Department of Defense . Written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, it was signed into law August 6, 1958...

     PL 85-899
  • 1963: Department of Defense Appropriations Act PL 88-149
  • 1963: Military Construction Authorization Act PL 88-174
  • 1967: Supplemental Defense Appropriations Act PL 90-8
  • 1984: Department of Defense Authorization Act PL 98-525
  • 1986: Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986 or Department of Defense Reorganization Act PL 99-433
  • 1996: Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act PL 104-132

See also


  • The Berry Amendment
    Berry Amendment
    The Berry Amendment , requires the Department of Defense to give preference in procurement to domestically produced, manufactured, or home grown products, most notably food, clothing, fabrics, and specialty metals...

    , a U.S.C
    United States Code
    The Code of Laws of the United States of America is a compilation and codification of the general and permanent federal laws of the United States...

     law that requires most goods used by the armed forces to be produced domestically.
  • Defense contractor
    Defense contractor
    A defense contractor is a business organization or individual that provides products or services to a military department of a government. Products typically include military aircraft, ships, vehicles, weaponry, and electronic systems...

  • Defense industry
    Defense industry
    The defense industry, also called the military industry, comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military materiel, equipment and facilities...

  • Department of Defense Police
    Department of Defense Police
    Department of Defense Police, not to be confused with Pentagon Police, are the uniformed civilian police officers of the United States Department of Defense various branches of the United States Armed Forces . They are also referred to as DoD Police...

  • Director of Operations, Planning and Development for Military Commissions
    Director of Operations, Planning and Development for Military Commissions
    The Director of Operations, Planning and Development for Military Commissions was a new position, created on 19 September 2008.The position was to be filled by a flag officer, who was to report directly to the Department of Defense's General Counsel, who was at the time William J...

  • DOD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Program
    DOD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Program
    DOD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Program, or DIACAP, is the United States Department of Defense Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Program. An interim version of the DIACAP was signed July 6, 2006 and now supersedes DITSCAP DOD Instruction 5200.40 and...

  • Exceptional Family Member Program
    Exceptional Family Member Program
    The Exceptional Family Member Program or EFMP is a mandatory U.S. Department of Defense enrollment program that works with other military and civilian agencies to provide comprehensive and coordinated community support, housing, educational, medical, and personnel services worldwide to U.S...

  • Identification badges of the United States military
  • List of United States military bases
  • Loss of Strength Gradient
    Loss of Strength Gradient
    The Loss of Strength Gradient was devised by Kenneth Boulding in 1962. He argued that the amount of a nation’s military power that could be brought to bear in any part of the world depended on geographic distance. The Loss of Strength Gradient demonstrated, in graphical form, that the further away...

  • US Senate Report on chemical weapons

External links