Muscle car

Muscle car

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Muscle car is a term used to refer to a variety of high-performance automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

s. The Merriam-Webster
Webster's Dictionary
Webster's Dictionary refers to the line of dictionaries first developed by Noah Webster in the early 19th century, and also to numerous unrelated dictionaries that added Webster's name just to share his prestige. The term is a genericized trademark in the U.S.A...

dictionary defines muscle cars as "any of a group of American-made 2-door sports coupes with powerful engines designed for high-performance driving." Usually, a large V8 engine
V8 engine
A V8 engine is a V engine with eight cylinders mounted on the crankcase in two banks of four cylinders, in most cases set at a right angle to each other but sometimes at a narrower angle, with all eight pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 is fitted in a 2-door, rear wheel drive, family-style mid-size
Mid-size car
A mid-size car is the North American/Australian standard for an automobile with a size equal to or greater than that of a compact...

 or full-size car
Full-size car
A full-size car is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car. In the United States, the EPA uses "large car" to denote full-size cars....

 designed for four or more passengers. Sold at an affordable price, muscle cars are intended for mainly street use and occasional drag racing
Drag racing
Drag racing is a competition in which specially prepared automobiles or motorcycles compete two at a time to be the first to cross a set finish line, from a standing start, in a straight line, over a measured distance, most commonly a ¼-mile straight track....

. They are distinct from two-seat sports car
Sports car
A sports car is a small, usually two seat, two door automobile designed for high speed driving and maneuverability....

s and expensive 2+2
2 plus 2
The term 2+2 is a phrase used to describe the configuration of a car with seating for two passengers in the front, plus two smaller seats for occasional passengers in the rear.-Description:...

 GT
Grand tourer
A grand tourer is a high-performance luxury automobile designed for long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement....

s intended for high-speed touring and road racing
Road racing
Road racing is a general term for most forms of motor racing held on paved, purpose-built race tracks , as opposed to oval tracks and off-road racing...

. Developed simultaneously in their own markets, muscle cars also emerged from manufacturers in Australia, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere.

Definition


According to Muscle Cars, a book written by Peter Henshaw, a "muscle car" is "exactly what the name implies. It is a product of the American car industry adhering to the hot rod
Hot rod
Hot rods are typically American cars with large engines modified for linear speed. The origin of the term "hot rod" is unclear. One explanation is that the term is a contraction of "hot roadster," meaning a roadster that was modified for speed. Another possible origin includes modifications to or...

der's philosophy of taking a small car and putting a BIG engine in it. The Muscle Car is Charles Atlas
Charles Atlas
Charles Atlas, born Angelo Siciliano , was the developer of a bodybuilding method and its associated exercise program that was best known for a landmark advertising campaign featuring Atlas's name and likeness; it has been described as one of the longest-lasting and most memorable ad campaigns of all...

 kicking sand in the face of the 98 hp weakling." Henshaw further asserts that the muscle car was designed for straight-line speed, and did not have the "sophisticated chassis", "engineering integrity", or "lithe appearance" of European high-performance cars.

However, opinions vary as to whether high-performance full-size car
Full-size car
A full-size car is a marketing term used in North America for an automobile larger than a mid-size car. In the United States, the EPA uses "large car" to denote full-size cars....

s, compacts, and pony cars qualify as muscle cars.

The following is a list of muscle cars and their manufacturers (along with each make's corresponding pony car, where applicable):

Early muscle



Opinions on the origin of the muscle car vary, but the 1949 Oldsmobile Rocket 88
Oldsmobile 88
The Oldsmobile 88 was a full-size car sold by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors and produced from 1949 until 1999. From 1950 to 1974 the 88 was the division's top-selling line, particularly the entry-level models such as the 88 and Dynamic 88...

, created in response to public interest in speed and power, is often cited as the first muscle car. It featured America's first high-compression overhead valve
Overhead valve
An overhead valve engine, also informally called pushrod engine or I-head engine, is a type of piston engine that places the camshaft within the cylinder block , and uses pushrods or rods to actuate rocker arms above the cylinder...

 V8 in the smaller, lighter Oldsmobile 76/Chevy body for six-cylinder engines (as opposed to bigger Olds 98 luxury body).

Musclecars magazine wrote: "[t]he idea of putting a full-size V8 under the hood of an intermediate body and making it run like Jesse Owens
Jesse Owens
James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens was an American track and field athlete who specialized in the sprints and the long jump. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals: one each in the 100 meters, the 200 meters, the...

 in Berlin belongs to none other than Oldsmobile... [The] all-new ohv V8...Rocket engine quickly found its way into the lighter 76 series body, and in February 1949, the new 88 series was born."

The article continued: "Walt Woron of Motor Trend enjoyed the 'quick-flowing power...that pins you to your seat and keeps you there until you release your foot from the throttle [...] Olds dominated the performance landscape in 1950, including wins in the NASCAR
NASCAR
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing is a family-owned and -operated business venture that sanctions and governs multiple auto racing sports events. It was founded by Bill France Sr. in 1947–48. As of 2009, the CEO for the company is Brian France, grandson of the late Bill France Sr...

 Grand National division, Daytona Speed Weeks, and the 2100-plus-mile Carrera Panamericana
Carrera Panamericana
The Carrera Panamericana was a border-to-border sports car racing event on open roads in Mexico similar to the Mille Miglia and Targa Florio in Italy. Running for five consecutive years from 1950 to 1954, it was widely held by contemporaries to be the most dangerous race of any type in the world...

. In (Belgium), an 88 won a production car race at Spa-Francorchamps
Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps
The Circuit de Spa-Francorchamps is the venue of the Formula One Belgian Grand Prix and the Spa 24 Hours endurance race. It is also home to the all Volkswagen club event, 25 Hours of Spa, run by the Uniroyal Fun Cup. It is one of the most challenging race tracks in the world, mainly due to its...

 [...] A husky V8 in a cleanly styled, lightweight coupe body, the original musclecar truly was the '49 Olds 88."

Jack Nerad wrote in Driving Today, "the Rocket V-8 set the standard for every American V-8 engine that would follow it for at least three decades [...] With a displacement of 303 cubic inches and topped by a two-barrel carburetor, the first Rocket V-8 churned out 135 hp at 3,600 rpm and 263 pound-feet of torque at a lazy 1800 rpm [and] no mid-range car in the world, save the Hudson Hornet
Hudson Hornet
The Hudson Hornet is an automobile that was produced by the Hudson Motor Car Company of Detroit, Michigan between 1951 and 1954. The Hornet was also built by American Motors Corporation in Kenosha, Wisconsin and marketed under the Hudson brand between 1955 and 1957.The first-generation Hudson...

, came close to the Rocket Olds performance potential..."

Nerad added that the Rocket 88 was "the hit of NASCAR’s 1950 season, winning eight of the 10 races. Given its lightning-like success, one could clearly make the case that the Olds 88 with its 135 hp V-8 was the first 'musclecar'..."

Steve Dulcich, writing in Popular Hot Rodding, also cites Oldsmobile, concurrently with Cadillac
Cadillac
Cadillac is an American luxury vehicle marque owned by General Motors . Cadillac vehicles are sold in over 50 countries and territories, but mostly in North America. Cadillac is currently the second oldest American automobile manufacturer behind fellow GM marque Buick and is among the oldest...

, as having "launched the modern era of the high-performance V-8 with the introduction of the "Rocket 88" overhead-valve V8 in 1949."

Growth of the trend



Other manufacturers showcased performance hardware in flashy limited-edition models. Chrysler led the way with its 1955 C-300
Chrysler 300 letter series
The Chrysler 300 "letter series" were high-performance luxury cars built in very limited numbers by the Chrysler Corporation in the U.S. from 1955-1965...

, an inspired blend of Hemi power and luxury-car trappings that became the new star of NASCAR. With 300 hp, it was advertised as "America's Most Powerful Car".

Capable of accelerating from 0 to 60 mi/h in 9.8 seconds and reaching 130 miles per hour (58 m/s), the 1955 Chrysler 300 is also recognized as one of the best-handling cars of its era. Two years later, the Rambler Rebel
Rambler Rebel
The Rambler Rebel is an automobile that was produced by the American Motors Corporation of Kenosha, Wisconsin for the 1957–1960 model years, as well as again for 1966 and 1967.- History :...

 was the fastest stock American sedan, according to Motor Trend.

The popularity and performance of muscle cars grew in the early 1960s, as Mopar
Mopar
Mopar is the automobile parts and service arm of Chrysler Group LLC. The term was first used by Chrysler in the 1920s and has been in continuous use ever since. Mopar parts are original equipment manufactured parts for Chrysler vehicles...

 (Dodge, Plymouth, and Chrysler) and Ford battled for supremacy in drag racing. The 1962 Dodge Dart 413 CID Max Wedge, for example, could run a 13-second 1/4-mile dragstrip
Dragstrip
A dragstrip is a facility for conducting automobile and motorcycle acceleration events such as drag racing. Although a quarter mile is the best known measure for a drag track, many tracks are eighth mile tracks...

 at over 100 miles per hour (45 m/s). By 1964, General Motors' lineup boasted Oldsmobile, Chevrolet, and Pontiac muscle cars, and Buick fielded a muscle car entry a year later. For 1964 and 1965, Ford had its 427 CID Thunderbolts, and Mopar unveiled the 426 CID Hemi engine
Chrysler Hemi engine
The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third...

. The Pontiac GTO
Pontiac GTO
The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It is considered an innovative, and now classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s...

 was an option package that included Pontiac's 389 CID V8 engine, floor-shifted transmission with Hurst
Hurst Performance
Hurst Performance, Inc. of Warminster Township, Pennsylvania, manufactured and marketed products for enhancing the performance of automobiles, most notably for muscle cars.-Products:...

 shift linkage, and special trim. In 1966 the GTO became a model in its own right. The project, led by Pontiac division president John DeLorean, technically violated GM's policy, limiting its smaller cars to 330 CID displacement, but the new model proved more popular than expected, and inspired GM and its competitors to produce numerous imitators. The GTO itself was a response to the Dodge Polara
Dodge Polara
The Dodge Polara was an automobile introduced in the United States for the 1960 model year as Dodge's top-of-the-line full-size car; after the introduction of the Dodge Custom 880 in 1962, the Polara nameplate designated a step below the full sized best trimmed Dodge model; the Polara that year had...

 500 and the Plymouth Sport Fury
Plymouth Fury
The Plymouth Fury is an automobile which was produced by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1956 to 1978. The Fury was introduced as a premium-priced model designed to showcase the line, with the intent to draw consumers into showrooms....

, which in 1962 had been shrunk to intermediates.

American Motors
American Motors
American Motors Corporation was an American automobile company formed by the 1954 merger of Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and Hudson Motor Car Company. At the time, it was the largest corporate merger in U.S. history.George W...

, though late entering the muscle car market, produced "an impressive array of performance cars in a relatively short time," said Motor Trend. "The first stirrings of AMC performance came in 1965, when the dramatic, if ungainly, Rambler Marlin
Rambler Marlin
The AMC Marlin is a two-door, mid-sized fastback car made in the United States by the American Motors Corporation from 1965 to 1967. A halo model for the company, it was marketed as a personal luxury car....

 fastback was introduced to battle the Ford Mustang
Ford Mustang
The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

 and Plymouth Barracuda
Plymouth Barracuda
The Plymouth Barracuda is a 2-door car that was manufactured by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1964-1974.The first-generation Barracuda, a fastback A-body coupe based on the Plymouth Valiant, had a distinctive wraparound back glass and was available from 1964-1966.The...

." Although the Marlin was a flop in terms of sales and initial performance, AMC gained some muscle-car credibility in 1967, when it made both the Marlin and the "more pedestrian" Rebel
AMC Rebel
The AMC Rebel is a mid-size car produced by American Motors Corporation from 1967 to 1970. It replaced the Rambler Classic. The Rebel was replaced by the similar AMC Matador for the 1971 model year...

 available with its new 280 hp, 343 CID "Typhoon
AMC V8 engine
American Motors Corporation produced a series of widely-used V8 engines from the mid-1950s before being absorbed into Chrysler in 1987. Chrysler kept the AMC V8 in production until 1991 for the Jeep Grand Wagoneer....

" V8. In 1968, the company offered two pony car
Pony car
Pony car is an American class of automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang in 1964. The term describes an affordable, compact, highly styled car with a sporty or performance-oriented image.-Origins of the breed:...

 muscle car contenders: the Javelin
AMC Javelin
The Javelin was a production version of one of the AMC AMX prototypes shown during the 1966 AMX project nationwide tour. Intended to rival other pony cars such as the Ford Mustang and Chevrolet Camaro. American Motor's Javelin debuted on 22 August 1967, for the 1968 model year...

 and its truncated variant, the AMX.

Although the sales of true muscle cars were relatively modest by total Detroit production standards, they had value in publicity. Competition between manufacturers meant that buyers had the choice of ever-more powerful engines. A horsepower war was started that peaked in 1970, with some models advertising as much as 450 hp.

Turn-key drag racers


Muscle cars attracted young customers into showrooms, and they bought the standard editions of these mid-size car
Mid-size car
A mid-size car is the North American/Australian standard for an automobile with a size equal to or greater than that of a compact...

s. To enhance the "halo" effect of these models, the manufacturers modified some of them into turn-key drag racers.

Ford built 200 lightweight Ford Galaxies for drag racing in 1963. All non-essential equipment was omitted. Modifications included fiberglass panels, aluminum bumpers, traction bars, and a competition-specification 427 CID engine factory rated at a conservative 425 hp. This full-size car could run the quarter mile in a little over 12 seconds. Also built in 1963 were 5,000 road-legal versions that could be used as every day drivers (Ford claimed 0-60 in less than 6 seconds for the similarly powered 1966 Galaxie 500XL 427).

Another Ford lightweight was the 1964 Ford Thunderbolt that utilized the mid-size Fairlane body. A stock Thunderbolt could run the quarter-mile (402 m) in 11.76 seconds at 122.7 mph (54.9 m/s), and Gaspar "Gas" Ronda dominated the NHRA World Championship with his Thunderbolt with a best time of 11.6 seconds at 124 mph (55.4 m/s). The Thunderbolt included the 427 engine with special exhausts; though technically legal for street use, the car was too "raucous" for the public roads, according to a Hot Rod magazine quote, "for driving to and from the strip, let alone on the street in everyday use". Massive traction bars, asymmetrical rear springs, and a trunk-mounted 95 pounds (43 kg) bus battery were intended to maximize traction for the 500 bhp car. Sun visors, exterior mirror, sound-deadener, armrests, jack, and lug wrench were omitted to save weight. The car was given lightweight Plexiglass
Acrylic glass
Poly is a transparent thermoplastic, often used as a light or shatter-resistant alternative to glass. It is sometimes called acrylic glass. Chemically, it is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate...

 windows, and early versions had fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

 front body panels and bumpers, later changed to aluminum to meet NHRA regulations. Base price was US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

3,780. A total of 111 Thunderbolts were built, and Ford contracted Dearborn Steel Tubing to help with assembly.

In 1963, General Motors' Chevrolet division produced 57 full-size Impala coupes equipped with option package RPOZ-11, which added $1237.40 to the vehicle base price. They were the only automobiles the division ever built expressly for drag racing. The package included a specially modified W series 409 engine, now displacing 427 cubic inches, and was officially rated at 430 bhp. Actual horsepower was approximately 480–520, depending on the state of tune and the available fuel. With a compression ratio of 13.5:1, tuning the engine for maximum horsepower required high-octane fuel. The RPOZ-11 package had numerous modifications to reduce weight, including aluminum hood, fenders, fan shroud, and bumpers. Sound-deadening material was removed, as were non-essentials such as heater and radio. Other racing features included a two-piece intake manifold, special exhaust manifolds, cylinder heads and pistons, a deep-sump oil pan, and cowl-induction air cleaner. The RPOZ-11 package was discontinued when General Motors ceased involvement in racing in 1964.

The 1964 Dodge 426 Hemi Lightweight produced over 500 bhp. This "top drag racer" had an aluminium hood, lightweight front bumpers, fenders, doors and lower valance, magnesium front wheels, lightweight Dodge van seat, Lexan side windows, one windshield wiper, and no sun visors or sound deadening. Like other lightweights of the era, it came with a factory disclaimer: Designed for supervised acceleration trials. Not recommended for general everyday driving because of the compromises in the all-round characteristics which must be made for this type of vehicle.

Also too "high-strung" for the street was Chrysler’s small-volume-production 1965 drag racer, the 550 bhp Plymouth Satellite 426 Hemi. Although the detuned 1966 version (the factory rating underestimated it at 425 bhp ) has been criticized for poor brakes and cornering, Car and Driver described it as "the best combination of brute performance and tractable street manners we've ever driven." The car's understated appearance belied its performance: it could run a 13.8-second quarter mile at 104 mph (46.5 m/s). Base price was $3,850.

Likewise, Chevrolet eschewed flamboyant stripes for their 1969 Chevelle COPO 427. The car could run a 13.3 sec. quarter-mile at 108 mph (48.3 m/s). Chevrolet rated the engine at 425 hp, but the NHRA
National Hot Rod Association
The National Hot Rod Association is a drag racing governing body, which sets rules in drag racing and host events all over the United States and Canada...

 claimed a truer 450 hp. It has been said that the 1969 COPO Chevelles were "among the most feared muscle cars of any day. And they didn't need any badges." Base price was US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

3,800.

For 1970, Chevrolet offered the Chevelle SS 454, also at a base price of US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

3,800. Its 454 cu in (7.4 l) engine was rated at 450 hp, the highest factory rating at that time. Car Life magazine wrote: "It's fair to say that the Supercar as we know it may have gone as far as it's going."

Youth market and "budget muscle"


The general trend towards higher performance in factory-stock cars reflected the importance of the youth market. A key appeal of muscle cars was that they offered the American car culture relatively affordable and powerful street performance in models that could also be used for drag racing. But as size, optional equipment and luxury appointments increased, engines had to be more powerful to maintain performance levels, and the cars became more expensive.

In response to rising cost and weight, a secondary trend towards more basic "budget" muscle cars emerged in 1967 and 1968. These included the Plymouth Road Runner
Plymouth Road Runner
The Plymouth Road Runner was a muscle car built by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation in the United States between 1968 and 1980. In 1968, the first muscle cars were, in the opinion of many, moving away from their roots as relatively cheap, fast cars as they gained options...

, the "original budget Supercar"; the Plymouth GTX
Plymouth GTX
The Plymouth GTX was introduced as the Belvedere GTX in 1967 by the Plymouth division to be a "gentleman's" muscle car.It's most notable appearance in modern popular culture is in the television series Angel, in which the title character drove a black 1967 model.-1967:It was to be an exceptional...

, which at a base price of US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

3,355 offered "as much performance-per-dollar as anything on the market, and more than most"; and the Dodge Super Bee
Dodge Super Bee
The Dodge Super Bee was a limited-production muscle car from Dodge, produced from 1968-1971. The Super Bee model was resurrected for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 model Dodge Charger Super Bee.-1968–1970:...

. Manufacturers also offered bigger engines in their compact models, sometimes making them lighter, roomier, and faster than their own pony-car lines.

The 340 cu in (5.6 l)-powered 1970 Plymouth Duster
Plymouth Duster
The first Plymouth Duster was a semi-fastback version of the Plymouth Valiant automobile, produced in the US from 1970 to 1976.The Duster name was later revived for optional trim packages on certain versions of the 1979-1980 Plymouth Volare, 1985-1987 Plymouth Turismo, and 1992-1994 Plymouth...

 was one of these smaller, more affordable cars. Based on the compact
Compact car
A compact car , or small family car , is a classification of cars which are larger than a supermini but smaller than or equal to a mid-size car...

-sized Plymouth Valiant
Plymouth Valiant
The Plymouth Valiant is an automobile manufactured by the Plymouth division of Chrysler Corporation in the United States from 1960 to 1976. It was created to give the company an entry in the compact car market emerging in the late 1950s...

 and priced at US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

2,547, the 340 Duster posted a 6.0-second 0-60 mph (26.8 m/s) time and ran the quarter mile in 14.7 seconds at 94.3 mph (42.2 m/s). This "reasonably fast" compact muscle car had a stiff, slightly lowered suspension which, in the view of Hot Rod magazine at the time, let the car "ride in an acceptable fashion". However, a retrospective article by Consumer Guide referred to "a punishing ride" and trim that was "obviously low-budget." The 1970 model came with front disc brakes and without hood scoops. The only high-performance cues were dual exhausts and modest decals. Tom Gale, former Chrysler vice president of design, described the car as "a phenomenal success. It had a bulletproof chassis, was relatively lightweight, and had a good power train. These were 200000 miles (321,868 km) cars." Hot Rod rated the Duster "one of the best, if not the best, dollar buy in a performance car" in 1970.

American Motors' mid-sized 1970 Rebel Machine
AMC Machine
The Machine is an automobile produced by American Motors Corporation . It is a muscle car version of the AMC Rebel. The Machine featured factory performance enhancements with serious power at a budget price.- Origin :...

, developed in consultation with Hurst Performance
Hurst Performance
Hurst Performance, Inc. of Warminster Township, Pennsylvania, manufactured and marketed products for enhancing the performance of automobiles, most notably for muscle cars.-Products:...

, was also built for normal street use. It had a 390 CID engine developing 340 hp—a "moderate performer" that gave a 0-60 mph (26.8 m/s) time of 6.8 seconds and a quarter mile in 14.4 seconds at 99 mph (44.3 m/s). Early examples came in "patriotic" red, white, and blue. Jack Nerad wrote in Driving Today that it was "a straight-up competitor to the GTO
Pontiac GTO
The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It is considered an innovative, and now classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s...

, et al. ... the engine was upgraded to 340 hp a four-barrel Motorcraft carburetor and other hot rod trickery. The torque figure was equally prodigious—430 pound-feet at a lazy 3600 rpm. In this car the engine was practically the entire story." With four-speed manual transmission, the car "could spring from zero to 60 miles per hour in just 6.4 seconds..." In Nerad's view, the car "somehow, someway deserves to be considered among the Greatest Cars of All Time." An article in Mopar Muscle said, "by far the most stunning thing for a car with this level of performance and standard equipment was the sticker of just US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

3,475."

For comparison, the "plain wrapper" 1969 Plymouth Road Runner, Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year, ran a 14.7 quarter at 100.6 mph (45 m/s) with the standard 383 CID engine after the addition of a high-performance factory camshaft
Camshaft
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.-History:An early cam was built into Hellenistic water-driven automata from the 3rd century BC. The camshaft was later described in Iraq by Al-Jazari in 1206. He employed it as part of his automata,...

 plus non-standard, high-performance induction and exhaust manifolds
Exhaust manifold
In automotive engineering, an exhaust manifold collects the exhaust gases from multiple cylinders into one pipe. The word manifold comes from the Old English word manigfeald and refers to the folding together of multiple inputs and outputs.In contrast, an inlet manifold is the part of an engine...

, carburetor
Carburetor
A carburetor , carburettor, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America and the United Kingdom....

, and slick tire
Slick tire
A slick tyre is a type of tyre that has no tread pattern, used mostly in auto racing. The first production "slick tyre" was developed by a company called M&H Tires in the early 1950s for use in drag racing...

s. In this form the car cost US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

3,893. In 1968, Dodge's $3,027 Super Bee ran a 15-second quarter at 100 mph (44.7 m/s) on street tires with the same engine, only stock.

Hot Rod magazine categorized the 340 CID 1968 Plymouth Barracuda 4-seater as "a supercar, without any doubt attached...also a 'pony car', a compact and a workhorse" with enough rear seat leg- and head-room for "passengers to ride back there without distress", and "a flip-up door to the trunk area for ferrying some pretty sizeable loads of cargo". It could run a quarter mile in 13.33 seconds at 106.5 mph (47.6 m/s) on the drag strip. The base price was $2,796.00; the price as tested by Hot Rod was $3,652.

Related pickup trucks


Another related type of vehicle is the car-based pickup, known colloquially in Australia as a "ute
Coupé utility
The coupé utility automobile body style, also known colloquially as the ute in Australia and New Zealand, combines a two-door "coupé" cabin with an integral cargo bed behind the cabin—using a light-duty passenger vehicle-derived platform....

" (short for "utility"). Holden
Holden
GM Holden Ltd is an automaker that operates in Australia, based in Port Melbourne, Victoria. The company was founded in 1856 as a saddlery manufacturer. In 1908 it moved into the automotive field, before becoming a subsidiary of the U.S.-based General Motors in 1931...

 and Ford Australia
Ford Australia
Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company and was founded in Geelong, Victoria, in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited. At that time, Ford Canada was a separate company from Ford USA...

 make such a vehicle under the model name "Ute
Holden Ute
The Holden Ute is a coupe utility built by Holden, the Australian subsidiary of General Motors, since 2000. Before then, Holden had marketed their Commodore-based utility models under the Holden Utility and Holden Commodore utility names, although the term “Holden Ute” was also used in their...

". Examples of these in the U.S. are the performance versions of the Ford Ranchero
Ford Ranchero
The Ford Ranchero was a coupe utility produced between 1957 and 1979. Unlike a pickup truck, the Ranchero was adapted from a two-door station wagon platform that integrated the cab and cargo bed into the body. A total of 508,355 units were produced during the model's production run...

, GMC Sprint / Caballero, and Chevrolet El Camino
Chevrolet El Camino
The Chevrolet El Camino is a coupe utility vehicle produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1959–1960 model years in response to the success of its rival, Ford Ranchero. Production resumed for the 1964–1977 model years based on the Chevelle platform, and continued for the...

 with high-output V8 engines.

Decline


The muscle car market segment was in high gear "until shifting social attitudes, crippling insurance rates, the Clean Air Act and the fuel crisis removed the cars from the market in the early 1970s." The OPEC
OPEC
OPEC is an intergovernmental organization of twelve developing countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC has maintained its headquarters in Vienna since 1965, and hosts regular meetings...

 oil embargo led to price controls and gasoline rationing, as well as higher prices. "Muscle cars quickly became unaffordable and impractical for many people." The automobile insurance industry also levied surcharges on all high-powered models, an added cost that put many muscle cars out of reach of their intended buyers. Simultaneously, efforts to combat air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

—a problem that grew more complicated in —focused Detroit's attention on emissions control.

A majority of muscle cars came optioned with high-compression
Compression ratio
The 'compression ratio' of an internal-combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity...

 powerplants-some as high as 11:1. Prior to the oil embargo, 100-octane fuel
Octane rating
Octane rating or octane number is a standard measure of the anti-knock properties of a motor or aviation fuel. The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating...

 was common (e.g. Sunoco 260, Esso Extra, Chevron Custom Supreme, Super Shell, Texaco Sky Chief, Amoco Super Premium, Gulf No-nox); however, following the passage of the Clean Air Act of 1970, octane ratings were lowered to 91-due in part to the removal of tetraethyllead as a valve lubricant. Unleaded gasoline was phased in as a result.

With all these forces against it, the market for muscle cars rapidly evaporated. Horsepower began to drop in 1971 as engine compression ratios were reduced. High-performance engines like Chrysler's 426 Hemi
Chrysler Hemi engine
The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third...

 were discontinued, and all but a few of other performance models were discontinued or transformed into soft personal luxury car
Personal luxury car
A personal luxury car is a highly styled, luxury vehicle with an emphasis on image over practicality. Accenting the comfort and satisfaction of its owner and driver above all else, the personal luxury car sometimes sacrifices passenger capacity, cargo room, and fuel economy in favor of style and...

s. Some nameplates, such as Chevrolet's SS or Oldsmobile's 442, would become sport appearance packages (known in the mid to late 1970s as the vinyl and decal option-Plymouth's Road Runner was an upscale decor package for their Volare coupes). One of the last to be discontinued, a car that Car and Driver
Car and Driver
Car and Driver is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. Its total circulation is 1.31 million. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, who purchased prior owner Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. in 2011...

called "The Last of the Fast Ones", was Pontiac's Trans Am SD455 model of 1973–1974. In 1975 its performance was markedly reduced.

American performance cars began to make a return in the 1980s. Owing to increases in production costs and tighter regulations governing pollution and safety, these vehicles were not designed to the formula of the traditional low-cost muscle cars. The introduction of electronic fuel injection and overdrive transmission
Overdrive (mechanics)
Overdrive is a term used to describe a mechanism that allows an automobile to cruise at sustained speed with reduced engine RPM, leading to better fuel economy, lower noise and lower wear...

 for the remaining 1960s muscle car survivors, such as the Ford Mustang, Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird, helped sustain a market share for them alongside personal luxury coupes with performance packages, such as the Buick Regal T-Type or Grand National, Ford Thunderbird Turbo Coupe and Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS circa 1983-88.

Australia


Australia developed its own muscle cars around the same period, the big three manufacturers being Ford Australia
Ford Australia
Ford Australia is the Australian subsidiary of Ford Motor Company and was founded in Geelong, Victoria, in 1925 as an outpost of Ford Motor Company of Canada, Limited. At that time, Ford Canada was a separate company from Ford USA...

, Holden or Holden Dealer Team
Holden Dealer Team
The Holden Dealer Team was Holden’s semi-official racing team from 1969 until 1987, primarily contesting Australian Touring Car events but also rallying, rallycross and sports sedans during the 1970s...

 (by then part of General Motors), and Chrysler Australia
Chrysler Australia
Chrysler Australia is the importer of Chrysler, Jeep and Dodge vehicles for sale in the Australian marketplace. However, there had previously been a "Chrysler Australia Ltd" which had operated as a vehicle manufacturer in Australia from 1951 until 1980....

. The cars were specifically developed to run in the Armstrong 500 (miles)
Bathurst 1000
The Bathurst 1000 is a touring car race held annually at Mount Panorama Circuit in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia...

 race and later the Hardie Ferodo 500. The demise of these cars was brought about by a change in racing rules requiring that 200 examples had to be sold to the general public before the car could qualify (homologation
Homologation
Homologation is a technical term, derived from the Greek homologeo for "to agree", which is generally used in English to signify the granting of approval by an official authority...

). In 1972, the government banned supercars from the streets after two notable cases. The first instance was a Wheels magazine journalist driving at 150 mi/h in a 1971 Ford XY Falcon GTHO Phase III
Ford XY Falcon GT
The Ford XY Falcon GT is an Australian built muscle car based on the Ford XY Falcon. Released in 1970 with the GTHO Phase III released in 1971. 1,557 units were produced from September 1970 to December 1971 with 300 GTHO Phase III's produced from May 1971 to November 1971...

 351 CID. While the car was getting exposure in the press, the second incident occurred in George Street, Sydney
George Street, Sydney
George Street is one of Sydney's most notable city streets. There are more high rise buildings and more ASX 100 companies located here than anywhere else in Australia, and is well known for being busy around-the-clock...

, when a young male was caught driving at an estimated 150 mi/h through the busy street in a 1971 Ford Falcon GTHO Phase III, drag racing a Holden Monaro GTS 350. This was known in Australia as "The Supercar Scare".

Ford produced what is considered to be the first Australian muscle car in 1967, the 289 cu in (4.7 l) Windsor – powered Ford Falcon GT
Ford Falcon GT
The Ford Falcon GT is an automobile which was produced by Ford Australia from 1967 to 1976 and 2003 to the present day with intermittent limited edition anniversary models offered in between. Since 2003 the car has been marketed as the FPV GT but FPV continue to release anniversary editions based...

 XR. Months later, in 1968, Australia would see its first homegrown two-door muscle car, the Holden Monaro GTS 327. Ford continued to release faster models, culminating in the Ford Falcon GTHO Phase III of 1971, which was powered by a factory modified 351 Cleveland. Along with its GT and GTHO models, Ford, starting with the XW model in 1969, introduced a "sporty" GS model, available across the Falcon range. The basic GS came with a 188 CID six-cylinder engine, but the 302 CID and 351 CID Windsor (replaced by the Cleveland engines for the XY) V8 engines were optional. Ford's larger, more luxurious Fairlane was also available with these engines and could also be optioned with the 300 bhp 351 CID "Cleveland" engine.

General Motors Holden produced the Holden Monaro
Holden Monaro
The Holden Monaro is an automobile that was produced by GM Holden Ltd, an Australian subsidiary of General Motors, between 1968 and 1977 and between 2001 and 2005...

 with 161 CID, 186 CID (186 and 186S specification) 6-cylinder engines, 307 CID, 327 CID, and 350 CID Chevrolet smallblocks, and later 253 CID and 308 CID Holden V8. This was followed by the release of four high-performance Torana
Holden Torana
The Holden Torana is a car which was produced by General Motors–Holden's , the Australian subsidiary of General Motors from 1967 to 1980. The name comes from an Aboriginal word meaning "to fly". The first Torana appeared in 1967 and was a four-cylinder compact vehicle that had its origins in the...

s, the LC GTR-XU1 (1970–1971), LJ GTR-XU1 (1972–1973), L34 (1974), and the A9X (1977).

The LC XU1 Torana was fitted with a 186 CID triple carbureted 6-cylinder engine, later increased with the release of the LJ model to 202 CID, as opposed to the 308 CID single q­-barrel carbureted V8 in the SL/R 5000 L34, and SLR5000/SS A9X. There were many homologation changes over the four or so years of XU-1 production culminating in a special "Bathurst 1973" specification LJ XU-1.

The L34 was primarily an engine option on the lesser specification LH SL/R 5000 sedan; a factory HO pack providing an upgraded camshaft, Holley carb, and other race ready items was also available. The basic L34 also gained other homologation features such as improved brakes and wheel arch flares. The A9X was an option on the LX SLR5000 sedan and the LX SS hatchback (2-door) and unlike the L34 package was not an engine performance upgrade but a suspension, differential, and brake upgrade, as the L34 engine was already homologated for Group C use. Hence, the A9X had a basically standard 308ci engine.

Chrysler produced the R/T Valiant Charger
Valiant Charger
The Chrysler Valiant Charger is a muscle car introduced by Chrysler Australia in 1971. It was a short wheelbase two door coupe based on the concurrent Australian Chrysler Valiant sedan...

 from 1971 to 1973, when the R/Ts were discontinued; the dominant R/T models were the E38 and E49 with high-performance 265 CID Hemi engines featuring triple Weber carburetor
Weber carburetor
Weber is an Italian company producing carburetors, currently owned by Magneti Marelli Powertrain S.p.A., in turn part of the Fiat Group.The company was established as...

s.

Chrysler apparently considered a high-performance V8 program importing 338 340 CID V8 engines from the U.S. This high-performance project never went ahead, and the engines were subsequently fitted to the upmarket 770 model Charger. Initially, this model was designated "SE" E55 340 (V8) and only available with automatic transmission
Automatic transmission
An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

; with a model change to the VJ in 1973, the engine became an option, and the performance was lessened. All Chrysler performance Chargers were discontinued in 1974 with the end of high-performance, the 265 Hemi, and 340 V8 engines.

The Australian muscle car era is considered to have ended with the release of the Australian Design Rule regarding emissions in ADR27a in 1976. An exception to this rule was the small number of factory-built Bathurst 1000 homologation specials that were constructed after 1976; these are considered to be muscle cars. Examples of these homologation specials include the Torana A9X and the Bathurst Cobras.

Later homologation cars were built outside of the factory, many by the Holden Dealer Team
Holden Dealer Team
The Holden Dealer Team was Holden’s semi-official racing team from 1969 until 1987, primarily contesting Australian Touring Car events but also rallying, rallycross and sports sedans during the 1970s...

 (HDT) for track and road use. Although not regarded as true muscle cars, they quickly gained an enthusiastic following. The HDT program was under Peter Brock
Peter Brock
Peter Geoffrey Brock, AM otherwise known as "Peter Perfect", "The King of the Mountain" or simply as "Brocky" was one of Australia's best-known and most successful motor racing drivers. Brock was most often associated with Holden for almost 40 years, although he raced vehicles of other...

's direction and had approval from Holden.

Several highly modified high-performance road-going Commodores were produced through the early and mid 1980s. These "homologation specials" were produced to meet the Group A racing regulations. Models included the VC Group C, the VH SS Group III with a 0–100 km/h of 6.7 seconds, the Blue VK SS Group A, and the burgundy VL SS Group A. These vehicles are all individually numbered with only 4246 Brock HDT's made and are considered to be collectors' items.

The HDT Commodores are highly collectible muscle cars. Holden Dealer Team vehicles became more collectible following the death of Peter Brock
Peter Brock
Peter Geoffrey Brock, AM otherwise known as "Peter Perfect", "The King of the Mountain" or simply as "Brocky" was one of Australia's best-known and most successful motor racing drivers. Brock was most often associated with Holden for almost 40 years, although he raced vehicles of other...

, the team's principal, in 2006. Showroom-condition HDT cars are generating prices as high as $200,000 AU.

South Africa


In South Africa, Chevrolet placed the Z28 302 Chevrolet smallblock into a Vauxhall Viva
Vauxhall Viva
The Viva was a small family car produced by Vauxhall Motors in a succession of three versions between 1963 and 1979. These were known as the HA, the HB and the HC series....

 coupe bodyshell and called it the Firenza CanAm. Basil Green produced the 302 Windsor–powered Capri Perana. In addition, Australian HT and HG GTS Monaros (1969–71) were exported in CKD form and were given a new fascia and rebadged as the Chevrolet SS, which were sold until about 1973. Falcon GTs were also exported to South Africa and rebadged as Fairmont GTs. The Australian XW Falcon GT was called the 1970 Fairmont GT, and the XY Falcon GT was called the Fairmont GT. The Falcons were re-badged as Fairmonts because of the bad reputation of the American Falcons at the time. The Fairmonts were almost the same as their Australian cousins apart from a few cosmetic differences.

United Kingdom


Ford fitted V6 engines to the Dagenham-built 2944 cc Capri 3000GT
Ford Capri
Ford Capri was a name used by the Ford Motor Company for three different automobile models. The Ford Consul Capri coupé was produced by Ford of Britain between 1961 and 1964. The Ford Capri coupé was produced by Ford of Europe from 1969 to 1986...

 (designated 3000E in more luxurious trim) and the Capri 2600GT, which was produced at Ford's plant in Cologne. In Europe, GM responded with the six-cylinder Opel Commodore GTE Coupe. Based on the mid-size Opel Rekord, it matched the Fords for performance. Later, both Ford and Vauxhall
Vauxhall Motors
Vauxhall Motors is a British automotive company owned by General Motors and headquartered in Luton. It was founded in 1857 as a pump and marine engine manufacturer, began manufacturing cars in 1903 and was acquired by GM in 1925. It has been the second-largest selling car brand in the UK for...

 produced high-performance versions (known colloquially as Q-cars) of their family cars for the UK market.

North America


In the late 1980s, there was resurgence in ponycar popularity with the Chevrolet Camaro and the Ford Mustang, and in the early 1990s Fords SVT (Special Vehicle Team) program wanted to increase the power and performance. Ford’s 1995 SVT Cobra R was the first 300-horsepower vehicle, but was limited to 250 models. The GM and Ford market rivalry continued throughout the late 1990s, where Mustang Cobra and Camaro SS were both rated at 300+ horsepower for standard production models.

For larger cars available in the U.S., the full-size, 4-door Chevrolet Impala SS was available from 1994 to 1996 as a high-performance version of the Caprice
Chevrolet Caprice
The Chevrolet Caprice is a full-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors in North America for the 1965 through 1996 model years. Full-size Chevrolet sales peaked in 1965 with over a million sold. It was the most popular American car in the sixties and early seventies....

, equipped with a Corvette
Chevrolet Corvette
The Chevrolet Corvette is a sports car by the Chevrolet division of General Motors that has been produced in six generations. The first model, a convertible, was designed by Harley Earl and introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept show car. Myron Scott is credited for naming the car after...

-derived 5.7 L V8 LT1 engine and other specific performance features and body styling using the options found on the Caprice
Chevrolet Caprice
The Chevrolet Caprice is a full-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors in North America for the 1965 through 1996 model years. Full-size Chevrolet sales peaked in 1965 with over a million sold. It was the most popular American car in the sixties and early seventies....

 9C1 police package. The Impala SS nameplate was resurrected in 2003 as a high-performance version of the standard Impala with larger and/or supercharged engines. General Motors discontinued its F-body
GM F platform
The F platform, or F-body, was General Motors' small rear-wheel drive automobile platform from 1967 until 2002. It was based partially on the GM X platform, which was used for compact applications instead of the sporting intent of the F-Body. The only two vehicles to have been built using the...

 pony-car models, the Chevrolet Camaro
Chevrolet Camaro
The Chevrolet Camaro is an automobile manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand, classified as a pony car and some versions also as a muscle car. It went on sale on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year and was designed as a competing model to the Ford Mustang...

 and Pontiac Firebird
Pontiac Firebird
The Pontiac Firebird was built by the Pontiac division of General Motors between 1967 and 2002. The Firebird was introduced the same year as the automaker's platform-sharing model, the Chevrolet Camaro...

, after 2002, but brought back the GTO in 2004 as a rebadged Holden Monaro imported from Australia. Sales were poor and the "new" GTO was discontinued after three years. The Pontiac brand was eliminated after the 2010 model year. Ford's Special Vehicle Team also released the 2003 SVT Cobra, now supercharged, but stopped production after 2004 to make way for the new generation Mustang. For the 2012 model year, Ford brought back the Boss 302 with a 444 hp 5.0 V8.

For 2003 and 2004, Mercury
Mercury (automobile)
Mercury was an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company launched in 1938 by Edsel Ford, son of Henry Ford, to market entry-level luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors' Buick brand, and Chrysler's namesake brand...

 revived its Marauder
Mercury Marauder
The Marauder name first appeared as a 1963½ model in the full-size Mercury lineup. It was available as a 2-door hardtop with a forward-slanted "fastback" roofline; this was the reverse of the Breezeway roof introduced on other full-size Mercurys...

 nameplate as a high-performance version Mercury Grand Marquis
Mercury Grand Marquis
The Mercury Grand Marquis was a full-size rear-wheel drive sedan sold by the Lincoln-Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company; the Grand Marquis was the flagship of the Mercury lineup. The nameplate itself had been in use since 1975 as the premium trim level of the Mercury Marquis; the Grand...

, based on the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor
Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor
Though the name has been officially in use since 1992, the 1978–1991 full-size LTDs and LTD Crown Victorias and 1992 updated body style used the "P72" production code designation for both fleet/taxi and police models, with the model itself being internally classified as S...

. In 2005, a "retro-inspired" version of the pony car Ford Mustang drew its design cues from the original 1960s Mustangs. In 2007, Ford and Shelby also re-released a new G.T. 500, with Super Snake and King of the Road editions added in 2008. Saleen introduced a special edition echoing the Boss 302 Mustang
Boss 302 Mustang
The Boss 302 Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang originally produced in 1969 and 1970, but revived in the 2012 model year. It was produced for the Trans Am racing series, while the Mustang Boss 429 which was produced the same years was built around a larger engine.-First...

, naming it the "S302 Parnelli Jones" after the Trans-Am series driver from the 1960s and 1970s, Parnelli Jones. A subsequent similar model followed with Dan Gurney's namesake.

In 2004, Chrysler introduced their LX platform
Chrysler LX platform
The LX platform is Chrysler's full-size rear wheel drive automobile platform for the mid part of the first decade of the 21st century. The LX was developed in America from the previous Chrysler LH platform, which had been designed to allow it to be easily upgraded to rear and all-wheel drive...

 that served as the platform for a new line of rear-wheel drive, V8-powered cars (using the new Hemi engine
Chrysler Hemi engine
The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third...

), including a four-door version of the Dodge Charger
Dodge Charger (LX)
The Dodge Charger LX is a rear-wheel drive four-door automobile introduced in February 2005. Built by Chrysler for its North American Dodge brand, the car was created to continue the Dodge Charger line, and replaced the Dodge Intrepid as Dodge's full-size sedan...

. It was also available as a station wagon
Station wagon
A station wagon is a body style variant of a sedan/saloon with its roof extended rearward over a shared passenger/cargo volume with access at the back via a third or fifth door , instead of a trunk lid...

 (the Dodge Magnum
Dodge Magnum
The Dodge Magnum name has been used on a number of different automobiles. The most recent is a large rear-wheel drive station wagon introduced in 2004 for the 2005 model year and produced through to 2008. This new Magnum is Dodge's first car to use the new Chrysler LX platform, shared with the...

) and the performance of the new models equaled many of the vintage muscle cars. Dodge revived two "classic" model names with the Charger: Daytona in 2006 and the Dodge Charger Super Bee
Dodge Super Bee
The Dodge Super Bee was a limited-production muscle car from Dodge, produced from 1968-1971. The Super Bee model was resurrected for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 model Dodge Charger Super Bee.-1968–1970:...

 in 2007.

GM's Cadillac
Cadillac
Cadillac is an American luxury vehicle marque owned by General Motors . Cadillac vehicles are sold in over 50 countries and territories, but mostly in North America. Cadillac is currently the second oldest American automobile manufacturer behind fellow GM marque Buick and is among the oldest...

 division introduced the XLR
Cadillac XLR
The XLR was a retractable hardtop convertible marketed by the Cadillac division of General Motors, assembled in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Intended to be Cadillac's flagship sports car, the XLR was based on the Chevrolet Corvette's Y platform...

 roadster in 2004 that was produced alongside the Chevrolet Corvette
Chevrolet Corvette
The Chevrolet Corvette is a sports car by the Chevrolet division of General Motors that has been produced in six generations. The first model, a convertible, was designed by Harley Earl and introduced at the GM Motorama in 1953 as a concept show car. Myron Scott is credited for naming the car after...

 in GM's manufacturing plant in Bowling Green, Kentucky
Bowling Green, Kentucky
Bowling Green is the third-most populous city in the state of Kentucky after Louisville and Lexington, with a population of 58,067 as of the 2010 Census. It is the county seat of Warren County and the principal city of the Bowling Green, Kentucky Metropolitan Statistical Area with an estimated 2009...

. This led to the creation of the Cadillac V-series
Cadillac V-Series
The Cadillac V-Series is the name of high-performance vehicles tuned by the General Motors Performance Division for the Cadillac division of General Motors. Models in the V-Series include the CTS-V, the STS-V and the Cadillac XLR-V...

 for the luxury CTS
Cadillac CTS
The Cadillac CTS is a mid-size car manufactured by the Cadillac marque of General Motors currently available in three body styles: Sedan, Coupe, and Sport Wagon. It was introduced in 2002 as a sports sedan, replacing the Cadillac Catera. The CTS and the supercharged CTS-V variant have been named...

 sedan, sold as the CTS-V.

Muscle car revival


In 2004, Chrysler debuted the 300C as a 2005 model. Its styling was borrowed from the original 1957 300C model. In 2005, Ford, as a precursor of this movement, introduced the new Mustang designed to resemble the original 1964.5 model
Ford Mustang (first generation)
The first-generation Ford Mustang is the original pony car, manufactured by Ford Motor Company from 1964 until 1973.It was initially introduced as a hardtop and convertible with the fastback version put on sale the following year...

. In 2008, Chrysler re-introduced the Dodge Challenger, which has strong design links to the 1970 model (i.e. featuring long lines not seen in vehicles and quad headlights). In 2009, Chevrolet released the new Camaro which bears some resemblance to the 1969 model. In 2010, Dodge re-introduced the Charger as a 2011 model. The Charger was first reborn in 2006 as a muscle car with its own unique stylings; however, the 2011 version of the Charger took many styling cues from the 1968-70 Charger, thus making the new Charger look more original than the 2006-2010 model.

Australia


Australian Ford and Holden are currently producing high-performance vehicles. For instance, Holden has its SS and SSV Commodores and Utilities, and HSV has more powerful Holden-based versions and is currently producing a limited edition HSV W427-a Commodore fitted with the seven litre V8 from the C6 Corvette Z06. Ford Performance Vehicles
Ford Performance Vehicles
Ford Performance Vehicles is the Melbourne-based, premium performance vehicle partner of automobile manufacturer Ford Australia. The company, which is as a joint venture between Prodrive and Ford Australia, has produced a range of Ford based models under the FPV brand name since April...

 (FPV) turns out similarly uprated special versions of the Ford Falcon Sedan, the major difference being Ford offers a 360 hp turbocharged
Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or turbo , from the Greek "τύρβη" is a centrifugal compressor powered by a turbine that is driven by an engine's exhaust gases. Its benefit lies with the compressor increasing the mass of air entering the engine , thereby resulting in greater performance...

 4.0 litre I6 as well as their V8s. FPV are producing the GT 4-door Falcons—both Boss V8 and turbocharged sixes; the premier Fords are currently the BOSS V8 and F6 turbocharged inline 6.

Holden Special Vehicles
Holden Special Vehicles
Holden Special Vehicles is the officially designated performance vehicle partner of Australian automobile manufacturer Holden. Established in 1987 and based in Clayton, Victoria, the company modifies Holden models such as the Commodore, Caprice and Ute and markets them under the HSV brandname.-...

 currently produces high-performance versions of various rear-drive Holden Commodore sedans that are fitted with high-performance (400 hp) V8 engines. Vauxhall introduced the Monaro to the UK in 2004. This was a re-badged Holden Monaro fitted with a 5.7 litre Chevrolet Corvette engine, or in VXR form with the engine bored out to 6.0 litres. Sales were disappointing, however, and the car was withdrawn from the Vauxhall range in 2007.

Collectibility


The original "tire-burning" cars, such as the AMC Machine, Buick Gran Sport, Dodge Charger R/T, Ford Mustang, Oldsmobile 4-4-2, Plymouth GTX, and Pontiac GTO, are "collector's items for classic car lovers". Reproduction sheet metal parts and complete body shells are available.

United States


Motor Trend
Motor Trend
Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine. It first appeared in September 1949, issued by Petersen Publishing Company in Los Angeles, and bearing the tag line "The Magazine for a Motoring World". Petersen Publishing was sold to British publisher EMAP in 1998, who sold the former Petersen...

identified the following models as "musclecars" in 1965:
  • 1962–1965 Dodge Dart
    Dodge Dart
    The Dodge Dart is an automobile built by the Dodge division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1960-1976 in North America, with production extended to later years in various other markets. The Dart was introduced as a lower-priced, shorter wheelbase, full-size Dodge in 1960 and 1961, became a...

     413/426 Max Wedge/426 Hemi/Plymouth Fury
    Plymouth Fury
    The Plymouth Fury is an automobile which was produced by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1956 to 1978. The Fury was introduced as a premium-priced model designed to showcase the line, with the intent to draw consumers into showrooms....

     413/426 Max Wedge/426 Hemi
  • 1964–1965 Ford Thunderbolt 427
  • 1965–1969 Buick Skylark Gran Sport
  • 1965–1970 Dodge Coronet
    Dodge Coronet
    The Coronet was a full-size car from Dodge in the 1950s, initially the division's highest trim line but, starting in 1955, the lowest trim line. In the 1960s, the name was transferred to Dodge's mid-size entry.-1949:...

    /Plymouth Belvedere
    Plymouth Belvedere
    The Plymouth Belvedere was an American automobile produced by Plymouth from 1951-1970.-1951–1953:Introduced on March 31, the 1951 Plymouth Belvedere arrived as a two-door pillarless hardtop. It was Plymouth's first vehicle of such design and was built in response to Chevrolet's Bel Air...

     426-S
  • 1965 Chevrolet Chevelle Malibu SS
    Chevrolet Chevelle
    The Chevrolet Chevelle is a mid-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors in three generations for the 1964 through 1977 model years. Part of the GM A-Body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles include coupes, sedans,...

  • 1965–1967 Oldsmobile Cutlass 442
    Oldsmobile 442
    The Oldsmobile 442 was a muscle car produced by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. It was introduced as an option package for F-85 and Cutlass models sold in the United States beginning with the 1964 model year. It became a model in its own right from 1968 to 1971, then reverted to an...



Road & Track
Road & Track
Road & Track is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, and is published monthly. The editorial offices are located in Newport Beach, California.-History:...

identified the following models as "musclecars" in 1965:
  • 1964–1965 Pontiac Tempest Le Mans
    Pontiac Tempest
    The Pontiac Tempest was an entry-level compact produced by the Pontiac Motor Division of General Motors, introduced in September 1960 for the 1961 model year....

    /GTO
    Pontiac GTO
    The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It is considered an innovative, and now classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s...

  • 1965–1975 Buick Riviera Gran Sport
  • 1965–1969 Buick Skylark Gran Sport
  • 1965–1970 Dodge Coronet
    Dodge Coronet
    The Coronet was a full-size car from Dodge in the 1950s, initially the division's highest trim line but, starting in 1955, the lowest trim line. In the 1960s, the name was transferred to Dodge's mid-size entry.-1949:...

    /Plymouth Belvedere
    Plymouth Belvedere
    The Plymouth Belvedere was an American automobile produced by Plymouth from 1951-1970.-1951–1953:Introduced on March 31, the 1951 Plymouth Belvedere arrived as a two-door pillarless hardtop. It was Plymouth's first vehicle of such design and was built in response to Chevrolet's Bel Air...

     426-S
  • 1965 Chevrolet Chevelle Malibu SS
    Chevrolet Chevelle
    The Chevrolet Chevelle is a mid-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors in three generations for the 1964 through 1977 model years. Part of the GM A-Body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles include coupes, sedans,...

  • 1965–1967 Oldsmobile Cutlass 442
    Oldsmobile 442
    The Oldsmobile 442 was a muscle car produced by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. It was introduced as an option package for F-85 and Cutlass models sold in the United States beginning with the 1964 model year. It became a model in its own right from 1968 to 1971, then reverted to an...



Car and Driver
Car and Driver
Car and Driver is an American automotive enthusiast magazine. Its total circulation is 1.31 million. It is owned by Hearst Magazines, who purchased prior owner Hachette Filipacchi Media U.S. in 2011...

also created a list of the 10 Best muscle cars for its January 1990 issue. The magazine focused on the engines and included:
  • 1966–1967 Plymouth/Dodge
    Dodge
    Dodge is a United States-based brand of automobiles, minivans, and sport utility vehicles, manufactured and marketed by Chrysler Group LLC in more than 60 different countries and territories worldwide....

     intermediates
    Chrysler A platform
    Chrysler's A platform was the basis for smaller rear wheel drive cars in the 1960s. These cars are sometimes referred to as A-body cars.Cars using the A platform in various markets around the world include:* 1960-1976 Plymouth Valiant...

     with 426 Hemi
    Chrysler Hemi engine
    The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third...

  • 1968–1969 Plymouth/Dodge
    Dodge
    Dodge is a United States-based brand of automobiles, minivans, and sport utility vehicles, manufactured and marketed by Chrysler Group LLC in more than 60 different countries and territories worldwide....

     intermediates
    Chrysler A platform
    Chrysler's A platform was the basis for smaller rear wheel drive cars in the 1960s. These cars are sometimes referred to as A-body cars.Cars using the A platform in various markets around the world include:* 1960-1976 Plymouth Valiant...

     with 426 Hemi
    Chrysler Hemi engine
    The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third...

  • 1970–1971 Plymouth/Dodge
    Dodge
    Dodge is a United States-based brand of automobiles, minivans, and sport utility vehicles, manufactured and marketed by Chrysler Group LLC in more than 60 different countries and territories worldwide....

     intermediates
    Chrysler A platform
    Chrysler's A platform was the basis for smaller rear wheel drive cars in the 1960s. These cars are sometimes referred to as A-body cars.Cars using the A platform in various markets around the world include:* 1960-1976 Plymouth Valiant...

     with 426 Hemi
    Chrysler Hemi engine
    The Chrysler Hemi engine, known by the trademark Hemi, is a series of V8 engines built by Chrysler with a hemispherical combustion chamber. Three different types of Hemi engines have been built by Chrysler for automobiles: the first from 1951–1958, the second from 1964–1971, and the third...

  • 1966–1967 Chevy II SS327
  • 1966–1969 Chevrolet Chevelle
    Chevrolet Chevelle
    The Chevrolet Chevelle is a mid-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors in three generations for the 1964 through 1977 model years. Part of the GM A-Body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles include coupes, sedans,...

     SS396
  • 1968–1969 Chevy II Nova SS396
  • 1969 Ford Torino Cobra 428
    Ford Torino
    The Ford Torino is an intermediate automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. The car was named after the city of Turin , which is considered the Detroit of Italy...

  • 1969 Plymouth Road Runner
    Plymouth Road Runner
    The Plymouth Road Runner was a muscle car built by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation in the United States between 1968 and 1980. In 1968, the first muscle cars were, in the opinion of many, moving away from their roots as relatively cheap, fast cars as they gained options...

    /Dodge Super Bee
    Dodge Super Bee
    The Dodge Super Bee was a limited-production muscle car from Dodge, produced from 1968-1971. The Super Bee model was resurrected for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 model Dodge Charger Super Bee.-1968–1970:...

     440 Six Pack
  • 1970 Chevrolet Chevelle
    Chevrolet Chevelle
    The Chevrolet Chevelle is a mid-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors in three generations for the 1964 through 1977 model years. Part of the GM A-Body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles include coupes, sedans,...

     SS454
  • 1969 Pontiac GTO
    Pontiac GTO
    The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It is considered an innovative, and now classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s...

  • 1984-1987 Buick Grand National
  • 1983-1987 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS


Other muscle cars include the following:
Full-size muscle models
  • 1962-1970 Buick Wildcat
    Buick Wildcat
    In 1966 a one-year-only Wildcat "Gran Sport Performance Group" package could be ordered by selecting the "A8/Y48" option. Two engine choices were available. The single carb 425 CID/340 hp V8 was included in the base package price but a dual-carb set-up was also available at extra cost...

  • 1965-1974 Buick Riviera
    Buick Riviera
    The Riviera by Buick is an automobile produced by Buick in the United States from the 1963 to 1999 model years, with 1,127,261 produced.A full-size coupé or personal luxury car, the early models of the Riviera in particular have been highly praised by automotive journalists and writers.A common...

     GS until 1972, then Riviera GS Stage1 models
  • 1961-1976 Chevrolet Impala
    Chevrolet Impala
    The Chevrolet Impala is a full-size automobile built by the Chevrolet division of General Motors introduced for the 1958 model year. Deriving its name from the southern African antelope, Chevrolet's most expensive passenger model through 1965 had become the best-selling automobile in the United...

     SS until '69, then any high HP-engined models
  • 1958-1975 Chevrolet Bel Air
    Chevrolet Bel Air
    The Chevrolet Bel Air is a full-size automobile that was produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1950–1975 model years. Hardtops in the Chevrolet Deluxe Styleline model range were designated with the Bel Air name from 1950–1952, but it was not a distinct series of its own until...

  • 1958-1972 Chevrolet Biscayne
    Chevrolet Biscayne
    -Biscayne Fleetmaster:In 1960, a lower-priced, sparsely trimmed version of the Biscayne called the Fleetmaster was produced. Aimed primarily at the fleet market, the Fleetmaster included a lower grade of upholstery than the standard Biscayne and deleted routine convenience items such as a cigarette...

  • 1965-1976 Chevrolet Caprice
    Chevrolet Caprice
    The Chevrolet Caprice is a full-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors in North America for the 1965 through 1996 model years. Full-size Chevrolet sales peaked in 1965 with over a million sold. It was the most popular American car in the sixties and early seventies....

  • 1959-1975 Ford Galaxie
    Ford Galaxie
    The Ford Galaxie was a full-size car built in the United States by the Ford Motor Company for model years 1959 through 1974. The name was used for the top models in Ford’s full-size range from 1959 until 1961, in a marketing attempt to appeal to the excitement surrounding the Space Race...

  • 1962-1967 Mercury S-55
    Mercury S-55
    Mercury, a division of the Ford Motor Company added the S-55, a full-size performance / luxury vehicle to its S or "Special" line in 1962. The S-55 was first available from 1962 to 19631/2. The S-55 was not available from mid-1963 to 1965. The S-55 was re-introduced in 1966 as its own model...

     (1964 and 1965 badged as a Marauder)
  • 1959-1974 Mercury Monterey
    Mercury Monterey
    The Monterey was introduced in 1950 as a high-end two-door coupe in the same vein as the Ford Crestliner, the Lincoln Lido coupe and the Lincoln Cosmopolitan Capri coupe. The reason was to offer a more luxurious coupe as the FoMoCo still not had any hard top. The Mercury line got a styling redesign...

  • 1960-1973 Dodge Polara
    Dodge Polara
    The Dodge Polara was an automobile introduced in the United States for the 1960 model year as Dodge's top-of-the-line full-size car; after the introduction of the Dodge Custom 880 in 1962, the Polara nameplate designated a step below the full sized best trimmed Dodge model; the Polara that year had...


Mid-size muscle models
  • 1970–1971 AMC Rebel
    AMC Rebel
    The AMC Rebel is a mid-size car produced by American Motors Corporation from 1967 to 1970. It replaced the Rambler Classic. The Rebel was replaced by the similar AMC Matador for the 1971 model year...

     and Matador
    AMC Matador
    The AMC Matador is a mid-size car that was built and sold by American Motors Corporation from 1971 to 1978. The Matador came in two generations: 1971 to 1973 and a major redesign from 1974 to 1978...

     The Machine
  • 1968–1969 Buick Gran Sport
    Buick Gran Sport
    The Buick Gran Sport or GS was a high-performance option package available on a number of Buick models, including the Riviera, Skylark, Century and Wildcat. A special version of one model was given the package's name as its model name....

  • 1970–1974 Buick GSX
  • 1965–1973 Chevrolet Chevelle
    Chevrolet Chevelle
    The Chevrolet Chevelle is a mid-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors in three generations for the 1964 through 1977 model years. Part of the GM A-Body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles include coupes, sedans,...

     SS
  • 1966–1974 Dodge Charger
    Dodge Charger (B-body)
    The Dodge Charger was a mid-size automobile produced by Dodge. The 1966-1974 Chargers were based on the Chrysler B platform. The 1975-1978 Chargers were based on the Chrysler Cordoba.-Origin of the Charger:...

  • 1968–1971 Dodge Super Bee
    Dodge Super Bee
    The Dodge Super Bee was a limited-production muscle car from Dodge, produced from 1968-1971. The Super Bee model was resurrected for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 model Dodge Charger Super Bee.-1968–1970:...

  • 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona
    Dodge Charger Daytona
    Dodge, an American automobile brand, has produced three separate vehicles with the name Dodge Charger Daytona, all of which were modified Dodge Chargers. The name is taken from Daytona Beach, Florida, which was an early center for auto racing and still hosts the Daytona 500, one of NASCAR's premier...

  • 1966–1969 Ford Fairlane GT, GTA, and Cobra
    Ford Fairlane
    - Automobiles :* Ford Fairlane , a car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company between 1955 and 1970* Ford Fairlane , a car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company of Australia between 1959 and 2007- See also :...

  • 1968–1974 Ford Torino
    Ford Torino
    The Ford Torino is an intermediate automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. The car was named after the city of Turin , which is considered the Detroit of Italy...

     (GT, Cobra, and Talladega
    Ford Torino Talladega
    The Ford Torino Talladega was a car produced by the Ford Motor Company during the first few weeks of 1969, only. Ford's Talladega was actually named after the Talladega Superspeedway racetrack in Alabama, which also made its debut in 1969. The Ford Talladega was a special, more aerodynamic,...

    )
  • 1966-1972 Mercury Cyclone
    Mercury Cyclone
    The Mercury Cyclone was produced from 1964 to 1971, beginning as an option for the 1964 Mercury Comet, and continuing as a Mercury Comet Cyclone until 1968 when the Comet part of the name was dropped, and it became the Mercury Cyclone. After 1971 it became the "performance" model of Mercury Montego...

  • 1970-1971 Mercury Montego
    Mercury Montego
    The Mercury Montego was a mid-size vehicle in the Mercury line of Ford Motor Company from 1968 to 1976. The namplate first appeared in 1967 in Canada as part of the Mercury-derived Meteor line. After 1976, the basic design of the Montego was updated and the nameplate disappeared as the Cougar...

  • 1968–1971 Oldsmobile 442
    Oldsmobile 442
    The Oldsmobile 442 was a muscle car produced by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. It was introduced as an option package for F-85 and Cutlass models sold in the United States beginning with the 1964 model year. It became a model in its own right from 1968 to 1971, then reverted to an...

  • 1969 Oldsmobile Cutlass
    Oldsmobile Cutlass
    The Oldsmobile Cutlass is a line of automobiles made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. The Cutlass began as a unibody compact car, but saw its greatest success as a body-on-frame intermediate car....

     "Ram-Rod" 350
  • 1970 Oldsmobile Cutlass
    Oldsmobile Cutlass
    The Oldsmobile Cutlass is a line of automobiles made by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. The Cutlass began as a unibody compact car, but saw its greatest success as a body-on-frame intermediate car....

     W-31
  • 1967–1971 Plymouth GTX
    Plymouth GTX
    The Plymouth GTX was introduced as the Belvedere GTX in 1967 by the Plymouth division to be a "gentleman's" muscle car.It's most notable appearance in modern popular culture is in the television series Angel, in which the title character drove a black 1967 model.-1967:It was to be an exceptional...

  • 1968–1974 Plymouth Road Runner
    Plymouth Road Runner
    The Plymouth Road Runner was a muscle car built by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation in the United States between 1968 and 1980. In 1968, the first muscle cars were, in the opinion of many, moving away from their roots as relatively cheap, fast cars as they gained options...

  • 1970 Plymouth Superbird
    Plymouth Superbird
    The short-lived Plymouth Road Runner Superbird was a highly modified version of the Plymouth Road Runner with well known graphics and horn. It was the factory's follow up stock car racing design for the 1970 season to the Dodge Charger Daytona of 1969, and incorporated many engineering changes and...

  • 1964–1974 Pontiac GTO
    Pontiac GTO
    The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It is considered an innovative, and now classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s...


Compact muscle models
  • 1969 AMC SC/Rambler
  • 1971 AMC Hornet
    AMC Hornet
    The AMC Hornet was a compact automobile made by the American Motors Corporation in one generation beginning with the 1970 model year and continuing through the 1977 model year. The Hornet replaced the compact Rambler American marking the end of the Rambler marque in the American and Canadian markets...

     SC 360
  • 1963–1974 Chevrolet Nova
    Chevrolet Nova
    The Chevrolet Chevy II/Nova is a compact automobile manufactured by the Chevrolet division of General Motors produced in four generations for the 1962 through 1979 model years. Nova was the top model in the Chevy II lineup through 1968. The Chevy II nameplate was dropped, Nova becoming the...

     SS
  • 1968–1976 Dodge Dart
    Dodge Dart
    The Dodge Dart is an automobile built by the Dodge division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1960-1976 in North America, with production extended to later years in various other markets. The Dart was introduced as a lower-priced, shorter wheelbase, full-size Dodge in 1960 and 1961, became a...

     GT, GTS, Swinger, and Demon
  • 1970–1976 Plymouth Duster
    Plymouth Duster
    The first Plymouth Duster was a semi-fastback version of the Plymouth Valiant automobile, produced in the US from 1970 to 1976.The Duster name was later revived for optional trim packages on certain versions of the 1979-1980 Plymouth Volare, 1985-1987 Plymouth Turismo, and 1992-1994 Plymouth...

  • 1964-1969 Ford Falcon
  • 1970-1976 Ford Maverick
    Ford Maverick (North America)
    The Ford Maverick was a compact car manufactured from April 1969-1977 in the United States, Canada, Mexico and from 1973-1979 in Brazil — employing a rear wheel drive platform dating to the original 1960 Falcon...

     Grabber
  • 1964-1975 Mercury Comet
    Mercury Comet
    The Mercury Comet is an automobile produced by the Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company from 1960–1969 and 1971-1977 — variously as either a compact or an intermediate car.The Comet was based on the compact Ford Falcon and later the Ford Maverick...


Pony car muscle models
  • 1968–1970 AMC AMX
    AMC AMX
    The AMC AMX is a two-seat GT in style and approach sports car that was produced by American Motors Corporation for the 1968 through 1970 model years. The AMX was also classified as a muscle car, but "unique among other American cars at the time due its short wheelbase"...

  • 1968-1974 AMC Javelin
    AMC Javelin
    The Javelin was a production version of one of the AMC AMX prototypes shown during the 1966 AMX project nationwide tour. Intended to rival other pony cars such as the Ford Mustang and Chevrolet Camaro. American Motor's Javelin debuted on 22 August 1967, for the 1968 model year...

     and AMX
  • 1967-1974 Chevrolet Camaro
    Chevrolet Camaro
    The Chevrolet Camaro is an automobile manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand, classified as a pony car and some versions also as a muscle car. It went on sale on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year and was designed as a competing model to the Ford Mustang...

     Z/28 & SS
  • 1970–1974 Dodge Challenger
    Dodge Challenger
    The Dodge Challenger is the name of three different generations of automobiles marketed by the Dodge division of Chrysler.The first generation Dodge Challenger was a pony car built from 1970 to 1974, using the Chrysler E platform and sharing major components with the Plymouth Barracuda. The second...

  • 1965-1970 Shelby Mustang
    Shelby Mustang
    The Shelby Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang which was built by Shelby American from 1965 through 1970. Following the introduction of the fifth generation Ford Mustang, the Shelby nameplate was revived in 2007 for new high performance versions of the Mustang.- 1965–1966 :The...

     GT350 & GT500
  • 1967-1971 Mustang
    Ford Mustang
    The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

     Cobra Jet
  • 1969-1973 Mustang Mach 1
    Ford Mustang Mach 1
    The Ford Mustang Mach 1 was a performance model of the Ford Mustang that Ford produced beginning in 1969. The original production run of the Mach 1 ended in 1979 because the Mustang II coupe was being phased out in favor of newer Mustangs on the Fox body platform.The Mach 1 returned in 2003 as a...

  • 1969-1970 Boss 302 Mustang
    Boss 302 Mustang
    The Boss 302 Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang originally produced in 1969 and 1970, but revived in the 2012 model year. It was produced for the Trans Am racing series, while the Mustang Boss 429 which was produced the same years was built around a larger engine.-First...

  • 1969-1970 Mustang
    Ford Mustang
    The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

     Boss 429
    Boss 429
    The Boss 429 was a high performance Ford Mustang variant offered in 1969 and 1970.-Overview:The Boss 429 is arguably one of the rarest and most valued muscle cars to date. In total there were 859 original Boss 429s made. The origin of the Boss 429 comes about as a result of NASCAR...

  • 1971 Mustang
    Ford Mustang
    The Ford Mustang is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. It was initially based on the second generation North American Ford Falcon, a compact car. Introduced early on April 17, 1964, as a "1964½" model, the 1965 Mustang was the automaker's most successful launch since the Model A...

     Boss 351
  • 1969-1970 Mercury Cougar
    Mercury Cougar
    The Mercury Cougar is an automobile which was sold under the Mercury brand of the Ford Motor Company's Lincoln-Mercury Division from 1967 to 2002. The name was first used in 1967 and was carried by a diverse series of cars over the next three decades. As is common with Mercury vehicles, the Cougar...

     Eliminator
  • 1964–1974 Plymouth Barracuda
    Plymouth Barracuda
    The Plymouth Barracuda is a 2-door car that was manufactured by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1964-1974.The first-generation Barracuda, a fastback A-body coupe based on the Plymouth Valiant, had a distinctive wraparound back glass and was available from 1964-1966.The...

  • 1967-1979 Pontiac Firebird
    Pontiac Firebird
    The Pontiac Firebird was built by the Pontiac division of General Motors between 1967 and 2002. The Firebird was introduced the same year as the automaker's platform-sharing model, the Chevrolet Camaro...

     & Trans Am

Muscle trucks
  • 1965-1987 Chevrolet El Camino
    Chevrolet El Camino
    The Chevrolet El Camino is a coupe utility vehicle produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1959–1960 model years in response to the success of its rival, Ford Ranchero. Production resumed for the 1964–1977 model years based on the Chevelle platform, and continued for the...

     SS
  • 1967-1979 Ford Ranchero
    Ford Ranchero
    The Ford Ranchero was a coupe utility produced between 1957 and 1979. Unlike a pickup truck, the Ranchero was adapted from a two-door station wagon platform that integrated the cab and cargo bed into the body. A total of 508,355 units were produced during the model's production run...

  • 1971-1977 GMC Sprint
  • 1978-1987 GMC Caballero
    GMC Caballero
    The GMC Sprint is a coupe utility that was produced by the GMC division of General Motors for the 1971–1977 model years. The Sprint was renamed Caballero for the 1978 model year and was produced through 1987. The rear-wheel-drive car based pick-ups were sold by GMC Truck dealers mainly in the...



Australia


Chrysler

VH model
  • 1971-1972 Charger R/T E37 (101 built)
  • 1971-1972 Charger R/T E38 - 280 bhp - 3 Speed Gearbox (Track pack and Big tank were options and a fully blueprinted engine) (316 built)
  • 1972-1973 Charger R/T E48 (2 built)
  • 1972-1973 Charger R/T E49 - 302 bhp - 4 Speed Gearbox (Track pack and Big tank were options and a fully blueprinted engine) (149 built)
  • 1972-1973 Charger S/E E55 - 275 bhp - 727 Torqueflite Auto (340 cubic inch Chrysler LA engine) (124 built)
  • 1969-1971 Valiant Hardtop (318 or 360ci V8s)


VJ model (R/T nomenclature dropped) were:
  • 1973-1974 Charger E48 (169 built)
  • 1973 Charger E49 (4 built)
  • 1973-1974 Charger 770 E55 (212 built)


Ford
  • 1967 XR Falcon GT (289)
  • 1968 XT Falcon GT (302)
  • 1969–1970 XW Falcon GT (351)
  • 1969–1970 XW Falcon/Fairmont GS 302 and 351
  • 1969 XW Falcon GTHO Phase I (351W)
  • 1970 XW Falcon GTHO Phase II (351C)
  • 1970-1971 XY Falcon/Fairmont GS 302 and 351
  • 1970-1971 XY Falcon GT (351)
  • 1971 XY Falcon Phase III GTHO (351)
  • 1972 XA Falcon Phase IV GTHO 4-door (only four made: three prototypes, one production) (351)
  • 1972–1973 XA Falcon GT hardtop coupe/4 Door Sedan (351)
  • 1972–1973 XA Falcon GS Hardtop/Sedan/Ute (302, 351)
  • 1973 XA Falcon Superbird (302)
  • 1973–1976 XB Falcon GT hardtop coupe/4 Door Sedan (351)
  • 1973–1976 XB Falcon/Fairmont GS Hardtop/Sedan/Ute (302, 351)
  • 1974–1975 XB Falcon John Goss Special (302)
  • 1976-1979 XC Fairmont GXL (302C or 351C as the desirable GT Power-pack Option)
  • 1978 XC Falcon Cobra 5.8, Bathurst Homologation
  • 1979 XD Fairmont Ghia ESP (302C, 351C)
  • 1982-84 XE Fairmont Ghia ESP (302C, 351C)


Holden
  • 1968–1969 HK Monaro GTS (327)
  • 1969–1970 HT Monaro GTS (350)
  • 1970–1971 HG Monaro GTS (350)
  • 1971–1974 HQ Monaro GTS (350)
  • 1974–1976 HJ Monaro GTS (308)
  • 1970–1971 LC Torana GTR XU-1 (186)
  • 1972–1973 LJ Torana GTR XU-1 (202)
  • 1974–1976 LH Torana SL/R 5000 (308)
  • 1974 LH Torana SL/R 5000 L34 (308)
  • 1976–1978 LX Torana SL/R 5000 (308)
  • 1976–1978 LX Torana SS (308)
  • 1977 LX Torana SL/R 5000 A9X (308)
  • 1977 LX Torana SS A9X (308)


Leyland
  • P76 "Force Seven". This was a coupe version of the Leyland P76, and the company's answer to the Holden Monaro GTS, Ford Falcon GT and Chrysler Valiant Charger. The company ran into financial difficulties and ceased Australian production before the 3-door Force Seven could be released. The eight completed examples were sold at auction.

Brazil


Chevrolet
General Motors do Brasil
General Motors do Brazil is the largest subsidiary of the General Motors in South America and the second largest operation outside the United States. In 2005 it completed 80 years of operation in Brazil...

  • 1971-1975 1st generation Opala SS
    Chevrolet Opala
    The Chevrolet Opala was a mid-size car sold by General Motors do Brasil from 1969 to 1992. It was derived from the German Opel Rekord and Commodore, but used GM USA sourced engines, two four-cylinder engines: the Chevrolet 153 4-cylinder from Chevy II/Nova which later got a new crankshaft and...

     with engine 250 I6
  • 1975-1979 2nd generation Opala SS
    Chevrolet Opala
    The Chevrolet Opala was a mid-size car sold by General Motors do Brasil from 1969 to 1992. It was derived from the German Opel Rekord and Commodore, but used GM USA sourced engines, two four-cylinder engines: the Chevrolet 153 4-cylinder from Chevy II/Nova which later got a new crankshaft and...

     with engine 250-S I6
  • 1979-1980 3rd generation Opala SS
    Chevrolet Opala
    The Chevrolet Opala was a mid-size car sold by General Motors do Brasil from 1969 to 1992. It was derived from the German Opel Rekord and Commodore, but used GM USA sourced engines, two four-cylinder engines: the Chevrolet 153 4-cylinder from Chevy II/Nova which later got a new crankshaft and...

     with engine 250-S I6
  • 1976-1979 1st generation Caravan SS
    Chevrolet Opala
    The Chevrolet Opala was a mid-size car sold by General Motors do Brasil from 1969 to 1992. It was derived from the German Opel Rekord and Commodore, but used GM USA sourced engines, two four-cylinder engines: the Chevrolet 153 4-cylinder from Chevy II/Nova which later got a new crankshaft and...

  • 1980 2nd generation Caravan SS
    Chevrolet Opala
    The Chevrolet Opala was a mid-size car sold by General Motors do Brasil from 1969 to 1992. It was derived from the German Opel Rekord and Commodore, but used GM USA sourced engines, two four-cylinder engines: the Chevrolet 153 4-cylinder from Chevy II/Nova which later got a new crankshaft and...



Ford
Ford do Brasil
Ford do Brasil is a subsidiary of American automaker Ford Motor Company, founded on April 24, 1919. The operation started out importing the Ford Model T cars and the Ford Model TT trucks in kit form from the US for assembly in Brazil...

  • 1971-1975 1st generation Maverick GT
    Ford Maverick (North America)
    The Ford Maverick was a compact car manufactured from April 1969-1977 in the United States, Canada, Mexico and from 1973-1979 in Brazil — employing a rear wheel drive platform dating to the original 1960 Falcon...

     302 V8
  • 1975-1979 2nd generation Maverick GT
    Ford Maverick (North America)
    The Ford Maverick was a compact car manufactured from April 1969-1977 in the United States, Canada, Mexico and from 1973-1979 in Brazil — employing a rear wheel drive platform dating to the original 1960 Falcon...

     302 V8
  • 1966-1971 Galaxie 500 289 V8
  • 1971-1980 LTD Landau
    Ford Landau
    For information on the Australian Ford Landau see Ford Landau Launched at the 1970 São Paulo Auto Show, the Ford Landau was a full-size car, manufactured in Brazil from 1971 until 1983 by the Ford Motor Company at their São Paulo facility. It became Ford's flagship in that country. It was based on...

     302 V8
  • 1980-1983 Landau
    Ford Landau
    For information on the Australian Ford Landau see Ford Landau Launched at the 1970 São Paulo Auto Show, the Ford Landau was a full-size car, manufactured in Brazil from 1971 until 1983 by the Ford Motor Company at their São Paulo facility. It became Ford's flagship in that country. It was based on...

     302 V8


Dodge
  • 1969-1975 Dart 318 V8
  • 1971-1979 1st generation Charger R/T 318 V8 (1969 Dart modified sold under the name of Charger)
  • 1980 2nd generation Charger R/T 318 V8 (1976 Dart modified sold under the name of Charger)


Puma
Puma (car)
Puma was a Brazilian specialist car manufacturer which built cars from 1967 until roughly 1997. High import tariffs effectively closed Brazil during much of this period to foreign-built cars...

  • 1975-1979 GTB S1
    Puma GTB
    The Puma GTB was a front engine, rear wheel drive touring car based on Brazilian GM components. A prototype named the Puma GTO appeared in 1971. The name was changed to Puma GTB for the first production version which appeared in 1973. Registers confirm that the Puma GTB was Brazil's most...

  • 1980-1988 GTB S2
    Puma GTB
    The Puma GTB was a front engine, rear wheel drive touring car based on Brazilian GM components. A prototype named the Puma GTO appeared in 1971. The name was changed to Puma GTB for the first production version which appeared in 1973. Registers confirm that the Puma GTB was Brazil's most...

  • 1988-1994 AMV
    Puma GTB
    The Puma GTB was a front engine, rear wheel drive touring car based on Brazilian GM components. A prototype named the Puma GTO appeared in 1971. The name was changed to Puma GTB for the first production version which appeared in 1973. Registers confirm that the Puma GTB was Brazil's most...



Santa-Matilde
  • 1979-1988 SM4.1
    Santa Matilde
    The Santa Matilde, or SM4.1, is a sports car designed and produced in Brazil by Cia. Industrial Santa Matilde between 1977 and 1997.- Conception :...


External links