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Monterrey is the capital city of the northeastern state of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
Nuevo León It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S...

 in the country of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. The city is anchor to the third-largest metropolitan area
Metropolitan areas of Mexico
Metropolitan areas in Mexico have been traditionally defined as the group of municipalities that heavily interact with each other, usually around a core city...

 in Mexico and is ranked as the ninth-largest city in the nation. Monterrey serves as a commercial center in the north of the country and is the base of many significant international corporations. Until recently, the city had long been regarded as the safest in Mexico and one of the safest in Latin America. Furthermore, Monterrey is Mexico's second richest city, and the world's 63rd richest, with an economy that had a 2008 GDP of USD $102 billion. Monterrey is one of Mexico's most developed cities, with the highest per capita income in the nation, and is regarded as a highly developed city. Although rich in history and culture, Monterrey is often regarded as the most "Americanized" city in entire country, even above the cities along the U.S-Mexico border.

Monterrey as an important industrial and business center hosts an array of Mexican
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 companies, including Pemex
Pemex
Petróleos Mexicanos or Pemex is a Mexican state-owned petroleum company. As of 2010, with a total asset worth of $415.75 billion, it is the second non-publicly listed largest company in the world by total market value, and Latin America's second largest enterprise by annual revenue as of 2009...

, Lanix Electronics
Lanix
Lanix is a Mexican electronics company based in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. It is Mexico's largest domestically owned electronics company, and sells a wide array of both consumer and professional electronics...

, CEMEX
Cemex
CEMEX is the world's largest building materials supplier and third largest cement producer. Founded in Mexico in 1906, the company is based in Monterrey, Mexico...

, Vitro, Zonda Telecom
Zonda Telecom
Zonda Telecom is a Mexican Telecommunications company founded in Guadalajara, Jalisco, in 1968 as a Television manufacturer.This company has several manufacturing plants in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, which manufacture its own products as well as manufacture electronic products for other...

, Mercedes-Benz-Valdez
Mercedes-Benz Mexico
Mercedes Benz Mexico S.A. de C.V. is a subsidiary of Daimler AG headquartered in Mexico City. It's commercial vehicle branches, Daimler Vehiculos Comerciales, S. de R.L. de C.V.; Freightliner Vehiculos Comerciales, S. de R.L. de C.V and International Vehiculos Comerciales, S. de R.L. de C.V. are...

, OXXO
OXXO
OXXO is a primarily-franchised chain of convenience stores from Mexico, with over 7,000 stores across Latin America. It is the largest chain of this kind of store in Mexico. It is wholly owned by the beverage company FEMSA...

, Mastretta
Mastretta
Mastrettadesign Tecnoidea SA de CV is a Mexican car maker and design studio established by Mexican industrial designer Daniel Mastretta in Mexico City in 1987. Mastretta under Tecnoidea and Unidiseño brands has previously developed a small number of kit cars, but the 2010 MXT is the first fully...

, BMW de Mexico
BMW
Bayerische Motoren Werke AG is a German automobile, motorcycle and engine manufacturing company founded in 1916. It also owns and produces the Mini marque, and is the parent company of Rolls-Royce Motor Cars. BMW produces motorcycles under BMW Motorrad and Husqvarna brands...

, Mabe
Mabe Mexico
Mabe is a global company which designs, produces, and distributes appliances to more than 70 countries around the world. The company was incorporated in 1946 in Mexico City. Mabe was initially dedicated to manufacture kitchen furniture. In the 1950s, Mabe began manufacturing various appliances...

 Grupo Bimbo
Grupo Bimbo
Grupo Bimbo is the largest Mexican food company and the largest bakery in the world with brands in Americas, Europe, and China.-History:Grupo Bimbo was established in Mexico in 1945 by Lorenzo Servitje, Jose T. Mata, Jaime Sendra, and Jaime Jorba...

, Zihuatanejo Jet Engines S.A. de C.V.
Zihuatanejo
Zihuatanejo or Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo, is the fourth-largest city in the Mexican state of Guerrero. Politically the city belongs to the municipality of Zihuatanejo de Azueta in the western part of Guerrero, but both are commonly referred to as Zihuatanejo...

 DINA S.A.
DINA S.A.
DINA is a Mexican automotive producer of heavy duty and specialty trucks, urban buses, armored military vehicles and intercity coaches...

, Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
Cuauhtémoc-Moctezuma Brewery is a major brewery based in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, founded in 1890...

 (Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma), formerly fully owned by FEMSA
FEMSA
FEMSA is the largest beverage company in Mexico and in Latin America and as of September 2011 also the largest independent Coca-Cola bottler in the world. FEMSA originated as the Cuauhtémoc Brewery in 1890, which, through debt management, was restructured as FEMSA in 1988...

 now jointly owned with Heineken
Heineken
Heineken is a Dutch beer which has been brewed by Heineken International since 1873. It is available in a 4.6% alcohol variety in countries such as Ireland. It is the flagship product of the Heineken company and is made of purified water, malted barley, hops, and yeast. In 1886 H...

 and Alestra Telecommunications
ALFA (Mexico)
ALFA is a Mexican conglomerate composed of four business groups: Alpek , Nemak , Sigma Alimentos and Alestra ....

. Monterrey is also home to international companies such as Sony
Sony
, commonly referred to as Sony, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan and the world's fifth largest media conglomerate measured by revenues....

, Toshiba
Toshiba
is a multinational electronics and electrical equipment corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is a diversified manufacturer and marketer of electrical products, spanning information & communications equipment and systems, Internet-based solutions and services, electronic components and...

, Carrier
Carrier Corporation
The Carrier Corporation is one of the world’s largest manufacturers and distributors of heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, and a global leader in the commercial refrigeration and food service equipment industry...

, Whirlpool, Samsung
Samsung
The Samsung Group is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea...

, Toyota, Hummer
Hummer
Hummer was a brand of trucks and SUVs, first marketed in 1992 when AM General began selling a civilian version of the M998 Humvee. In 1998, General Motors purchased the brand name and marketed three vehicles: the original Hummer H1, based on the Humvee; and the H2 and H3 models that were...

, Daewoo
Daewoo
Daewoo or the Daewoo Group was a major South Korean chaebol . It was founded on 22 March 1967 as Daewoo Industrial and was dismantled by the Korean government in 1999...

, Ericsson
Ericsson
Ericsson , one of Sweden's largest companies, is a provider of telecommunication and data communication systems, and related services, covering a range of technologies, including especially mobile networks...

, Nokia
Nokia
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

, Dell
Dell
Dell, Inc. is an American multinational information technology corporation based in 1 Dell Way, Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells and supports computers and related products and services. Bearing the name of its founder, Michael Dell, the company is one of the largest...

, Boeing
Boeing
The Boeing Company is an American multinational aerospace and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters has been in Chicago, Illinois since 2001...

, HTC, General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

, Gamesa, LG
LG
LG may refer to:*LG Corp., a South Korean electronics and petrochemicals conglomerate*LG Electronics, an affiliate of the South Korean LG Group which produces electronic products* Lawrence Graham, a London headquartered firm of business lawyers...

, SAS Institute
SAS Institute
SAS Institute Inc. , headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig...

 and Teleperformance
Teleperformance
Teleperformance is a French customer service, technical support, call center and debt collection company with headquarters in Paris, France.The company operates in around 50 countries, including UK, Brazil, Chile, India, Philippines, China , Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Norway, Italy, USA, Costa...

, among others.

Monterrey is located in northeast Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, at the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.-Setting:Spanning the Sierra Madre Oriental runs from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, and Hidalgo to northern Puebla, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico...

. The recorded history of Monterrey starts in 1596, with its founding by Diego de Montemayor
Diego de Montemayor
Diego de Montemayor was a Spanish explorer, officer, and the second governor of Nuevo Leon. He was born in Spain, probably in Málaga or Old Castile, to Juan Montemayor and Mayor Hernández....

. In the years after the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

, Monterrey became an important business center. With the establishment of Fundidora Monterrey
Fundidora Park
-History and location:This urban sustainable park is geolocated inside the former Monterrey Foundry Property with an area of . The Monterrey Foundry operated from 1900 until its bankruptcy in 1986...

, the city experienced industrial growth.

History

See also articles in the category History of Monterrey


Prehispanic history


Prior to the European foundation of the city, there was no established nation state, and the population instead consisted of some indigenous semi-nomad
Nomad
Nomadic people , commonly known as itinerants in modern-day contexts, are communities of people who move from one place to another, rather than settling permanently in one location. There are an estimated 30-40 million nomads in the world. Many cultures have traditionally been nomadic, but...

 groups that are collectively called
Chichimecas. Carved stone and cave painting
Cave painting
Cave paintings are paintings on cave walls and ceilings, and the term is used especially for those dating to prehistoric times. The earliest European cave paintings date to the Aurignacian, some 32,000 years ago. The purpose of the paleolithic cave paintings is not known...

 in surrounding mountains and caves have allowed historians to identify four major groups in present-day Monterrey:
Azalapas, Huachichiles, Coahuiltecos and Borrados.

Foundation


In the 16th century, the valley in which Monterrey is located was known as the Extremadura Valley, an area largely unexplored by the Spanish colonizers. The first expeditions and colonization attempts were led by Alberto del Canto
Alberto del Canto
Alberto del Canto was a Portuguese soldier and explorer. He was born Alberto do Canto, on Terceira Island, Azores. During the colonization of America, Canto explored the northeastern part of Mexico, and founded several cities, such as Saltillo, of which he was the first mayor...

, naming the city Santa Lucia, but were unsuccessful because the population was attacked by the natives and fled. The Spanish expeditionary Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva negotiated with King Philip II
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

 of Spain to establish a territory in northern New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

, which would be called Nuevo León
Nuevo León
Nuevo León It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S...

, the "New Kingdom of León
New Kingdom of León
The New Kingdom of León , was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire, politically ruled by the Viceroyalty of New Spain. It was located in an area corresponding generally to the present-day northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León.-Origins:...

". In 1580 he arrived in the newly granted lands but it was not until 1582 that he established a settlement called San Luis Rey de Francia within present-day Monterrey. The New Kingdom of León extended westwards from the port of Tampico
Tampico
Tampico is a city and port in the state of Tamaulipas, in the country of Mexico. It is located in the southeastern part of the state, directly north across the border from Veracruz. Tampico is the third largest city in Tamaulipas, and counts with a population of 309,003. The Metropolitan area of...

 to the limits of Nueva Vizcaya
Nueva Vizcaya, New Spain
Nueva Vizcaya was the first province in the north of New Spain to be explored and settled by the Spanish. It consisted mostly of the area which is today the states of Chihuahua and Durango in Mexico.-Early exploration and the Viceroyalty:...

 ("New Vizcaya", now State of Chihuahua), and around 1,000 kilometers northwards. For eight years Nuevo León was abandoned and uninhabited, until a third expedition of thirteen families led by Diego de Montemayor
Diego de Montemayor
Diego de Montemayor was a Spanish explorer, officer, and the second governor of Nuevo Leon. He was born in Spain, probably in Málaga or Old Castile, to Juan Montemayor and Mayor Hernández....

 founded Ciudad Metropolitana de Nuestra Señora de Monterrey ("Metropolitan City of Our Lady of Monterrey") on September 20, 1596, next to a water spring called Ojos de Agua de Santa Lucia, where the Museum of Mexican History and Santa Lucía Riverwalk
Santa Lucia Riverwalk
The Santa Lucia Riverwalk is an artificial river located in the Mexican city of Monterrey, Nuevo León.- History :Construction of the river began in 1996, but for economic reasons was stopped for nine years. In 2005, construction continued and was finished in 2007...

 are now located.

During the years of Spanish rule, Monterrey remained a small city, and its population varied from a few hundred to only dozens. The city was a place that facilitated trade between San Antonio (now in Texas), Tampico
Tampico
Tampico is a city and port in the state of Tamaulipas, in the country of Mexico. It is located in the southeastern part of the state, directly north across the border from Veracruz. Tampico is the third largest city in Tamaulipas, and counts with a population of 309,003. The Metropolitan area of...

 and from Saltillo
Saltillo
Saltillo is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 400 km south of the U.S. state of Texas, and 90 km west of Monterrey, Nuevo León....

 to the center of the country. Tampico's port brought many products from Europe, while Saltillo concentrated the Northern Territories' trade with the capital, Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

. San Antonio was the key trade point with the northern foreign colonies (British and French).

After Mexican Independence (19th century)


In the 19th century, after the Mexican Independence War, Monterrey rose as a key economic center for the newly formed nation, especially due to its balanced ties between Europe (with its connections to Tampico), the United States (with its connections to San Antonio), and the capital (through Saltillo). In 1824, the "New Kingdom of León" became the State of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
Nuevo León It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S...

, and Monterrey was selected as its capital. However, the political instability that followed the first 50 years of the new country allowed two American invasions and an internal secession war, during which the Governor of the State annexed the Coahuila
Coahuila
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico...

 and Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

 states, designating Monterrey as the capital of the enlarged state.

In 1846, the earliest large-scale engagement of the Mexican-American War took place in the city, known as the Battle of Monterrey
Battle of Monterrey
In the Battle of Monterrey during the Mexican-American War, General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North was defeated by U.S...

. Mexican forces were forced to surrender but only after successfully repelling US forces during the first few advances on the city. The battle inflicted high casualties on both sides, much of them resulting from hand-to-hand combat within the walls of the city center.

Most of the generals in the Mexican War against France
French intervention in Mexico
The French intervention in Mexico , also known as The Maximilian Affair, War of the French Intervention, and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by an expeditionary force sent by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain...

 were natives of the city, including Mariano Escobedo
Mariano Escobedo
Mariano Escobedo was a Mexican Army general and former Governor of Nuevo León.He was born on January 16, 1826 in Galeana, Nuevo León. He fought during the Mexican American War in the army with the rank of lieutenant...

, Juan Zuazua and Jerónimo Treviño.

Contemporary history



During the last decade of the 19th century, the city of Monterrey was linked by railroad, which benefitted industry. It was during this period that José Eleuterio González
José Eleuterio González
Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez Mendoza was born on the 20th of February 1813 in the city of Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico. His father was Matías Gonzalez, an officer of the Royalist Army and his mother was Josefa Mendoza de Gonzalez When Gonzalez Mendoza was 5 years old his father was killed in the...

 founded the University Hospital
University hospital
A university hospital is an institution which combines the services of a hospital with the education of medical students and with medical research. These hospitals are typically affiliated with a medical school or university...

 which is now one of the best public hospitals in the northeast of Mexico, and serves as medical school support to the School of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Nuevo León (UANL)
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
The Autonomous University of Nuevo León is a public university with seven campuses across the Northern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Founded as University of Nuevo León on 25 September 1933, it is the oldest and largest university in the state in terms of student population and it is currently...

. Antonio Basagoiti and other citizens founded the Fundidora de Fierro y Acero de Monterrey, in 1900, a steel-producing company that accelerated the already fast industrialization of the city and became one of the world's biggest of its time. In 1986, several official games of the 1986 FIFA World Cup
1986 FIFA World Cup
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June. The tournament was the second to feature a 24-team format. Colombia had been originally chosen to host the competition by FIFA but, largely due to economic reasons, was not able to do so and officially...

 were hosted.

In 1988, Hurricane Gilbert
Hurricane Gilbert
Hurricane Gilbert was an extremely powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that formed during the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season and created widespread destruction in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It is the second most intense hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin behind only...

 caused great damage to the city; the Santa Catarina River overflowed, causing about 100 deaths and economic damage.

The city has hosted international events such as the 2002 United Nations Conference on Financing for Development
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 with the participation of more than 50 heads of state and government, as well as other ministers and senior delegates from over 150 countries. The conference resulted in the adoption of the Monterrey Consensus
Monterrey Consensus
The Monterrey Consensus was the outcome of the 2002 Monterrey Conference, the United Nations International Conference on Financing for Development. in Monterrey, Mexico. It was adopted by Heads of State and Government on 22 March 2002. Over fifty Heads of State and two hundred Ministers of Finance,...

, which has become one relevant reference point for international development and cooperation. In 2004, the OAS
Organization of American States
The Organization of American States is a regional international organization, headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States...

 Special Summit of the Americas
Monterrey Special Summit of the Americas
The Special Summit of the Americas was held on January 12 and 13, 2004 in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.This summit is part of the Summit of the Americas initiative which is carried on by the Organization of American States with the purpose of bringing together the Heads of State and Government in...

 was attended by almost all the presidents of the Americas.

In 2007, Monterrey held the Universal Forum of Cultures
2007 Universal Forum of Cultures
The Universal Forum of Cultures Monterrey 2007 was an international civil-society event that took place in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, starting on September and ending in December of mentioned year...

 with four million visitors.In 2008, Monterrey held the FINA World Junior Championships.

In 2010, Monterrey was hit by another damaging storm, Hurricane Alex. Alex was considered worse than Hurricane Gilbert
Hurricane Gilbert
Hurricane Gilbert was an extremely powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that formed during the 1988 Atlantic hurricane season and created widespread destruction in the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. It is the second most intense hurricane ever observed in the Atlantic basin behind only...

, with record breaking rain bringing floods, and causing severe economic damage. Damage estimates totaled $1.885 billion USD, and in $16.9 billion MXN. After this event the city is under reconstruction and urban renewal. Recently, the project Nuevo León Development Plan 2030 was presented, along with some other metropolitan projects.

In August 2011 the city was the scene of a terror attack, in which more than 50 people were killed. This was the first big conflict of rivaling drug gangs in the city that had been so far spared.

Governance



Monterrey and its metropolitan area
Monterrey Metropolitan area
The Monterrey metropolitan area refers to the surrounding urban agglomeration of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Officially called Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Monterrey or AMM, the metropolitan area is the 3rd-largest such area in Mexico....

 are municipalities each of them governed by a democratically elected Presidente Municipal (Municipal President) or Mayor for a period of three years with no right to reelection. The political environment is one of civility and in the last decade political parties have been alternating office. The current Mayor of Monterrey
Municipal president of Monterrey
List of governors and municipal presidents of Monterrey...

 is Fernando Larrazábal
Fernando Larrazábal Bretón
Fernando Larrazábal Bretón is a Mexican politician born in Oaxaca who has served as mayor of San Nicolás and was a member of Nuevo León's Congress in 2009. He is the municipal president of Monterrey.-Personal life and education:...

.

The City Council of Monterrey (
Cabildo de Monterrey) is an organ integrated by the Mayor, the Regidores and the Síndicos. The Mayor is the executor of the determinations of the City Council and the person directly in charge of the public municipal administration. The Regidores represent the community and their mission is to collectively define the city policies in all the subjects affecting it. The Síndicos are in charge of watching and legally defending the city interests, as well as in charge of watching the City Treasury status and the municipal patrimony.

The political parties with representation in the city are the Institutional Revolutionary Party or PRI
Institutional Revolutionary Party
The Institutional Revolutionary Party is a Mexican political party that held power in the country—under a succession of names—for more than 70 years. The PRI is a member of the Socialist International, as is the rival Party of the Democratic Revolution , making Mexico one of the few...

, the National Action Party or PAN
National Action Party (Mexico)
The National Action Party , is one of the three main political parties in Mexico. The party's political platform is generally considered Centre-Right in the Mexican political spectrum. Since 2000, the President of Mexico has been a member of this party; both houses have PAN pluralities, but the...

, the Party of the Democratic Revolution or PRD
Party of the Democratic Revolution
The Party of the Democratic Revolution is a democratic socialist party in Mexico and one of 2 Mexican affiliates of the Socialist International...

, the Labor Party or PT
Labor Party (Mexico)
The Labor Party is a nationally recognized political party in Mexico. It was founded on December 8, 1990. The party is currently led by Alberto Anaya....

, the Green Party, Convergence, Socialdemocratic Party and Nueva Alianza.

Public safety



In 2005, Monterrey was ranked as the safest city in Latin America and Mexico, and one of the two safest in 2006. However, since 2008 the city has experienced violence related to turf battles between warring drug cartels in Mexico. The year 2010 has been the most violent in history. Drug dealers are a major concern, although military offensives and police captures of important drug-cartel chiefs have weakened drug cartels trying to settle in the city. The city is safe to travel by day and night; nevertheless, precaution and common sense should be considered in certain districts at night.

There are two police departments guarding the city, the Police of the City of Monterrey (locally known as the Policía Regia), dependent of the municipal government, and the State Public Safety. The Policía Regia protects the city's downtown and main areas, while the State Public Safety is in charge of the farthest areas.

Geography


The city of Monterrey is located at 25°40′N 100°18′W, and 530 metres (1,738.8 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

 in the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
Nuevo León It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S...

. The Santa Catarina River—dry most of the year on the surface but with flowing underground water—bisects Monterrey from East to West, thus separating the city into north and south halves.

Monterrey is adjoined to San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that...

, García
García, Nuevo León
García is a municipality located to the northwest of the Monterrey metropolitan area in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. García had, according to the 2005 census, a population of 51,658 persons...

 and General Escobedo
General Escobedo
General Escobedo, or simply Escobedo, is a city and municipality in Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. As of the census of 2005, the population was 295,131 in the city and 299,364 in the municipality...

 to the north; Guadalupe
Guadalupe, Nuevo León
Guadalupe is a city and surrounding municipality located in the state of Nuevo León, in northern Mexico. It is part of the Greater Monterrey Metropolitan area....

, Juárez
Juárez, Nuevo León
Ciudad Benito Juárez, or simply Juárez, is the name of a city located in the eastern part of the Monterrey metropolitan area in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. It is the seat of the municipality of the same name. Ciudad Benito Juárez had a 2005 census population of 78,644 persons and is the...

 and Cadereyta Jiménez
Cadereyta Jiménez
Cadereyta Jiménez is both the name of a city as well as of a municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León.The municipality of Cadereyta Jiménez is located in the central part of the state, 360 meters above sea level, at 25' 36" N latitude and 100' 00" W longitude. The municipality has a...

 to the east; Villa de Santiago to the south; and San Pedro Garza García
San Pedro Garza García
San Pedro Garza García is a city-municipality of the Mexican state of Nuevo León and is part of Monterrey's Metropolitan Area, based on the suburban North American model...

 and Santa Catarina
Santa Catarina, Nuevo León
Santa Catarina is a city and municipality in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.-History:The name of this city comes from the Catholic Saint Catherine of Alexandria....

 to the west.

Monterrey lies north of the foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.-Setting:Spanning the Sierra Madre Oriental runs from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, and Hidalgo to northern Puebla, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico...

 mountain range
Mountain range
A mountain range is a single, large mass consisting of a succession of mountains or narrowly spaced mountain ridges, with or without peaks, closely related in position, direction, formation, and age; a component part of a mountain system or of a mountain chain...

. A small hill, the Cerro del Topo
Cerro del Topo Chico
Cerro del Topo Chico is an inactive volcano located in the western portion of the city of San Nicolás de los Garza and within the northern limits of the Monterrey metropolitan area .The gray areas depicted on the photos are limestone quarries from which raw material is extracted to manufacture...

 and the smaller Topo Chico
Cerro del Topo Chico
Cerro del Topo Chico is an inactive volcano located in the western portion of the city of San Nicolás de los Garza and within the northern limits of the Monterrey metropolitan area .The gray areas depicted on the photos are limestone quarries from which raw material is extracted to manufacture...

 are located in the suburbs of San Nicolás de los Garza and Escobedo. West of the city rises the Cerro de las Mitras
Cerro de las Mitras
Cerro de las Mitras , named for its distinctive miter-shaped structures at the very top viewed from the northern side, is another symbol of the landscape of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Located in the cities of Monterrey, Santa Catarina and García....

 (Mountain of the Mitres), which resemble the profile of several bishops with their mitre
Mitre
The mitre , also spelled miter, is a type of headwear now known as the traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops and certain abbots in the Roman Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Communion, some Lutheran churches, and also bishops and certain other clergy in the Eastern Orthodox...

s.

Cerro de la Silla
Cerro de la Silla
Cerro de la Silla , named for its distinctive saddle-shaped profile when viewed from the west, is a famous symbol of the landscape of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Even though the mountain itself is located in the adjacent city of Guadalupe, it is widely associated to the city of Monterrey,...

 (Saddle Mountain) dominates the view east of the city. Cerro de la Loma Larga
Cerro de la Loma Larga
Cerro de la Loma Larga , or Loma Larga located in the Monterrey, Nuevo León metropolitan area is a lower extension of the Sierra Madre Oriental, in particular an eastern extension of Cerro de las Mitras.The hill has long been considered the natural division of the now adjacent cities of Monterrey...

—South of the Santa Catarina river—separates Monterrey from the suburb of San Pedro Garza García. At the summit of the Cerro del Obispado
Cerro del Obispado
The Cerro del Obispado is a famous landmark in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, named after the building constructed in the middle of the hill by the end of the 18th century....

, north of the river, is the historic Bishopric Palace
Cerro del Obispado
The Cerro del Obispado is a famous landmark in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, named after the building constructed in the middle of the hill by the end of the 18th century....

, site of one of the most important battles of the Mexican-American War.

Natural areas



The mountains surrounding Monterrey contain many canyons, trails and roads that cross deserts and forests. Suitable trails are available to the general public. The Sierra Madre Oriental mountains south of the city are included in the "Parque Nacional Cumbres de Monterrey" (National Park), which was added to UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Program of Biosphere Reserves in 2006.

Cumbres de Monterrey includes:
  • Parque Ecológico Chipinque, which contains forested areas (oak and oak-pine mainly).
  • La Estanzuela state park, about 7 km (4 mi) south of Monterrey, a river and forested area.
  • La Huasteca, west of the city, in the municipality of Santa Catarina
    Santa Catarina, Nuevo León
    Santa Catarina is a city and municipality in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.-History:The name of this city comes from the Catholic Saint Catherine of Alexandria....

    .
  • El Potrero Chico Climbing Area
    Potrero Chico
    El Potrero Chico is an internationally renowned rock climbing area in the Mexican state of Nuevo León, 3 km outside the town of Hidalgo. Long a destination for rock-climbers from around the world, Climbers from Austin, Texas, notably, Jeff Jackson, Kevin Gallahger, and Alex Catlin, along with...

    , north east of the city, in the municipality of Hidalgo
    Hidalgo, Nuevo León
    Hidalgo is a town of approximately 20,000 people, in the Mexican state of Nuevo León.The major cement company Cemex began operations here, and still has an operating factory. Increasingly, the neighbouring El Potrero Chico climbing area draws rock-climbers from around the world....

    .


Climate


Monterrey is known for its hot weather in summer reaching 40 °C (104 °F) or more for three consecutive months, being one of the warmest major cities in Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

.

Monterrey has a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 BSh). Its weather is temperate in spring and autumn and is hot in the summer. The average high in August is 35 °C (95 °F) and the average low is 23 °C (73.4 °F). Winters are mild. The average January high is 20 °C (68 °F) and the average low in January is 10 °C (50 °F); temperatures below freezing are rare. Rainfall is scarce, but more prominent during May through September. Monterrey is very extreme in weather change, sometimes reaching 30 °C (86 °F) in January and February, despite the fact that these are the coldest months. Most extreme weather change occurs with rainfall in summer, which changes extreme heat to cooler temperatures, and the absence of northern winds in winter, sometimes causing extreme or abnormally high temperatures. Seasons are not well defined, the warm season can start in February and last until September. Snow is a very rare event, although an accumulation of 20 inches (51 cm) in 8 hours occurred in January 1967. The most recent snowfall was in December 2004. Several sleet and ice events have occurred during January 2007, December 2009, January and February 2010 and February 2011, caused by temperatures around -5 °C. In April and May 2011 temperatures reached 45 °C (113 °F) or more, causing fires and extreme heat in the city, despite the fact that these months are in spring. During June 30 – July 2 of 2010, Monterrey was hit by the worst natural disaster in the city's history when Hurricane Alex delivered more than 23 inches of rain around 72 hours with areas reaching up to 1 meter of rain during that same period destroying homes, avenues, highways and infrastructure leaving up to 200,000 families without water for a week or more. The amount of water that fell is equivalent to the average precipitation for a year period. This was about 3–4 times as much rain as when Hurricane Gilbert arrived to the city on September 15, 1988. The death toll of Hurricane Alex was estimated to be around 20.

Cityscape


Monterrey has several neighborhoods. Most populous include:
  • Independencia
    Independencia, Monterrey
    Independencia is a neighborhood in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico.Independencia is one of the oldest and poorest neighborhoods in Monterrey. In 2009 Tracy Wilkinson of the Los Angeles Times recalled seeing many dogs and donkeys in the street. As of that year unemployment was common. Independencia...

  • Cumbres and its different sectors
  • Obispado
  • Contry
  • Mitras Centro, Norte & Sur
  • San Jerónimo
  • San Bernabé
  • Valle Alto
    Valle Alto (Monterrey)
    Valle Alto is an exclusive suburb in the metropolitan city of Monterrey, the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Nuevo León. Also tied economically speaking with San Pedro Garza García, the city is a modern business center. The suburb of Valle Alto has population of 75,000, within a...

  • Valle
  • Vista Hermosa
  • Anáhuac

Demographics

Monterrey
population by year
1798 7,000
1833 13,645
1846 15,000
1852 13,534
1862 14,534
1869 14,000
1881 40,000
1890 41,700
1900 62,266
1910 78,528
1921 88,479
1930 132,577
1940 206,152
1950 375,040
1960 708,399
1970 1,246,181
1990 2,213,711
1995 2,516,658
2005 3,864,331
2010 4,080,329
*Note: Figures from 1970–2010, include
municipalities of Monterrey metropolitan area
References:


According to the national INEGI population census of 2010, of the total population of the state of Nuevo León
Nuevo León
Nuevo León It is located in Northeastern Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Tamaulipas to the north and east, San Luis Potosí to the south, and Coahuila to the west. To the north, Nuevo León has a 15 kilometer stretch of the U.S.-Mexico border adjacent to the U.S...

, 87.3% lived in the Monterrey metropolitan area.

The Monterrey metropolitan area
Monterrey Metropolitan area
The Monterrey metropolitan area refers to the surrounding urban agglomeration of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Officially called Area Metropolitana de la Ciudad de Monterrey or AMM, the metropolitan area is the 3rd-largest such area in Mexico....

 is the third most populous city in Mexico with more than 4 million. It is composed of the adjoined municipalities of Monterrey, Apodaca
Apodaca
Apodaca is a city and its surrounding municipality that is part of Monterrey Metropolitan area. It lies in the northeastern part of the metropolitan area. As of the 2005 census, the city had a population of 393,195 and the municipality had a population of 418,784. The municipality has an area of...

, Escobedo
General Escobedo
General Escobedo, or simply Escobedo, is a city and municipality in Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. As of the census of 2005, the population was 295,131 in the city and 299,364 in the municipality...

, García
García, Nuevo León
García is a municipality located to the northwest of the Monterrey metropolitan area in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. García had, according to the 2005 census, a population of 51,658 persons...

, Guadalupe
Guadalupe, Nuevo León
Guadalupe is a city and surrounding municipality located in the state of Nuevo León, in northern Mexico. It is part of the Greater Monterrey Metropolitan area....

, Santiago, Juárez
Juárez, Nuevo León
Ciudad Benito Juárez, or simply Juárez, is the name of a city located in the eastern part of the Monterrey metropolitan area in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. It is the seat of the municipality of the same name. Ciudad Benito Juárez had a 2005 census population of 78,644 persons and is the...

, San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that...

, San Pedro Garza García
San Pedro Garza García
San Pedro Garza García is a city-municipality of the Mexican state of Nuevo León and is part of Monterrey's Metropolitan Area, based on the suburban North American model...

, and Santa Catarina
Santa Catarina, Nuevo León
Santa Catarina is a city and municipality in the state of Nuevo León, Mexico that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area.-History:The name of this city comes from the Catholic Saint Catherine of Alexandria....

.

Transportation


See also articles in the category: Transportation in Monterrey

Monterrey is connected with the USA border
United States–Mexico border
The United States–Mexico border is the international border between the United States and Mexico. It runs from Imperial Beach, California, and Tijuana, Baja California, in the west to Matamoros, Tamaulipas, and Brownsville, Texas, in the east, and traverses a variety of terrains, ranging from major...

, the sea and inland Mexico through different roads, including the Carretera Nacional
Mexican Federal Highway 85
Mexico's Federal Highway 85 connects Mexico City with the U.S. border at Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas. It is the original route of the Inter-American Highway. Highway 85 runs through Monterrey, Nuevo León; Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas; Ciudad Valles, San Luis Potosí; and Pachuca, Hidalgo...

 (also known as the Panamerican Highway) that runs from Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo is a city located in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Río Grande, across from the United States city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo...

 to Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 and south, and the Carretera Interoceánica
Mexican Federal Highway 40
Mexican Federal Highway 40, also called the "Carretera Interoceánica" is a road beginning at Reynosa, Tamaulipas, and ending at Mazatlán, Sinaloa, at the Pacific coast...

 connecting Matamoros
Matamoros, Tamaulipas
Matamoros, officially known as Heroica Matamoros, is a city in the northeastern part of Tamaulipas, in the country of Mexico. It is located on the southern bank of the Rio Grande, directly across the border from Brownsville, Texas, in the United States. Matamoros is the second largest and second...

 with the port of Mazatlán
Mazatlán
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa; the surrounding municipio for which the city serves as the municipal seat is Mazatlán Municipality. It is located at on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California peninsula.Mazatlán is a Nahuatl word meaning...

 on the Pacific; it is also crossed by highways 40, 45, 57. The divided highway Monterrey-Saltillo
Saltillo
Saltillo is the capital city of the northeastern Mexican state of Coahuila and the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name. The city is located about 400 km south of the U.S. state of Texas, and 90 km west of Monterrey, Nuevo León....

-Matehuala-Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 is the main land corridor to interior Mexico.

There are several between-cities bus lines at the bus station downtown. There are arrivals and departures into deeper Mexico, to the U.S. border and into the United States.

Monterrey is also connected by at least three important railroad freight lines: Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo
Nuevo Laredo is a city located in the Municipality of Nuevo Laredo in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas. The city lies on the banks of the Río Grande, across from the United States city of Laredo, Texas. The 2010 census population of the city was 373,725. Nuevo Laredo is part of the Laredo-Nuevo...

-Mexico City, Monterrey-Tampico, and Monterrey-Pacific (Mazatlán
Mazatlán
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa; the surrounding municipio for which the city serves as the municipal seat is Mazatlán Municipality. It is located at on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California peninsula.Mazatlán is a Nahuatl word meaning...

).

The city has a rapid transit system called Metrorrey, which currently has 2 lines.

The city is served by two international airports: General Mariano Escobedo International Airport
General Mariano Escobedo International Airport
General Mariano Escobedo International Airport is an international airport located in Apodaca, Nuevo León, Mexico. Together with Del Norte International Airport, General Mariano Escobedo International Airport handles domestic and international operations for the city of Monterrey and its...

 (served by major international carriers and moving more than 6.5 million passengers in 2007) and Del Norte International Airport
Del Norte International Airport
Del Norte International Airport is an airport located in Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, working as a secondary airport for Mexico's third largest city, Monterrey....

, a primarily private airport.

Monterrey is linked through frequent non-stop flights to many Mexican cities and to key United States hubs (Atlanta, Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Houston-Intercontinental, JFK/New York, and Las Vegas). Monterrey is the second most important city for the operating routes of Aeroméxico
Aeroméxico
Airways of Mexico, SA de CV , operating as Aeroméxico, is the flag carrier airline of Mexico based in Colonia Cuauhtémoc, Cuauhtémoc, Mexico City. It operates scheduled domestic and international services to North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean, Europe, and Asia...

.

Five airlines have their operational bases and headquarters in Monterrey, Aviacsa
Aviacsa
Consorcio Aviaxsa, S.A. de C.V., doing business as Aviacsa, is a low-cost airline of Mexico with its headquarters in Hangar 1 of Zone C on the property of Mexico City International Airport in Venustiano Carranza, Mexico City, Mexico...

, Aeroméxico Connect, VivaAerobus and Magnicharters
Magnicharters
Grupo Aereo Monterrey S.A. de C.V., doing business as Magnicharters, is a airline with its headquarters in Colonia Juárez, Cuauhtémoc, Mexico City, operating domestic holiday flights out of Mexico City International Airport.-History:...

. There is no public transportation from Monterrey International Airport to the city. However, a cartel
Cartel
A cartel is a formal agreement among competing firms. It is a formal organization of producers and manufacturers that agree to fix prices, marketing, and production. Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve homogeneous products...

 of taxi services link the airport with the city and charge around $20 US for a one-way ride to the city. From this airport, there is a bus shuttle to nearby Saltillo. Inter-city bus services run daily into the interior, as well as north to the US border and points beyond.

Health


Monterrey generally has a very high ranked medical infrastructure with some internationally acclaimed hospitals,
including three with Joint Commission accreditation
the Joint Commission is a private healthcare accreditation group. There are both public and private hospitals. The Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS)
Mexican Social Security Institute
The Mexican Social Security Institute is a governmental organization that attends to public health, pensions and social security in Mexico operating under Secretaría de Salud .-History:...

 has two major regional hospitals in the city, the Specialties Regional Hospital # 33 and the Gynecology and Obsterics Regional Hospital, serving also the northeastern states of Coahuila
Coahuila
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico...

 and Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

. Several smaller IMSS hospitals can be found such as the Traumatology and Orthopedics Hospital and the General Hospital # 25. State government owns the Metropolitan Hospital, located in the suburb of San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza
San Nicolás de los Garza, sometimes known only as San Nicolás, is a city and coextensive municipality in the Mexican state of Nuevo León that is part of the Monterrey Metropolitan area. It has become primarily a city for residencies and family houses, although it still has several factories that...

 and the Hospital of the Children and Mother Care in Guadalupe
Guadalupe, Nuevo León
Guadalupe is a city and surrounding municipality located in the state of Nuevo León, in northern Mexico. It is part of the Greater Monterrey Metropolitan area....

 suburb.

The Autonomous University of Nuevo León runs the public University Hospital, with a high-level shock-trauma unit and a specialized clinic for child cancer treatment. It is recognized as the best public hospital in the northeast of Mexico and the UANL School of Medicine as one of the best in the country. On the other hand the Tecnológico de Monterrey runs the Hospital San José-Tec de Monterrey private hospital.

Monterrey has healthcare standards above the average for Mexico. It has several hospitals, including Hospital Cima (formerly Santa Engracia) of the International Hospital Corporation. Its convenient location, low prices and quality of medical care have made of Monterrey a very popular medical tourism
Medical tourism
Medical tourism is a term initially coined by travel agencies and the mass media to describe the rapidly-growing practice of travelling across international borders to obtain health care...

 destination for United States patients.

Economy




Monterrey is a major industrial center in northern Mexico, producing a GDP of 78.5 billion US dollars (2006). The city's GDP per capita in 2010 was $607,042 Mexican pesos or $46,634 US dollars. The city was rated by Fortune
Fortune (magazine)
Fortune is a global business magazine published by Time Inc. Founded by Henry Luce in 1930, the publishing business, consisting of Time, Life, Fortune, and Sports Illustrated, grew to become Time Warner. In turn, AOL grew as it acquired Time Warner in 2000 when Time Warner was the world's largest...

magazine in 1999 as the best city in Latin America for business and is currently ranked third best by the América Economía
América Economía
América Economía is a Latin American magazine founded in 1986 by Chilean Elías Selman and Swedish Nils Strandberg.The 1980s was considered the lost decade in Latin America but Selman and Strandberg decided to take risk and create the first Latin American business magazine.Since 1986 AméricaEconomía...

 magazine.

Because of its strong steel industry, it is often called "the Pittsburgh of Mexico". The city has prominent positions in sectors such as steel, cement, glass, auto parts, and brewing. The city's economic wealth has been attributed in part to its proximity with the United States-Mexican border and economic links to the United States.

Industrialization was accelerated in the mid 19th century by the Compañia Fundidora de Fierro y Acero Monterrey, a steel-processing company. Today, Monterrey is home to transnational conglomerates such as Cemex
Cemex
CEMEX is the world's largest building materials supplier and third largest cement producer. Founded in Mexico in 1906, the company is based in Monterrey, Mexico...

 (the world's third largest cement company), FEMSA
FEMSA
FEMSA is the largest beverage company in Mexico and in Latin America and as of September 2011 also the largest independent Coca-Cola bottler in the world. FEMSA originated as the Cuauhtémoc Brewery in 1890, which, through debt management, was restructured as FEMSA in 1988...

 (Coca-Cola Latin America), Alfa
ALFA (Mexico)
ALFA is a Mexican conglomerate composed of four business groups: Alpek , Nemak , Sigma Alimentos and Alestra ....

 (petrochemicals, food, telecommunications and auto parts), Axtel
Axtel
Axtel , is a Mexican telecommunications company, headquartered in Monterrey, that provides telecommunication products and services in Mexico...

 (telecommunications), Vitro (glass), Selther
Selther
SELTHER is a transnational Mexican company active in the mattress and bedding industry. At present Selther is one of the leaders in Mexico and Latin America in the mattress industry.SELTHER was established in Mexico City in 1970 with a small production unit...

 (leading mattress and rest systems firm in Latin America), Gruma
Gruma
Gruma is the largest manufacturer of corn flour and tortillas in the world. Its brand names include Mission , Maseca, and Guerrero. Founded in 1949 as "Molinos Azteca, S.A.", the company is now based in Monterrey, Mexico and has subsidiaries in the United States, China, England, Central America,...

 (food), and Banorte
Banorte
Banorte is a major bank in Mexico, based in Monterrey. Banorte is ranked in the 84th place out of 100 in the 2007 Great Place to Work List for Mexico.-History:...

 (financial services). The FEMSA
FEMSA
FEMSA is the largest beverage company in Mexico and in Latin America and as of September 2011 also the largest independent Coca-Cola bottler in the world. FEMSA originated as the Cuauhtémoc Brewery in 1890, which, through debt management, was restructured as FEMSA in 1988...

 corporation owned a large brewery, the Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
Cuauhtémoc-Moctezuma Brewery is a major brewery based in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, founded in 1890...

 (Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma) that produces the brands Sol, Tecate, Indio, Dos Equis and Carta Blanca among others, in the beginning of the year Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery was sold to Dutch-based company Heineken
Heineken
Heineken is a Dutch beer which has been brewed by Heineken International since 1873. It is available in a 4.6% alcohol variety in countries such as Ireland. It is the flagship product of the Heineken company and is made of purified water, malted barley, hops, and yeast. In 1886 H...

. By the end of the same year, there were more than 13,000 manufacturing
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 companies, 55,000 retail stores, and more than 52,000 service firms in Monterrey.

The metals sector, dominated by iron and steel, accounted for 6 percent of manufacturing GNP
GNP
Gross National Product is the market value of all products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the residents of a country...

 in 1994. Mexico's steel industry is centered in Monterrey, where the country's first steel mills opened in 1903. Steel processing plants in Monterrey, privatized in 1986, accounted for about half of Mexico's total steel output in the early 1990s.

Monterrey was ranked 94th worldwide and fifth in Latin America in terms of Quality of Life according to Mercer Human Resource Consulting (2006), and was ranked second in 2005 and fourth in 2006, according to America Economia.

Some of the shopping malls in the city include Paseo San Pedro
Paseo San Pedro
Paseo San Pedro is a small, high-fashion shopping mall in Monterrey, Mexico, located in San Pedro Garza García, in the intersection of Avenida Gómez Morín, Avenida José Vasconcelos, and Calzada del Valle, in front of Los Tubos...

, Plaza Fiesta San Agustín
Plaza Fiesta San Agustín
Plaza Fiesta San Agustín is one of the largest shopping malls in Mexico, and the largest located in the metropolitan area of Monterrey. Founded in 1988, it has grown to include shops and department stores dedicated to over 150 commercial activities....

, Galerías Monterrey
Galerías Monterrey
Galerías Monterrey was the first shopping mall in Monterrey, Mexico. Founded in 1983 with Liverpool, it has grown to attract upscale fashion stores, restaurants, and movie theaters.-External links:*...

, and Galerías Valle Oriente
Galerías Valle Oriente
Galerías Valle Oriente is a regional fashion mall in Monterrey, Mexico, located in the limits with San Pedro Garza García, on Lazaro Cardenas Avenue, close to the Valle Oriente upscale development district. The mall takes its name from the district...

, which distribute goods and services to the Mexican population.

Education




Monterrey has an estimated 3.7% rate of illiteracy
Literacy
Literacy has traditionally been described as the ability to read for knowledge, write coherently and think critically about printed material.Literacy represents the lifelong, intellectual process of gaining meaning from print...

. In 2005, from an estimated 983,359 inhabitants above 6 years of age, 36,689 were illiterates.

In 2005, the city had 72 public libraries, with 298,207 books available, serving an estimated 478,047 readers.

Monterrey is also the headquarters of the Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Studies, ITESM or "Tec de Monterrey") one of the most important universities in Mexico.

The Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
The Autonomous University of Nuevo León is a public university with seven campuses across the Northern state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Founded as University of Nuevo León on 25 September 1933, it is the oldest and largest university in the state in terms of student population and it is currently...

 (Autonomous University of Nuevo León, UANL), is the third largest Mexican university and is ranked by the Reader's Digest-AC Nielsen Survey 2005 as the top public university in northeast Mexico. Its main campus, Ciudad Universitaria (University City), covers approximately 67630000 square metres (16,711.7 acre). The UANL system comprises 26 colleges (faculties), 22 graduate divisions, 24 high schools, 1 center of bilingual education and 3 technical high schools. The medical school
Medical school
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

 of the UANL is considered one of the most advanced in Latin America.

Founded in 1969 with the support of local leading multinational corporations such as Cemex, Alfa, Femsa, Gamesa, Protexa & CYDSA, the Universidad Regiomontana is a private university offering high school, undergraduate and graduate programs. With agreements with more than 200 universities across the globe, it is member of GATE (Global Alliance for Transnational Education), FIMPES (Federación de Instituciones Mexicanas Particulares de Educación Superior) and holds an ISO 9001 Certification. Its urban campus attracts many working professionals who complement and enrich the academic experience.

The Universidad de Monterrey
Universidad de Monterrey
The University of Monterrey is a Roman Catholic institution of higher learning located in Monterrey, Mexico....

 was founded by the religious congregations of the Sisters of Immaculate Mary of Guadalupe, the nuns of the Sacred Heart and the Marist and La Salle brothers, all of them supported by an association of catholic citizens. On December 2001 was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) to deliver bachelor and master level educational programs.

The city is home to the Monterrey College of Music and Dance
Monterrey College of Music and Dance
The Monterrey College of Music and Dance is a public music college in Monterrey, Mexico.- Facilities :...

, which offers degrees in performing arts.

Cuisine



The most traditional dish from Monterrey is cabrito, kid goat cooked on embers based on the Jewish cuisine
Jewish cuisine
Jewish Cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Jewish people worldwide. It is a diverse cuisine that has evolved over many centuries, shaped by Jewish dietary laws and Jewish Festival and Sabbath traditions...

 of the founders of the city. Other local dishes and customs that perhaps date back to the Crypto-Judaism
Crypto-Judaism
Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; practitioners are referred to as "crypto-Jews"...

 of these founders are the "semita" (bread without leavening), the capirotada dessert (a mix of cooked bread, cheese, raisins, peanuts, and crystallized sugarcane juice), and the relative absence of pork dishes. Another famous local dish is machacado con huevo
Machacado con huevo
Machacado con huevo is a dish which consists of shredded dry beef that is scrambled with eggs. Its name means "shredded with eggs" in Spanish. The shredded dry beef, carne seca, is said to have originated in the town of Ciénega de Flores, about an hour north of Monterrey, Mexico. The early...

.

Carne asada
Carne asada
In Mexican cuisine, "Carne asada" is an item that consists of thin beef steak. The meat can be marinated by rubbing with olive oil and salt or with spice rubs such as lemon and pepper or garlic salt, lime, or Worcestershire sauce, before being cooked on a grill. The meat can be served alone or...

on weekends remains a tradition among Monterrey families. It is usually served with grilled onions, baked potatoes and sausage
Sausage
A sausage is a food usually made from ground meat , mixed with salt, herbs, and other spices, although vegetarian sausages are available. The word sausage is derived from Old French saussiche, from the Latin word salsus, meaning salted.Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made...

s or chopped as tacos. Locally brewed beer and cola are an almost mandatory part of the weekly ritual. The traditional desserts, "glorias" and "obleas," made from goat milk are both traditional candies from Nuevo León.

Sports

See also articles in the category Sport in Monterrey


Monterrey has two football teams in the Mexican league, the Club de Fútbol Monterrey
Club de Fútbol Monterrey
The Club de Fútbol Monterrey is a Mexican football club from Monterrey, Nuevo León, and the current champion of the CONCACAF Champions League. Founded on June 28, 1945, it is the oldest active team in the professional division from the northern part of Mexico....

, known as
Rayados de Monterrey, which uses Estadio Tecnológico
Estadio Tecnológico
The Estadio Tecnológico is a stadium located in city of Monterrey, Mexico.It is the property of the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education. The Monterrey Football Club play their home games there, but only rent the space and are not affiliated with the Institute.The stadium was...

, a facility owned by the ITESM rented to the team, to host matches. And the Tigres de la UANL, owned by CEMEX
Cemex
CEMEX is the world's largest building materials supplier and third largest cement producer. Founded in Mexico in 1906, the company is based in Monterrey, Mexico...

, which hosts matches at Estadio Universitario
Estadio Universitario
The Estadio Universitario – nicknamed El Volcán is a stadium property of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, located in its premises in San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León in Mexico.-Sports:...

, at the main campus of the UANL. Both teams are related to the city on the derby
Local derby
In many countries the term local derby, or simply just derby means a sporting fixture between two, generally local, rivals, particularly in association football...

, called Clásico Regiomontano
Clásico Regiomontano
Clásico Regiomontano is a football derby in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, between crosstown rival teams Monterrey and UANL.Since the first Clásico in 1974, the two teams have competed 91 times for bragging rights and city honour...

. There was a proposed project to build a stadium for both teams, the "Estadio Internacional Monterrey
Estadio Internacional Monterrey
The Estadio de Fútbol Monterrey is a stadium currently under development for FEMSA and CF Monterrey in Guadalupe, Greater Monterrey.The project was met with much controversy, stemming from the multiple accusations of the construction as an apparent impediment to the wildlife growth on a local scale...

", but the idea was dropped out by both teams. The project is still being promoted, and the city is giving a positive view of it, but the UANL Tigres have yet to finish their stadium contract and the Rayados are planning a stadium of their own. Club de Fútbol Monterrey plans to build a new stadium able to sit a crowd of 50,000. It was scheduled to be finished by 2011, named "Estadio de Fútbol Monterrey". The new stadium is to be financed by the club's managing firm, FEMSA
FEMSA
FEMSA is the largest beverage company in Mexico and in Latin America and as of September 2011 also the largest independent Coca-Cola bottler in the world. FEMSA originated as the Cuauhtémoc Brewery in 1890, which, through debt management, was restructured as FEMSA in 1988...

, and will remain the club's property for fifty years before becoming property of the government. The project has been in a hiatus for almost three years due to political bureaucracy, and is expected to get back on track by summer 2011. The city hosted 8 matches during the 1986 FIFA World Cup
1986 FIFA World Cup
The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June. The tournament was the second to feature a 24-team format. Colombia had been originally chosen to host the competition by FIFA but, largely due to economic reasons, was not able to do so and officially...

.

In addition, two professional indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

 teams were hosted in the past, the Monterrey La Raza, members of the Continental Indoor Soccer League
Continental Indoor Soccer League
The Continental Indoor Soccer League was an indoor soccer league that played from 1993 to 1997.-History:When the Major Soccer League folded in the summer of 1992, two of its former teams joined a group of hockey and basketball arena owners led by Ron Weinstein who wanted to create a league to...

 and World Indoor Soccer League
World Indoor Soccer League
The World Indoor Soccer League was a United States based indoor soccer league that existed from 1998 to 2001 and consisted of nine teams.-History:...

 and the Monterrey Fury
Monterrey Fury
The Monterrey Fury were a Mexican team playing in a United States based soccer league. The team was awarded a Major Indoor Soccer League expansion franchise for the 2003-2004 season...

, members of the current Major Indoor Soccer League
Major Indoor Soccer League (2001–2008)
The Major Indoor Soccer League was the top professional indoor soccer league in the USA. The league was a member of both the United States Soccer Federation and FIFA. The MISL had replaced the NPSL which folded in 2001. According to MISL.net, the league has ceased operations as of May 31, 2008...

. The city was awarded another franchise to begin play in the fall of 2007 in the MISL
Major Indoor Soccer League (2001–2008)
The Major Indoor Soccer League was the top professional indoor soccer league in the USA. The league was a member of both the United States Soccer Federation and FIFA. The MISL had replaced the NPSL which folded in 2001. According to MISL.net, the league has ceased operations as of May 31, 2008...

.

Baseball has a long history in the city, where it became the most popular sport during the early 20th century. Monterrey has been champion of the Little League World Series
Little League World Series
The Little League Baseball World Series is a baseball tournament for children aged 11 to 13 years old. It was originally called the National Little League Tournament and was later renamed for the World Series in Major League Baseball. It was first held in 1947 and is held every August in South...

 three times (1957, 1958 and 1997), and has been host of US Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

 games. In the Mexican Baseball League, the Sultanes de Monterrey
Sultanes Monterrey
The Sultanes de Monterrey , are a Mexican League baseball team based in Monterrey, Mexico. They are in the Northern Division.-History:...

 are one important team every season and have won the national title several times. In the year 2003, the city unsuccessfully attempted to buy (and relocate to Monterrey) the Montreal Expos franchise
Montreal Expos
The Montreal Expos were a Major League Baseball team located in Montreal, Quebec from 1969 through 2004, holding the first MLB franchise awarded outside the United States. After the 2004 season, MLB moved the Expos to Washington, D.C. and renamed them the Nationals.Named after the Expo 67 World's...

 of the US Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

.The Sultanes de Monterrey, are a Mexican League baseball team based in Monterrey, Mexico. They are in the Northern Division. The team was formed May 20, 1939 as Carta Blanca (A local beer brand, owned by Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery which owned the team). The team was also known as the gray ghosts. Soon, they became one of the most important teams in the league, winning its first championship in 1943. The Sultanes play in the Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey
Estadio de Beisbol Monterrey
Estadio de Béisbol Monterrey is a baseball stadium in Monterrey, Mexico. It is the home field of the Sultanes Monterrey Mexican League baseball team. It holds 27,000 people, making it the largest baseball stadium in Mexico and the third largest in Latin America.1. Estadio Latinoamericano in...

, the largest baseball stadium in Mexico.

There are two professional basketball teams: Fuerza Regia
Fuerza Regia
The Fuerza Regia is a Mexican professional basketball team based in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico playing in the Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional...

 that plays in the national league, Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional
Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional
The Liga Nacional de Baloncesto Profesional is the top professional basketball league in Mexico. The league was founded in 2000 with 11 teams, expanding to 24 as of 2008...

 and the Monterrey Venom
Monterrey Poison
Veneno de Monterrey, also called Monterrey Poison, is an American Basketball Association expansion team located in Monterrey, Mexico....

 that plays in the minor league American Basketball Association
American Basketball Association (21st century)
The American Basketball Association, often abbreviated as ABA, is a semi-professional men's basketball league that was founded in 1999. The current ABA has no affiliation with the original American Basketball Association that merged with the National Basketball Association in 1976...

. Fuerza Regia plays at the Monterrey Arena
Monterrey Arena
Arena Monterrey is an indoor arena in Monterrey, Mexico. It is primarily used for concerts, shows and indoor sports like indoor soccer or basketball...

 while the Monterrey Poison plays at the gymnasium of the ITESM.

The city has hosted the Champ Car
Champ Car
Champ Car was the name for a class and specification of open wheel cars used in American Championship Car Racing for many decades, primarily for use in the Indianapolis 500 auto race...

 race in Fundidora Park
Fundidora Park
-History and location:This urban sustainable park is geolocated inside the former Monterrey Foundry Property with an area of . The Monterrey Foundry operated from 1900 until its bankruptcy in 1986...

 from 2001 to 2005 and hosted the A1 Grand Prix of Nations
A1 Grand Prix
A1 Grand Prix was a 'single make' open-wheel auto racing series. It was unique in its field in that competitors solely represented their nation as opposed to themselves or a team, the usual format in most formula racing series. As such, it was often promoted as the "World Cup of Motorsport"...

 on February 2006.

In 2004 Monterrey hosted the World Karate Federation
World Karate Federation
The World Karate Federation, or WKF, was formed in 1990 from former WUKO members and is the largest international governing body of sport karate with over 130 member countries. It is the only karate organization recognised by the International Olympic Committee and has more than ten million members...

 Senior World Championships.
In April 2004, Monterrey's Arena Monterrey became the first city to host WWE in Mexico.
In 2007 Monterrey hosted the Women's WTBA World Tenpin Bowling Championships
WTBA World Tenpin Bowling Championships
The WTBA World Championships is a global event that invites all countries that are members of the WTBA to participate.-Event details and history:...



The city has two college American football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 teams, the Auténticos Tigres (UANL) and the Borregos
Borregos Salvajes
The Borregos Salvajes is the name of all the sports teams that represent the Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education in various sports, such as: basketball, volleyball, football and soccer for both men's and women's teams.-American football:The Tec de Monterrey teams are best known...

 (ITESM) that play in the National College League (ONEFA
Mexican College Football
The Organización Nacional Estudiantil de Futbol Americano , usually known by the acronym ONEFA, is the major college football league in Mexico....

). There is also a local children's league called AFAIM.

People can also find golf, fishing, camping, and extreme-sports outdoors near the city (bungee jumping
Bungee jumping
Bungee jumping is an activity that involves jumping from a tall structure while connected to a large elastic cord. The tall structure is usually a fixed object, such as a building, bridge or crane; but it is also possible to jump from a movable object, such as a hot-air-balloon or helicopter, that...

 at Cola de Caballo
Cola de Caballo
Cola de Caballo is a waterfall about 40 km from Monterrey, Mexico, in the town of Villa de Santiago, Nuevo León. It is open to the public and is accessible via a walking path.- References :*...

, rock-climbing, hiking, mountain bike). In particular there is international-level rock-climbing places like la Huasteca, Potrero Chico
Potrero Chico
El Potrero Chico is an internationally renowned rock climbing area in the Mexican state of Nuevo León, 3 km outside the town of Hidalgo. Long a destination for rock-climbers from around the world, Climbers from Austin, Texas, notably, Jeff Jackson, Kevin Gallahger, and Alex Catlin, along with...

 and many other canyons.

Starting 2009 the Monterrey Open
Monterrey Open
The Monterrey Open is a professional women's tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts. The event is affiliated with the Women's Tennis Association , and is part of the International tournaments on the WTA Tour. The tournament is currently held at the Sierra Madre Tennis...

 is held at Monterrey. This is a professional women's tennis tournament. The event is affiliated with the Women's Tennis Association (WTA), and is be part of the International tournaments on the WTA Tour.

In 2010, Monterrey hosted the International Ice Hockey Federation
International Ice Hockey Federation
The International Ice Hockey Federation is the worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey. It is based in Zurich, Switzerland, and has 70 members...

 World U18 Championship at the Monterrey Ice Complex.

As for the Rugby in 2010, Centauros Rugby Club Monterrey is founded which is currently affiliated with the FMRU (Federacion Mexicana de Rugby).

Monterrey is currently bidding
Monterrey bid for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics
Monterrey 2018 is a bid by the city of Monterrey to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.-History:Monterrey was the first city to bid for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. Monterrey has never bid for an Olympic Game prior to their effort to bid for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics. The city did host...

 for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics
2018 Summer Youth Olympics
The 2018 Summer Youth Olympics will be the third Summer Youth Olympic Games, a major international multi-sport event and cultural festival to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, in 2018 during the XXXI Olympiad. It will be the fifth Youth Olympic Games overall, with the Winter...

.

Contemporary music

See also articles in the category Musical groups from Monterrey

Starting in the 1960s, Monterrey has been known for "Norteño" music which is the trademark music of the city, bands like Ramon Ayala, Pesado, Duelo and other Mexican "Regional" music bands perform at the different clubs in the city. Monterrey has witnessed the birth of several bands that have become internationally acclaimed. Their genres vary considerably. Bands include Plastilina Mosh
Plastilina Mosh
Plastilina Mosh is a Mexican alternative rock group from Monterrey, México, part of the musical movement known as Avanzada Regia. Jonás González is the lead singer and guitar player. Alejandro Rosso is more involved with the creative process, providing most of the instrumentation and occasional...

, Control Machete
Control Machete
Control Machete is a Mexican hip hop group from Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. Its members are Fermin IV , Patricio "Pato" Chapa Elizalde, and Toy Kenobi .-History:...

, Kinky
Kinky (band)
Kinky is a five-member band from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, formed in 1998 as part of the Avanzada Regia musical movement and consisting of Gilberto Cerezo, Ulises Lozano, Carlos Chairez, Omar Góngora, and Cesar Pliego. The band's music is heavily influenced by Latin music, rock, dance, and...

, El Gran Silencio
El Gran Silencio
El Gran Silencio is a rock en español band from Monterrey, Mexico that blends a variety of rock, reggae, dancehall, and dub influences with traditional Latin American musical forms such as cumbia, vallenato and banda as part of the musical movement known as Avanzada Regia...

, Jumbo
Jumbo
Jumbo was a large African Bush Elephant, born 1861 in the French Sudan – present-day Mali – imported to a Paris zoo, transferred to the London Zoo in 1865, and sold in 1882 to P. T...

, Panda
Panda (band)
Panda is a Mexican alternative rock band formed in Monterrey, Nuevo León in 1996 as part of the musical movement known as Avanzada Regia...

, Genitallica
Genitallica
Genitallica is a band from Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, part of the musical movement known as Avanzada Regia.- Musical proposition :According to the band's MySpace page, its musical proposition is to fuse different styles...

. The song "Los Oxidados" by Plastilina Mosh opened the 2005 movie Mr. & Mrs. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2005 film)
Mr. & Mrs. Smith is a 2005 American romantic comedy action film directed by Doug Liman and written by Simon Kinberg. The original music score was composed by John Powell...

. Kinky performed at the 2004 edition of the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival
Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival
The Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival is a three-day annual music and arts festival, organized by Goldenvoice and held at the Empire Polo Club in Indio, California, in the Inland Empire's Coachella Valley...

 in California, along with Radiohead
Radiohead
Radiohead are an English rock band from Abingdon, Oxfordshire, formed in 1985. The band consists of Thom Yorke , Jonny Greenwood , Ed O'Brien , Colin Greenwood and Phil Selway .Radiohead released their debut single "Creep" in 1992...

, The Cure
The Cure
The Cure are an English rock band formed in Crawley, West Sussex in 1976. The band has experienced several line-up changes, with frontman, vocalist, guitarist and principal songwriter Robert Smith being the only constant member...

 and The Killers.

Landmarks


  • Santa Lucia Riverwalk
    Santa Lucia Riverwalk
    The Santa Lucia Riverwalk is an artificial river located in the Mexican city of Monterrey, Nuevo León.- History :Construction of the river began in 1996, but for economic reasons was stopped for nine years. In 2005, construction continued and was finished in 2007...

    , an artificial river built between 1996 and 2007. It currently joins the Macroplaza
    Macroplaza
    The Macroplaza or La Gran Plaza is a town square or plaza located in the heart of the city of Monterrey, Mexico.The Macroplaza was built in the early 1980s during the governorship of Alfonso Martínez Domínguez...

     with the Fundidora Park
    Fundidora Park
    -History and location:This urban sustainable park is geolocated inside the former Monterrey Foundry Property with an area of . The Monterrey Foundry operated from 1900 until its bankruptcy in 1986...

    .
  • The Cerro de la Silla
    Cerro de la Silla
    Cerro de la Silla , named for its distinctive saddle-shaped profile when viewed from the west, is a famous symbol of the landscape of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico. Even though the mountain itself is located in the adjacent city of Guadalupe, it is widely associated to the city of Monterrey,...

     (Saddle Mountain).
  • La Macroplaza
    Macroplaza
    The Macroplaza or La Gran Plaza is a town square or plaza located in the heart of the city of Monterrey, Mexico.The Macroplaza was built in the early 1980s during the governorship of Alfonso Martínez Domínguez...

    , one of the world's largest plazas, is the cultural and administrative heart of the city featuring remarkable monuments, green areas and buildings.
  • Faro del Comercio
    Faro del Comercio
    Faro del Comercio is a monument designed by the accomplished Mexican architect Luis Barragán and constructed in 1984 by architect Raúl Ferrera...

     (Lighthouse of Commerce), another trademark of the city. This monuments beams a green laser
    Laser
    A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation...

     around the city at night.
  • Barrio Antiguo
    Barrio Antiguo
    Barrio Antiguo is located in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, next to the Governor's Palace and the Macroplaza. It is Monterrey's oldest area of town and was the heartbeat of cosmopolitan lifestyle, which included many hotels, museums, hypnotic dance clubs, international cuisine, unique architecture...

     (old neighborhood), area where bars, cafes, art galleries and restaurants can be found. On November of every year the Festival Cultural Barrio Antiguo took place with national and international artists and performers, but now is replaced with the Festival Internacional de Santa Lucia, which now takes place in September.
  • The Museum of Modern Art
    Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey
    Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Monterrey is one of the leading museums of contemporary art in Mexico. MARCO organizes major exhibitions with regional and international contemporary artists. It is located in the heart of Monterrey next to the Macroplaza and Barrio Antiguo...

     is a post-modern Mexican architecture designed by Ricardo Legorreta
    Ricardo Legorreta
    Ricardo Legorreta Vilchis is a Mexican architect. He was born in Mexico City on May 7, 1931. He was awarded the prestigious UIA Gold Medal in 1999 and the Praemium Imperiale in 2011.He studied architecture at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México....

     with the objective of creating different ambiances for artists and visitors from all around the world.
  • Monterrey's Inukshuk
    Inukshuk
    An inuksuk is a stone landmark or cairn built by humans, used by the Inuit, Inupiat, Kalaallit, Yupik, and other peoples of the Arctic region of North America. These structures are found from Alaska to Greenland...

     is one of only a handful of authentic examples to be found outside Canada of these stone monuments from the high Arctic. The sculpture was created in situ by the renowned Inuit artist Bill Nasogaluak in 2007 and was a gift to the state of Nuevo León from the Canadian Chamber of Commerce and the Government of Canada.
  • Fundidora Park
    Fundidora Park
    -History and location:This urban sustainable park is geolocated inside the former Monterrey Foundry Property with an area of . The Monterrey Foundry operated from 1900 until its bankruptcy in 1986...

     is a large urban park that contains old foundry buildings, 120 hectares of natural ambiance, artificial lakes, playgrounds, alternative cinema (Cineteca), museum (Photo Collection, the State Plastic Arts Collection, Exhibits and Spaces), hotel, auditorium and convention center.
  • Puente de la Unidad
    Puente de la Unidad
    Puente de la Unidad or Viaducto de la Unidad is a cable-stayed bridge designed by Óscar Bulnes that crosses the Santa Catarina River and connects the cities of Monterrey and San Pedro Garza García in the Mexican state of Nuevo León...

     (sometimes called Puente Atirantado) is a suspension bridge that crosses the Río Santa Catarina and joins San Pedro Garza García
    San Pedro Garza García
    San Pedro Garza García is a city-municipality of the Mexican state of Nuevo León and is part of Monterrey's Metropolitan Area, based on the suburban North American model...

     with Monterrey.
  • The Alfa Planetarium
    Alfa Planetarium
    Alfa Planetarium is a planetarium located in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. This institution was created by ALFA in 1978 to promote science and technology in Latin America. It includes an interactive science museum, an Omnimax system cinema, an aviary, "The Universe Pavilion" and a great area for...

     is the first IMAX
    IMAX
    IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

     dome built in Latin America and fourth in the world.
  • The Government Palace of Nuevo León
    Palacio de Gobierno (Nuevo León)
    The Palacio de Gobierno is the name given to the neoclassical construction located in the northernmost point of the Macroplaza in Monterrey, the capital city of the Mexican state of Nuevo León. The Palacio de Gobierno is the building where the office of the governor is located....

     is a pink marble of Neoclassical architecture where the governor's office is located.
  • El Cerro del Obispado
    Cerro del Obispado
    The Cerro del Obispado is a famous landmark in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, named after the building constructed in the middle of the hill by the end of the 18th century....

     (Bishopric Hill) which includes a public, scenic lookout called Mirador del Obispado
    Mirador del Obispado
    The Mirador del Obispado is located at the top of the Cerro del Obispado in the northern city of Monterrey, Mexico. It features the biggest bandera monumental in Mexico...

    , a Monumental flag
    Banderas monumentales
    The banderas monumentales are a set of monuments located throughout Mexico. They are part of a program started in 1999 under President Ernesto Zedillo that is currently administered by the Secretariat of National Defense...

     and the museum inside the Palacio del Obispado
    Palacio del Obispado
    The Palacio del Obispado is one of Monterrey's oldest buildings. The Palace was constructed in the middle of a hill by the end of the 18th century....

     (the Bishopric Palace).
  • ITESM, ITESM has two distinctive buildings CEDES which houses the administration of the ITESM nationwide system and the CETEC which houses the main computer classroom and other offices.
  • Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
    Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma Brewery
    Cuauhtémoc-Moctezuma Brewery is a major brewery based in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, founded in 1890...

     (Cervecería Cuauhtémoc Moctezuma), with its 19th century buildings and where the national Baseball Hall of Fame (Salón de la Fama
    Salón de la Fama del Beisbol Profesional de México
    The Salón de la Fama del Beisbol Profesional de México , commonly called the Salón de la Fama is a baseball hall of fame and museum located in Monterrey, Nuevo León. It is dedicated to recognizing people who have either contributed greatly to baseball in México...

    ) is located.
  • The Cola de Caballo
    Cola de Caballo
    Cola de Caballo is a waterfall about 40 km from Monterrey, Mexico, in the town of Villa de Santiago, Nuevo León. It is open to the public and is accessible via a walking path.- References :*...

     (Horse tail) waterfall, on the mountains near the towns of Santiago and El Cercado, about 35 km (21.7 mi) south.
  • On the way to the Cola de Caballo waterfall (Carretera Nacional going to Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas), in Santiago, the Presa Rodrigo Gomez or "La Boca" ("La Boca" Dam) lays nested between green hills.

Broadcasting and media


Monterrey is an important producer and broadcaster of media and entertainment in Mexico. Grupo Multimedios
Grupo Multimedios
Grupo Multimedios is the largest media conglomerate in Northeastern Mexico. In Monterrey they also operate 15 radio stations, a cable TV system, a newspaper, outdoor billboard advertising and cinemas. Multimedios also produces cable TV programs drawing from the talent in its radio station group...

 operates 2 television channels in the city, one of them broadcasting also to the Mexican states of Coahuila
Coahuila
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico...

, Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

, Veracruz
Veracruz
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is...

, Chihuahua and Guanajuato
Guanajuato
Guanajuato officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 46 municipalities and its capital city is Guanajuato....

, and to several cities in the United States. Televisa
Televisa
Televisa is a Mexican multimedia conglomerate, the largest mass media company in Latin America and in the Spanish-speaking world. It is a major international entertainment business, with much of its programming airing in the United States on Univision, with which it has an exclusive contract...

 and TV Azteca
TV Azteca
Azteca, is the second largest Mexican television entertainment. It was established in 1983 as the state-owned Instituto Mexicano de la Televisión , a holding of the national TV networks channel 13 and 7 and was privatized under its current name in 1993 and now is part of Grupo Salinas...

, the two only national television networks, have local stations in the city.

Grupo Reforma
Grupo Reforma
Grupo Reforma is the largest printed media company in Mexico and Latin America. It publishes ten daily newspapers in five cities, including the leading newspapers in Mexico's three largest cities: Reforma in Mexico City, El Norte in Monterrey and Mural in Guadalajara...

, one of the most widely read newsources in Mexico originated in the city with the newspaper El Norte
El Norte (Monterrey)
- History :During the decades of 1970s, 1980s and 1990s The North gained important successes in exposing corruption in government. Due to its principles of independent journalism, the federal government cut the paper to print the paper, so the company had to import it directly...

. Milenio Diario de Monterrey
Milenio Diario
Milenio is a major national newspaper in Mexico, owned by Grupo Multimedios.It is published in 11 cities across Mexico, including Monterrey, Mexico City, Guadalajara, León, Pachuca, Puebla, Villahermosa, Tampico, Torreón, Toluca, and Xalapa...

, published by Grupo Multimedios
Grupo Multimedios
Grupo Multimedios is the largest media conglomerate in Northeastern Mexico. In Monterrey they also operate 15 radio stations, a cable TV system, a newspaper, outdoor billboard advertising and cinemas. Multimedios also produces cable TV programs drawing from the talent in its radio station group...

, is another newspaper of high distribution, daily printing local editions in the most important Mexican cities. Other local newspapers include El Porvenir and ABC. Northern Mexico's weekly business newspaper Biznews
Biznews
Of the various electronic news services and print publications around the world that use the name Biznews, by far the largest is the weekly Spanish-language business newspaper Biznews North Mexico published from Monterrey and distributed throughout northern Mexico...

 is also headquartered in Monterrey.

Monterrey also has several radio stations broadcasting news, music, entertainment, and culture for the city. The main radio broadcasting groups are Multimedios Radio
Grupo Multimedios
Grupo Multimedios is the largest media conglomerate in Northeastern Mexico. In Monterrey they also operate 15 radio stations, a cable TV system, a newspaper, outdoor billboard advertising and cinemas. Multimedios also produces cable TV programs drawing from the talent in its radio station group...

, Grupo Radio Alegría and Nucleo Radio Monterrey.

There are 11 free-to-air TV channels broadcasting in the city:

{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:9pt;"
|-
| style="width:60px;"|Call sign
Call sign
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitting station. In North America they are used as names for broadcasting stations...


| style="width:120px;"|Network
|width="20"|CH
Television channel
A television channel is a physical or virtual channel over which a television station or television network is distributed. For example, in North America, "channel 2" refers to the broadcast or cable band of 54 to 60 MHz, with carrier frequencies of 55.25 MHz for NTSC analog video and...


| style="width:120px;"|Contents
|width="80"|Type
|-
|XEFB
XEFB-TV
XEFB is the television call sign for the Televisa television station in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.In addition to local news and programming, XEFB also airs a selection of Televisa's programming, mostly taken from FOROtv. XEFB also airs local programming, generally reruns of XHCNL programs....


|Teleactiva
Televisa Regional
Televisa Regional refers to Televisa owned television stations that broadcast select programming from Televisa's Canal de las Estrellas, FOROtv, Canal 5, and/or Galavisión, Televisa Networks and locally produced programming...


| style="text-align:center;"|2
|Entertainment
|regional
|-
|XHWX
XHWX-TV
XHWX-TV is the television call sign for the TV Azteca television station in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The station is affiliated to the Azteca 13 network and also serves as a flagship station to the Northeastern states of Mexico. Azteca 13 Noreste is a group of stations that produce regional...


|Azteca 13
Azteca 13
Azteca 13 is a television broadcast network owned by TV Azteca, with affiliate stations all over Mexico all of which are owned and operated by TV Azteca. Azteca 13 uses Mexico, Distrito Federal's XHDF as its flagship station and its channel as part of its name...


| style="text-align:center;"|4
|Entertainment
|regional
|-
|XET
XET-TV
XET-TV is a Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico television station that is owned and operated by Televisa. The station is affiliated to the Canal 5 Televisa network....


|Canal 5
Canal 5 (Televisa Network)
Canal 5 is a television network owned by Televisa, broadcasting from Mexico City and originating from its flagship station, XHGC-TV. Most programming on this station is intended for children and young people, while at night usually features foreign drama and action series, as well a movies...


| style="text-align:center;"|6
|Entertainment
|local
|-
|XHFN
XHFN-TV
XHFN-TV is the television call sign for the TV Azteca television station in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The station is affiliated to the Azteca 7 network and also serves as a flagship station to the Northeastern states of Mexico. Azteca 7 Noreste produces regional news, programming, and...


|Azteca 7
Azteca 7
Azteca 7 or El 7 is a network owned by TV Azteca, with affiliate stations all over Mexico all of which are owned and operated by TV Azteca. Azteca 7 uses Mexico, Distrito Federal's XHIMT as its flagship station and its channel as part of its name. Azteca 7's programming is available in HD and is...


| style="text-align:center;"|7
|Series, Movies
|regional
|-
|XHX
XHX-TV
XHX-TV is the television call sign for the Televisa television station channel 10 in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The station is affiliated to the Canal de las Estrellas....


|Canal de las Estrellas
Canal de las Estrellas
Canal de las Estrellas is one of the cornerstone networks of Televisa, with affiliate stations all over Mexico, flagshipped at XEW-TV in Mexico City. Many of the programs of Canal de las Estrellas are seen in the United States on Univision, Telefutura, and Galavisión...


| style="text-align:center;"|10
|Entertainment, News
|local
|-
|XHAW
XHAW-TV
XHAW-TV is the television call sign for the flagship station of the Multimedios Television international network. XHAW is located in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon.-Digital services:...


|Multimedios
Multimedios Television
Multimedios Television is a network of Spanish language television stations found throughout Mexico. The system is part of Grupo Multimedios. The flagship station of Multimedios Television is XHAW-TV located in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Programming features locally produced news, sports, children's...


| style="text-align:center;"|12
|Entertainment, News
|flagship
|-
|XHMOY
XHMOY-TV
XHMOY is a television station in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, owned and operated by Televisa as an affiliate of Grupo Televisa's Galavision network....


|Galavisión
Galavisión (Mexico)
Galavisión is a Mexican television network owned by Televisa. Originating at XEQ-TV in Mexico City, the network is distributed throughout Mexico through affiliates. "Galavisión" should not be confused with Univision's cable TV network of the same name in the United States.-History:Galavisión was...


| style="text-align:center;"|22
|Entertainment
|local
|-
|XHMNL
XHMNL-TV
XHMNL-TV channel 28, known on-air as TV Nuevo León , is an educational and public television station owned and operated by the government of State of Nuevo León in Monterrey....


|TVNL
| style="text-align:center;"|28
|Cultural, News
|local
|-
|XHCNL
XHCNL-TV
XHCNL-TV is a Televisa owned and operated television station in Monterrey, Nuevo León. It broadcasts news, sports, and entertainment programs produced by Televisa Monterrey, and a selection of network's national programs. Their signal is also available on SKY Mexico satellital system, on channel 142...


|Monterrey Televisión
Televisa Regional
Televisa Regional refers to Televisa owned television stations that broadcast select programming from Televisa's Canal de las Estrellas, FOROtv, Canal 5, and/or Galavisión, Televisa Networks and locally produced programming...


| style="text-align:center;"|34
|Entertainment, News
|regional
|-
|XHMNU
XHMNU-TV
XHMNU channel 53, also known as "El Canal del Conocimiento" , is an educational television station owned and operated by the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon....


|UANL
| style="text-align:center;"|53
|Cultural
|local
|-
|XHSAW
XHSAW-TV
XHSAW-TV is the television call sign for the flagship station of the Mexican Milenio Television news network. XHSAW is located in Sabinas Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon broadcasts on analog channel 38 and on digital channel 21.1. XHSAW also has a repeater station in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon on analog channel 64...


|Multimedios
Multimedios Television
Multimedios Television is a network of Spanish language television stations found throughout Mexico. The system is part of Grupo Multimedios. The flagship station of Multimedios Television is XHAW-TV located in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon. Programming features locally produced news, sports, children's...


| style="text-align:center;"|64
|Entertainment
|local
|-

International development


The 2007 Universal Forum of Cultures
2007 Universal Forum of Cultures
The Universal Forum of Cultures Monterrey 2007 was an international civil-society event that took place in the city of Monterrey, Mexico, starting on September and ending in December of mentioned year...

 was an international cultural event held in Monterrey from September 20 to December 8, 2007.

Also the city wanted to bid for the 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, as governed by the International Olympic Committee...

, but the Mexican Olympic Committee refused to support it. The city council are now bidding for the 2020 Olympic games.

Backed by a young people's movement, students of the universities of Monterrey formed the Monterrey 2014 Foundation with the purpose of hosting the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics
2014 Summer Youth Olympics
The 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games is the second of the Summer Youth Olympics, a major international sports and cultural festival to be celebrated in the tradition of the Summer Olympic Games from 16 to 28 August 2014, during the XXX Olympiad...

. In 2009 the Mexican Olympic Committee gave the bid to Guadalajara
Guadalajara
Guadalajara may refer to:In Mexico:*Guadalajara, Jalisco, the capital of the state of Jalisco and second largest city in Mexico**Guadalajara Metropolitan Area*University of Guadalajara, a public university in Guadalajara, Jalisco...

 which later on withdrew the bid late January 2010. Monterrey is now bidding
Monterrey bid for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics
Monterrey 2018 is a bid by the city of Monterrey to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.-History:Monterrey was the first city to bid for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics. Monterrey has never bid for an Olympic Game prior to their effort to bid for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics. The city did host...

 for the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics
2018 Summer Youth Olympics
The 2018 Summer Youth Olympics will be the third Summer Youth Olympic Games, a major international multi-sport event and cultural festival to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, in 2018 during the XXXI Olympiad. It will be the fifth Youth Olympic Games overall, with the Winter...

.

International relations


Twin towns – Sister cities


Monterrey is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
{| class="wikitable"
|- valign="top"
| Arica
Arica
Arica is a city in northern Chile. "Arica" may also refer to:Places* Arica and Parinacota Region, Chile* Arica Airport , Chile* Arica, Amazonas, town in Colombia* Rio Aricá-açu, tributary of the Cuiabá River south of Cuiabá, BrazilOther...

, Chile Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Spain Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi, Texas
Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio counties. The MSA population in 2008 was 416,376. The population was 305,215 at the 2010 census making it the...

, USA Dallas, USA
General Santos City
General Santos City
The City of General Santos is the southernmost port city of the Philippines. Being a highly urbanized first class city, GenSan is one of the most populous urban centers in the country with a population of 679,588 as per census data of 2010...

, Philippines Munich, Germany
|| Hamilton
Hamilton, Ontario
Hamilton is a port city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Conceived by George Hamilton when he purchased the Durand farm shortly after the War of 1812, Hamilton has become the centre of a densely populated and industrialized region at the west end of Lake Ontario known as the Golden Horseshoe...

, Canada Houston, USA Iaşi
Iasi
Iași is the second most populous city and a municipality in Romania. Located in the historical Moldavia region, Iași has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Romanian social, cultural, academic and artistic life...

, Romania Marikina, Philippines Medellín
Medellín
Medellín , officially the Municipio de Medellín or Municipality of Medellín, is the second largest city in Colombia. It is in the Aburrá Valley, one of the more northerly of the Andes in South America. It has a population of 2.3 million...

, Colombia Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

, USA
|| Rosario, Argentina San Antonio, USA Shawinigan, Canada Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

, China Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

, United Arab Emirates Trujillo
Trujillo, Peru
Trujillo, in northwestern Peru, is the capital of the La Libertad Region, and the third largest city in Peru. The urban area has 811,979 inhabitants and is an economic hub in northern Peru...

, Peru
|}

Further reading


  • Michael Snodgrass, Deference and Defiance in Monterrey: Workers, Paternalism, and Revolution in Mexico, 1890–1950 (Cambridge University Press, 2003) (ISBN 978-0-521-81189-7)


External links