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The Boeing Company (ˈboʊ.ɪŋ ) is an American multinational
Multinational corporation
A multi national corporation or enterprise , is a corporation or an enterprise that manages production or delivers services in more than one country. It can also be referred to as an international corporation...

 aerospace
Aerospace
Aerospace comprises the atmosphere of Earth and surrounding space. Typically the term is used to refer to the industry that researches, designs, manufactures, operates, and maintains vehicles moving through air and space...

 and defense corporation, founded in 1916 by William E. Boeing
William Boeing
William Edward Boeing was an American aviation pioneer who founded The Boeing Company.-Biography:Boeing was born to a wealthy German mining engineer named Wilhelm Böing who had made a fortune and who had a sideline as a timber merchant...

 in Seattle, Washington. Boeing has expanded over the years, merging with McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

 in 1997. Boeing Corporate headquarters
Boeing International Headquarters
The Boeing International Headquarters is a 36-floor skyscraper located in the Near West Side of Chicago. The building has been made the corporate headquarters for Boeing, which decided in 2001 to move to Chicago from Seattle...

 has been in Chicago, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

 since 2001. Boeing is made up of multiple business units, which are Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

 (BCA); Boeing Defense, Space & Security (BDS); Engineering, Operations & Technology; Boeing Capital
Boeing Capital
Boeing Capital is a subsidiary of The Boeing Company, providing asset-based leasing and lending services. Boeing Capital is made up of two divisions, Aircraft Financial Services and Space & Defense Financial Services.-History:...

; and Boeing Shared Services Group.

Boeing is among the largest global aircraft manufacturer
Aerospace manufacturer
An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft....

s by revenue, orders and deliveries, and the third largest aerospace and defense contractor
Defense contractor
A defense contractor is a business organization or individual that provides products or services to a military department of a government. Products typically include military aircraft, ships, vehicles, weaponry, and electronic systems...

 in the world based on defense-related revenue. Boeing is the largest exporter by value in the United States. Its stock is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average
Dow Jones Industrial Average
The Dow Jones Industrial Average , also called the Industrial Average, the Dow Jones, the Dow 30, or simply the Dow, is a stock market index, and one of several indices created by Wall Street Journal editor and Dow Jones & Company co-founder Charles Dow...

.

Before 1930s


In March 1910 William E. Boeing bought Heath's shipyard in Seattle, Washington, on the Duwamish River, which later became his first airplane factory. Boeing was incorporated in Seattle by William Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as "Pacific Aero Products Co.". Boeing, who studied at Yale University
Yale University
Yale University is a private, Ivy League university located in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Founded in 1701 in the Colony of Connecticut, the university is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States...

, worked initially in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and acquired knowledge about wooden structures. This knowledge would prove invaluable in his subsequent design and assembly of airplanes
Fixed-wing aircraft
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft capable of flight using wings that generate lift due to the vehicle's forward airspeed. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft in which wings rotate about a fixed mast and ornithopters in which lift is generated by flapping wings.A powered...

. The company stayed in Seattle to take advantage of the local supply of Spruce
Spruce
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea , a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical...

 wood.

William Boeing founded his company a few months after the June 15 maiden flight
Maiden flight
The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. This is similar to a ship's maiden voyage....

 of one of the two "B&W" seaplanes
Boeing Model 1
-References:* Bowers, Peter M. Boeing aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.-See also:...

 built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt
George Conrad Westervelt
George Conrad Westervelt was an U.S. Navy engineer who created the company "Pacific Aero Products Co." together with William Boeing. Westervelt later left the company and Boeing changed the name of the company to the Boeing Airplane Company...

, a U.S. Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 engineer. Boeing and Westervelt decided to build the B&W seaplane after having flown in a Curtiss
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was an American aircraft manufacturer that went public in 1916 with Glenn Hammond Curtiss as president. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the company was the largest aircraft manufacturer in the United States...

 seaplane and realizing they could build a better airplane. Many of Boeing's early planes were seaplanes. The first Boeing airplane, the B&W Model 1 float plane, was assembled in a lakeside hangar located on the northeast shore of Seattle's Lake Union.

On May 9, 1917, the company became the "Boeing Airplane Company". In late 1917, the US entered World War I and Boeing knew that the US Navy needed seaplanes for training. So Boeing shipped two new Model C
Boeing Model 2
-References:* Bowers, Peter M. Boeing aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.* Pedigree of Champions: Boeing Since 1916, Third Edition. Seattle, WA: The Boeing Company, 1969.-External links:* -See also:...

s to Pensacola, Florida where the planes were flown for the Navy. The Navy liked the Model C so much that they ordered fifty more. The Boeing Company moved its operations to a larger former shipbuilding facility known as Boeing Plant 1
Boeing Plant 1
Boeing Plant 1 was the second Boeing airplane production facility which was the home of the Boeing Corporation between 1917 and 1965 in Seattle, Washington, USA...

, located on the Lower Duwamish Waterway.
When World War I ended in 1918, a large surplus of cheap, used military planes flooded the commercial airplane market, and this prevented aircraft companies like Boeing from selling any new airplanes. Because of this, many airplane companies went out of business, but other companies, including Boeing, started selling other products. Boeing built dressers, counters, and furniture, along with flat-bottom boats called Sea Sleds.

In 1919 the Boeing B-1
Boeing Model 6
The Boeing Model 6, also known as the B-1 was a small biplane flying boat designed by William Boeing shortly after World War I.-Design and development:...

 made its first flight. It was a flying boat
Flying boat
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

 that accommodated one pilot and two passengers and mail. Over the course of eight years, it made international airmail
Airmail
Airmail is mail that is transported by aircraft. It typically arrives more quickly than surface mail, and usually costs more to send...

 flights from Seattle, Washington to Victoria
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of British Columbia, Canada and is located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of about 78,000 within the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria, which has a population of 360,063, the 15th most populous Canadian...

, British Columbia. On May 24, 1920, the Boeing Model 8
Boeing Model 8
-References:* Bowers, Peter M. Boeing aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6....

 made its first flight. It was the first plane to fly over Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier is a massive stratovolcano located southeast of Seattle in the state of Washington, United States. It is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States and the Cascade Volcanic Arc, with a summit elevation of . Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most...

.

In 1923, Boeing began a competition against Curtiss
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was an American aircraft manufacturer that went public in 1916 with Glenn Hammond Curtiss as president. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, the company was the largest aircraft manufacturer in the United States...

 for a contract to develop a pursuit fighter for the U.S. Army Air Service
United States Army Air Service
The Air Service, United States Army was a forerunner of the United States Air Force during and after World War I. It was established as an independent but temporary wartime branch of the War Department by two executive orders of President Woodrow Wilson: on May 24, 1918, replacing the Aviation...

. Although Curtiss finished its design first and was awarded the contract, Boeing continued to develop its PW-9
Boeing Model 15
-Bibliography:*Lloyd S. Jones, U.S. Naval Fighters Fallbrook CA: Aero Publishers, 1977, pp. 35-38. ISBN 0-8168-9254-7.*Swanborough, Gordon and Bowers, Peter M. United States Navy Aircraft since 1911. London: Putnam. Second edition 1976. ISBN 0-370-10054-9....

 fighter. That plane, along with the Boeing P-12
Boeing P-12
The Boeing P-12 or F4B was an American pursuit aircraft that was operated by the United States Army Air Corps and United States Navy.-Design and development:...

/ F4B fighter, made Boeing a leading manufacturer of fighters over the course of the next decade.

In 1925, Boeing built its Model 40 mail plane for the US government to use on airmail routes. In 1927, an improved version of this plane was built, the Model 40A. The 40A won the U.S. Post Office
United States Post Office Department
The Post Office Department was the name of the United States Postal Service when it was a Cabinet department. It was headed by the Postmaster General....

's contract to deliver mail between San Francisco and Chicago. The 40A also had a passenger cabin that accommodated two passengers.

That same year, Boeing created an airline named Boeing Air Transport, which merged a year later with Pacific Air Transport
Pacific Air Transport
-Early history:Pacific Air Transport was formed in January 1926 by Vern C. Gorst, an Oregon bus line operator. He saw the potential competition that would arise from the award by the United States Post Office Department of contracts to carry airmails...

 and the Boeing Airplane Company. The first airmail flight for the airline was on July 1, 1927. The company changed its name to United Aircraft and Transport Corporation in 1929 and acquired Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

, Hamilton Standard Propeller Company
Hamilton Standard
Hamilton Standard, an aircraft propeller parts supplier, was formed in 1929 when United Aircraft and Transport Corporation consolidated Hamilton Aero Manufacturing and Standard Steel Propeller into the Hamilton Standard Propeller Corporation. Other members of the corporation included Boeing,...

, and Chance Vought
Vought
Vought is the name of several related aerospace firms. These have included, in the past, Lewis and Vought Corporation, Chance Vought, Vought Sikorsky, LTV Aerospace , Vought Aircraft Companies, and the current Vought Aircraft Industries. The first incarnation of Vought was established by Chance M...

. United Aircraft then purchased National Air Transport
National Air Transport
National Air Transport was a large airline. In 1930 it was bought by Boeing. The Air Mail Act of 1934 prohibited airlines and manufacturers from being under the same corporate umbrella, so Boeing split into 3 smaller companies, one of which is United Airlines, and it is this that included what had...

 in 1930.

On July 27, 1929, the 12-passenger Boeing 80
Boeing 80
-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Bowers, Peter M. Boeing Aircraft since 1916. London: Putnam, 1989. ISBN 0-85177-804-6.* Davies, Ed. "Boeing's Airline: The Life and Times of Boeing Air Transport, Part One". Air Enthusiast, No. 127, January/February 2007, pp. 64–74. Stamford, UK:Key...

 biplane made its first flight. With three engines, it was Boeing's first plane built with the sole intention of being a passenger transport. An upgraded version, the 80A, carrying eighteen passengers, made its first flight in September 1929.

1930s and 1940s


In 1930, the Monomail, a low-wing monoplane
Monoplane
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. Since the late 1930s it has been the most common form for a fixed wing aircraft.-Types of monoplane:...

 that carried mail, was built. Built entirely out of metal, it was very fast and aerodynamic, and it also had retractable landing gear. In fact, its design was so revolutionary that the engines and propellers of the time could not handle the plane. By the time controllable pitch propeller
Controllable pitch propeller
A controllable pitch propeller or variable pitch propeller is a type of propeller with blades that can be rotated around their long axis to change their pitch...

s were developed, Boeing was building its Model 247 airliner. Two Monomails were built. The second one, the Model 221, had a 6-passenger cabin.

In 1933 the revolutionary Boeing 247
Boeing 247
The Boeing Model 247 was an early United States airliner, considered the first such aircraft to fully incorporate advances such as all-metal semi-monocoque construction, a fully cantilevered wing and retractable landing gear...

 was introduced, the first truly modern airliner. The 247 was an all-metal low-wing monoplane that was much faster, safer, and easier to fly than other passenger aircraft. For example, it was the first twin engine passenger aircraft that could fly on one engine. In an era of unreliable engines, this vastly improved flight safety. Boeing built the first sixty aircraft exclusively for its own airline operations. This badly hurt competing airlines, and was typical of the anti-competitive corporate behavior that the US government sought to prohibit at the time.

The Air Mail Act of 1934 prohibited airlines and manufacturers from being under the same corporate umbrella, so the company split into three smaller companies – Boeing Airplane Company, United Airlines
United Airlines
United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees United Air Lines, Inc., is the world's largest airline with 86,852 employees (which includes the entire holding company United Continental...

, and United Aircraft Corporation
United Aircraft
The United Aircraft Corporation was formed in 1934 at the break-up of United Aircraft and Transport Corporation. In 1975, the company became the United Technologies Corporation.-1930s:...

, the precursor to United Technologies. As a result, William Boeing sold off his shares and left Boeing. Claire Egtvedt, who had become Boeing's president in 1933, became the chairman as well. He believed the company's future was in building bigger planes. Work began in 1936 on Boeing Plant 2
Boeing Plant 2
Boeing Plant 2 was a factory building which was built in 1936 by the Boeing Corporation in King County, Washington in the United States...

 to accommodate the production of larger modern aircraft.

Shortly after, an agreement with Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways
Pan American World Airways, commonly known as Pan Am, was the principal and largest international air carrier in the United States from 1927 until its collapse on December 4, 1991...

 (Pan Am) was reached, to develop and build a commercial flying boat
Flying boat
A flying boat is a fixed-winged seaplane with a hull, allowing it to land on water. It differs from a float plane as it uses a purpose-designed fuselage which can float, granting the aircraft buoyancy. Flying boats may be stabilized by under-wing floats or by wing-like projections from the fuselage...

 able to carry passengers on transoceanic routes. The first flight of the Boeing 314 Clipper
Boeing 314
The Boeing 314 Clipper was a long-range flying boat produced by the Boeing Airplane Company between 1938 and 1941 and is comparable to the British Short S.26. One of the largest aircraft of the time, it used the massive wing of Boeing’s earlier XB-15 bomber prototype to achieve the range necessary...

 was in June 1938. It was the largest civil aircraft of its time, with a capacity of 90 passengers on day flights, and of 40 passengers on night flights. One year later, the first regular passenger service from the US to the UK was inaugurated. Subsequently other routes were opened, so that soon Pan Am flew with the Boeing 314 to destinations all over the world.

In 1938, Boeing completed work on its Model 307 Stratoliner
Boeing 307
The Boeing Model 307 Stratoliner was the first commercial transport aircraft with a pressurized cabin. This feature allowed the plane to cruise at an altitude of 20,000 ft , well above weather disturbances. The pressure differential was 2.5 psi , so at 14,700 ft the cabin altitude...

. This was the world’s first pressurized-cabin transport aircraft, and it was capable of cruising at an altitude of 20000 feet (6,096 m) – above most weather disturbances.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Boeing built a large number of B-17 and B-29
B-29 Superfortress
The B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing that was flown primarily by the United States Air Forces in late-World War II and through the Korean War. The B-29 was one of the largest aircraft to see service during World War II...

 bomber
Bomber
A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets, by dropping bombs on them, or – in recent years – by launching cruise missiles at them.-Classifications of bombers:...

s. Many of the workers were women whose husbands had gone to war. In the beginning of March 1944, production had been scaled up in such a manner that over 350 planes were built each month. To prevent an attack from the air, the manufacturing plants had been covered with greenery and farmland items. During these years of war the leading aircraft companies of the US cooperated. The Boeing-designed B-17 bomber was assembled also by Lockheed Aircraft Corp.
Lockheed Corporation
The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995.-Origins:...

 and Douglas Aircraft Co.
Douglas Aircraft Company
The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer, based in Long Beach, California. It was founded in 1921 by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. and later merged with McDonnell Aircraft in 1967 to form McDonnell Douglas...

, while the B-29 was assembled also by Bell Aircraft Co. and by Glenn L. Martin Company
Glenn L. Martin Company
The Glenn L. Martin Company was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company that was founded by the aviation pioneer Glenn L. Martin. The Martin Company produced many important aircraft for the defense of the United States and its allies, especially during World War II and the Cold War...

.

After the war, most orders of bombers were canceled and 70,000 people lost their jobs at Boeing. The company aimed to recover quickly by selling its Stratocruiser (the Model 377), a luxurious four-engine commercial airliner
Airliner
An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such aircraft are operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an aircraft intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial...

 developed from the B-29. However, sales of this model were not as expected and Boeing had to seek other opportunities to overcome the situation. The company successfully sold military derivatives of the Stratocruiser, such as the C-97 adapted for troop transportation and the KC-97 for aerial refueling
Aerial refueling
Aerial refueling, also called air refueling, in-flight refueling , air-to-air refueling or tanking, is the process of transferring fuel from one aircraft to another during flight....

.

1950s


Boeing developed military jets such as the B-47 Stratojet
B-47 Stratojet
The Boeing Model 450 B-47 Stratojet was a long-range, six-engined, jet-powered medium bomber built to fly at high subsonic speeds and at high altitudes. It was primarily designed to drop nuclear bombs on the Soviet Union...

 and B-52 Stratofortress
B-52 Stratofortress
The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber operated by the United States Air Force since the 1950s. The B-52 was designed and built by Boeing, who have continued to provide maintainence and upgrades to the aircraft in service...

 bombers in the late-1940s and into the 1950s. During the early 1950s, Boeing used company funds to develop the 367–80
Boeing 367-80
The Boeing 367-80, or "Dash 80" as it was called within Boeing, is an American prototype jet transport built to demonstrate the advantages of jet aircraft for passenger transport over piston-engine airliners....

 jet airliner demonstrator that led to the KC-135 Stratotanker
KC-135 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling military aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratotanker...

 and Boeing 707
Boeing 707
The Boeing 707 is a four-engine narrow-body commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. Its name is most commonly pronounced as "Seven Oh Seven". The first airline to operate the 707 was Pan American World Airways, inaugurating the type's first commercial flight on...

 jetliner.

In the mid-1950s technology had advanced significantly, which gave Boeing the opportunity to develop and manufacture new products. One of the first was the guided short-range missile
Missile
Though a missile may be any thrown or launched object, it colloquially almost always refers to a self-propelled guided weapon system.-Etymology:The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, meaning "to send"...

 used to intercept enemy aircraft. By that time the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

 had become a fact of life, and Boeing used its short-range missile technology to develop and build an intercontinental missile.

In 1958, Boeing began delivery of its 707, the United States' first commercial jet airliner
Jet airliner
A jet airliner is an airliner that is powered by jet engines. This term is sometimes contracted to jetliner or jet.In contrast to today's relatively fuel-efficient, turbofan-powered air travel, first generation jet airliner travel was noisy and fuel inefficient...

, in response to the British De Havilland Comet
De Havilland Comet
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at the Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom headquarters, it first flew in 1949 and was a landmark in aeronautical design...

, French Sud Aviation Caravelle
Sud Aviation Caravelle
The Sud Aviation SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 . The Caravelle was one of the more successful European first generation jetliners, selling throughout Europe and even penetrating the United States market, with...

 and Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 Tupolev Tu-104
Tupolev Tu-104
The Tupolev Tu-104 was a twin-engined medium-range turbojet-powered Soviet airliner and the world's first successful jet airliner...

, which were the world’s first generation of commercial jet aircraft. With the 707, a four-engine, 156-passenger airliner, the US became a leader in commercial jet manufacture. A few years later, Boeing added a second version of this aircraft, the 720, which was slightly faster and had a shorter range.

Boeing was a major producer of small turbine engines during the 1950s and 1960s. The engines represented one of the company's major efforts to expand its product base beyond military aircraft after World War II. Development on the gasoline turbine engine started in 1943 and Boeing's gas turbines were designated models 502, 520, 540, 551 and 553. Boeing built 2,461 engines before production ceased in April 1968. Many applications of the Boeing gas turbine engines were considered to be firsts, including the first turbine-powered helicopter and boat.

1960s


Vertol Aircraft Corporation
Piasecki Helicopter
The Piasecki Helicopter Corporation was a designer and manufacturer of helicopters located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the late 1940s and throughout the 1950s. The company was renamed Vertol Aircraft Corporation in the mid-1950s...

 was acquired by Boeing in 1960, and was reorganized as Boeing's Vertol division. The twin-rotor CH-47 Chinook
CH-47 Chinook
The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. Its top speed of 170 knots is faster than contemporary utility and attack helicopters of the 1960s...

, produced by Vertol, took its first flight in 1961. This heavy-lift helicopter
Helicopter
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by one or more engine-driven rotors. This allows the helicopter to take off and land vertically, to hover, and to fly forwards, backwards, and laterally...

 remains a work-horse vehicle up to the present day. In 1964, Vertol also began production of the CH-46 Sea Knight
CH-46 Sea Knight
The Boeing Vertol CH-46 Sea Knight is a medium-lift tandem rotor transport helicopter, used by the United States Marine Corps to provide all-weather, day-or-night assault transport of combat troops, supplies and equipment. Assault Support is its primary function, and the movement of supplies and...

.

In December 1960, Boeing announced the model 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

 jetliner, which went into commercial service about three years later. Different passenger, freight and convertible freighter variants were developed for the 727. The 727 was the first commercial jetliner to reach 1000 sales, and a few years later the 1500 mark was reached.

Boeing won a contract in 1961 to manufacture the S-IC stage of the Saturn V
Saturn V
The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload...

 rocket, manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility
Michoud Assembly Facility
The Michoud Assembly Facility is an 832-acre site owned by NASA and located in New Orleans East, a large district within the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Organizationally, it is part of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center...

 in New Orleans, Louisiana.
In 1966, Boeing president William M. Allen asked Malcolm T. Stamper
Malcolm T. Stamper
Malcolm Stamper was the longest serving President in Boeing’s history and was best known for leading 50,000 people in the race to build the 747 jetliner. Stamper grew up in Detroit and joined Boeing in 1962 after working for General Motors.His first assignment at Boeing was to sell its ailing gas...

 to spearhead production of the new 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

 airplane on which the company's future was riding. This was a monumental engineering and management challenge, and included construction of the world's biggest factory in which to build the 747 at Everett, Washington
Everett, Washington
Everett is the county seat of and the largest city in Snohomish County, Washington, United States. Named for Everett Colby, son of founder Charles L. Colby, it lies north of Seattle. The city had a total population of 103,019 at the 2010 census, making it the 6th largest in the state and...

, a plant which is the size of 40 football fields.

In 1967, Boeing introduced another short- and medium-range airliner, the twin-engine 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

. It has become since then the best-selling commercial jet aircraft in aviation history. The 737 is still being produced, and continuous improvements are made. Several versions have been developed, mainly to increase seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 and range.

The roll-out ceremonies for the first 747–100
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

 took place in 1968, at the massive new factory in Everett
Everett, Washington
Everett is the county seat of and the largest city in Snohomish County, Washington, United States. Named for Everett Colby, son of founder Charles L. Colby, it lies north of Seattle. The city had a total population of 103,019 at the 2010 census, making it the 6th largest in the state and...

, about an hour's drive from Boeing's Seattle home. The aircraft made its first flight a year later. The first commercial flight occurred in 1970. The 747 has an intercontinental range and a larger seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 than Boeing's previous aircraft.

Boeing also developed hydrofoils in the 1960s. The screw driven USS High Point (PCH-1)
USS High Point (PCH-1)
USS High Point was a High Point-class patrol craft of the United States Navy, and was launched August 17, 1962 by J. M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corporation in Tacoma, Washington. Built in conjunction with Boeing in Seattle, Washington she was placed in service August 15, 1963 with Lieutenant H. G....

 was an experimental submarine hunter. The patrol hydrofoil USS Tucumcari (PGH-2)
USS Tucumcari (PGH-2)
The Tucumcari was a Boeing-built hydrofoil. Named after Tucumcari, New Mexico, it was the basis for the technology used in the subsequent Pegasus-class patrol boats and the Jetfoil ferries. Its unique feature was a waterjet propulsion and a computer-controlled fully submerged foil configuration...

 was more successful. Only one was built, but it saw service in Vietnam and Europe before running aground in 1972. Its innovative waterjet and fully submersed flying foils were the model for the later Pegasus class patrol hydrofoils and the model 929
Boeing 929
The Boeing 929 Jetfoil is the name for a passenger-carrying waterjet-propelled hydrofoil design by Boeing.Boeing began adapting many systems used in jet airplanes for hydrofoils. Robert Bateman led development. Boeing launched its first passenger-carrying waterjet-propelled hydrofoil, in April...

 Jetfoil ferries in the 1980s. The Tucumcari and later boats were produced in Renton. While the Navy hydrofoils were withdrawn by the end of the 1980s, the swift and smooth Boeing Jetfoils are still in service in Asia.

1970s


In the beginning of the 1970s, Boeing faced a new crisis. The Apollo program, in which Boeing had participated significantly during the preceding decade, was almost entirely canceled. Once more, Boeing hoped to compensate with sales of its commercial airliners. At that time, however, there was a heavy recession in the airlines industry so that Boeing did not receive any orders for more than a year. Boeing's bet for the future, the new 747
Boeing 747
The Boeing 747 is a wide-body commercial airliner and cargo transport, often referred to by its original nickname, Jumbo Jet, or Queen of the Skies. It is among the world's most recognizable aircraft, and was the first wide-body ever produced...

, was delayed in production
Manufacturing
Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale...

 by three months because of problems with its Pratt & Whitney engines. Another problem was that in 1971, the U.S. Congress decided to stop the financial support for the development of the supersonic
Supersonic
Supersonic speed is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound . For objects traveling in dry air of a temperature of 20 °C this speed is approximately 343 m/s, 1,125 ft/s, 768 mph or 1,235 km/h. Speeds greater than five times the speed of sound are often...

 2707
Boeing 2707
The Boeing 2707 was developed as the first American supersonic transport . After winning a competition for a government-funded contract to build an American SST, Boeing began development at its facilities in Seattle, Washington...

, Boeing's answer to the British-French Concorde
Concorde
Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner, a supersonic transport . It was a product of an Anglo-French government treaty, combining the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation...

, forcing the company to discontinue the project. The company had to reduce the number of employees from over 80,000 to almost half, only in the Seattle area.

In January 1970, the first 747, a four-engine long-range airliner, flew its first commercial flight. This famous aircraft completely changed the way of flying, with its 450-passenger seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 and its upper deck. Boeing has delivered nearly 1,400 747s. The 747 has undergone continuous improvements to keep it technologically up-to-date. Larger versions have also been developed by stretching the upper deck. As of 2010, the 747 is still being produced, with its newest version being the 747-8.

Boeing launched three Jetfoil 929-100 hydrofoils that were acquired in 1975 for service in the Hawaiian Islands. When the service ended in 1979 the three hydrofoils were acquired by Far East Hydrofoil for service between Hong Kong and Macau.

During the 1970s, Boeing also developed the US Standard Light Rail Vehicle
US Standard Light Rail Vehicle
The US Standard Light Rail Vehicle was an attempt at a standardized light rail vehicle promoted by the United States Urban Mass Transportation Administration and built by Boeing Vertol in the 1970s...

 which was used in San Francisco, Boston and Morgantown, WV.

1980s


In 1983, the economic situation began to improve. Boeing assembled its 1,000th 737 passenger airliner. During the following years, commercial aircraft and their military versions became the basic equipment of airlines and air forces. As passenger air traffic increased, competition was harder, mainly from Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

, a European newcomer in commercial airliner manufacturing. Boeing had to offer new aircraft, and developed the single-aisle 757
Boeing 757
The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Passenger versions of the twinjet have a capacity of 186 to 289 persons and a maximum range of , depending on variant and cabin configuration...

, the larger, twin-aisle 767
Boeing 767
The Boeing 767 is a mid-size, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It was the manufacturer's first wide-body twinjet and its first airliner with a two-crew glass cockpit. The aircraft features two turbofan engines, a supercritical wing, and a conventional tail...

, and upgraded versions of the 737. An important project of these years was the Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle program
NASA's Space Shuttle program, officially called Space Transportation System , was the United States government's manned launch vehicle program from 1981 to 2011...

, to which Boeing contributed with its experience in space rockets acquired during the Apollo era. Boeing participated also with other products in the space program, and was the first contractor for the International Space Station
International Space Station
The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

 program.

During the decade several military projects went into production, including Boeing support of the stealth B-2 bomber. As part of an industry team led by Northrop, Boeing built the outboard portion of the B-2 stealth bomber wing, the aft center fuselage section, landing gears, fuel system and weapons delivery system. At its peak in 1991, the B-2 was the largest military program at Boeing, employing about 10,000 people. The same year, the National Aeronautic Association of the USA awarded the B-2 design team the Collier Trophy for the greatest achievement in aerospace in America. The first B-2 rolled out of the bomber's final assembly facility in Palmdale, Calif., in November 1988 and it flew for the first time on July 17, 1989.

The Avenger air defense system and a new generation of short-range missiles also went into production. During these years, Boeing was very active in upgrading existing military equipment and developing new ones. Boeing also contributed to wind power
Wind power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships....

 development with the experimental MOD-2 Wind Turbines for NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 and US DOE
United States Department of Energy
The United States Department of Energy is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material...

, and the MOD-5B for Hawaii.

1990s


Boeing was one of seven competing companies' that bid for the Advanced Tactical Fighter
Advanced Tactical Fighter
The Advanced Tactical Fighter was a demonstration and validation program undertaken by the United States Air Force to develop a next-generation air superiority fighter to counter emerging worldwide threats, including Soviet Sukhoi Su-27 and Mikoyan MiG-29 fighters under development in the 1980s...

. Boeing agreed to team with General Dynamics and Lockheed, so that all three companies would participate in the development if one of the three companies design was selected. The Lockheed design was eventually selected and developed into the F-22 Raptor
F-22 Raptor
The Lockheed Martin/Boeing F-22 Raptor is a single-seat, twin-engine fifth-generation supermaneuverable fighter aircraft that uses stealth technology. It was designed primarily as an air superiority fighter, but has additional capabilities that include ground attack, electronic warfare, and signals...

.

In April 1994, Boeing introduced the most modern commercial jet aircraft at the time, the twin-engine 777
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

, with a seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 of approximately 300 to 370 passengers in a typical three-class layout, in between the 767 and the 747. The longest range twin-engined aircraft in the world, the 777 was the first Boeing airliner to feature a "fly-by-wire
Aircraft flight control systems
A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight...

" system and was conceived partly in response to the inroads being made by the European Airbus into Boeing’s traditional market. This aircraft reached an important milestone by being the first airliner to be designed entirely by using CAD
Computer-aided design
Computer-aided design , also known as computer-aided design and drafting , is the use of computer technology for the process of design and design-documentation. Computer Aided Drafting describes the process of drafting with a computer...

 techniques. The 777 was also the first airplane to be certified for 180 minute ETOPS at entry into service by the FAA. Also in the mid-1990s, the company developed the revamped version of the 737, known as the 737 "Next-Generation"
Boeing 737 Next Generation
The Boeing 737 Next Generation, commonly abbreviated as Boeing 737NG, is the name given to the -600/-700/-800/-900 series of the Boeing 737 after the introduction of the -300/-400/-500 Classic series. They are short- to medium-range, narrow-body jet airliners...

, or 737NG. It has since become the fastest-selling version of the 737 in history, and on April 20, 2006 sales passed those of the "Classic 737"
Boeing 737 Classic
The Boeing 737 Classic is the name given to the -300/-400/-500 series of the Boeing 737 following the introduction of the -600/-700/-800/-900 series. They are short- to medium- range, narrow-body jet airliners produced by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. The Classic series was introduced as the 'new...

, with a follow-up order for 79 aircraft from Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines
Southwest Airlines Co. is an American low-cost airline based in Dallas, Texas. Southwest is the largest airline in the United States, based upon domestic passengers carried,...

.

In 1995 Boeing announced that the headquarters complex on East Marginal Way South would be demolished instead of being upgraded to match new seismic standards. Boeing scheduled demolition of the facility in 1996 and moved the headquarters to an adjacent building. In 1997 Boeing's headquarter was located on East Marginal Way South, by King County Airport, in Seattle.

In 1996, Boeing acquired Rockwell
Rockwell International
Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation....

’s aerospace and defense units. The Rockwell business units became a subsidiary of Boeing, named Boeing North American, Inc. In August 1997, Boeing merged with McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

 in a US$13 billion stock swap under the name The Boeing Company. However this name had actually been Boeing's official name previously adapted on May 21, 1961. Following the merger, the McDonnell Douglas MD-95 was renamed the Boeing 717
Boeing 717
The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market. The airliner was designed and marketed by McDonnell Douglas as the MD-95, a third-generation derivative of the DC-9. Capable of seating of up to 117 passengers, the 717 has maximum range of...

, and the production of the MD-11 was limited to the freighter version. Boeing introduced a new corporate identity with completion of the merger, incorporating the Boeing logo type and a stylized version of the McDonnell Douglas symbol, which was derived from the Douglas Aircraft logo from the 1970s.

Scott Hamilton heavily criticized the CEO and his deputy, Philip M. Condit
Philip M. Condit
Philip Murray Condit is an American businessman who was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing company from 1996 to 2003.-Education :...

 and Harry Stonecipher
Harry Stonecipher
Harry C. Stonecipher is a former President and Chief Executive of American aerospace companies McDonnell Douglas and, later, Boeing. Stonecipher orchestrated the merger between McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, and was widely credited with the resurgence of Boeing...

, for thinking of their personal benefit first, and with it causing the problems hitting Boeing many years later. Instead of investing the huge cash reserve to build new airplanes, they initiated a program to buy back own stock for more than US$10 billion.

2000s



In September 2001, Boeing moved its corporate headquarters from Seattle to Chicago. Chicago, Dallas and Denver – vying to become the new home of the world’s largest aerospace concern – all had offered packages of multimillion-dollar tax breaks. Its offices are located in the Fulton River District, Chicago
Fulton River District, Chicago
Fulton River District is a Chicago neighborhood located on the edge of Chicago’s downtown, northwest of the Loop. The district is bounded by the Chicago River to the east, the Kennedy Expressway to the west, Ohio Street to the north and Madison Street to the south, making it part of the Near West...

 just outside the Loop, Chicago.

On October 10, 2001, Boeing lost to its rival Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

 in the fierce competition for the multi-billion dollar Joint Strike Fighter
Joint Strike Fighter Program
Joint Strike Fighter is a development and acquisition program intended to replace a wide range of existing fighter, strike, and ground attack aircraft for the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and their allies. After a competition between the Boeing X-32 and the Lockheed Martin X-35, a...

 contract. Boeing’s entry, the X-32
Boeing X-32
The Boeing X-32 was a multi-purpose jet fighter in the Joint Strike Fighter contest. It lost to the Lockheed Martin X-35 demonstrator which was further developed into the F-35 Lightning II.-Background:...

, was rejected in favor of Lockheed’s X-35
Lockheed Martin X-35
The Lockheed Martin X-35 was an experimental aircraft developed by Lockheed Martin for the Joint Strike Fighter Program. It was declared the winner over the Boeing X-32 and went on to enter production in the early 21st century as the F-35 Lightning II....

 entrant. Boeing continues to serve as the prime contractor on the International Space Station and has built several of the major components.

After several decades of success, Boeing lost ground to Airbus
Competition between Airbus and Boeing
Competition between Airbus and Boeing is a result of both companies' domination of the large jet airliner market since the 1990s, a consequence of mergers within the global aerospace industry over the years. Airbus began as a consortium from Europe, whereas the American Boeing took over its former...

 and subsequently lost its lead in the airliner market in 2003. Multiple Boeing projects were pursued and then canceled, notably the Sonic Cruiser
Boeing Sonic Cruiser
|-References:*Haenggi, Michael. "The Sonic Future?". Boeing Widebodies. MBI, 2003. ISBN 0-7603-0842-X.-External links:* * * * . Seattle PI, November 4, 2001* . Flight International, January 7, 2003*...

, a proposed jetliner that would travel just under the speed of sound
Speed of sound
The speed of sound is the distance travelled during a unit of time by a sound wave propagating through an elastic medium. In dry air at , the speed of sound is . This is , or about one kilometer in three seconds or approximately one mile in five seconds....

, cutting intercontinental travel times by as much as 20 percent. It was launched in 2001 along with a new advertising campaign to promote the company's new motto, "Forever New Frontiers", and to rehabilitate its image. However, the plane's fate was sealed by the changes in the commercial aviation market following the September 11 attacks and the subsequent weak economy and increase in fuel prices.

Subsequently, Boeing streamlined production and turned its attention to a new model, the Boeing 787 Dreamliner, using much of the technology developed for the Sonic Cruiser, but in a more conventional aircraft designed for maximum efficiency. The company also launched new variants of its successful 737 and 777 models. The 787 proved to be highly popular choice with airlines, and won a record number of pre-launch orders at a time in which Airbus was seen to be struggling with delays and cost overruns in producing its A380
Airbus A380
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it...

 superjumbo; at the same time, several airlines threatened to switch their A380 orders to Boeing's modernized version of the 747, the 747-8. Airbus's response to the 787, the Airbus A350
Airbus A350
The Airbus A350 is a family of long-range, wide-body jet airliners under development by European aircraft manufacturer Airbus.A consortium originally comprising European aerospace companies from the UK, France, Spain and West Germany, Airbus is now fully owned by EADS and since 2001 has been known...

, received a lukewarm response at first when it was announced as an improved version of the A330, and only gained significant orders when Airbus promised an entirely new design. The 787 has encountered delays in coming to production, with the first flight not occurring until late 2009, more than two years late. Production will be increased to 10 Boeing 787s per month by 2013.

In 2004, Boeing ended production of the 757 after 1,050 were produced. More advanced, stretched versions of the 737 were beginning to compete against the 757, and the new 787-3 filled much of the top end of the 757 market. Also that year, Boeing announced that the 717, the last civil aircraft to be designed by McDonnell Douglas, would cease production in 2006. The 767 was in danger of cancellation as well, with the 787 replacing it, but orders for the freighter version extended the program.

In May 2005, Boeing announced its intent to form a joint venture, United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance
United Launch Alliance is a joint venture of Lockheed Martin and Boeing. ULA was formed in December 2006 by combining the teams at these companies which provide spacecraft launch services to the government of the United States. U.S...

 with its competitor Lockheed Martin. The new venture will be the largest provider of rocket launch services to the US government. The joint venture gained regulatory approval and completed the formation on December 1, 2006.

On August 2, 2005, Boeing sold its Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne
Rocketdyne was a Rocket engine design and production company headquartered in Canoga Park, California, United States. The company was related to North American Aviation for most of its history. NAA merged with Rockwell International, which was then bought by Boeing in December, 1996...

 rocket engine division to Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney
Pratt & Whitney is a U.S.-based aerospace manufacturer with global service operations. It is a subsidiary of United Technologies Corporation . Pratt & Whitney's aircraft engines are widely used in both civil aviation and military aviation. Its headquarters are in East Hartford, Connecticut, USA...

. On May 1, 2006, Boeing announced that it had reached a definitive agreement to purchase Dallas, Texas-based Aviall, Inc. for $1.7 billion and retain $350 million in debt. Aviall, Inc. and its subsidiaries, Aviall Services, Inc. and ILS formed a wholly owned subsidiary of Boeing Commercial Aviation Services (BCAS).

On August 18, 2007, NASA announced that Boeing would be the manufacturing contractor for the liquid-fueled upper stage of the Ares I
Ares I
Ares I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA as part of the Constellation Program. The name "Ares" refers to the Greek deity Ares, who is identified with the Roman god Mars...

 rocket. The stage, based on both Apollo
Project Apollo
The Apollo program was the spaceflight effort carried out by the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration , that landed the first humans on Earth's Moon. Conceived during the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Apollo began in earnest after President John F...

-Saturn
Saturn V
The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload...

 and Space Shuttle
Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle was a manned orbital rocket and spacecraft system operated by NASA on 135 missions from 1981 to 2011. The system combined rocket launch, orbital spacecraft, and re-entry spaceplane with modular add-ons...

 technologies, will be constructed at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility
Michoud Assembly Facility
The Michoud Assembly Facility is an 832-acre site owned by NASA and located in New Orleans East, a large district within the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, United States. Organizationally, it is part of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center...

 near New Orleans, the same site where Boeing constructed the massive S-IC
S-IC
The S-IC was the first stage of the Saturn V rocket. The S-IC first stage was built by The Boeing Company. Like the first stages of most rockets, most of its mass of over two thousand metric tonnes at launch was propellant, in this case RP-1 rocket fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer...

 stage of the Saturn V
Saturn V
The Saturn V was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. A multistage liquid-fueled launch vehicle, NASA launched 13 Saturn Vs from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida with no loss of crew or payload...

 rocket in the 1960s.

Unethical conduct


In May 2003, the US Air Force announced it would lease 100 KC-767 tankers to replace the oldest 136 of its KC-135
KC-135 Stratotanker
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling military aircraft. It and the Boeing 707 airliner were developed from the Boeing 367-80 prototype. The KC-135 was the US Air Force's first jet-powered refueling tanker and replaced the KC-97 Stratotanker...

s. In November 2003, responding to critics who argued that the lease was more expensive than an outright purchase, the DoD announced a revised lease of 20 aircraft and purchase of 80. In December 2003, the Pentagon announced the project was to be frozen while an investigation of allegations of corruption by one of its former procurement staffers, Darleen Druyun
Darleen Druyun
Darleen A. Druyun is a former United States Air Force civilian official and Boeing executive.-Education:...

 (who began employment at Boeing in January) was begun. The fallout of this resulted in the resignation of Boeing CEO Philip M. Condit
Philip M. Condit
Philip Murray Condit is an American businessman who was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing company from 1996 to 2003.-Education :...

 and the termination of CFO Michael M. Sears
Michael M. Sears
Michael M. Sears is a former Boeing executive.In 1992 Mr. Sears led the successful development of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, cited as the best managed aircraft program in U.S. Department of Defense history. In 1997, Mr. Sears was President of the Douglas Aircraft Company division of McDonnell...

. Harry Stonecipher
Harry Stonecipher
Harry C. Stonecipher is a former President and Chief Executive of American aerospace companies McDonnell Douglas and, later, Boeing. Stonecipher orchestrated the merger between McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, and was widely credited with the resurgence of Boeing...

, former McDonnell Douglas CEO and Boeing COO, replaced Condit on an interim basis. Druyun pleaded guilty to inflating the price of the contract to favor her future employer and to passing information on the competing Airbus A330 MRTT
Airbus A330 MRTT
The Airbus A330 Multi Role Tanker Transport is an aerial refuelling tanker aircraft based on the civilian Airbus A330-200. The A330 MRTT has been ordered by the Royal Australian Air Force , Royal Air Force , United Arab Emirates Air Force, and Royal Saudi Air Force...

 bid. In October 2004, she was sentenced to nine months in jail for corruption, fined, given three years of supervised release and 150 hours of community service.

In March 2005, the Boeing board forced President and CEO Harry Stonecipher to resign. Boeing said an internal investigation revealed a "consensual" relationship between Stonecipher and a female executive that was "inconsistent with Boeing's Code of Conduct" and "would impair his ability to lead the company". James A. Bell
James A. Bell
James A. Bell is currently the Corporate President, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of The Boeing Company. He served as interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing on March, 2005, following the resignation of Harry Stonecipher...

 served as interim CEO (in addition to his normal duties as Boeing’s CFO) until the appointment of Jim McNerney as the new Chairman, President, and CEO on June 30, 2005.

Industrial espionage


In June 2003, Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security, and advanced technology company with worldwide interests. It was formed by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta in March 1995. It is headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, in the Washington Metropolitan Area....

 sued Boeing, alleging that the company had resorted to industrial espionage
Industrial espionage
Industrial espionage, economic espionage or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security purposes...

 in 1998 to win the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) competition. Lockheed claimed that the former employee Kenneth Branch, who went to work for McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

 and Boeing, passed 25,000 proprietary documents to his new employers. Lockheed argued that these documents allowed Boeing to win 21 of the 28 tendered military satellite launches.

In July 2003, Boeing was penalized, with the Pentagon stripping $1 billion worth of contracts away from the company and awarding them to Lockheed Martin. Furthermore, the company was forbidden to bid for rocket contracts for a twenty-month period, which expired in March 2005.

In early September 2005, it was reported that Boeing was negotiating a settlement with the U.S. Department of Justice in which it would pay up to $500 million to cover this and the Darleen Druyun scandal.

The 92 EU-US Agreement notes


Until the late 1970s the US had an almost de facto monopoly in the Large Civil Aircraft (LCA) sector. The Airbus consortium (created in 1969) started competing effectively in the 1980s. At that stage the US became concerned about the European competition and the alleged subsidies paid by the European governments for the developments of the early models of the Airbus family. This became a major issue of contention, as the European side was equally concerned by subsidies accruing to US LCA manufacturers through NASA and Defense programs.

The EU and the US started bilateral negotiations for the limitation of government subsidies to the LCA sector in the late 1980s. Negotiations were concluded in 1992 with the signature of the EC-US Agreement on Trade in Large Civil Aircraft which imposes disciplines on government support on both sides of the Atlantic which are significantly stricter than the relevant WTO rules: Notably, the Agreement regulates in detail the forms and limits of government support, prescribes transparency obligations and commits the parties to avoiding trade disputes.

Subsidy disputes


In 2004 the EU and the US agreed to discuss a possible revision of the 1992 EU-US Agreement provided that this would cover all forms of subsidies including those used in the US, and in particular the subsidies for the Boeing 787; the first new aircraft to be launched by Boeing for 14 years. October 2004, the US began legal proceedings at the World Trade Organization by requesting WTO consultations on European launch investment to Airbus
Airbus
Airbus SAS is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace company. Based in Blagnac, France, surburb of Toulouse, and with significant activity across Europe, the company produces around half of the world's jet airliners....

. The US also unilaterally withdrew from the 1992 EU-US Agreement.

In October 2004, Boeing filed a complaint at the World Trade Organization (WTO), claiming that Airbus had violated a 1992 bilateral accord when it received what Boeing deems as “unfair” subsidies from several European governments. Airbus retaliated by filing another complaint, contesting that Boeing had also violated the accord when it received tax breaks from the U.S. Government. Moreover, the E.U. also complained that the investment subsidies from Japanese airlines violated the accord.

On January 11, 2005, Boeing and Airbus agreed that they would attempt to find a solution to the dispute outside of the WTO. However, in June 2005, Boeing and the United States government reopened the trade dispute with the WTO, claiming that Airbus had received illegal subsidies from European governments. Airbus has also retaliated against Boeing, reopening the dispute and also accusing Boeing of receiving subsidies from the US government.

On September 15, 2010, the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...

 ruled that Boeing had received billions of dollars in illegal government subsidies. Boeing responded that the ruling was a fraction of the size of the ruling against Airbus and would require few changes in its operations.

2010s


On November 17, 2011, it was reported that Lion Air
Lion Air
Not to be confused with the Sri Lankan airline Lionair.PT Lion Mentari Airlines, operating as Lion Air, is Indonesia’s largest private carrier and Asia’s first hybrid carrier which offers both economy and business-class seating, based in Jakarta, Indonesia. Lion Air also flies to Singapore,...

 has committed to ordering 201 Boeing 737MAX and 29 737-900ER airplanes. This order, when finalized is worth $21.7 billion at list prices. This would be the largest commercial airplane agreement ever for Boeing. The deal included options for a further 150 airliners.

Commercial airplanes


Boeing has achieved several consecutive launches, beginning with the formal launch of the 787 for delivery to All Nippon Airways
All Nippon Airways
, also known as or ANA, is one of the largest airlines in Japan. It is headquartered at the Shiodome City Center in the Shiodome area in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It operates services to 49 destinations in Japan and 35 international routes and employed over 14,000 employees as of May 2009...

 and Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand
Air New Zealand Limited is the national airline and flag carrier of New Zealand. Based in Auckland, New Zealand, the airline operates scheduled passenger flights to 26 domestic destinations and 24 international destinations in 15 countries across Asia, Europe, North America and Oceania, and is...

. Rollout of the first 787 occurred on July 8, 2007, with the first flight taking place on December 15, 2009.
Boeing also received the launch contract from the US Navy for the P-8 Multimission Maritime Aircraft
P-8 Multimission Maritime Aircraft
The Boeing P-8 Poseidon is a military aircraft currently being developed for the United States Navy . The P-8 is being developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800...

, an anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines....

 patrol aircraft. Several orders for the Wedgetail
Boeing Wedgetail
The Boeing 737 AEW&C is a twin-engine airborne early warning and control aircraft. It is lighter than the 707-based Boeing E-3 Sentry, and mounts a fixed, electronically scanned, rather than a rotating, radar antenna. It was designed for the Royal Australian Air Force under "Project Wedgetail"...

 AEW&C airplanes are expected as well.

Boeing launched the 777 Freighter
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

 in May 2005 with an order from Air France. The freighter variant is based on the −200LR. Other customers include FedEx, Emirates Airline
Emirates Airline
Emirates is the airline based in the Emirate of Dubai part of the United Arab Emirates . Based at Dubai International Airport it is the largest airline in the Middle East, operating over 2,400 flights per week, from its hub at Terminal 3, to 111 cities in 62 countries across six continents...

, and Air Atlanta Icelandic
Air Atlanta Icelandic
Air Atlanta Icelandic is a charter and cargo airline based in Kópavogur, Iceland. It specialises in leasing aircraft on an ACMI /wet lease basis to airlines worldwide needing extra passenger and cargo capacity. It also operates charter services for Icelandic tour operators...

. Boeing has achieved above projected orders for its 787 Dreamliner, outselling the rival Airbus A350.

Boeing officially announced in November 2005 that it would produce a larger variant of the 747, the 747-8, in two models, commencing with the Freighter model for two cargo carriers with firm orders for the aircraft. The second model, dubbed the Intercontinental, would be produced for passenger airlines that Boeing expected would place orders in the near future. Both models of the 747-8 would feature a lengthened fuselage, new, advanced engines and wings, and the incorporation of other technologies developed for the 787.

Boeing has also introduced new extended range versions of the 737. These include the 737-700ER and 737-900ER. The 737-900ER is the latest and will extend the range of the 737–900 to a similar range as the successful 737–800 with the capability to fly more passengers, due to the addition of two extra emergency exits.
The 777-200LR Worldliner embarked on a well-received global demonstration tour in the second half of 2005, showing off its capacity to fly farther than any other commercial aircraft. On November 10, 2005, the 777-200LR set a world record for the longest non-stop flight. The plane, which departed from Hong Kong traveling to London, took a longer route, which included flying over the U.S. It flew 11,664 nautical miles (21,601 km) during its 22-hour 42-minute flight. It was flown by Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines
Pakistan International Airlines Corporation commonly known as PIA, is the flag carrier airline of Pakistan. The airline has its head office on the grounds of Jinnah International Airport in Karachi. and operates scheduled services to 24 domestic destinations and 38 international destinations in 27...

 pilots and PIA was the first airline to fly the 777-200LR Worldliner.

On August 11, 2006, Boeing announced an agreement to form a joint-venture with the large Russian titanium
Titanium
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant transition metal with a silver color....

 producer, VSMPO-Avisma
VSMPO-AVISMA
VSMPO-AVISMA Corporation , where VSMPO stands for Verkhnesaldinskoye metallurgicheskoye proizvodstvennoye ob'yedineniye , is the world's largest titanium producer. Located in Verkhnyaya Salda, Russia, VSMPO-AVISMA also operates facilities in Ukraine, England, Switzerland, Germany and the United...

 for the machining of titanium forgings. The forgings will be used on 787 program. On December 27, 2007 Boeing and VSMPO-Avisma created a joint venture Ural Boeing Manufacturing and signed a contract on titanium
Titanium
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant transition metal with a silver color....

 products deliveries until 2015, with Boeing planning to invest $27 billion in Russia over the next 30 years.

Defense and other


Realizing that increasing numbers of passengers have become reliant on their computers to stay in touch, Boeing introduced Connexion by Boeing
Connexion by Boeing
Connexion by Boeing was an in-flight online Internet connectivity service from Boeing. This service allowed travellers to access a high-speed internet connection while on board a plane in flight through a wired Ethernet or a wireless 802.11 Wi-Fi connection. Connexion by Boeing was formed as a...

, a satellite based Internet connectivity service that promised air travelers unprecedented access to the World Wide Web. The company debuted the product to journalists in 2005, receiving generally favorable reviews. However, facing competition from cheaper options, such as cellular networks, it proved too difficult to sell to most airlines. In August 2006, after a short and unsuccessful search for a buyer for the business, Boeing chose to discontinue the service.

Boeing also developed the Boeing KC-767
Boeing KC-767
The Boeing KC-767 is a military aerial refueling and strategic transport aircraft developed from the Boeing 767-200ER. The tanker received the designation KC-767A in 2002, after being selected by the US Air Force initially to replace older KC-135Es...

 aerial refueling tanker. Italy ordered four KC-767s in December 2002, with the first one scheduled to be delivered in November 2008. Boeing and Italy are negotiating on the penalty for the late deliveries. Boeing stated the delay is due to such factors as design changes, expanded US flight testing, greater-than-expected challenges to software integration, and the complexity of getting the tanker ready for certification by the Federal Aviation Administration
Federal Aviation Administration
The Federal Aviation Administration is the national aviation authority of the United States. An agency of the United States Department of Transportation, it has authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S...

. Boeing's late delivery of a tanker to Japan in 2007 incurred a penalty "well under $5 million" according to Boeing. Boeing delivered the third aircraft to Japan in March 2009 and the last aircraft was delivered in January 2010.

In February 2011, Boeing received a contract for 179 KC-46 US Air Force tankers at a value of $35 billion. The KC-46 tankers are based on the KC-767.


Boeing jointly with Science Applications International Corporation
Science Applications International Corporation
SAIC is a FORTUNE 500 scientific, engineering and technology applications company headquartered in the United States with numerous federal, state, and private sector clients...

 (SAIC), were the prime contractors in the U.S. military's Future Combat Systems
Future Combat Systems
Future Combat Systems was the United States Army's principal modernization program from 2003 to early 2009. Formally launched in 2003, FCS was envisioned to create new brigades equipped with new manned and unmanned vehicles linked by an unprecedented fast and flexible battlefield network...

 program. The FCS program was canceled in June 2009 with all remaining systems swept into the BCT Modernization
BCT Modernization
The Brigade combat team Modernization is the United States Army's principal modernization program for Brigade combat teams from 2009 to the present...

 program. Boeing works jointly with SAIC in the BCT Modernization program like the FCS program but the U.S. Army will play a greater role in creating baseline vehicles and will only contract others for accessories.

Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates' shift in defense spending to "make tough choices about specific systems and defense priorities based solely on the national interest and then stick to those decisions over time" hit Boeing especially hard, because of their heavy involvement with canceled Air Force projects.

In 2010 The Boeing Company completed its acquisition of Argon ST Inc. Argon ST, based in Fairfax, Va., develops C4ISR (Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) and combat systems. Boeing on June 30, 2010 announced its intent to acquire Argon ST as part of the company's strategy to expand its capabilities to address the C4ISR, cyber and intelligence markets.

Future concepts


In May 2006, four concept designs being examined by Boeing were outlined in The Seattle Times
The Seattle Times
The Seattle Times is a newspaper serving Seattle, Washington, US. It is the largest daily newspaper in the state of Washington. It has been, since the demise in 2009 of the printed version of the rival Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Seattle's only major daily print newspaper.-History:The Seattle Times...

 based on corporate internal documents. The research aims in two directions: low-cost airplanes, and environmental-friendly planes. Codenamed after the well-known Muppets a design team known as the Green Team concentrated primarily on reducing fuel usage. All four designs illustrated rear-engine layouts.
  • "Fozzie" employs open rotors and would offer a lower cruising speed.
  • "Beaker" has very thin, long wings, with the ability to partially fold-up to facilitate easier taxiing.
  • "Kermit Kruiser" has forward swept wings over which are positioned its engines, with the aim of lowering noise below due to the reflection of the exhaust signature upward.
  • "Honeydew" with its delta wing design, resembles a marriage of the flying wing
    Flying wing
    A flying wing is a tailless fixed-wing aircraft which has no definite fuselage, with most of the crew, payload and equipment being housed inside the main wing structure....

     concept and the traditional tube fuselage.


As with most concepts, these designs are only in the exploratory stage intended to help Boeing evaluate the potentials of such radical technologies.

Environmental record


Researchers at the University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
This article relates to the statewide university system. For the flagship campus often referred to as "UMass", see University of Massachusetts Amherst...

 had listed Boeing as the thirteenth-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States based on 2002 data, although data from 2008 shows that they have dropped off the list. According to the Center for Public Integrity
Center for Public Integrity
The Center for Public Integrity is a nonprofit organization dedicated to producing original, responsible investigative journalism on issues of public concern. The Center is non-partisan and non-advocacy and committed to transparent and comprehensive reporting both in the United States and around...

, the United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is an agency of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting human health and the environment, by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress...

 has linked Boeing to more than twenty Superfund
Superfund
Superfund is the common name for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 , a United States federal law designed to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances...

 toxic waste
Toxic waste
Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death or injury to living creatures. It spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers. The term is often used interchangeably with “hazardous waste”, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment.Toxic waste...

 sites.

In 2006, the UCLA Center for Environmental Risk Reduction released a study showing that Boeing's Santa Susana Field Laboratory
Santa Susana Field Laboratory
The Santa Susana Field Laboratory is a complex of industrial research and development facilities located on a 2,668 acre portion of the Southern California Simi Hills in Simi Valley, California, used mainly for the testing and development of Liquid-propellant rocket engines for the United States...

, in the Simi Hills
Simi Hills
The Simi Hills are a low rocky mountain range of the Transverse Ranges, located in eastern Ventura County and western Los Angeles County, of southern California, United States.-Geography:...

 of eastern Ventura County in Southern California
Southern California
Southern California is a megaregion, or megapolitan area, in the southern area of the U.S. state of California. Large urban areas include Greater Los Angeles and Greater San Diego. The urban area stretches along the coast from Ventura through the Southland and Inland Empire to San Diego...

, had been contaminated with toxic and radioactive waste
Radioactive waste
Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material. Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine...

. The study found that air, soil
Soil
Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics...

, groundwater
Groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

, and surface water
Surface water
Surface water is water collecting on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, wetland, or ocean; it is related to water collecting as groundwater or atmospheric water....

 at the site all contained radionuclides, toxic metals, and dioxins; air and water additionally contained perchlorate
Perchlorate
Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid . They occur both naturally and through manufacturing. They have been used as a medicine for more than 50 years to treat thyroid gland disorders. They are used extensively within the pyrotechnics industry, and ammonium perchlorate is also a...

, TCE
Trichloroethylene
The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. It is a clear non-flammable liquid with a sweet smell. It should not be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, which is commonly known as chlorothene.The IUPAC name is...

, and hydrazines, while water showed the presence of PCBs as well. Clean up studies and lawsuits are in progress.

Jet biofuels


The airline industry is responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gas
Greenhouse gas
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone...

es emitted by the U.S. transportation sector. Aviation's share of the greenhouse gas emissions is poised to grow, as air travel increases and ground vehicles use more alternative fuels like ethanol and biodiesel. Boeing estimates that biofuels could reduce flight-related greenhouse-gas emissions by 60 to 80 percent. The solution would be blending algae fuels with existing jet fuel.

Boeing executives said the company is informally collaborating with leading Brazilian biofuels maker Tecbio, Aquaflow Bionomic of New Zealand and other fuel developers around the world. So far, Boeing has tested six fuels from these companies, and will probably have gone through 20 fuels "by the time we're done evaluating them." Boeing is joining other aviation-related members in the Algal Biomass Organization (ABO).

Air New Zealand and Boeing are researching the jatropha
Jatropha
Jatropha is a genus of approximately 175 succulent plants, shrubs and trees , from the family Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from the Greek words ἰατρός , meaning "physician," and τροφή , meaning "nutrition," hence the common name physic nut. Mature plants produce separate male and female...

 plant to see if it is a sustainable alternative to conventional fuel. A two-hour test flight using a 50–50 mixture of the new biofuel with Jet A-1
Jet fuel
Jet fuel is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines. It is clear to straw-colored in appearance. The most commonly used fuels for commercial aviation are Jet A and Jet A-1 which are produced to a standardized international specification...

 in the number one position Rolls Royce RB-211 engine of 747–400 ZK-NBS, was successfully completed on December 30, 2008. The engine was then removed to be scrutinised and studied to identify any differences between the Jatropha blend and regular Jet A1. No effects to performances were found.

On August 31, 2010, Boeing worked with the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 to test the Boeing C-17 running on 50% JP-8, 25% Hydro-treated Renewable Jet fuel and 25% of a Fischer–Tropsch fuel with successful results.

Electric propulsion


Boeing has stated that for the subsonic concept, hybrid electric engine technology
Hybrid electric vehicle
A hybrid electric vehicle is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle which combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. The presence of the electric powertrain is intended to achieve either better fuel economy than a conventional...

 is a clear winner. Hybrid electric propulsion has the potential to shorten takeoff distance and reduce noise.

Political contributions, federal contracts, advocacy


In both 2009 and 2008 Boeing was second on the list of Top 100 US Federal Contractors
Top 100 US Federal Contractors
The Top 100 Contractors Report is a list developed annually by the U.S. General Services Administration as part of its tracking of U.S. federal government procurement....

, with contracts totalling $22 billion and $23 billion respectively. Since 1995, the company has agreed to pay $1.6 billion to settle 39 instances of misconduct, including $615 million in 2006 in relation to illegal hiring of government officials and improper use of proprietary information.

Boeing's 2010 lobbying expenditure by the third quarter was $13.2 million (2009 total: $16.9 million). In the 2008 presidential election
United States presidential election, 2008
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on November 4, 2008. Democrat Barack Obama, then the junior United States Senator from Illinois, defeated Republican John McCain, the senior U.S. Senator from Arizona. Obama received 365...

, Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 "was by far the biggest recipient of campaign contributions from Boeing employees and executives, hauling in $197,000 – five times as much as John McCain
John McCain
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

, and more than the top eight Republicans combined."

The company is a member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition
U.S. Global Leadership Coalition
The U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, also known as the USGLC, is a influential, broad-based organization formed by a coalition of 400 American businesses and NGOs, senior national security and foreign policy experts, and diverse range of community leaders from across the country who promote...

, a Washington D.C.-based coalition of over 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for a larger International Affairs Budget, which funds American diplomatic and development efforts abroad. A series of cables show how US diplomats and senior politicians intervene on behalf of Boeing to help boost the company's sales.

In 2007 and 2008 the company benefited from over $10 billion of long-term loan guarantees, helping finance the purchase of their commercial aircraft in countries including Brazil, Canada, Ireland and the United Arab Emirates, from the Export-Import Bank of the United States
Export-Import Bank of the United States
The Export-Import Bank of the United States is the official export credit agency of the United States federal government. It was established in 1934 by an executive order, and made an independent agency in the Executive branch by Congress in 1945, for the purposes of financing and insuring...

, some 65% of the total loan guarantees the bank made in the period.

Divisions


The two largest divisions are Boeing Commercial Airplanes and Boeing Defense, Space & Security (BDS).
  • Boeing Capital
    Boeing Capital
    Boeing Capital is a subsidiary of The Boeing Company, providing asset-based leasing and lending services. Boeing Capital is made up of two divisions, Aircraft Financial Services and Space & Defense Financial Services.-History:...

  • Boeing Commercial Airplanes
    Boeing Commercial Airplanes
    Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

  • Boeing Defense, Space & Security
    • Phantom Works
      Boeing Phantom Works
      The Phantom Works division is the advanced prototyping arm of the Defense and Security side of The Boeing Company. Its primary focus is developing advanced military products and technologies, many of them highly classified, and has produced breakthroughs in defense, space and security.Founded by...


  • Engineering, Operations & Technology
    • Boeing Research & Technology
    • Boeing Test & Evaluation
    • Intellectual Property Management
    • Information Technology
    • Environment, Health, and Safety

  • Boeing Shared Services Group
    • Boeing Realty
    • Boeing Travel Management Company

Employment numbers

Employment by location
LocationEmployees
Alabama
Alabama
Alabama is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland...

2,572
Arizona
Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

4,588
California 22,650
Kansas
Kansas
Kansas is a US state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south...

2,183
Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

14,936
Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

6,162
Texas 6,163
Washington 75,558
Other Locations 29,683
Total Company 164,545
Employment by division
GroupEmployees
Boeing Defense, Space & Security 65,014
Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes
Boeing Commercial Airplanes designs, assembles, markets and sells large commercial jet aircraft and provides product-related maintenance and training to customers worldwide...

70,014
Engineering, Operations & Technology 19,071
Finance & Shared Services 7,799
Other 2,597
Corporate -
Total Company 164,495

Approximately 1.5% of Boeing employees are in the Technical Fellowship
Boeing Technical Fellowship
The Boeing Technical Fellowship program is a highly selective technical leadership career path at The Boeing Company, similar in nature to the IBM Fellows program. Established in 1989, the role of the engineers and scientists serving as Technical Fellows is to set technical direction for Boeing,...

 program, a program through which Boeing's top engineers and scientists set technical direction for the company. The average salary at Boeing is $76,784, reported by former employees.

Current board of directors

  • W. James McNerney, Jr. – Chairman, President & CEO
  • Admiral Edmund P. Giambastiani, Jr., U.S. Navy (ret)
  • Arthur D. Collins, Jr.
    Arthur D. Collins, Jr.
    Arthur D. Collins, Jr. is the retired Chairman of the Board of Medtronic, Inc., and formerly served the Company as President and Chief Executive Officer. In addition to his Board of Directors positions, he currently serves as a Senior Advisor to Oak Hill Capital Partners.-Family background:Art...

  • David L. Calhoun
  • Linda Cook
  • Kenneth M. Duberstein
  • John Bryson
    John Bryson
    John E. Bryson is the 37th Secretary of Commerce. The Senate confirmed him by a 74–26 vote on October 20, 2011. He was sworn in on October 21, 2011...

  • John H. Biggs
    John H. Biggs
    John H. Biggs is a director of The Boeing Company and the National Bureau of Economic Research as well as a trustee of Washington University in St. Louis. He was previously Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of financial services company TIAA-CREF from January 1993 until November...

  • John McDonnell
    John McDonnell (businessman)
    John F. McDonnell is an American businessman and philanthropist. McDonnell served as the Chairman of the McDonnell Douglas Corporation from 1988 until its merger with Boeing in 1997 and its Chief Executive Officer from 1988 until 1994, he has been a corporate director at Boeing since the 1997...

  • Mike S. Zafirovski
    Mike S. Zafirovski
    Mike S. Zafirovski is a Macedonian American businessman. Mike S. Zafirovski Most Recent Occupation:CEO of Nortel Networks Known Organizational Involvements...

  • Susan C. Schwab
  • William M. Daley
    William M. Daley
    William Michael “Bill” Daley is an American lawyer and former banker and is the current White House Chief of Staff to President Barack Obama. He served as U.S...


Chief executive officer

1933–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson
Philip G. Johnson
Philip Gustav Johnson was a pioneer in the manufacturing of airplanes and in the organization of commercial airlines in the United States and Canada. Johnson served as president of Boeing, United Airlines and Kenworth....

1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1945–1968 William M. Allen
William McPherson Allen
William McPherson "Bill" Allen was a U.S. aircraft businessman. Born in Lolo, Montana, he attended the University of Montana, where he became a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity...

1969–1986 Thornton “T” A. Wilson
Thornton Wilson
Thornton "T" Arnold Wilson was the Chairman of the Board and chief executive officer of Boeing corporation....

1986–1996 Frank A. Shrontz
Frank Shrontz
Frank Anderson Shrontz is a former CEO and chairman of the Boeing Company.The son of a sporting goods merchant, Shrontz graduated from Boise High School in 1949 and the University of Idaho in 1954 with a Bachelor of Laws degree, where he was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. Following a...

1996–2003 Philip M. Condit
Philip M. Condit
Philip Murray Condit is an American businessman who was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing company from 1996 to 2003.-Education :...

2003–2005 Harry C. Stonecipher
Harry Stonecipher
Harry C. Stonecipher is a former President and Chief Executive of American aerospace companies McDonnell Douglas and, later, Boeing. Stonecipher orchestrated the merger between McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, and was widely credited with the resurgence of Boeing...

2005 James A. Bell
James A. Bell
James A. Bell is currently the Corporate President, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of The Boeing Company. He served as interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing on March, 2005, following the resignation of Harry Stonecipher...

 (acting)
2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.

| style="vertical-align:top; width:33%;"|

Chairman of the board

1916–1934 William E. Boeing
William Boeing
William Edward Boeing was an American aviation pioneer who founded The Boeing Company.-Biography:Boeing was born to a wealthy German mining engineer named Wilhelm Böing who had made a fortune and who had a sideline as a timber merchant...

1934–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt (acting)
1939–1966 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1968–1972 William M. Allen
William McPherson Allen
William McPherson "Bill" Allen was a U.S. aircraft businessman. Born in Lolo, Montana, he attended the University of Montana, where he became a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity...

1972–1987 Thornton "T" A. Wilson
Thornton Wilson
Thornton "T" Arnold Wilson was the Chairman of the Board and chief executive officer of Boeing corporation....

1988–1996 Frank A. Shrontz
Frank Shrontz
Frank Anderson Shrontz is a former CEO and chairman of the Boeing Company.The son of a sporting goods merchant, Shrontz graduated from Boise High School in 1949 and the University of Idaho in 1954 with a Bachelor of Laws degree, where he was a member of the Beta Theta Pi fraternity. Following a...

1997–2003 Philip M. Condit
Philip M. Condit
Philip Murray Condit is an American businessman who was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing company from 1996 to 2003.-Education :...

2003–2005 Lew Platt
2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.
James McNerney
W. James McNerney, Jr, is an American business executive. He is the current CEO of Boeing Company.- Education :...


President

1922–1925 Edgar N. Gott
1926–1933 Philip G. Johnson
Philip G. Johnson
Philip Gustav Johnson was a pioneer in the manufacturing of airplanes and in the organization of commercial airlines in the United States and Canada. Johnson served as president of Boeing, United Airlines and Kenworth....

1933–1939 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1939–1944 Philip G. Johnson
Philip G. Johnson
Philip Gustav Johnson was a pioneer in the manufacturing of airplanes and in the organization of commercial airlines in the United States and Canada. Johnson served as president of Boeing, United Airlines and Kenworth....

1944–1945 Clairmont L. Egtvedt
1945–1968 William M. Allen
William McPherson Allen
William McPherson "Bill" Allen was a U.S. aircraft businessman. Born in Lolo, Montana, he attended the University of Montana, where he became a member of the Sigma Chi Fraternity...

1968–1972 Thornton “T” A. Wilson
Thornton Wilson
Thornton "T" Arnold Wilson was the Chairman of the Board and chief executive officer of Boeing corporation....

1972–1985 Malcolm T. Stamper
Malcolm T. Stamper
Malcolm Stamper was the longest serving President in Boeing’s history and was best known for leading 50,000 people in the race to build the 747 jetliner. Stamper grew up in Detroit and joined Boeing in 1962 after working for General Motors.His first assignment at Boeing was to sell its ailing gas...

1985–1996 Frank A. Shrontz
1996–1997 Philip M. Condit
Philip M. Condit
Philip Murray Condit is an American businessman who was Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing company from 1996 to 2003.-Education :...

1997–2005 Harry Stonecipher
Harry Stonecipher
Harry C. Stonecipher is a former President and Chief Executive of American aerospace companies McDonnell Douglas and, later, Boeing. Stonecipher orchestrated the merger between McDonnell Douglas and Boeing, and was widely credited with the resurgence of Boeing...

2005 James A. Bell
James A. Bell
James A. Bell is currently the Corporate President, Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer of The Boeing Company. He served as interim President and Chief Executive Officer of the Boeing on March, 2005, following the resignation of Harry Stonecipher...

 (acting)
2005– W. James McNerney, Jr.

|}

See also


  • Boeing 7x7 series
  • Boeing hydrofoils
  • Boeing Renton Factory
    Boeing Renton Factory
    The Boeing Company's Renton, Washington Factory is a facility where Next-Generation Boeing 737 airliners are built. Current production includes the 737-600, 737-700, 737-800, and 737-900 models.The factory lies adjacent to Renton Municipal Airport....

  • Competition between Airbus and Boeing
    Competition between Airbus and Boeing
    Competition between Airbus and Boeing is a result of both companies' domination of the large jet airliner market since the 1990s, a consequence of mergers within the global aerospace industry over the years. Airbus began as a consortium from Europe, whereas the American Boeing took over its former...

  • Future of Flight Aviation Center & Boeing Tour
    Future of Flight Aviation Center & Boeing Tour
    The Future of Flight Aviation Center is an aviation museum and education center located at the northwest corner of Paine Field in Mukilteo, Washington. It is the starting point for the Boeing Tour, a tour of a portion of Boeing's Everett, Washington production facility in which the models 747,...

     – Corporate public museum
  • North Charleston, South Carolina
    North Charleston, South Carolina
    North Charleston is the 3rd largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina with incorporated areas in Berkeley, Charleston, and Dorchester counties. On June 12, 1972 the city of North Charleston incorporated and was the 9th largest city in South Carolina. According to the 2010 Census, North...

     – Site of 2nd 787 Assembly line
  • Plant 42
    Plant 42
    Air Force Plant 42 is a federally owned military aerospace facility under the control of the Air Force Material Command in Palmdale, California...


Further reading

  • Greider, William. One World, Ready or Not: The Manic Logic of Global Capitalism. London: Penguin Press, 1997. ISBN 0-7139-9211-5.

External links