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's-Hertogenbosch

's-Hertogenbosch

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's-Hertogenbosch (ˌsɛrtoːɣə(n)ˈbɔs, literally "The Duke's Forest")—translated in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 as Bois-le-Duc, in German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 as Herzogenbusch, in Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 as Bolduque, in Italian
Italian language
Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

 as Boscoducale and in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 Silva Ducis—is a municipality
Municipality
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, and also the capital of the province of North Brabant
North Brabant
North Brabant , sometimes called Brabant, is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west.- History :...

. It is located in the southern Netherlands, some 80 km south of Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 (map).

The Dutch colloquially seldom say 's-Hertogenbosch but rather Den Bosch dɛmˈbɔs, which is traditional Dutch for "The Forest".

Population centres


Bokhoven
Bokhoven
Bokhoven is a village in the Netherlands, in the municipality of 's-Hertogenbosch. It is located about seven kilometres northwest of the city center, on the south bank of the river Maas....

, Crevecoeur, Deuteren
Deuteren
Deuteren is a hamlet in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It is located in the municipality of 's-Hertogenbosch, about 2 km west of the city centre....

 (former village), Dieskant, Empel
Empel
Empel is a town in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It is located in the municipality of 's-Hertogenbosch.Empel was a separate municipality until 1971, when it was merged with 's-Hertogenbosch. The complete name of the municipality was Empel en Meerwijk.-Points of interest:Empel was the ancient...

, Engelen, Gewande,
's-Hertogenbosch, Hintham
Hintham
Hintham is a town west of Rosmalen in the 's-Hertogenbosch municipality of Noord-Brabant province. Hintham is known thanks to Interchange Hintham, an interchange in the A2 motorway, the highway from Amsterdam to Maastricht....

, Kruisstraat, Maliskamp, Meerwijk, Orthen (former village), Oud-Empel and Rosmalen
Rosmalen
Rosmalen is a city in the province of North Brabant, in the south of the Netherlands. It is located near 's-Hertogenbosch and has belonged to its municipality since 1996. In 2005 the city began construction of a new neighbourhood, De Groote Wielen...

.

History


The city's official name is a contraction of the Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

 des Hertogen bosch—"the Duke's forest". The duke in question was Henry I, Duke of Brabant
Henry I, Duke of Brabant
Henry I of Brabant , named "The Courageous" Duke of Brabant and Duke of Lower Lotharingia until his death.-Biography:...

, whose family had owned a large estate at nearby Orthen for at least four centuries. He founded a new town located on some forested dunes in the middle of a marsh. At age 26, he granted 's-Hertogenbosch city rights
City rights in the Netherlands
City rights are a medieval phenomenon in the history of the Low Countries. A liegelord, usually a count, duke or similar member of high nobility, granted a settlement he owned certain town privileges that settlements without city rights did not have....

 and the corresponding trade privileges in 1185. This is, however, the traditional date given by later chroniclers; the first mention in contemporaneous sources is 1196. The original charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 has been lost. His reason for founding the city was to protect his own interests against encroachment from Gelre and Holland; from its first days, he conceived of the city as fortress. It was destroyed in 1203 in a joint expedition of Gelre and Holland, but was soon rebuilt. Some remnants of the original city walls may still be seen. In the late 15th century, a much larger wall was erected to protect the greatly expanded settled area. Artificial waterways were dug to serve as a city moat, through which the rivers Dommel
Dommel
The Dommel is a creek in Belgium and the Netherlands, left tributary of the Dieze. It rises in north-eastern Belgium near Peer and flows into the southern part of the Netherlands. The Dommel takes in water from the Keersop, Tongelreep, Run, Gender and Kleine Dommel streams and merges at...

 and Aa
Aa River (Meuse)
The Aa is a small river in The Netherlands. It rises near Meijel in the southeastern province of Limburg, in the Peel region. It flows northwest through the province of North Brabant towards 's-Hertogenbosch, roughly along the Zuid-Willemsvaart canal. In 's-Hertogenbosch, at the confluence of the...

 were diverted.
Until 1520, the city flourished, becoming the second largest population centre in the territory of the present Netherlands, after Utrecht
Utrecht (city)
Utrecht city and municipality is the capital and most populous city of the Dutch province of Utrecht. It is located in the eastern corner of the Randstad conurbation, and is the fourth largest city of the Netherlands with a population of 312,634 on 1 Jan 2011.Utrecht's ancient city centre features...

. The birthplace and home of one of the greatest painters of the northern Renaissance
Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance is the term used to describe the Renaissance in northern Europe, or more broadly in Europe outside Italy. Before 1450 Italian Renaissance humanism had little influence outside Italy. From the late 15th century the ideas spread around Europe...

, Hieronymus Bosch, the city was also a center of music, and composers, such as Jheronimus Clibano, received their training at its cathedrals. Others held positions there: Matthaeus Pipelare
Matthaeus Pipelare
Matthaeus Pipelare was a Flemish composer, choir director, and possibly wind instrument player of the Renaissance.He was from Louvain, and spent part of his early life in Antwerp. Unlike many of his contemporaries, many of whom traveled to Italy, Spain or elsewhere, he seems never to have left...

 was musical director at the Confraternity of Our Lady; and renowned Habsburg copyist and composer Pierre Alamire
Pierre Alamire
Pierre Alamire was a German-Dutch music copyist, composer, instrumentalist, mining engineer, merchant, diplomat and spy of the Renaissance...

 did much of his work at 's-Hertogenbosch.

Eighty Years' War


The wars of the Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 changed the course of the city's history. It became an independent bishopric. During the Eighty Years' War, the city took the side of the Habsburg
Habsburg
The House of Habsburg , also found as Hapsburg, and also known as House of Austria is one of the most important royal houses of Europe and is best known for being an origin of all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1438 and 1740, as well as rulers of the Austrian Empire and...

 (Catholic) authorities and thwarted a Calvinist
Calvinism
Calvinism is a Protestant theological system and an approach to the Christian life...

 coup. It was besieged several times by Prince Maurice of Orange, stadtholder
Stadtholder
A Stadtholder A Stadtholder A Stadtholder (Dutch: stadhouder [], "steward" or "lieutenant", literally place holder, holding someones place, possibly a calque of German Statthalter, French lieutenant, or Middle Latin locum tenens...

 of Holland, who wanted to bring 's-Hertogenbosch under the rule of the rebel United Provinces
Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the Batavian Republic and ultimately...

. The city was successfully defended by Claude de Berlaymont
Claude de Berlaymont
Claude de Berlaymont , lord of Haultpenne was a Flemish military commander in Spain's Army of Flanders during the Eighty Years' War.-Family:...

, also known as Haultpenne
Haultpenne
The Castle Haultepenne, also spelled Haultpenne, located in Gleixhe in the town of Flémalle, is a part medieval, part renaissance structure. It is known for its red brick and uniquely shaped tower. For several centuries, the castle was in the possession of a Flemish noble family, Berlaymont...

.

Thirty Years' War


In the years of Truce, before the renewed fighting after 1618, the fortifications were greatly expanded. The surrounding marshes made a siege of the conventional type impossible, and the fortress, deemed impregnable, was nicknamed the Marsh Dragon. The town was nevertheless finally conquered by Frederik Hendrik of Orange in 1629 in a typically Dutch stratagem: he diverted the rivers Dommel and Aa, created a polder
Polder
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes, that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually-operated devices...

 by constructing a forty-kilometre dyke and then pumped out the water by mills. After a siege of three months, the city had to surrender—an enormous blow to Habsburg geo-political strategy during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

. This surrender cut the town off from the rest of the duchy and the area was treated by the Republic as an occupation zone without political liberties (see also Generality Lands
Generality Lands
The Generality Lands, Lands of the Generality or Common Lands were about one fifth of the territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the States-General...

).

Louis XIV to Bonaparte


After the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the...

, the fortifications were again expanded. In 1672, the Dutch rampjaar
Rampjaar
The rampjaar was the year 1672 in Dutch history. In that year,the Republic of the Seven United Provinces was after the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and the Third Anglo-Dutch War attacked by England, France, and the prince-electors Bernhard von Galen, bishop of Münster and Maximilian Henry of...

, the city held against the army of Louis XIV
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

. In 1794, French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 revolutionary troops under command of Charles Pichegru
Charles Pichegru
Jean-Charles Pichegru was a French general and political figure of the French Revolution and Revolutionary Wars.-Early life and career:...

 took the city with hardly a fight: in the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
The Batavian Republic was the successor of the Republic of the United Netherlands. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795, and ended on June 5, 1806, with the accession of Louis Bonaparte to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland....

, both Catholics and Brabanders at last gained equal rights.


From 1806, the city became part of France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. It was captured by the Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

ns in 1814. The next year, when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
United Kingdom of the Netherlands is the unofficial name used to refer to Kingdom of the Netherlands during the period after it was first created from part of the First French Empire and before the new kingdom of Belgium split out in 1830...

 was established, it became the capital of North Brabant
North Brabant
North Brabant , sometimes called Brabant, is a province of the Netherlands, located in the south of the country, bordered by Belgium in the south, the Meuse River in the north, Limburg in the east and Zeeland in the west.- History :...

. Many newer and more modern fortresses were created in the vicinity of the city. Until 1878 it was forbidden to build outside the ramparts. This led to overcrowding and the highest infant mortality
Infant mortality
Infant mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. Traditionally, the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea. However, the spreading information about Oral Re-hydration Solution to mothers around the world has decreased the rate of children dying...

 in the kingdom. The very conservative city government prevented industrial investment—they didn't want the number of workers to grow—and the establishment of educational institutions—students were regarded as disorderly. As a result, the relative importance of the city diminished.

World War II and after


One of the few official Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 concentration camp complexes in western Europe located outside of Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

 was named after 's-Hertogenbosch. It operated from January, 1943, to September, 1944 and was known to the Germans as Herzogenbusch
Herzogenbusch
Herzogenbusch concentration camp was a Nazi concentration camp located in Vught near the city of 's-Hertogenbosch, in the Netherlands. Herzogenbusch was the only concentration camp run directly by the SS in western Europe outside of Germany. The camp was first used in 1943 and held 31,000 prisoners...

(see List of subcamps of Herzogenbusch). About 30,000 inmates were interned in the complex during this time, of whom about 12,000 were Jews. In the Netherlands, this camp is known as 'Kamp Vught
Vught
Vught is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It is a town where lots of commuters live and has recently been named "Best place to live" by the Dutch magazine Elsevier.-Politics:...

', because the concentration camp was actually located at a heath near Vught, a village a few kilometres south of 's-Hertogenbosch. In a tragic coincidence, the entire Jewish population of 's-Hertogenbosch was burnt alive on the same heath in the 13th century.

Conquered by the Germans in World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 (1940), it was liberated in 24–27 October 1944 by the British 53rd (Welsh) Division.This town was mentioned on 'Who do Think You Are?' TV programme where Rory Bremner's father, a member of 1st Battalion, the East Lancashire Regiment were the first to liberate the town. This testimony was given by a resident of the town and he wore the tie of the East Lancs to commemorate the event.


Main sights


's-Hertogenbosch was founded as a fortified city and that heritage can still be seen today. After World War II, plans were made to modernise the old city, by filling in the canals, removing or modifying some ramparts and reconstructing historic neighbourhoods. Before these plans could come to effect however, the central government declared the city a protected townscape. Most historic elements have been preserved. Because the main ramparts are crucial in keeping out the water, they have never been slighted, their usual fate in the Netherlands. In contrast to cities like Rotterdam
Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the second-largest city in the Netherlands and one of the largest ports in the world. Starting as a dam on the Rotte river, Rotterdam has grown into a major international commercial centre...

, 's-Hertogenbosch also survived the Second World War
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 relatively unscathed. Much of its historic heritage remains intact, and today there are always renovations going on in the city to preserve the many old buildings, fortifications, churches and statues for later generations. In 2004 the city was awarded the title European Fortress City of the year. It is planned to restore the city defences to much of their old glory in the coming years. 's-Hertogenbosch also has the oldest remaining brick house in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, 'de Moriaan', which was built at the beginning of the 13th century. In the north of the old city, the hexagonal powder arsenal, or Kruithuis, still exists, one of only two of its kind in the country. The Townhall is a 17th century building, erected in the typical style of Dutch classicism
Classicism
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint...

. Around the city itself many other fortresses can still be seen. Until recently it was a major garrison town.

The old city of 's-Hertogenbosch is still almost completely surrounded by continuous ramparts. On the south side, this wall still borders on an old polder
Polder
A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes, that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually-operated devices...

, kept intact as a nature reserve
Nature reserve
A nature reserve is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research...

, that stretches all the way to Vught
Vught
Vught is a municipality and a town in the southern Netherlands. It is a town where lots of commuters live and has recently been named "Best place to live" by the Dutch magazine Elsevier.-Politics:...

. These city walls are currently undergoing renovations. Hidden below the old city is a canal
Canal
Canals are man-made channels for water. There are two types of canal:#Waterways: navigable transportation canals used for carrying ships and boats shipping goods and conveying people, further subdivided into two kinds:...

 network called the Binnendieze that once spanned 22 kilometres. It started out as a regular river, the Dommel, running through the city in medieval times but due to lack of space in the city, people started building their houses and roads over the river. In later times it functioned as a sewer and fell into disrepair. In recent decades, the remaining sixth of the old waterway system has been renovated, and it is possible to take several guided subterranean boat trips through it.

's-Hertogenbosch is also home to Saint John's Cathedral
St. John's Cathedral, 's-Hertogenbosch
The Roman Catholic Cathedral Church of St. John of 's-Hertogenbosch is the height of gothic architecture in North Brabant, Netherlands. It has an extensive and richly decorated interior, and serves as the cathedral for the bishopric of 's-Hertogenbosch.The cathedral has a total length of 115 and...

 (Sint Jans kathedraal in Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

) which is said to be one of the most beautiful cathedrals in the Netherlands. The Cathedral dates from circa 1220 and is best known for its (Brabantian) gothic design and the many sculptures of craftsmen that are sitting on almost every arc and rim along the outside of the cathedral. At the time of writing, the cathedral is being extensively renovated to undo the damage of many years of wear-and-tear and acid rain
Acid rain
Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it possesses elevated levels of hydrogen ions . It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure. Acid rain is caused by emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen...

.

The painter Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516) remains probably the best known citizen of 's-Hertogenbosch.

The city is also home to the Bolwoningen, 50 experimental spherical houses designed by Dries Kreijkamp.

51.729918°N 5.306938°E

Economy


The city of 's-Hertogenbosch has become a centre of industry, education, administration and culture. It is currently the fourth city of Noord Brabant. It is home to many national and international businesses such as Heineken
Heineken
Heineken is a Dutch beer which has been brewed by Heineken International since 1873. It is available in a 4.6% alcohol variety in countries such as Ireland. It is the flagship product of the Heineken company and is made of purified water, malted barley, hops, and yeast. In 1886 H...

, Tyco International
Tyco International
Tyco International Ltd. is a highly diversified global manufacturing company incorporated in Switzerland, with United States operational headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey...

 and many others.

Culture


's-Hertogenbosch is home to a variety of events such as the theatre festival Boulevard, Jazz in Duketown,and hip hop in duketown the start of the Tour de France
Tour de France
The Tour de France is an annual bicycle race held in France and nearby countries. First staged in 1903, the race covers more than and lasts three weeks. As the best known and most prestigious of cycling's three "Grand Tours", the Tour de France attracts riders and teams from around the world. The...

 (1996), Tour Feminine (1997), the International Vocal Competition
's-Hertogenbosch International Vocal Competition
The International Vocal Competition ‘s-Hertogenbosch is a biannual singing competition held in the Dutch city of 's-Hertogenbosch. Next to the International Franz Liszt Piano Competition and the Charles Hennen Concours, it is the only other international classical music competition in the...

, November Music (a contemporary music festival) and the Unicef Open (formerly the Ordina Open
Ordina Open
The Rosmalen Grass Court Championships, now sponsored by UNICEF and called the UNICEF Open, is a tennis tournament on the ATP Tour and WTA Tour held in 's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands.-Singles:-Doubles:-Singles:-Doubles:-External links:*...

) grass court
Grass court
A grass court is one of the four different types of tennis court. Grass courts are made of rye grass in different compositions depending on the tournament...

 tennis tournament (in the nearby town of Rosmalen
Rosmalen
Rosmalen is a city in the province of North Brabant, in the south of the Netherlands. It is located near 's-Hertogenbosch and has belonged to its municipality since 1996. In 2005 the city began construction of a new neighbourhood, De Groote Wielen...

). There are also over 350 restaurants, pubs and cafés to be found in the city.

Den Bosch is also home to the European Ceramic Work Centre, currently branded as Sundaymorning@ekwc. This is a juried international ceramic residency where they invite Artist, Designers and Architects from around to the world to explore the medium of Ceramics. This program was initially started in 1991 and continues to this day.

The city has its own food speciality, the Bossche Bol
Bossche bol
A Bossche bol , sometimes called chocoladebol in its city of origin, is a pastry from the Dutch city of 's-Hertogenbosch . It is effectively a large profiterole, about 12 cm/5" in diameter A Bossche bol (Dutch for 'Den Bosch ball'), sometimes called chocoladebol ('chocolate ball') in its city...

—effectively a giant profiterole, somewhat larger than a tennis ball, which is filled with whipped cream and coated with chocolate.

Sport


The city has one professional football club, FC Den Bosch (first club of Dutch international player Ruud van Nistelrooy
Ruud van Nistelrooy
Rutgerus Johannes Martinus "Ruud" van Nistelrooy, , is a Dutch footballer who plays as a striker for Málaga CF in Spain's La Liga. He is the second-highest goalscorer in Champions League history with 60 goals...

), and is also the home to top field hockey club HC Den Bosch, basketball team EiffelTowers Den Bosch
EiffelTowers
The EiffelTowers is a Dutch professional basketball team that plays in the FEB Eredivisie. The team has also been a regular at international competitions, lastly when it played in the EuroChallenge 2009–10...

 and 2008 national rugby champion The Dukes

Carnaval/Catholic Holiday



Once a year 's-Hertogenbosch changes its name to "Oeteldonk". Contrary to popular belief, "oetel" in the name "Oeteldonk" is not a referral to a frog but is a facetious reference to the 's-Hertogenbosch Bishop Adrianus Godschalk who came from the village of Den Dungen
Den Dungen
Den Dungen is a village in the Dutch province of North Brabant. It is located in the municipality of Sint-Michielsgestel next to the village Maaskantje.Den Dungen was a separate municipality until 1996, when it was merged with Sint-Michielsgestel....

, and he often fulminated against the 'pagan' Carnaval
Carnival
Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnaval typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party...

 festivities. Van den Oetelaar was a very common name in Den Dungen at that time. "Donk" is a reference to a dry place in the marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

. The frog is however a symbol often used during Carnaval
Carnival
Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnaval typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party...

, and it is a symbol of the Oeteldonk Marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

.

This change only lasts for the three days of Carnaval
Carnival
Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnaval typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party...

, a Catholic holiday for celebrating the days before Lent
Lent
In the Christian tradition, Lent is the period of the liturgical year from Ash Wednesday to Easter. The traditional purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer – through prayer, repentance, almsgiving and self-denial – for the annual commemoration during Holy Week of the Death and...

. The Mayor then hands over his duties temporarily to "Peer vaan den Muggenheuvel tot den Bobberd" during this three-day festival. "Peer vaan den Muggenheuvel tot den Bobberd" is the host of Prince Carnaval "Prince Amadeiro XXV" when he visits Oeteldonk.

Transport


's-Hertogenbosch has three railway stations:
  • 's-Hertogenbosch
    's-Hertogenbosch railway station
    s-Hertogenbosch is a railway station located in 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands. The station and all services operating from it are run by Nederlandse Spoorwegen, the largest Dutch train operating company.-History:...

  • 's-Hertogenbosch Oost
    's-Hertogenbosch Oost railway station
    s-Hertogenbosch Oost railway station serves the city of 's-Hertogenbosch in the North Brabant province of the Netherlands.-History:The station was opened in 1987 and is located on the Brabantselijn...

  • Rosmalen
    Rosmalen railway station
    Rosmalen is a railway station located in the town of Rosmalen. It is one of three railway stations in the municipality of 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.The railway station was opened at the Tilburg–Nijmegen railway in 1881. It was closed again in 1938...


Notable people

  • Patrick van Aanholt
    Patrick van Aanholt
    Patrick John Miguel van Aanholt is a Dutch footballer who currently plays for Wigan Athletic, on loan from Chelsea as a left back.-Chelsea:...

     (1990), footballer (Chelsea F.C.
    Chelsea F.C.
    Chelsea Football Club are an English football club based in West London. Founded in 1905, they play in the Premier League and have spent most of their history in the top tier of English football. Chelsea have been English champions four times, FA Cup winners six times and League Cup winners four...

    )
  • Hieronymus Bosch (c. 1450–1516), painter
  • Mijntje Donners
    Mijntje Donners
    Wilhelmina Petronella Ardina Maria Donners is a field hockey striker from the Netherlands, who played 234 international matches for the Dutch National Women's Team, in which she scored 97 goals.Donners made her debut on April 1, 1994 against South Korea , and was a member of the team, that won the...

     (1974), field hockey player, World Hockey player of the year 2003
  • Fred van der Hoorn
    Fred van der Hoorn
    Fred van der Hoorn is a Dutch former footballer who played defence.-Career:Van der Hoorn joined Dundee United in 1989 from Dutch side Den Bosch and stayed at Tannadice until just after United's Scottish Cup win in 1994, although he had fallen out of favour by that time...

     (1963), footballer (FC Den Bosch, Dundee United, Eendracht Aalst)
  • Patrick Jumpen (1988), Jumpstyle
    Jumpstyle
    Jumpstyle is a rave dance and electronic music genre mainly practiced in Europe, specifically Belgium, the Netherlands, Ireland, Germany, northern France, and a few parts in the United States, specifically Indiana. The dance is also called Jumpen...

     artist
  • Wim Kersten (1924–2001), composer and lyricist
  • Marco Kroon
    Marco Kroon
    Captain Marinus Johannes "Marco" Kroon, RMWO is a Dutch soldier serving with the Korps Commandotroepen. Kroon is a Knight of the Military William Order and the first new member of this very exclusive Order in over half a century...

     (1970), recent recipient of the Militaire Willemsorde
  • Anthony Lurling
    Anthony Lurling
    Anthonius Petrus Lurling , simply known as Anthony Lurling , is a Dutch footballer who currently plays as a forward for NAC Breda in the Eredivisie....

     (1977), footballer (FC Den Bosch, Feyenoord, Heerenveen, NAC)
  • Jan Pijnenburg (1955), musician, drummer of famous Dutch '80s band Doe Maar
  • Maikel Scheffers (1982), wheelchair tennis player
  • Arnold Scholten (1962), footballer (FC Den Bosch, Ajax, Feyenoord, JEF United)
  • Andy Souwer
    Andy Souwer
    Andreas "Andy" Souwer is a Dutch welterweight shoot boxer. He is two time K-1 World MAX champion as well as a three time Shootboxing World tournament champion, fighting out of Mejiro Gym, Amsterdam, Netherlands....

     (1982), kickboxer, two time K-1 World MAX Champion, reigning three time Shootboxing World Tournament Champion, born 1982
  • Frans de Waal
    Frans de Waal
    Fransiscus Bernardus Maria de Waal, PhD , is a Dutch primatologist and ethologist. He is the Charles Howard Candler professor of Primate Behavior in the Emory University psychology department in Atlanta, Georgia, and director of the Living Links Center at the Yerkes National Primate Research...

     (1948), psychologist, primatologist and book author
  • Leon de Winter
    Leon de Winter
    - Early life :Leon de Winter was born on 24 February 1954 in Den Bosch, in the southern Netherlands. He grew up in an orthodox Jewish family and attended the gymnasium in Den Bosch. After his graduation he attended the academy of Bavaria Film Studios in Munich and the Netherlands Film Academy in...

     (1954), writer and columnist
  • Marianne Vos
    Marianne Vos
    Marianne Vos, is a Dutch cyclo-cross, road bicycle racer and track racer. After winning a junior European and world championship in road racing, she continued in senior cycling by becoming world champion in cyclo-cross and road racing at the age of 19. Vos added track racing world championships...

     (1987), National, Olympic and World professional cycling champion
  • Max Schellekens (1997), BASKETBALL CAPTAIN G-TEAM

External links