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Bronze sculpture

Bronze sculpture

Overview
Bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

 is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".

Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mold. Then, as the bronze cools, it shrinks a little, making it easier to separate from the mold. Their strength and ductility (lack of brittleness) is an advantage when figures in action are to be created, especially when compared to various ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

 or stone materials (such as marble sculpture
Marble sculpture
Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. Sculpture is among the oldest of the arts. Even before painting cave walls, early humans fashioned shapes from stone. From these beginnings, artifacts have evolved to their current complexity...

).
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

 is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze".

Common bronze alloys have the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before they set, thus filling the finest details of a mold. Then, as the bronze cools, it shrinks a little, making it easier to separate from the mold. Their strength and ductility (lack of brittleness) is an advantage when figures in action are to be created, especially when compared to various ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

 or stone materials (such as marble sculpture
Marble sculpture
Marble sculpture is the art of creating three-dimensional forms from marble. Sculpture is among the oldest of the arts. Even before painting cave walls, early humans fashioned shapes from stone. From these beginnings, artifacts have evolved to their current complexity...

). These qualities allow the creation of extended figures, as in Jeté, or figures that have small cross sections in their support, such as the equestrian statue of Richard the Lionheart. Modern statuary bronze is 90% copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

 and 10% tin
Tin
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group 14 elements, germanium and lead and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4...

; older bronze alloys varied only slightly from this composition.

But the value of the bronze for uses other than making statues is disadvantageous to the preservation of sculptures; few large ancient bronzes have survived, as many were melted down to make weapons or ammunition in times of war or to create new sculptures commemorating the victors, while far more stone and ceramic works have come through the centuries, even if only in fragments. As recently as 2007 several life sized bronze sculptures by John Waddell were stolen, likely because of the value of the metal after the work has been melted.

History


The great civilizations of the old world worked in bronze for art, from the time of the introduction of the alloy for edged weapons. The Greeks were the first to scale the figures up to life size. Few examples exist in good condition; one is the seawater-preserved bronze now called "The Victorious Athlete," which required painstaking efforts to bring it to its present state for museum display. Far more Roman bronze statues have survived.

The ancient Chinese knew both lost-wax casting and section mould casting, and in the Shang Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
The Shang Dynasty or Yin Dynasty was, according to traditional sources, the second Chinese dynasty, after the Xia. They ruled in the northeastern regions of the area known as "China proper" in the Yellow River valley...

 created large ritual vessels covered with complex decoration which have survived in tombs. Over the long creative period of Egyptian dynastic art, small lost-wax bronze figurines were made in large numbers; several thousand of them have been conserved in museum collections.

From the ninth through the thirteenth century the Chola dynasty
Chola Dynasty
The Chola dynasty was a Tamil dynasty which was one of the longest-ruling in some parts of southern India. The earliest datable references to this Tamil dynasty are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC left by Asoka, of Maurya Empire; the dynasty continued to govern over varying territory until...

 in South India represented the pinnacle of bronze casting in India .

Process


Making bronzes is highly skilled work, and a number of distinct casting processes may be employed, including lost-wax casting (and its modern-day spin-off investment casting
Investment casting
Investment casting is an industrial process based on and also called lost-wax casting, one of the oldest known metal-forming techniques. From 5,000 years ago, when beeswax formed the pattern, to today’s high-technology waxes, refractory materials and specialist alloys, the castings allow the...

), sand casting
Sand casting
Sand casting, also known as sand molded casting, is a metal casting process characterized by using sand as the mold material.It is relatively cheap and sufficiently refractory even for steel foundry use. A suitable bonding agent is mixed or occurs with the sand...

 and centrifugal casting.

Lost wax method


In lost-wax or investment casting, the artist starts with a full-sized model of the sculpture, most often a non-drying oil-based clay such as Plasticine
Plasticine
Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids. The name is a registered trademark of Flair Leisure Products plc...

 model for smaller sculptures or for sculptures to be developed over an extended period (water-based clays must be protected from drying), and water-based clay for larger sculptures or for sculptures for which it is desired to capture a gestural quality - one that transmits the motion of the sculptor in addition to that of the subject. A mold is made from the clay pattern, either as a piece mold from plaster, or using flexible gel or similar rubber-like materials stabilized by a plaster jacket of several pieces. Often a plaster
Plaster
Plaster is a building material used for coating walls and ceilings. Plaster starts as a dry powder similar to mortar or cement and like those materials it is mixed with water to form a paste which liberates heat and then hardens. Unlike mortar and cement, plaster remains quite soft after setting,...

 master will be made from this mold for further refinement. Such a plaster is a means of preserving the artwork until a patron may be found to finance a bronze casting, either from the original molds or from a new mold made from the refined plaster positive.

Once a production mold is obtained, a wax (hollow for larger sculptures) is then cast from the mold. For a hollow sculpture, a core
Core (manufacturing)
A core is a device used in casting and molding processes to produce internal cavities and reentrant angles. The core is normally a disposable item that is destroyed to get it out of the piece. They are most commonly used in sand casting, but are also used in injection molding.An intriguing example...

 is then cast into the void, and is retained in its proper location (after wax melting) by pins of the same metal used for casting. One or more wax sprues are added to conduct the molten metal into the sculptures - typically directing the liquid metal from a pouring cup to the bottom of the sculpture, which is then filled from the bottom up in order to avoid splashing and turbulence. Additional sprues may be directed upward at intermediate positions, and various vents may also be added where gases could be trapped. (Vents are not needed for ceramic shell casting, allowing the sprue to be simple and direct.) The complete wax structure (and core, if previously added) is then invested in another kind of mold or shell, which is heated in a kiln until the wax runs out and all free moisture is removed. The investment is then soon filled with molten bronze. The removal of all wax and moisture prevents the liquid metal from being explosively ejected from the mold by steam and vapor.

Students of bronze casting will usually work in direct wax, where the model is made in wax, possibly formed over a core, or with a core cast in place, if the piece is to be hollow. If no mold is made and the casting process fails, the artwork will also be lost. After the metal has cooled, the external ceramic/clay is chipped away, revealing an image of the wax form, including core pins, sprues, vents, and risers. All of these are removed with a saw and tool marks are polished away, and interior core material is removed to reduce the likelihood of interior corrosion. Incomplete voids created by gas pockets or investment inclusions are then corrected by welding and carving. Small defects where sprues and vents were attached are filed or ground down and polished.

Creating large sculptures


For a large sculpture, the artist will usually prepare small study models until the pose and proportions are determined. An intermediate-sized model is then constructed with all of the final details. For very large works, this may again be scaled to a larger intermediate. From the final scale model, measuring devices are used to determine the dimensions of an armature for the structural support of a full-size temporary piece, which is brought to rough form by wood, cardboard, plastic foam, and/or paper to approximately fill the volume while keeping the weight low. Finally, plaster, clay or other material is used to form the full-size model, from which a mould may be constructed. Alternatively, a large refactory core may be constructed, and the direct-wax method then applied for subsequent investment. Before modern welding techniques, large sculptures were generally cast in one piece with a single pour. Welding allows a large sculpture to be cast in pieces, then joined.

Finishing


After final polishing, corrosive materials may be applied to form a patina
Patina
Patina is a tarnish that forms on the surface of bronze and similar metals ; a sheen on wooden furniture produced by age, wear, and polishing; or any such acquired change of a surface through age and exposure...

, a process that allows some control over the color and finish.

Another form of sculptural art that uses bronze is ormolu
Ormolu
Ormolu is an 18th-century English term for applying finely ground, high-karat gold in a mercury amalgam to an object of bronze. The mercury is driven off in a kiln...

, a finely cast soft bronze that is gilded (coated with gold) to produce a matte gold finish. Ormolu was popularized in the 18th century in France and is found in such forms as wall sconces (wall-mounted candle holders), inkstands, clocks and garnitures. Ormolu wares can be identified by a clear ring when tapped, showing that they are made of bronze, not a cheaper alloy such as spelter
Spelter
Spelter, while sometimes used merely as a synonym for zinc, is often used to identify a zinc alloy. In this sense it might be an alloy of equal parts copper and zinc, i.e. a brass, used for hard soldering and brazing, or as an alloy, containing lead, that is used instead of bronze...

 or pewter
Pewter
Pewter is a malleable metal alloy, traditionally 85–99% tin, with the remainder consisting of copper, antimony, bismuth and lead. Copper and antimony act as hardeners while lead is common in the lower grades of pewter, which have a bluish tint. It has a low melting point, around 170–230 °C ,...

.

Sculptors


  • David Ascalon
    David Ascalon
    David Ascalon is a contemporary sculptor and stained glass artist, and co-founder of Ascalon Studios.-Biography:Ascalon was born in Tel Aviv, in the British Mandate of Palestine on March 8, 1945...

  • John Bridgeman
    John Bridgeman (sculptor)
    Arthur John Bridgeman ARCA, FRBS, FRBSA was an English sculptor.-Early life:Born in Felixstowe, Suffolk and named Arthur John, he was usually called 'Bridge' by his friends and signed himself John Bridgeman...

  • Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux
    Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux
    Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux was a French sculptor and painter.Born in Valenciennes, Nord, son of a mason, his early studies were under François Rude. Carpeaux entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1844 and won the Prix de Rome in 1854, and moving to Rome to find inspiration, he there studied the works of...

  • Benvenuto Cellini
    Benvenuto Cellini
    Benvenuto Cellini was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, painter, soldier and musician, who also wrote a famous autobiography. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism.-Youth:...

  • Donatello
    Donatello
    Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi , also known as Donatello, was an early Renaissance Italian artist and sculptor from Florence...

  • Czesław Dźwigaj
  • Alfred Gilbert
    Alfred Gilbert
    Sir Alfred Gilbert was an English sculptor and goldsmith who enthusiastically experimented with metallurgical innovations...

  • Lorenzo Ghiberti
    Lorenzo Ghiberti
    Lorenzo Ghiberti , born Lorenzo di Bartolo, was an Italian artist of the early Renaissance best known for works in sculpture and metalworking.-Early life:...

  • Giambologna
    Giambologna
    Giambologna, born as Jean Boulogne, incorrectly known as Giovanni da Bologna and Giovanni Bologna , was a sculptor, known for his marble and bronze statuary in a late Renaissance or Mannerist style.- Biography :...

  • Maggi Hambling
    Maggi Hambling
    Maggi Hambling CBE is an English painter and sculptor. Perhaps her best known public works are a memorial to Oscar Wilde in central London and Scallop, a 4 metre high steel sculpture of two interlocking scallop shells on Aldeburgh beach dedicated to Benjamin Britten...

  • Leone Leoni
    Leone Leoni
    Leone Leoni was an Italian sculptor of international outlook who travelled in Italy, Germany, Austria, France, the Spanish Netherlands and Spain. Leoni is regarded as the finest of the Cinquecento medallists. He made his reputation in commissions he received from the Habsburg monarchs Charles V,...

  • Adriaen de Vries
    Adriaen de Vries
    Adriaen de Vries was a Northern Mannerist sculptor born in the Netherlands, whose international style crossed the threshold to the Baroque; he excelled in refined modelling and bronze casting and in the manipulation of patina and became the most famous European sculptor of his generation...


Modern

  • Constantin Brancusi
    Constantin Brancusi
    Constantin Brâncuşi was a Romanian-born sculptor who made his career in France. As a child he displayed an aptitude for carving wooden farm tools. Formal studies took him first to Bucharest, then to Munich, then to the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris...

  • Laurence Broderick
    Laurence Broderick
    Laurence Broderick, ARBS, FRSA, is a British sculptor. His best known work is The Bull, a public sculpture in Birmingham, erected in 2003. His work consists largely of direct carvings in stone and editions in bronze, mostly figurative, wildlife and the female form...

  • John Connell
    John Connell
    John Connell was a contemporary American artist. His works included sculpture, painting, drawing, and writing....

  • Edgar Degas
    Edgar Degas
    Edgar Degas[p] , born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas, was a French artist famous for his work in painting, sculpture, printmaking and drawing. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism although he rejected the term, and preferred to be called a realist...

  • Eric Fischl
    Eric Fischl
    Eric Fischl is an American painter, sculptor and printmaker.-Early life:Fischl was born in New York City and grew up on suburban Long Island; his family moved to Phoenix, Arizona in 1967...

  • Marshall Fredericks
    Marshall Fredericks
    Marshall Maynard Fredericks was an American sculptor.-Biography:Fredericks was born of Scandinavian heritage in Rock Island, Illinois on January 31, 1908. His family moved to Florida for a short time and then settled in Cleveland, Ohio, where he grew up...

  • Anita Huffington
    Anita Huffington
    Anita Huffington is an American sculptor who is noted for her stone and Bronze representation of the female torso.-Biography:...

  • László Kutas
    László Kutas
    László Kutas is a leading figure of contemporary Hungarian sculptural art. His figurative sculptures, commemorative coins and medals, major public and private statues can be found in museums, private collections and public squares including Windsor Palace in London, the International Coin...

  • Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse
    Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

  • Jorge Melício
    Jorge Melício
    Jorge Melício is a Portuguese sculptor. He was born in Angola in 1957 and has lived in Lisbon since he was seven years of age.-Biography:...

  • Carl Milles
    Carl Milles
    Carl Milles was a Swedish sculptor, best known for his fountains. He was married to artist Olga Milles and brother to Ruth Milles and half brother to the architect Evert Milles...

  • John W Mills
  • Henry Moore
    Henry Moore
    Henry Spencer Moore OM CH FBA was an English sculptor and artist. He was best known for his semi-abstract monumental bronze sculptures which are located around the world as public works of art....

  • Tom Otterness
    Tom Otterness
    Tom Otterness is an American sculptor whose works adorn parks, plazas, subway stations, libraries, courthouses and museums in New York---most notably in Rockefeller Park in Battery Park City and in the 14th Street/8th Avenue subway station---and other cities around the world...

  • Enzo Plazzotta
    Enzo Plazzotta
    Enzo Plazzotta was an Italian-born British sculptor.He was born in Mestre, near Venice, and spent his working life in London...

  • Hugo Rheinhold
    Hugo Rheinhold
    Wolfgang Hugo Rheinhold was a German sculptor arguably most famous for his Affe mit Schädel . His name is often misspelled Reinhold.-Life:...

  • Auguste Rodin
    Auguste Rodin
    François-Auguste-René Rodin , known as Auguste Rodin , was a French sculptor. Although Rodin is generally considered the progenitor of modern sculpture, he did not set out to rebel against the past...

  • Julian Schnabel
    Julian Schnabel
    Julian Schnabel is an American artist and filmmaker. In the 1980s, Schnabel received international media attention for his "plate paintings"—large-scale paintings set on broken ceramic plates....

  • Birgit Stauch
    Birgit Stauch
    Birgit Stauch is a contemporary German sculptor who works in bronzes, sculptures, sketches and portraits.-Life:...

  • M.L. Snowden
    M.L. Snowden
    M. L. Snowden is an American sculptor.Her works, largely in lost wax-cast bronze, explore the monumental forces and energies of geological phenomena and human figuration. They are intended to convey power and movement through abstract and representational elements...

  • Stanisław Szukalski
  • Lorado Taft
    Lorado Taft
    Lorado Zadoc Taft was an American sculptor, writer and educator. Taft was born in Elmwood, Illinois in 1860 and died in his home studio in Chicago in 1936.-Early years and education:...

  • Bill Toma
    Bill Toma
    Bill Toma pursues a wide range of subject matter, including fantasy art, wildlife, renaissance Harlequins, and nudes by crafting very detailed bronze sculptures decorated with colorfull Patina. His sculptures includes fantasy animals such as dragons and fantasy female characters...

  • Zoja Trofimiuk
    Zoja Trofimiuk
    Zoja Trofimiuk is an Australian sculptor and printmaker, born in Prague, Czechoslovakia. She specializes in cast glass; her studio is in Melbourne. Zbych Trofimiuk, an Australian actor, is her son.-Education:...

  • George Tsutakawa
    George Tsutakawa
    George Tsutakawa , sculptor and painter, was born in Seattle, Washington. Tsutakawa spent much of his childhood in Okayama, Japan. He returned to Seattle at the age of 16, where he attended Broadway High School before earning a BFA at the University of Washington. One of his early mentors was...

  • Gerard Tsutakawa
    Gerard Tsutakawa
    Gerard "Gerry" Tsutakawa, born 1947, son of artist George Tsutakawa, is an accomplished Pacific Northwest sculptor. Tsutakawa has had numerous public and private commissions, perhaps his best known being the 9' bronze sculpture titled "Mitt" outside of Seattle's Safeco Field...

  • Felix de Weldon
    Felix de Weldon
    Felix Weihs de Weldon was an American sculptor. His most famous piece is the Marine Corps War Memorial of five U.S. Marines and one sailor raising the flag of the United States on Iwo Jima during World War Two.-Biography:...

  • Leonard Wells Volk

People

  • Andrew Browne Cunningham, in Trafalgar Square
    Trafalgar Square
    Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, England, United Kingdom. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. There are a number of statues and sculptures in the square, with one plinth displaying changing pieces of...

    , London
    London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , England
    England
    England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

  • George VI of the United Kingdom
    George VI of the United Kingdom
    George VI was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death...

    , at Carlton House Terrace, London, England
  • Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
    Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson
    Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, 1st Duke of Bronté, KB was a flag officer famous for his service in the Royal Navy, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of...

     - relief panels of his Victory at Cape St Vincent, and Death
  • A conversation with Oscar Wilde
    Oscar Wilde
    Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish writer and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he became one of London's most popular playwrights in the early 1890s...

     by Maggi Hambling, installed in Adelaide Street, near Trafalgar Square, London in 1998
  • Shepherd and Sheep
    Paternoster Square
    Paternoster Square is an urban development, owned by the Mitsubishi Estate Co., next to St Paul's Cathedral in the City of London, England. In 1942 the area, which takes its name from Paternoster Row, centre of the London publishing trade, was devastated by aerial bombardment in The Blitz during...

     by Dame Elisabeth Frink Paternoster Square
  • Young Dancer
    Royal Opera House
    The Royal Opera House is an opera house and major performing arts venue in Covent Garden, central London. The large building is often referred to as simply "Covent Garden", after a previous use of the site of the opera house's original construction in 1732. It is the home of The Royal Opera, The...

     by Enzo Plazzotta
    Enzo Plazzotta
    Enzo Plazzotta was an Italian-born British sculptor.He was born in Mestre, near Venice, and spent his working life in London...

    , on Broad Street, London
  • Temperance
    Blackfriars Bridge
    Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, along with Blackfriars station...

    , a statue atop a drinking water fountain to the north end of Blackfriars Bridge, London
  • In the National Statuary Hall Collection
    National Statuary Hall Collection
    The National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol comprises statues donated by individual states to honor persons notable in their history...

    , United States Capitol
    United States Capitol
    The United States Capitol is the meeting place of the United States Congress, the legislature of the federal government of the United States. Located in Washington, D.C., it sits atop Capitol Hill at the eastern end of the National Mall...

    , Washington
    Washington, D.C.
    Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

    , 55 statues, including:
    • Edward Lewis Bartlett
    • George Clinton
      George Clinton (vice president)
      George Clinton was an American soldier and politician, considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was the first Governor of New York, and then the fourth Vice President of the United States , serving under Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. He and John C...

    • John Campbell Greenway
      John Campbell Greenway
      John Campbell Greenway was an American mining, steel and railroad executive: a man of many trades in many states...

    • Ernest Gruening
      Ernest Gruening
      Ernest Henry Gruening was an American journalist and Democrat who was the Governor of the Alaska Territory from 1939 until 1953, and a United States Senator from Alaska from 1959 until 1969.-Early life:...

    • Eusebio Francisco Kino
    • Joseph Wheeler
      Joseph Wheeler
      Joseph Wheeler was an American military commander and politician. He has the rare distinction of serving as a general during war time for two opposing forces: first as a noted cavalry general in the Confederate States Army in the 1860s during the American Civil War, and later as a general in the...


Animals

  • Charging Bull
    Charging Bull
    Charging Bull, which is sometimes referred to as the Wall Street Bull or the Bowling Green Bull, is a bronze sculpture by Arturo Di Modica that stands in Bowling Green Park near Wall Street in Manhattan, New York City...

     - by Arturo Di Modica
    Arturo Di Modica
    Arturo Di Modica is an Italian-American artist, born in Vittoria, Sicily, best known for his sculpture Charging Bull , which he installed without permission in front of the New York Stock Exchange in December 1989. The work cost US$360,000 of the artist's own money...

    , in Bowling Green
    Bowling Green (New York City)
    Bowling Green is a small public park in Lower Manhattan at the foot of Broadway next to the site of the original Dutch fort of New Amsterdam. Built in 1733, originally including a bowling green, it is the oldest public park in New York City and is surrounded by its original 18th century fence. At...

     park near Wall Street
    Wall Street
    Wall Street refers to the financial district of New York City, named after and centered on the eight-block-long street running from Broadway to South Street on the East River in Lower Manhattan. Over time, the term has become a metonym for the financial markets of the United States as a whole, or...

     in New York City
    New York City
    New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

  • Mustangs at Las Colinas
    Mustangs at Las Colinas
    Mustangs at Las Colinas is a bronze sculpture by Robert Glen, that decorates Williams Square in Las Colinas in Irving, Texas. It is said to be the largest equestrian sculpture in the world....

  • Nelson's Column
    Nelson's Column
    Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The monument was constructed between 1840 and 1843 to a design by William Railton at a cost of £47,000. It is a column of the Corinthian...

     - Sir Edwin Landseer
    Edwin Henry Landseer
    Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, RA was an English painter, well known for his paintings of animals—particularly horses, dogs and stags...

    's Lions guard the diagonals
  • Affe mit Schädel
    Affe mit Schädel
    The Affe mit Schädel , is a famous work by the late-19th century German sculptor Hugo Rheinhold. The statuette is otherwise known as the “Affe einen Schädel betrachtend”...

     - Hugo Rheinhold
    Hugo Rheinhold
    Wolfgang Hugo Rheinhold was a German sculptor arguably most famous for his Affe mit Schädel . His name is often misspelled Reinhold.-Life:...

    's Common Chimpanzee
    Common Chimpanzee
    The common chimpanzee , also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a great ape. Colloquially, the common chimpanzee is often called the chimpanzee , though technically this term refers to both species in the genus Pan: the common chimpanzee and the closely related bonobo, formerly called the pygmy...

    contemplating a human skull.

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