Hanoi

Hanoi

Overview
Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế
Hue
Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically , as "the degree to which a stimulus can be describedas similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow,"...

 during the Nguyen dynasty as the capital of Vietnam, but Hanoi served as the capital of French Indochina
French Indochina
French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin , Annam , and Cochinchina , as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887....

 from 1902 to 1954.
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Encyclopedia
Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

 and the country's second largest city. Its population in 2009 was estimated at 2.6 million for urban districts, 6.5 million for the metropolitan jurisdiction. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế
Hue
Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically , as "the degree to which a stimulus can be describedas similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow,"...

 during the Nguyen dynasty as the capital of Vietnam, but Hanoi served as the capital of French Indochina
French Indochina
French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin , Annam , and Cochinchina , as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887....

 from 1902 to 1954. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam
North Vietnam
The Democratic Republic of Vietnam , was a communist state that ruled the northern half of Vietnam from 1954 until 1976 following the Geneva Conference and laid claim to all of Vietnam from 1945 to 1954 during the First Indochina War, during which they controlled pockets of territory throughout...

.

The city is located on the right bank of the Red River
Red River (Vietnam)
The Red River , also known as the Sông Cái - Mother River , or Yuan River , is a river that flows from southwest China through northern Vietnam to the Gulf of Tonkin...

. Hanoi is located at 1760 km (1,093.6 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

.

October 2010 officially marked 1000 years since the establishment of the city. On this occasion, Hanoi was named by Frommer's travel guide as one of the world's "Top Destinations 2010".

History


Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. One of the first known permanent settlements is the Co Loa citadel
Co Loa Citadel
Cổ Loa Citadel is a citadel built near Phong Khe, about 20km to the North of today’s Hanoi, during the end of the Hồng Bàng Dynasty . The fortress is a spiral-shaped complex of the then new capital...

 (Cổ Loa) founded around 200 BC.

Hanoi has had many names throughout history, all of them of Sino-Vietnamese origin. During the Chinese domination of Vietnam, it was known first as Long Biên, then Tống Bình ' onMouseout='HidePop("54284")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Liu_Song_Dynasty">Song
Liu Song Dynasty
The Liu Song Dynasty , also known as Song Dynasty , Former Song , or Southern Song , was first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin Dynasty and followed by the Southern Qi Dynasty....

 Peace") and Long Đỗ . In 866, it was turned into a citadel and named Đại La .

In 1010, Ly Thai To, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty
Lý Dynasty
The Lý Dynasty , sometimes known as the Later Lý Dynasty , was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Prior Lê Dynasty and ended in 1225 when the queen Lý Chiêu Hoàng was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh. They ruled Vietnam for a...

, moved the capital of Đại Việt to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed the site Thăng Long - a name still used poetically to this day. Thăng Long remained the capital of Đại Việt until 1397, when it was moved to Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa
Thanh Hóa is the capital city of Vietnam's Thanh Hoa province. The population is nearly 200,000 with an area of only 57.9 square kilometers....

, then known as Tây Đô , the "Western Capital". Thăng Long then became Đông Đô , the "Eastern Capital."

In 1408, the Chinese Ming Dynasty
Ming Dynasty
The Ming Dynasty, also Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644, following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty. The Ming, "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history", was the last dynasty in China ruled by ethnic...

 attacked and occupied Vietnam, changing Đông Đô's name to "Eastern Gateway" , Đông Quan in Vietnamese. In 1428, the Vietnamese overthrew the Chinese under the leadership of Lê Lợi, who later founded the Lê Dynasty
Lê Dynasty
The Later Lê Dynasty , sometimes referred to as the Lê Dynasty was the longest-ruling dynasty of Vietnam, ruling the country from 1428 to 1788, with a brief interruption....

 and renamed Đông Quan Đông Kinh or Tonkin
Tonkin
Tonkin , also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of China's Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. Locally, it is known as Bắc Kỳ, meaning "Northern Region"...

. Right after the end of the Tây Sơn Dynasty
Tây Son Dynasty
The name of Tây Sơn is used in many ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the eras of the Later Lê and Nguyễn dynasties in the history of Vietnam between 1770 and 1802...

, it was named Bắc Thành .

In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty was established and moved the capital to Huế
Hue
Hue is one of the main properties of a color, defined technically , as "the degree to which a stimulus can be describedas similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow,"...

, the old name Thăng Long was modified to become Thăng Long . In 1831, the Nguyễn emperor Minh Mạng
Minh Mang
Minh Mạng was the second emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until 20 January 1841. He was a younger son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Crown Prince Canh, had died in 1801...

 renamed it Hà Nội . Hanoi was occupied by the French
French Third Republic
The French Third Republic was the republican government of France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed due to the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War, to 1940, when France was overrun by Nazi Germany during World War II, resulting in the German and Italian occupations of France...

 in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. As Hanoï, it became the capital of French Indochina
French Indochina
French Indochina was part of the French colonial empire in southeast Asia. A federation of the three Vietnamese regions, Tonkin , Annam , and Cochinchina , as well as Cambodia, was formed in 1887....

 after 1887.

The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940 and liberated in 1945, when it briefly became the seat of the Viet Minh
Viet Minh
Việt Minh was a national independence coalition formed at Pac Bo on May 19, 1941. The Việt Minh initially formed to seek independence for Vietnam from the French Empire. When the Japanese occupation began, the Việt Minh opposed Japan with support from the United States and the Republic of China...

 government after Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
Hồ Chí Minh , born Nguyễn Sinh Cung and also known as Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Marxist-Leninist revolutionary leader who was prime minister and president of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam...

 proclaimed the independence of Vietnam. However, the French returned and reoccupied the city in 1946. After nine years of fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces, Hanoi became the capital of an independent North Vietnam in 1954.

During the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

, Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways. These were all, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of a reunified Vietnam when North and South Vietnam
South Vietnam
South Vietnam was a state which governed southern Vietnam until 1975. It received international recognition in 1950 as the "State of Vietnam" and later as the "Republic of Vietnam" . Its capital was Saigon...

 were reunited on July 2, 1976.

On May 29, 2008, it was decided that Ha Tay Province
Ha Tay Province
Hà Tây is a former province of Vietnam, in the Red River Delta, now part of Hanoi. On May 29, 2008, it was decided that Ha Tay would merge with Hanoi province on August 1, 2008.- Geography :...

, Vĩnh Phúc
Vinh Phuc Province
Vĩnh Phúc is a province in the Red River Delta of northern Vietnam. It is divided into one city , one town , and seven districts:#Bình Xuyên#Lập Thạch#Tam Đảo#Tam Dương#Vĩnh Tường#Yên Lạc- Etymology :...

's Mê Linh
Me Linh
Mê Linh is a rural district of Hanoi, formerly of Vinh Phuc province in the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam....

 district and 4 communes of Lương Sơn District, Hoa Binh
Hoa Binh
Hòa Bình is a city in Vietnam. It is the capital of Hoa Binh province and is located 76 kilometres from Hanoi, a 5 kilometres from the Da River. The Battle of Hoa Binh was fought around the city in 1951-52 during the First Indochina War.-References:...

 be merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from August 1, 2008. Hanoi's total area then increased to 334,470 hectares in 29 subdivisions with the new population being 6,232,940., effectively tripling its size. The Hanoi Capital Region , a metropolitan area covering Hanoi and 6 surrounding provinces under its administration, will have an area of 13,436 square kilometers with a population of 15 million by 2020.

Climate



Hanoi features a warm humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cwa) with plentiful precipitation. The city experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, where summers are hot and humid, and winters are, by national standards, relatively cool and dry. Summers, lasting from May to September, are hot and humid, receiving the majority of the annual 1680 millimetres (66.1 in) of rainfall. The winters are short, relatively dry, and mild, while spring can bring light rains.

Education




Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: Indochina Medical College (1902) - now Hanoi Medical University
Hanoi Medical University
Hanoi Medical University is the oldest university of Vietnam located in Hanoi. HMU was found in 1902 by French during the French colonisation under the name Indochina Medical College...

, Indochina University (1904) - now Hanoi National University, and École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de L'Indochine (1925) - now Hanoi University of Fine Art
Hanoi College of Fine Arts
Hanoi University of Fine Arts is an art school in Hanoi, Vietnam. It was established under the French rule in 1925...

.

After the Communist Party took control over Hanoi in 1954 with support from the Soviet Union, many new universities were built, among them, Hanoi University of Technology
Hanoi University of Technology
Hanoi University of Science and Technology , founded 1956, is the first and largest technical university in Vietnam.- History :...

 remains the largest technical university in Vietnam.

Hanoi is the largest centre of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62% of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi. Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open for everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have started their operation. Thăng Long University, founded in 1988, by some Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France is the first private university in Vietnam.

Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events often take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around this intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but passing marks are decided independently by each university.

Although there are state owned kindergarten
Kindergarten
A kindergarten is a preschool educational institution for children. The term was created by Friedrich Fröbel for the play and activity institute that he created in 1837 in Bad Blankenburg as a social experience for children for their transition from home to school...

s, there are also many private ventures that serve both local and international needs. Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi are generally state run although there are some independent schools. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the US, with elementary school
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

 between grades 1 and 5, middle school
Middle school
Middle School and Junior High School are levels of schooling between elementary and high schools. Most school systems use one term or the other, not both. The terms are not interchangeable...

 (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and high school
High school
High school is a term used in parts of the English speaking world to describe institutions which provide all or part of secondary education. The term is often incorporated into the name of such institutions....

 from grades 10 to 12.

Landmarks



As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered one of the main cultural centres of Vietnam, where most Vietnamese dynasties have left their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Even when the nation's capital moved to Huế under the Nguyễn Dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city hosts more cultural sites than any city in Vietnam, and boasts more than 1,000 years of history, and that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.

Old Quarter




The Old Quarter, near Hoan Kiem lake, has the original street layout and architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century the city consisted of only about 36 streets, most of which are now part of the old quarter. Each street then had merchants and households specialized in a particular trade, such as silk traders, jewellery, etc. The street names nowadays still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce. The area is famous for its small artisans and merchants, including many silk shops. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.

Some others prominent places are: The Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), site of the oldest university in Vietnam 1010; One Pillar Pagoda
One Pillar Pagoda
The One Pillar Pagoda is a historic Buddhist temple in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It is regarded alongside the Perfume Temple, as one of Vietnam's two most iconic temples.The temple was built by Emperor Lý Thái Tông, who ruled from 1028 to 1054...

 (Chùa Một Cột); Flag Tower of Hanoi
Flag Tower of Hanoi
The Flag Tower of Hanoi is a tower in Hanoi, Vietnam, which is one of the symbols of the city and part of the Hanoi Citadel, a World Heritage Site...

 (Cột cờ Hà Nội). In 2004, a massive part of the 900 year old Hanoi Citadel
Hanoi Citadel
The central old citadel of Hanoi was the former residence of Vietnamese monarchs dating back to Đại Việt, when the city was known as Thăng Long.- History :...

 was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Dinh Square.

Lakes


A city between the rivers, built from lowland, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and sometime is called "city of lakes". Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoan Kiem Lake, West Lake, Halais Lake (Hồ Thiền Quang in Vietnamese), and Bay Mau Lake. Hoan Kiem Lake, also known as Sword Lake, is the historical and cultural center of Hanoi, and is linked to the legend of the magic sword. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi and there are many temples in the area. There are small boats for hire and a floating restaurant.

Colonial Hanoi




Under French rule, as an administrative centre for the French colony of Indochina, the French colonial architecture style became dominant, many examples remain today: the tree-lined boulevards (e.g. Phan Dinh Phung street) and its many villas and mansions, Grand Opera House
Hanoi Opera House
The Hanoi Opera House is an opera house in central Hanoi, Vietnam. It was erected by the French colonial administration between 1901 and 1911. It was modeled on the Palais Garnier, the older of Paris's two opera houses, and is considered to be one of the architectural landmarks of Hanoi.The Hanoi...

, State Bank of Vietnam
State Bank of Vietnam
The State Bank of Vietnam is the central bank of Vietnam.-History:When French Indochina was under French rule, the colonial government governed the Indochinese monetary system through Indochinese Bank, which also acted as a commercial bank in French Indochina...

 (formerly The Bank of Indochina), Presidential Palace
Presidential Palace, Hanoi
The Presidential Palace of Vietnam, located in the city of Hanoi, was built between 1900 and 1906 to house the French Governor-General of Indochina.- History :...

 (formerly Palace of the Governor-General of French Indochina), Saint Joseph Cathedral
Saint Joseph Cathedral (Hanoi)
Saint Joseph Cathedral is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hanoi. The church was built in 1886 in the neo-gothic style. It holds several masses throughout the day and is usually crowded on weekends and religious holidays. On...

, and the historic Hotel Metropole
Sofitel Metropole
Sofitel Metropole is a 5 star historic luxury hotel built in 1901 in the French colonial style. It is located at 15 Ngo Quyen Street in Hanoi, Vietnam. The hotel has a rich history and a century long tradition of welcoming ambassadors, writers, heads of state and entrepreneurs including Charlie...

. Many of the colonial structures are an eclectic mixture of French and traditional Vietnamese architectural styles, such as the National Museum of Vietnamese History, the Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts and the old Indochina Medical College.

Museums


Hanoi is also home to a number of museums:
  • National Museum of Vietnamese History
    National Museum of Vietnamese History
    The National Museum of Vietnamese History is located in the Hoan Kiem district of Hanoi, Vietnam.- History :...

  • Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts
    Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts
    The Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts is located in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is a museum showcasing Vietnam's fine arts from every historical period.- External links :* *...

  • Vietnam Museum of Ethnology
    Vietnam Museum of Ethnology
    The Vietnam Museum of Ethnology is a museum in Hanoi, Vietnam, which focuses on the 54 officially recognized ethnic groups in Vietnam. It is located on a property in the Cầu Giấy District, about 8 km from the city center....

  • Vietnam Museum of Revolution
    Vietnam Museum of Revolution
    The Vietnam Museum of Revolution is a museum in Hanoi, Vietnam.Located in the Tong Dan area of the city, it was established in August 1959 in a two-storey building, formerly used by the Trade Department of Vietnam...

  • Hanoi Hilton
    Hanoi Hilton
    Hỏa Lò Prison, later sarcastically known to American prisoners of war as the "Hanoi Hilton", was a prison used by the French colonists in Vietnam for political prisoners and later by North Vietnam for prisoners of war during the Vietnam War....

     (Hoa Lo Prison)
  • Ho Chi Minh Museum
    Ho Chi Minh Museum
    The Ho Chi Minh Museum is located in Hanoi, Vietnam. It is a museum dedicated to the late Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh and Vietnam's revolutionary struggle against foreign powers. It was constructed in the 1990s.- External links :* *...

  • Contemporary Arts Centre
    Contemporary Arts Centre
    The Contemporary Arts Centre is located in Hanoi, Vietnam that showcases modern Vietnamese art.- External links :*...

  • Vietnam Military History Museum
    Vietnam Military History Museum
    The Viet Nam Military History Museum, set up on July 17, 1956, is one of seven national museums in Vietnam. It covers 12,800 m2. It is situated in central Hanoi, opposite the Lenin Park and near the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum.Entrance is 20,000 VND....

  • The Hanoi Museum (currently under construction until 2010)

Entertainment



A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. Hanoi has been named as one of the top 10 cities for shopping in Asia by Smart Travel Asia. The number of art galleries exhibiting Vietnamese art has dramatically increased in recent years, including galleries such as "Nhat Huy" of Huynh Thong Nhat.

A popular traditional form of entertainment is water puppetry, which is shown for example at the Thăng Long Water Puppet Theatre.

Shopping


With its rapid growth and extremely high population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

, several modern shopping centers have been built in Hanoi.
Major centers include:
  • Trang Tien Plaza
    Trang Tien Plaza
    Trang Tien plaza is a shopping center located in the downtown of Hanoi, Vietnam. The complex's construction began on April 30, 2000 when Vietnamese people celebrated 25th anniversary of The liberation of the south of Vietnam...

    , Hoan Kiem
    Hoan Kiem
    Hoàn Kiếm is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, named after the scenic Hoan Kiem Lake.Hoan Kiem district is the downtown and commercial centre of Hanoi...

     District
  • Vincom City Towers, Ba Trieu Street, Hai Ba Trung District
  • Ruby Plaza, 44 Le Ngoc Han Street, Hai Ba Trung District
  • Parkson
    Parkson
    Parkson is a popular department store company in Malaysia which offers items at a medium rate. Parkson was established in 1987 as one of the largest retail chains in Malaysia at that time...

     Department Store, Tây Sơn Street, Viet Tower, Dong Da
    Dong Da
    Đống Đa literally Banyan Heap is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam.-Administrative divisions:The district is divided into 21 wards .-Streets:...

     District
  • Big C Thăng Long Supercenter, Cau Giay
    Cau Giay
    Cầu Giấy is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The Battle of Cầu Giấy occurred here. Many urban areas are located in Cau Giay. Among them, Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh emerges as the new city's commercial center lying partly in the Southern part of the district...

     District
  • Metro AG
    Metro AG
    Metro AG is a diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Düsseldorf, Germany. It has the largest market share in its home market, and is one of the most globalised retail and wholesale corporations. It is the fourth-largest retailer in the world measured by revenues . In English...

    , Tu Liem
    Tu Liem
    Từ Liêm is a rural district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

     District
  • The Garden Mall, Me Tri - My Dinh
    My Dinh
    My Dinh is a commune in Tu Liem district, about north-west of central Hanoi, Vietnam. The area can be described as a middle class suburb with a population that includes many expatriate teachers who work in the local schools.-Sports:...

    , Tu Liem
    Tu Liem
    Từ Liêm is a rural district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

     District
  • Vincom Shopping Galleries, Vincom Park Place, Hai Ba Trung District
  • Ciputra Mall, Ciputra
    Ciputra
    Ciputra is an Indonesian businessman who owns Ciputra Development, a property companies in Indonesia, and Ciputra Group. Ciputra was the 30th richest Indonesian according to GlobeAsia Magazine, with a total of US$350 million...

     urban area, Tay Ho
    Tay Ho
    Tây Hồ is an urban district of Hanoi the capital city of Vietnam, named after the West Lake nearby. VietJet AirAsia, a planned airline, has its headquarters on the fourth floor of the Flower Mansion in Tay Ho. Air Mekong maintains its Hanoi branch on the third floor of the Syrena Tower in Tay...

     District (currently under construction)
  • Yen So Shopping Mall, Hoang Mai
    Hoang Mai, Hanoi
    Hoang Mai is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

     District (currently under construction)

Cuisine



Hanoi has rich food traditions and many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở
PHO
PHO may refer to:* Primary Health Organisation* Potentially hazardous object, an asteroid or comet that could potentially collide with Earth...

, chả cá, bánh cuốn and cốm
COM
COM is the original, yet still common, name of the serial port interface on IBM PC-compatible computers. It might not only refer to physical ports, but also to virtual ports, such as ports created by bluetooth or USB-to-Serial adapters....

 are thought to come from Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở, a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as a breakfast dish in the home or at streetside cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi scene: Phở Bò, containing beef, and Phở Gà, containing chicken.

Hanoi has been selected as one of the top 10 cities for food in the world by Shermans Travel. Vietnam's national dish Phở
PHO
PHO may refer to:* Primary Health Organisation* Potentially hazardous object, an asteroid or comet that could potentially collide with Earth...

 has been also named as one of the Top5 streetfood in the world by globalpost.

Hanoi has a restaurant about the insect food, in Khuong Thuong village, Hanoi. The most special cuisines at his restaurant are those processed from ant-eggs, in the styles of Thai people or Muong and Tay ethnic people in Vietnam.

Population


Hanoi's population is constantly growing (about 3.5% per year), a reflection of the fact that the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's political centre. This population growth also puts a lot of pressure onto the infrastructure
Infrastructure
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function...

, some of which is antiquated and dates back from the early 20th century.

The number of Hanoians who settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small as compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds years ago and was mostly a family business, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved to live further inside the house, or just moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planning economic policies, and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.

Hanoi's telephone numbers have been increased to 8 digits to cope with demand (October 2008). Subscribers telephone numbers have been changed in a haphazard way.

Transport


Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport
Noi Bai International Airport
Noi Bai International Airport in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is the largest in the north of the country. It is 28 miles from the city centre. The travel time from the city centre is 30–45 minutes.-Facilities:...

, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 40 km (24.9 mi) north of Hanoi. Noi Bai is the only international airport for the northern regions of Vietnam.

Hanoi will have additionally another international airport, which will cost $8 billion, being the highest foreign investment so far in the history of Vietnam. The construction will be carried out in three stages,the first phase will start in 2011 until 2015.

There are two main highways linking the airport and city. The route to the city via Thăng Long Bridge is more direct than Highway 1, which runs along the outskirts of the city. The main highways are shared by cars, motor scooters, with separate lanes by the side for bicycles. Taxis are plentiful and usually have trip meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from airport to the city centre. Tourists also sometimes tour the city on cyclos
Cycle rickshaw
The cycle rickshaw is a small-scale local means of transport; it is also known by a variety of other names such as velotaxi, pedicab, bikecab, cyclo, becak, trisikad, or trishaw or, simply, rickshaw which also refers to auto rickshaws, and the, now uncommon, rickshaws pulled by a person on foot...

 especially in the Old Quarter.

Hanoi is also the origin departure point for many Vietnam Railways
Vietnam Railways
The railway system in Vietnam is operated by the state-owned Vietnam Railways . The principal route is the thousand-mile single track North-South Railway line, running between Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. This was built at the metre gauge in the 1880s during the French colonial rule...

 train routes in the country. The Reunification Express
North-South Railway, Vietnam
The Vietnam North-South Railway, also known as the Reunification Express, is a railway that runs from Ha Noi to Ho Chi Minh City. The total length of this railway is , with a gauge of metre gauge...

 (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City from Hanoi station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi frequently for Hai Phong and other northern cities.

The main means of transport within the city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and bicycles. Motorbikes remain the most common way to move around the city. Public buses run on many routes and fare can be purchased on the bus. For short trips, "xe ôm" (literally, "hug vehicle") motorcycle taxis are available where the passenger sits at the rear of a motorbike.

Economy



Hanoi has the highest Human Development Index
Human Development Index
The Human Development Index is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate "very high human development", "high human development", "medium human development", and "low human development" countries...

 among the cities in Vietnam.
According to a recent ranking by PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a global professional services firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the world's largest professional services firm measured by revenues and one of the "Big Four" accountancy firms....

, Hanoi will be the fastest growing city in the world in term of GDP growth from 2008 to 2025.

Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991–95, 15.9 percent from 1996–2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007).

Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996–2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003. The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

, finance
Finance
"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

, and banking now playing an increasingly important role.

Hanoi's business districts are traditionally Hoan Kiem
Hoan Kiem
Hoàn Kiếm is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, named after the scenic Hoan Kiem Lake.Hoan Kiem district is the downtown and commercial centre of Hanoi...

 and the neighborhood; and a newly developing Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh
Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh
Trung Hoà - Nhân Chính is an urban area in South Western Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. This borough is located in Trung Hoa ward, Cau Giay district and Nhan Chinh ward, Thanh Xuan district ,...

 in the southwestern part.
Similar to Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly developing real estate
Real estate
In general use, esp. North American, 'real estate' is taken to mean "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; an item of real property; buildings or...

 market. The metropolis's economy growth does not seem correlative to its infrastructure. Overloading population requires a much larger supply of accommodations, while the constructing celerities of both transport system and new urban areas are too low. Not surprisingly, as an effect of this problem, the apartment and real estate fever occur severely during the time. More widespread, the fever even influences Ha Tay, the neighboring province, considered the future development space of the capital. The current most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh, My Dinh
My Dinh
My Dinh is a commune in Tu Liem district, about north-west of central Hanoi, Vietnam. The area can be described as a middle class suburb with a population that includes many expatriate teachers who work in the local schools.-Sports:...

, the luxurious zones of The Manor and Ciputra.

Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.

Together with economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system.

Sport centers



There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Ha Noi. The biggest ones are My Dinh National Stadium
My Dinh National Stadium
My Dinh National Stadium is a stadium in My Dinh commune, Tu Liem District, Hanoi, Vietnam, has a capacity of 40,192 seats and is the centerpiece of Vietnam's National Sports Complex...

 (Le Duc Tho
Le Duc Tho
Lê Đức Thọ , born Phan Đình Khải in Ha Nam province, was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize jointly with United States Secretary of State Henry Kissinger in 1973, although he declined it....

 Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Van Cao
Van Cao
Văn Cao was a Vietnamese composer whose works include Tiến Quân Ca, which became the national anthem of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. He, along with Pham Duy and Trinh Cong Son, is widely considered one of the three most salient figures of modern Vietnamese music...

 Avenue), Hanoi Water Sport Complex and My Dinh Indoor Athletics Gymnasium. The others include Ha Noi stadium (as known as Hang Day stadium). The third Asian Indoor Games
2009 Asian Indoor Games
The 3rd Asian Indoor Games were held in Vietnam on 30 October – 8 November, 2009.-Emblem:The logo is the logical, scientific and proper combination of the features, both strong and flexible, of the typical motifs of sports games in Vietnam like the torch, the lotus and the symbol of the...

 was held at Hanoi in 2009.

Health care and other facilities


Some medical facilities in Hanoi:
  • Bach Mai Hospital
    Bach Mai Hospital
    Bach Mai Hospital is a multi-field medical facility in Hanoi and is considered one of the largest in Vietnam. The hospital was established in 1911 during the French colonial rule. It played important role in the health system of Vietnam and is one of three high specialized medical centers,...

  • Viet Duc Hospital
    Viet Duc Hospital
    Viet Duc Hospital is the largest surgical center of Vietnam, situated at Trang Thi Street, Hanoi....

  • Saint Paul Hospital
    Saint Paul Hospital
    Saint Paul Hospital is a large multi-field medical complex situated in the central part of Hanoi - the capital of Vietnam. The hospital was founded during the French colonial rule in Indochina...

  • 108 Hospital
    108 Hospital
    108 Hospital, also known in many variations as Army Medical Institute 108, or Army Central Hospital 108 , is a hospital located at 1 Trần Hưng Đạo Street, in the Hoan Kiem district of Hanoi, Vietnam...

  • L'Hôpital Français De Hanoï
    L'Hôpital Français De Hanoï
    The Hôpital Français de Hanoi , known in Vietnam under the name Bệnh viện Việt Pháp, formerly the Viet Nam International Hospital, is a privatised hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, sold to a French company in September 2000. It is located at 1 Phuong Mai, Dong Da, Hanoi...

  • International SOS
    International SOS
    International SOS provides integrated medical, clinical, and security services to organisations with international operations. Services include planning and preventative programs, in-country expertise, and emergency response. It has 9,000 employees, led by 1,100 full-time physicians and 200...


Districts


Hanoi is divided into 10 inner districts, 1 town and 18 outer districts. ( Hà Đông has been transform to an inner district, and Sơn Tây
Son Tay
Sơn Tây is an urban district and city in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It was the capital of Son Tay province before merging with Ha Dong province in 1965...

 has been degraded to a town)
Subdivisions of Hanoi
Provincial Cities/Districts Wards Area (km2) Population
1 town
Sơn Tây
Son Tay
Sơn Tây is an urban district and city in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. It was the capital of Son Tay province before merging with Ha Dong province in 1965...

 
15 113.474 181,831
10 Urban Districts (Quận)
Ba Đình 14 9.224 228,352
Cầu Giấy
Cau Giay
Cầu Giấy is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. The Battle of Cầu Giấy occurred here. Many urban areas are located in Cau Giay. Among them, Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh emerges as the new city's commercial center lying partly in the Southern part of the district...

 
8 12.04 147,000
Đống Đa
Dong Da
Đống Đa literally Banyan Heap is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam.-Administrative divisions:The district is divided into 21 wards .-Streets:...

 
21 9.96 352,000
Hai Bà Trưng  20 14.6 378,000
Hà Đông  17 47.917 198,687
Hoàn Kiếm
Hoan Kiem
Hoàn Kiếm is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam, named after the scenic Hoan Kiem Lake.Hoan Kiem district is the downtown and commercial centre of Hanoi...

 
18 5.29 178,073
Hoàng Mai
Hoang Mai, Hanoi
Hoang Mai is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

 
14 41.04 216,277
Long Biên
Long Bien
Long Biên is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam.Vietnam Airlines has its headquarters in Long Bien....

 
14 60.38 170,706
Tây Hồ
Tay Ho
Tây Hồ is an urban district of Hanoi the capital city of Vietnam, named after the West Lake nearby. VietJet AirAsia, a planned airline, has its headquarters on the fourth floor of the Flower Mansion in Tay Ho. Air Mekong maintains its Hanoi branch on the third floor of the Syrena Tower in Tay...

 (West Lake)
8 24 115,163
Thanh Xuân
Thanh Xuan
Thanh Xuan is an urban district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

 
11 9.11 185,000
Subtotal 145 233.56 2,178,258
18 Rural Districts (Huyện)
Ba Vì
Ba Vi
Ba Vì is a rural district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
31 + 1 town 428.0 242,600 (1999)
Chương Mỹ
Chuong My
Chương Mỹ is a district of Ha Noi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
30 + 2 towns 232.9 261,000 (1999)
Đan Phượng
Dan Phuong
Đan Phượng is a district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
15 + 1 town 76.8 124,900
Đông Anh
Dong Anh
Dong Anh is a district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

 
23 + 1 town 182.3 276,750
Gia Lâm
Gia Lam
Gia Lâm is a district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. Gia Lam Airport is located in the district. At one time Vietnam Airlines's headquarters were on the airport property....

 
20 + 2 towns 114.0 205,275
Hoài Đức
Hoai Duc
Hoài Đức is a district huyện of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
19 + 1 town 95.3 188,800
Mê Linh
Me Linh
Mê Linh is a rural district of Hanoi, formerly of Vinh Phuc province in the Red River Delta region of northern Vietnam....

 
16 + 2 towns 141.26 187,536 (2008)
Mỹ Đức
My Duc
Mỹ Đức is a district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
21 + 1 town 230.0 167,700 (1999)
Phú Xuyên
Phu Xuyen
Phú Xuyên is a district of Ha Tay province in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
26 + 2 towns 171.1 181,500
Phúc Thọ
Phuc Tho
Phúc Thọ is a district huyện of Hanoi, formerly of Ha Tay province in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
25 + 1 town 113.2 154,800 (2001)
Quốc Oai
Quoc Oai
Quốc Oai is a district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
20 + 1 town 136.0 (2001) 146,700 (2001)
Sóc Sơn
Soc Son
Sóc Sơn is a district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam.Noi Bai International Airport is located in this district....

 
25 + 1 town 306.51 254,000
Thạch Thất
Thach That
Thạch Thất is a district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
22 + 1 town 128.1 149,000 (2003)
Thanh Oai
Thanh Oai
Thanh Oai is a rural district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam.The village of Ước Lễ is famous for its chả lụa....

 
20 + 1 town 129.6 142,600 (1999)
Thanh Trì (Green Ponds) 15 + 1 town 98.22 241,000
Thường Tín
Thuong Tin
Thường Tín is a district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
28 + 1 town 127.7 208,000
Từ Liêm
Tu Liem
Từ Liêm is a rural district of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam....

 
15 + 1 town 75.32 240,000
Ứng Hòa
Ung Hoa
Ứng Hòa is a district of Hanoi in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam....

 
28 + 1 town 183.72 193,731 (2005)
Subtotal 399 + 22 towns 3,266.186 3,872,851
Total 559 + 22 towns 3,344.47 6,232,940

International relations



Twin towns — Sister cities


Hanoi is twinned with: Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 Ankara
Ankara
Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

, Poland Toulouse
Toulouse
Toulouse is a city in the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern FranceIt lies on the banks of the River Garonne, 590 km away from Paris and half-way between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea...

, France Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, Thailand
Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

 Fukuoka Prefecture
Fukuoka Prefecture
is a prefecture of Japan located on Kyūshū Island. The capital is the city of Fukuoka.- History :Fukuoka Prefecture includes the former provinces of Chikugo, Chikuzen, and Buzen....

, Japan Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Russia Beijing
Beijing
Beijing , also known as Peking , is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of 19,612,368 as of 2010. The city is the country's political, cultural, and educational center, and home to the headquarters for most of China's...

, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

, Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

 Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh is the capital and largest city of Cambodia. Located on the banks of the Mekong River, Phnom Penh has been the national capital since the French colonized Cambodia, and has grown to become the nation's center of economic and industrial activities, as well as the center of security,...

, Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

 Jakarta
Jakarta
Jakarta is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Officially known as the Special Capital Territory of Jakarta, it is located on the northwest coast of Java, has an area of , and a population of 9,580,000. Jakarta is the country's economic, cultural and political centre...

, Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

,(Start Since August 2011) Isfahan, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

,(Start Since 4 August 2011)

See also


  • Gioi Market
    Gioi Market
    Giời Markets, or Trời Markets, is the name of the site of the Hoa Binh Fair, Hanoi, Việt Nam. This is where a full range of trade goods are sold, from the smallest such as nails and batteries to large items such as motors, electronic goods and refrigeration equipment.-History:According to some...

  • Ho Chi Minh City
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Ho Chi Minh City , formerly named Saigon is the largest city in Vietnam...

  • List of historical capitals of Vietnam

External links