Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Nepal Civil War

Nepal Civil War

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Nepal Civil War'
Start a new discussion about 'Nepal Civil War'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Nepali Civil War was a conflict between government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

 forces and Maoist rebels in Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 which lasted from 1996 until 2006. The war was started by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on 13 February 1996, with the aim of overthrowing the Nepalese monarchy
Nepalese monarchy
The Kingdom of Nepal , also referred to as the Gorkha Kingdom, was formed in 1768 by the unification of Nepal. Founded by Prithvi Narayan Shah The Kingdom of Nepal , also referred to as the Gorkha Kingdom, was formed in 1768 by the unification of Nepal. Founded by Prithvi Narayan Shah The Kingdom...

 and establishing the "People's Republic of Nepal." It ended with a Comprehensive Peace Accord
Comprehensive Peace Accord
The Comprehensive Peace Accord was signed between the Government of Nepal and the Unified Communist Party of Nepal on November 21, 2006 which formally ended the Nepalese People's War that lasted for more than decade...

 signed on 21 November 2006 which is now monitored by United Nations Mission in Nepal
United Nations Mission in Nepal
Following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed on 21 November 2006 between the Government of Nepal and the Communist Party of Nepal at the end of the Nepalese Civil War, the United Nations received a request for assistance, and established the political mission United Nations Mission in Nepal ...

.

Overview


More than 15000 people were killed (6000 by Maoists and 9000 by the government) and an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. This conflict disrupted the majority of rural development
Rural development
Rural development in general denotes economic development and community development actions and initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-urban neighbourhoods, remote villages and the countryside...

 activities and led to a deep and complex Left Front which, together with the Nepali Congress
Nepali Congress
The Nepali Congress is a Nepalese political party. Nepali Congress led the 1950 Democratic Movement which successfully ended the Rana dynasty and allowed commoners to take part in the polity. It again led a democratic movement in 1990, in partnership with leftist forces, to end monarchy and...

, was the backbone of the broadbased movement for democratic change. However, communist groups uncomfortable with the alliance between ULF and Congress formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement
United National People's Movement
United National People's Movement was a coalition of Communist Party of Nepal , Communist Party of Nepal , Nepal Marxist-Leninist Party, Proletarian Labour Organisation, Nepal Communist League and the Nand Kumar Prasai faction during the popular uprising of 1990...

. The UNPM called for elections to a Constituent Assembly
Constituent assembly
A constituent assembly is a body composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitution...

, and rejected compromises made by ULF and Congress with the royal house. In November 1990 the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre)
Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre)
Communist Party of Nepal , was a communist party in Nepal. CPN was formed on November 19-20 1990, through the merger of Communist Party of Nepal , Communist Party of Nepal , Proletarian Workers Organisation and Communist Party of Nepal . Soon thereafter a group led by Dr...

 was formed, including key elements of constituents of UNPM. The new party held its first convention in 1991, the adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution" and that the party would remain an underground party. The CPN(UC) set up Samyukta Jana Morcha, with Baburam Bhattarai
Baburam Bhattarai
Dr. Baburam Bhattarai is a Nepalese politician who became the 35th Prime Minister of Nepal in August 2011. He is a senior Standing Committee Member and vice chairperson of Unified Communist Party of Nepal . His party started a revolutionary People's War in Nepal in 1996 that ultimately led to the...

 as its head, as an open front ten contest elections. In the 1991 elections, SJM became the third force in the Nepali parliament. However, disagreements surged regarding which tactics were to be used by the party. One sector argued for immediate armed revolution whereas others (including senior leaders like Nirmal Lama) claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle.

In 1994 CPN(UC)/SJM was split in two. The militant sector later renamed itself the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The Maoists labeled the government forces "feudal forces," and included in this accusation the monarchy and the mainstream political parties
Political Parties
Political Parties: A Sociological Study of the Oligarchical Tendencies of Modern Democracy is a book by sociologist Robert Michels, published in 1911 , and first introducing the concept of iron law of oligarchy...

. The armed struggle began soon afterward with simultaneous attacks on remote police stations and district headquarters. Initially, the Nepali government mobilized the Nepal Police
Nepal Police
Since policing is a constitutional obligation on the part of the government in Nepal; Nepal Police Organization is the main administrative apparatus in the hands of the government to safeguard people's constitutional rights and to maintain law and order in the country.-History:Prior to 1864 AD:The...

 to contain the insurgency. The Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for the police to sustain control. Furthermore, controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. The popularly-elected prime minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

 resigned his post, due to the refusal of the Royal Army to take part in the conflict. This situation changed dramatically in 2002 when the first session of peace talks failed and the Maoists attacked an army barracks
Barracks
Barracks are specialised buildings for permanent military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes. Their main object is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline, training and esprit de corps. They were sometimes called...

 in Dang District
Dang Deokhuri District
Dang-Deukhuri, District is an Inner Terai district some 280 km west of Kathmandu in Rapti Zone of Nepal's Mid-Western Region. Dang-Deukhuri covers an area of 2,955 km² with population of 462,380...

 in western Nepal. Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents. At the same time, the king of Nepal maintained a puppet democratic government which depended upon him for their status to remain legitimate. Under the aegis of the global War on Terrorism
War on Terrorism
The War on Terror is a term commonly applied to an international military campaign led by the United States and the United Kingdom with the support of other North Atlantic Treaty Organisation as well as non-NATO countries...

 and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state
Failed state
The term failed state is often used by political commentators and journalists to describe a state perceived as having failed at some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government...

" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

, and India, among other nations, have provided extensive military and economic aid to the Nepali government. This material support to the Nepali government dried up after King Gyanendra seized full control in February 2005 to get rid of civil war for once and all.

The government responded to the rebellion by banning provocative statements about the monarchy, imprisoning journalists, and shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary cease-fires, have been held between the insurgents and the government. The government has categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for an election to the constituent assembly
Constituent assembly
A constituent assembly is a body composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitution...

; it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists have refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

. In November 2004, the government rejected the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with the King Gyanendra rather than via the Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba
Sher Bahadur Deuba
Sher Bahadur Deuba is a Nepalese politician and former Prime Minister. He is the second senior most leader of the Nepali Congress. He has twice been elected as the leader of parliamentary party of the Nepali Congress, thus enabling him to be elected twice as the Prime Minister of Nepal.He has...

; their request for discussions to be mediated by a third party, such as the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 was dismissed.

Throughout war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoist dominated the rural areas. Historically, the presence of the Nepali government has been limited to town and zonal centers. The only state apparatus present in most small villages, where most of the inhabitants of Nepal live, were a health post, a government school, a village council, and a police booth. Once the insurgency began, the schools were all that remained, indicating that the Maoists had seized control of the village.
The Royal government powerbase is located in the zonal headquarters and the capital Kathmandu. Unrest reached Kathmandu in 2004 when the Maoists announced a blockade of the capital city.

Intense fighting and civic unrest continued well into 2005, with the death toll rising to 200 in December 2004. On 1 February 2005, in response to the inability of the relatively democratic government to restore order, King Gyanendra assumed total control of the government. He proclaimed, "Democracy and progress contradict one another… In pursuit of liberalism, we should never overlook an important aspect of our conduct, namely discipline."

On 22 November 2005, the joint CPN(M)-United People's Front conference in Delhi issued a 12-point resolution, stating that they "…completely agree that autocratic monarchy is the main hurdle" hindering the realisation of "democracy, peace, prosperity, social advancement and a free and sovereign Nepal." In addition, "It is our clear view that without establishing absolute democracy by ending autocratic monarchy, there is no possibility of peace, progress, and prosperity in the country."

An understanding had been reached to establish absolute democracy by ending monarchy with the respective forces centralizing their assault against monarchy thereby creating a nationwide storm of democratic protests. This marked a departure from the previous stance of the CPN(M), which had so far vehemently opposed the gradual process of democratization advocated by the UPF.

As a result of the civil war
Civil war
A civil war is a war between organized groups within the same nation state or republic, or, less commonly, between two countries created from a formerly-united nation state....

, Nepal's greatest source of foreign exchange, its tourism
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 industry, suffered considerably. iExplore, a travel company, published rankings of the popularity of tourist destinations, based on their sales, which indicated that Nepal had gone from being the tenth most popular destination among adventure travelers, to the twenty-seventh.

The conflict has forced the young and able to seek work abroad in order to avoid the Human Rights Violations committed by the Government forces and the crimes committed by the Maoists. These labourers work predominantly in the Gulf (Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, etc.) and Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

 (Malaysia etc.). The regular flow of remittances from these labourers has permitted the country to avoid serious economic crisis or economic bankruptcy. The economy of Nepal is heavily dependent on the infusion of foreign income from the labouring class (similar to the Lebanese
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

 economy during its civil war).

1996

  • 13 February: Initiation of "the peoples war" by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
    • Kathmandu: A soft-drink bottling factory owned by a multi-national company is attacked and the building torched.
    • Gorkha District
      Gorkha District
      Gorkha District of 288,134. It is the location of the Manakamana Temple. Also, the temples of great sage Gorakh Nath and goddess Gorakh Kali temple is located in district, after which the district got its name. Four major rivers run within and along it, they are Chepe, Daraudi, Marsyangdi and...

      • A foreign liquor factory is completely destroyed.
      • The office of the Small Farmer's Development Programme of the state-owned Agricultural Development Bank
        Agricultural Development Bank of Nepal
        Agricultural Development Bank Limited is an autonomous organization largely owned by Government of Nepal. The bank has been working as a premier rural credit institution since the last three decades, contributing a more than 67 percent of institutional credit supply in the country. Hence, rural...

         in Chyangli
        Chyangli
        Chyangli is a village development committee in Gorkha District in the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 5,612 and had 1066 houses in the town....

         VDC (Village Development Committee) is ransacked.
    • Kavre District
      Kavrepalanchok District
      -Towns and villages:Anaikot Balathali Balting Baluwa Baluwapatti Deupur Banakhu Chor Banepa Batase Bekhsimle Bhimkhori Bhumidanda Bhumlutar Birtadeurali Bolde Fediche Budhakhani Chalal Ganeshsthan Chandeni Mandan Choubas Chyamrangbesi...

      : A moneylender's house is raided at night, properties and cash reportedly worth 1.3 million rupees seized, and loan documents worth several million rupees reportedly destroyed. 7 members of the moneylender's family are killed , all shot to death.
    • Rolpa
      Rolpa District
      Rolpa of 210,004. Livang is the district's administrative center.By Nepalese standards, Rolpa is an underdeveloped area plagued by low life expectancy and poverty . It was a major flashpoint in the 1996-2006 Civil War.Adjoining districts are Dang to the south, Pyuthan to the east, Salyan to the...

      , Rukum
      Rukum District
      Rukum District of 188,438. Musikot is the district's administrative center.Rukum district has many potential tourist attractions that remain unexplored. There is 5,849 meter Mt. Sisne , also called virgin mountain. Nobody claims to have conquered this mountain yet. Rukum is also called "the...

       & Sindhuli
      Sindhuli District
      -Historical Importance:This place has a huge historic significance. The Sindhuli Gadhi in Sindhuli is the place where British soldiers were defeated for the first time in Asia in 1767 A.D . The British under the leadership of Captain Kinloch came to help the then ruler of Kathmandu, Jai Prakash...

       Districts: One police outpost raided in each district. The outpost at Holeri, Rolpa has its stores seized, including a substantial amount of high explosives. Athbiskot-Rari, Rukum is also raided. The Sindhuligarhi post in Sindhuli is reportedly raided without . 17 Police personnel are killed in total , and only one Maoist guerilla is killed in retaliation.

2001

  • January: The government creates the Armed Police Force
    Armed Police Force Nepal
    - History :The Armed Police Force of Nepal is a paramilitary force with the basic roles of catalyst in maintaining law and order and containing insurgency cracking down terrorist activities. Its foundation is similar to the paramilitary force. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for...

    , a Paramilitary
    Paramilitary
    A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

     force to fight the insurgents.
  • 28 May: Chairman Prachanda
    Prachanda
    Puspa Kamal Dahal ; born Chhabilal Dahal on 11 December 1954, also known as Prachanda ]]. Prachanda led CPN as it launched an insurgency on 13 February 1996. In 2008 the ensuing civil war culminated in the overthrow of the Shah dynasty in favor of a communist...

     gives an interview with the Communist journal A World to Win
    Revolutionary Internationalist Movement
    The defunct Revolutionary Internationalist Movement was an international Communist organization which upheld a version of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism founded in 1984 sought to "struggle for the formation of a Communist International of a new type, based on Marxism-Leninism-Maoism"...

    .
  • 1 June:unknown incident reportedly kills King Birendra
    Birendra of Nepal
    Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev was a King of Nepal. The son of King Mahendra, whom he succeeded in 1972, he reigned until his death in the 2001 Nepalese royal massacre...

     and most of the royal family in the Nepali royal massacre. Dipendra is accused for the royal massacre and 'suicide attempt'. Dipendra, supposedly comatose after a failed suicide attempt
    Failed suicide attempt
    Failed suicide attempts comprise a large portion of suicide attempts. Some are regarded as not true attempts at all, but rather parasuicide. The usual attempt may be a wish to affect another person by the behaviour. Consequently, it occurs in a social context and may represent a request for help....

     or assassination attempt by palace guards, is crowned king, according to tradition. He supposedly dies on 4 June although his body seem to have started to decompose in four days and flies were seen orbiting around his corpse, Gyanendra
    Gyanendra of Nepal
    Gyanendra Shah was the last King of Nepal. During his life, he has held the title of the King twice: first between 1950 and 1951 as a child when his grandfather Tribhuvan was forced into exile in India with the rest of his family; and from 2001 to 2008, following the Nepalese royal massacre.King...

     is crowned King.
  • 3 August: The first round of peace talks begin.
  • 23 November: Peace talks collapse when the Maoists withdraw and launch a ferocious attack Police and Army posts in 42 districts, in which 186 Army and Police personnel and 21 Maoists are killed.
  • 26 November: The government of Sher Bahadur Deuba
    Sher Bahadur Deuba
    Sher Bahadur Deuba is a Nepalese politician and former Prime Minister. He is the second senior most leader of the Nepali Congress. He has twice been elected as the leader of parliamentary party of the Nepali Congress, thus enabling him to be elected twice as the Prime Minister of Nepal.He has...

     declares a Nationwide State of Emergency and employs the Nepal Army
    Nepal Army
    The Nepalese Army is the army of Nepal and a major component of the Military of Nepal. The NA includes the Nepalese Army Air Service and is considered to be superior to Nepalese Police Force. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enrollment is 18 years...

     in attacking the Maoists.

2002

  • The United States Congress
    United States Congress
    The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

     approves US$12 million to train Royal Nepal Army officers and supply 5,000 M16 rifle
    M16 rifle
    The M16 is the United States military designation for the AR-15 rifle adapted for both semi-automatic and full-automatic fire. Colt purchased the rights to the AR-15 from ArmaLite, and currently uses that designation only for semi-automatic versions of the rifle. The M16 fires the 5.56×45mm NATO...

    s.
  • May: Peace talks collapse.
  • May: Large battles fought between Army and Maoist forces at Lisne Lekh along boundary between Pyuthan and Rolpa district
    Rolpa District
    Rolpa of 210,004. Livang is the district's administrative center.By Nepalese standards, Rolpa is an underdeveloped area plagued by low life expectancy and poverty . It was a major flashpoint in the 1996-2006 Civil War.Adjoining districts are Dang to the south, Pyuthan to the east, Salyan to the...

    s, and in Gam village, Rolpa.
  • 11 May: A photograph is discovered by Nepal government soldiers in western Nepal. The photograph depicts Nepal's Maoist rebel leaders Baburam Bhattarai
    Baburam Bhattarai
    Dr. Baburam Bhattarai is a Nepalese politician who became the 35th Prime Minister of Nepal in August 2011. He is a senior Standing Committee Member and vice chairperson of Unified Communist Party of Nepal . His party started a revolutionary People's War in Nepal in 1996 that ultimately led to the...

    , Hisila Yami
    Hisila Yami
    Hisila Yami, alias Parvati , is a Nepalese politician and architect. She is a Central Committee member of Communist Party of Nepal and a former president of the All Nepal Women's Association ....

    , Ram Bahadur Thapa (alias Badal), and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (alias Prachanda).
  • 22 May: King Gyanendra, acting on the advice of Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba
    Sher Bahadur Deuba
    Sher Bahadur Deuba is a Nepalese politician and former Prime Minister. He is the second senior most leader of the Nepali Congress. He has twice been elected as the leader of parliamentary party of the Nepali Congress, thus enabling him to be elected twice as the Prime Minister of Nepal.He has...

    , dissolves Parliament and orders new elections. The reason given for the dissolution is opposition to the state of emergency.
  • 11 July: Information leaks out that the Belgian weapon manufacturer FN Herstal is allowed to deliver 5,500 M249 SAW light machine guns to the Nepali monarchy, a decision made by all coalition parties. Minister of External Affairs Louis Michel
    Louis Michel
    Louis H. O. Ch. Michel is a Belgian politician. He served in the government of Belgium as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1999 to 2004 and was European Commissioner for Development and Humanitarian Aid from 2004 to 2009. Since 2009, he has been a Member of the European Parliament...

     speaks of "a country in a pluralistic democracy."
  • 4 October: King Gyanendra deposes Prime Minister Deuba and the entire Council of Ministers, assumes executive power, and cancels the elections for the dissolved House of Representatives, which had been scheduled for 11 November.
  • 11 October: King Gyanendra appoints Lokendra Bahadur Chand
    Lokendra Bahadur Chand
    Lokendra Bahadur Chand was the prime minister of Nepal four times: from 1983 to 1986, briefly during April 1990, briefly during 1997, and from October 2002 until June 2003. He is a major supporter of the Nepalese monarchy...

     as Prime Minister.

2003

  • January: The United States hold exercises with the Nepali army. Maoist insurgents kill the Inspector General of Armed Police, Krishna Mohan Shrestha, his wife and his bodyguard, Head Constable
    Head Constable
    Head constable was a rank used in some British and British colonial police forces, and is still used in the Indian police.-England:In the Liverpool City Police and a few very small borough police forces in the United Kingdom, the head constable was the chief officer, equivalent to the chief...

     Subhash Bahadur Gurung of the Armed Police Force Nepal
    Armed Police Force Nepal
    - History :The Armed Police Force of Nepal is a paramilitary force with the basic roles of catalyst in maintaining law and order and containing insurgency cracking down terrorist activities. Its foundation is similar to the paramilitary force. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for...

    , while on their morning walk, as they used to do on Sunday mornings, intending to represent general safety to fellow citizens. The Inspector General and his wife, who was a teacher at an international school in the capital, were both unarmed. They were riddled with bullets from Type 56 Rifles and G3
    Heckler & Koch G3
    The G3 is a 7.62mm battle rifle developed in the 1950s by the German armament manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH in collaboration with the Spanish state-owned design and development agency CETME ....

     rifles used by the Maoists.
  • 29 January: A second ceasefire is established and peace talks begin.
  • 13 May: Code of conduct jointly declared by the government and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) for the mutually agreed period of cease-fire
  • 17 August: Nepali Military and Police forces kill 39 Maoist rebels in the Ramechhap
    Ramechhap
    Ramechhap the headquarters of Ramechhap District in the Janakpur Zone of Nepal. It is located at 27°19'60N 86°4'60E with an altitude of 1218 metres ....

     District of central Nepal during an offensive launched jointly by the Army
    Army
    An army An army An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine), in the broadest sense, is the land-based military of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of aviation corps...

    , Police
    Police
    The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

    , and Air Force
    Air force
    An air force, also known in some countries as an air army, is in the broadest sense, the national military organization that primarily conducts aerial warfare. More specifically, it is the branch of a nation's armed services that is responsible for aerial warfare as distinct from an army, navy or...

     of Nepal. 7 Soldiers of the Nepali Army and 5 Constables of the Armed Police are also killed in the operation.
  • 24 August: The Maoists set an ultimatum, threatening to withdraw from the cease-fire if the government does not agree within 48 hours to include the question of the Maoists participating in the Constituent Assembly
    Constituent assembly
    A constituent assembly is a body composed for the purpose of drafting or adopting a constitution...

    .
  • 26 August: The Maoist ultimatum expires.
  • 27 August:
    • Strike
      Strike action
      Strike action, also called labour strike, on strike, greve , or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became important during the industrial revolution, when mass labour became...

      : The Maoist call for a three-day strike to denounce the Army's attacks on their cadres
    • The Maoists unilaterally withdraw from the 29 January cease-fire. Prachanda's statement revives the rebels' demand for an end to monarchic rule in favor of a people's republic, stating, "Since the old regime has put an end to the forward-looking solution to all existing problems through the cease-fire and peace talks, we herein declare that the rationale behind cease-fire...and peace process has ended."
  • 27 September: "Fifteen people including 8 Rebels and 4 Policemen were killed on Saturday and suspected Maoists bombed five government utilities despite the guerrillas' plans for a nine day truce from 2 October, officials said. Eight Maoists were killed in a gun battle with security forces at Chhita Pokhara in the Khotang District
    Khotang District
    Khotang District, a part of Sagarmatha Zone, is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, a landlocked country of South Asia. The district, with Diktel as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,591 km² and has a population of 231,385. Khotang is part of the area traditionally called...

    , 340 kilometres east of Kathmandu, a police officer said. 4 Policemen were also martyred. Elsewhere in eastern Nepal, the Maoists killed two Policemen, Constable Purna Prasad Sharma and Head Constable Radha Krishna Gurung
    Gurung
    The Gurung people, also called Tamu, are an ethnic group that migrated from Mongolia in the 6th century to the central region of Nepal. Gurungs, like other east Asian featured peoples of Nepal such as Sherpa, Tamang, Thakali, Magar, Manaaggi, Mustaaggi, and Walunggi, are the indigenous people of...

    , and a woman selling beetle nuts, Kali Tamang, in the Jaljale-Gaighat area, an official said. 'A group of seven Maoists descended from a public bus when police were checking the passengers and suddenly opened fire from automatic pistol
    Automatic pistol
    Automatic pistol may refer to:* Machine pistol, a handgun-style, magazine-fed and self-loading firearm, capable of fully automatic or burst fire, and chambered for pistol cartridges...

    s, killing the three and wounding two others,' said Sitaram Prasad Pokharel, the chief administrator for the region. In Janakpur, an industrial hub on the Indian border 260 kilometres south-east of Kathmandu, the Maoists under the direct command of Prachanda
    Prachanda
    Puspa Kamal Dahal ; born Chhabilal Dahal on 11 December 1954, also known as Prachanda ]]. Prachanda led CPN as it launched an insurgency on 13 February 1996. In 2008 the ensuing civil war culminated in the overthrow of the Shah dynasty in favor of a communist...

     carried out five early morning bombings that disrupted telephone service and power, police said. No one was killed directly by the blasts but an elderly man died of a heart attack after hearing the explosions, Police Deputy Superintendent Bharat Chhetri said. He said the sites that were bombed included the offices of the roads department and the Nepal Electricity Authority and a telecommunications tower. Police personnel and Maoists traded fire for nearly 40 minutes after the blasts but the rebels escaped and 37 people were injured, Mr Khadka said."
  • 13 October: At least 42 Police Recruits and 9 Maoists are killed when an estimated 3,000 Maoists attempt to storm a Police Training Center in Bhaluwang. "'The rebels had snapped telephone cables, set up roadblocks by felling trees or blowing up highway bridges to prevent reinforcements from coming,' a witness, Krishna Adhikary, told Reuters."
  • 27 October: " Colonel Adrian Griffith and six Nepali nationals were freed last week 42 hours after being taken captive in Baglung
    Baglung
    Baglung, is a town in western Nepal, 275 km west of Kathmandu. It is the administrative headquarters of Baglung District and Dhawalagiri Zone. Baglung is a major business, financial, educational, and healthcare center for the people of Kali Gandaki valley....

    , 300 km (186.4 mi) west of Kathmandu, while on a drive to recruit young Gurkha soldiers to serve in the British army." Party chief Prachanda
    Prachanda
    Puspa Kamal Dahal ; born Chhabilal Dahal on 11 December 1954, also known as Prachanda ]]. Prachanda led CPN as it launched an insurgency on 13 February 1996. In 2008 the ensuing civil war culminated in the overthrow of the Shah dynasty in favor of a communist...

     said, "We are sorry for the incident that took place against the policy of the party."
  • 11 November: The government Defence Ministry accuses the Maoists of abducting twenty-nine 9th- and 10th-grade students from Riva Secondary School in Mugu District
    Mugu District
    Mugu District of 43,937. The biggest lake in Nepal, Rara Lake, also known as Mahendra Daha, lies in the Mugu District.It is one of the biggest districts of Nepal.Pulu is one of the famous Village Development Committee of Mugu district...

    , western Nepal during the previous week.
  • 19 November: According to a Nepal army
    Nepal Army
    The Nepalese Army is the army of Nepal and a major component of the Military of Nepal. The NA includes the Nepalese Army Air Service and is considered to be superior to Nepalese Police Force. Service is voluntary and the minimum age for enrollment is 18 years...

     official, four people were caught at the Chinese Khasa border point, 114 kilometers northeast of Kathmandu, smuggling weapons from Tibet
    Tibet
    Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

     into Nepal. The official named Hirala Lal Shrestha and Gyaljen Sherpa and said they were taken for interrogation in the Tibetan town of Xigatse.

2004

  • 5 February: An Army raid is carried out by the Bhairavnath Battalion
    Bhairavnath Battalion
    The Bhairavnath Battalion is an Army Battalion in the Royal Nepalese Army as the elite special forces unit of the Royal Nepalese Army. The battalion was trained by the Israeli Special Forces, IDF to fulfil a need to establish a special forces wing to modernise the army.The battalion was involved in...

     on a village in Bhimad, Makwanpur District
    Makwanpur District
    Makwanpur District of 392,604. Bhimfedi market of the district was the traditional route to enter Kathmandu valley from the south.-Village Development Committees :*Agara*Ambhanjyang*Bajrabarahi*Basamadi*Betini*Bhaise*Bharta Pundyadevi*Bhimfedi...

    . Reports emerge that 45 suspected Maoist rebels and two civilians were executed after being captured. Amnesty International
    Amnesty International
    Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organisation whose stated mission is "to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated."Following a publication of Peter Benenson's...

     later wrote a letter to Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa
    Surya Bahadur Thapa
    Surya Bahadur Thapa has been Prime Minister of Nepal five times, under three different kings, in a political career lasting nearly 50 years. His terms were 1963-64, 1965–69, 1979–83, 1997–98 and 2003-04....

     and Brigadier-General Nilendra Aryal, Head of the Royal Nepal Army (RNA) human rights cell, demanding an immediate inquiry.
  • 10 February: Two central committee members of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), Matrika Yadav and Suresh Paswan, are reported to have been handed over by India to Nepal. They were reportedly arrested in Lucknow
    Lucknow
    Lucknow is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh in India. Lucknow is the administrative headquarters of Lucknow District and Lucknow Division....

     after Nepal provided information.
  • 13 February: Ganesh Chilwal leads an anti-Maoist protest on this day, the ninth anniversary of the commencement of the revolution.
  • 15 February: Ganesh Chilwal is shot dead in his Kathmandu office by two suspected Maoists.
  • 15 February: Fighting erupts at a Maoist jungle base in Kalikot District
    Kalikot District
    Kalikot District of 105,580. In September 2005, in a bid to encourage a change in social attitudes, the government announced that it would provide rice to any family that had recently had a girl born.-Village Development Committees :*Badalkot*Chhapre...

    , 360 km west of Kathmandu. The base is said to hold 5000 Maoist troops. On 17 February, a security official says that a private helicopter flying troops to Kalikot was hit by Maoist fire but that it returned safely to Kathmandu. On 18 February 65 Maoists are reported to have been killed, though this conflicts with other reported death tolls of 35 and 48.
  • 15 February and 16: Nepalese state radio reports that 13 Maoist rebels were killed in seven separate small clashes with security forces across the country.
  • 18 February: Lawmaker Khem Narayan Faujdar, a member of the parliament dissolved by King Gyanendra in 2002, is shot dead by two suspected Maoists riding a motorcycle in the Nawalparasi District
    Nawalparasi District
    Nawalparasi District of 562,870. This district has given birth to many Nepal's top level people including late Prime Minister Tanka Prasad Acharya...

    , 200 km southwest of the capital, according to the police.
  • 2 April: The largest rallies since 1990 begin in Kathmandu. They are variously labelled "pro-democracy" and "anti-monarchy."
  • 3 April: More than 12 trucks are burnt while waiting at a western Nepal border post to pick up petrol from India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    . India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

     condemns the attacks and vows to fight terrorism.
  • 4 April: "Some 150 demonstrators were struck during a police baton charge
    Baton charge
    A baton charge is a coordinated tactic for dispersing crowds of people, usually used by police or military during public order situations. In certain countries, police are not authorised to use the tactic unless no other means can be practiced....

    " during demonstrations in Kathmandu
  • 4 April "Hundreds of Maoist rebels" attack a Police outpost in Yadukuwa, Jadukhola. 13 policemen are killed, 7 wounded, and 35 are listed as missing. 8-9 Maoists are also killed. "Witnesses said more than 500 rebels attacked the Police post and began firing Assault Rifles and RPG-7
    RPG-7
    The RPG-7 is a widely-produced, portable, unguided, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket-propelled grenade launcher. Originally the RPG-7 and its predecessor, the RPG-2, were designed by the Soviet Union, and now manufactured by the Bazalt company...

     rockets. at around 9 p.m. (1515 GMT) on Sunday night. The fighting lasted two to three hours." Other reports state 400 rebels.
  • 4 April: In the west of the country three Indian traders are shot and injured and have their vehicles burned.
  • 5 April: A three day national strike begins, called by CPN(M) and opposed by an "alliance of five political parties" who are protesting in Kathmandu against the monarchy and say the strike will hamper the movement of demonstrators in Kathmandu. Prachanda
    Prachanda
    Puspa Kamal Dahal ; born Chhabilal Dahal on 11 December 1954, also known as Prachanda ]]. Prachanda led CPN as it launched an insurgency on 13 February 1996. In 2008 the ensuing civil war culminated in the overthrow of the Shah dynasty in favor of a communist...

     said, "The time has come to win a united struggle against the feudal forces as the king is trying to take the nation back to the 18th century."
  • 5 April: In the morning, 3 soldiers are killed and 7 injured by a CPN(M) landmine activated by their vehicle at Dhalkhola, 50 km east of Kathmandu.
  • 5 April: At least 140 people are injured in clashes in Kathmandu as "about 50,000" demonstrators confront the police. Demonstrators try to break through a police barricade close to the royal palace. The police respond with tear gas and protesters are reportedly injured by police batons. Rocks and bricks are thrown by both sides. Demonstrations also occur in Lalitpur and Bhaktapur
    Bhaktapur
    Bhaktapur , also Bhadgaon or Khwopa is an ancient Newar town in the east corner of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It is located in Bhaktapur District in the Bagmati Zone...

    . Meanwhile, king Gyanendra has reportedly been away touring villages in western Nepal.
  • 5 April: The Indian government announces that it will no longer provide police escorts to Indian officials shopping in Nepal, as a means to discourage such trips. Fears are based on the CPN(M) targeting Indians. "We are worried about possible reprisals here if the Maoists continue to target Indians inside Nepal," said a senior police official.
  • 16 August: The Soaltee Hotel, a popular luxury hotel in Kathmandu, is bombed, after refusing a demand from the Maoists that the hotel close.
  • 18 August: A bomb explodes in a marketplace in southern Nepal. The blast kills a 12-year-old boy and wounds six others, including three policemen. In addition, Maoist rebels, demanding the release of captured guerrillas, stop all road traffic near Kathmandu by threatening to attack vehicles. Some Nepal businesses are shut down because of threats.
  • 10 September: A bomb explodes at the United States Information Service office in Kathmandu.
  • 13 September: U.S. Peace Corps suspends operations and non-essential U.S. Embassy personnel are evacuated from Nepal.
  • 9 November: 36 people were injured when suspected Maoist rebels exploded a powerful bomb at a under-construction government office complex,the Karmachari Sanchaya Kosh Office Complex in the heart of Nepalese capital Kathmandu Tuesday.
  • 15 December: Twenty government security personnel are killed in the western district of Arghakhanchi
    Arghakhanchi District
    Arghakhanchi is one of the districts of Lumbini Zone in Nepal's Western Development Region. The district headquarters are Sandhikharka.-Etymology:...

     when the Maoists mount a surprise attack.
  • 16 December: Sixteen Maoist rebels are killed in clashes with Nepali security forces in the western district of Dailekh
    Dailekh District
    -Village Development Committees :*Awal Parajul*Bada Bhairab*Bada Khola*Badalamji*Baluwatar*Bansi*Baraha*Basantamala*Belaspur*Belpata*Bhawani*Bindhyabasini*Bisalla*Chamunda*Chauratha*Dada Parajul*Dullu*Gamaudi*Gauri*Goganpani*Jaganath...

    .
  • 23 December: Maoist forces launch blockade of Kathmandu.
  • 26 December: Over 15,000 hold peace rally in Kathmandu.

2005

  • 2 January: Nepali media falsely reports two children being killed in Dailekh District
    Dailekh District
    -Village Development Committees :*Awal Parajul*Bada Bhairab*Bada Khola*Badalamji*Baluwatar*Bansi*Baraha*Basantamala*Belaspur*Belpata*Bhawani*Bindhyabasini*Bisalla*Chamunda*Chauratha*Dada Parajul*Dullu*Gamaudi*Gauri*Goganpani*Jaganath...

     by a Maoist bomb.
  • 4 January: Three government security personnel and between two and twenty-four Maoist rebels reported killed in fighting.
  • 8 January: Maoists detain and later release 300 passengers from six buses that defy their blockade of Kathmandu.
  • 10 January: Prime Minister Deuba said he would increase defense spending to fight the Maoists unless they come forward for talks with the government.
  • 11 January: Protests and blockades over the government fuel price increases of between 10% and 25%.
  • 15 January: Maoists allegedly detain 14 Indian Gurkhas from Chuha village in Kailali.
  • 1 February: King Gyanendra dissolves the Deuba government and bans all news reports. The army begins arresting senior political leaders, journalists, trade unionists, human rights activists and civil society leaders. All telephone and internet connections are cut.
  • 6 June: Badarmude bus explosion
    Badarmude bus explosion
    The Badarmude bus explosion was a terrorist attack on a civilian commuter coach in Southern Nepal near the village of Badarmude on July 6, 2005.- Overview :...

    : Some 38 civilians are killed and over 70 injured after a packed passenger bus runs over a rebel landmine in Chitwan District
    Chitwan District
    Chitwan District and one sub-Metropolitan city - Bharatpur and a municipality Ratnanagar each of which has more than nine wards or urban areas....

    .
  • 9 August: Maoist rebels kill 40 security men in midwestern Nepal.
  • 3 September: The Maoists declare a three-month unilateral ceasefire
    Ceasefire
    A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. Ceasefires may be declared as part of a formal treaty, but they have also been called as part of an informal understanding between opposing forces...

     to woo opposition political parties.
  • 19 November: After negotiations, the Maoist rebels agree to work with opposition politicians in a common front against the rule of King
    Monarch
    A monarch is the person who heads a monarchy. This is a form of government in which a state or polity is ruled or controlled by an individual who typically inherits the throne by birth and occasionally rules for life or until abdication...

     Gyanendra of Nepal
    Gyanendra of Nepal
    Gyanendra Shah was the last King of Nepal. During his life, he has held the title of the King twice: first between 1950 and 1951 as a child when his grandfather Tribhuvan was forced into exile in India with the rest of his family; and from 2001 to 2008, following the Nepalese royal massacre.King...

    .

2006


  • 2 January: Rebels decide not to extend a four month ceasefire saying that the government had broken the ceasefire with numerous attacks on Maoist villages.
  • 14 January: Maoists launch coordinated attacks of five military and paramilitary targets in the Kathmandu Valley
    Kathmandu Valley
    The Kathmandu Valley , located in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites within this valley.-Etymology:The city of...

    . The first demonstration of their ability to organize violence within the Valley, prompting curfews at night for the next several days.
  • 14 March: Nepali rebels extend road blockade; nationwide strike called for 3 April.
  • 5 April: General strike begins with Maoist forces promising to refrain from violence.
  • 6 April 7: Protesters clash with police, hundreds arrested, dozens injured.
  • 8 April: A curfew
    Curfew
    A curfew is an order specifying a time after which certain regulations apply. Examples:# An order by a government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time...

     is imposed in Kathmandu from 10 p.m. to 9 a.m. The king orders protesters violating the curfew to be "shot on sight."
  • 9 April: General strike scheduled to end. Government extends curfew, BBC
    BBC
    The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters is at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff...

     reports. Three dead in two days of unrest, as thousands of demonstrators defy curfews.
  • 27 April: Maoist insurgents, responding to a demand by the newly appointed Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala
    Girija Prasad Koirala
    Girija Prasad Koirala was a Nepalese politician and the President of the Nepali Congress, a major political party. He was Prime Minister of Nepal for four times, serving from 1991 to 1994, 1998 to 1999, 2000 to 2001, and from 2006 to 2008; he was also Acting Head of State from January 2007 to July...

    , announce a unilateral three-month truce after weeks of pro-democracy protests
    2006 democracy movement in Nepal
    The 2006 Democracy Movement is a name given to the political agitations against the direct and undemocratic rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal. The movement is also sometimes referred to as Jana Andolan-II , implying it being a continuation of the 1990 Jana Andolan.-Reinstitution of Parliament:In a...

     in Kathmandu, and encourage the formation of a new constituent assembly tasked with rewriting the nation's constitution.
  • 3 May: Nepal's new cabinet declares a ceasefire. The cabinet also announces that the Maoist rebels will no longer be considered a terrorist group. Rebels are also encouraged to open peace talks.
  • 21 November: Peace talks end with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord
    Comprehensive Peace Accord
    The Comprehensive Peace Accord was signed between the Government of Nepal and the Unified Communist Party of Nepal on November 21, 2006 which formally ended the Nepalese People's War that lasted for more than decade...

     between Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala
    Girija Prasad Koirala
    Girija Prasad Koirala was a Nepalese politician and the President of the Nepali Congress, a major political party. He was Prime Minister of Nepal for four times, serving from 1991 to 1994, 1998 to 1999, 2000 to 2001, and from 2006 to 2008; he was also Acting Head of State from January 2007 to July...

     and Maoist leader Prachanda
    Prachanda
    Puspa Kamal Dahal ; born Chhabilal Dahal on 11 December 1954, also known as Prachanda ]]. Prachanda led CPN as it launched an insurgency on 13 February 1996. In 2008 the ensuing civil war culminated in the overthrow of the Shah dynasty in favor of a communist...

    . The deal allows the Maoists to take part in government, and places their weapons under UN monitoring.

2007

  • In July 2007, the Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction proposed legislation that would establish a Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    Truth and Reconciliation Commission
    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the abolition of apartheid. Witnesses who were identified as victims of gross human rights violations were invited to give statements about their experiences, and some were selected...

     in Nepal.

Further Reading

  • Hutt, Michael, Himalayan People’s War: Nepal’s Maoist Rebellion, (London: Hurst and Co., 2004).
  • Karki, Arjun and David Seddon (eds.), The People’s War in Nepal: Left Perspectives, (New Delhi: Adroit, 2003).
  • Thapa, Deepak, with Bandita Sijapati, A Kingdom Under Siege: Nepal’s Maoist Insurgency, 1996-2003, (Kathmandu: The Printhouse, 2003).

External links