Kathmandu

Kathmandu

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{{Infobox settlement
|name = Kathmandu
|native_name = येँ देय्‌
|other_name = काठमांडौ
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{{Infobox settlement


|name = Kathmandu
|native_name = येँ देय्‌
|other_name = काठमांडौ
{{Redirect|Katmandu|the song by Bob Seger|Katmandu (song)}}
{{Very long|date=June 2011}}
{{Infobox settlement


|name = Kathmandu
|native_name = येँ देय्‌
|other_name = काठमांडौ
|motto = My legacy, my pride, my Kathmandu
|image_skyline = 2009-03 Kathmandu 08.jpg
|imagesize = 300px
|image_caption =
|image_map = Un-nepal-KV.png
|mapsize = 300px
|map_caption =
|pushpin_map = Nepal
|pushpin_label_position =
|pushpin_map_caption = Location in Nepal
|pushpin_mapsize = 300

|subdivision_type = Country
|subdivision_name =  Nepal
|subdivision_type1 = Development Region
|subdivision_name1 = Central
|subdivision_type2 = Zone
Zones of Nepal
Nepal is divided into 14 administrative zones , and 75 districts . The 14 administrative zones are grouped into five development regions...


|subdivision_name2 = Bagmati Zone
Bagmati Zone
Bagmati Zone Bagmati is divided into eight districts:- See also :*Zones of Nepal*Regions of Nepal*Districts of Nepal...


|subdivision_type3 = District
Districts of Nepal
Nepal's 14 administrative zones are subdivided into 75 districts . These districts are listed below, by zone...


|subdivision_name3 = Kathmandu District
Kathmandu District
Kathmandu District is a district located in Kathmandu Valley, Bagmati Zone of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia. It is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, covers an area of 395 km2 and is the most densely populated district of Nepal with a population of 1,081,845 in 2001...



|government_footnotes =
|leader_title =
|leader_name =
|leader_title1 =
|leader_name1 =
|established_title = Established
|established_date = 900s AD
|established_title2 =
|established_date2 =

|unit_pref =
|area_footnotes =
|area_total_km2 = 50.67

|population_as_of = 2010
|population_footnotes =
|population_note = estimate
|population_total = 989,273
|population_density_km2 = auto
|population_metro =
|population_density_metro_km2 = auto

|timezone = Nepal Time
Nepal Time
Nepal Standard Time is the time zone for Nepal, with a time offset from Coordinated Universal Time of +05:45. Nepal Standard Time, is one of only two official time zones with a 45-minute increment from UTC. The Chatham Islands, which uses Chatham Island Standard Time also has a 45-minute...


|utc_offset = +5:45
|timezone_DST =
|utc_offset_DST =
|latd= 27|latm = 42|latNS = N
|longd= 85|longm = 20|longEW = E
|coordinates_display = title
|coordinates_type = type:city_region:NP
|elevation_footnotes =
|elevation_m = 1400

|postal_code_type =
|postal_code =
|area_code =
|website = kathmandu.gov.np
|footnotes =
}}
Kathmandu ({{lang-ne|काठमांडौ}} kɑːʈʰmɑːɳɖuː; {{lang-new|येँ देय्‌}}) is the capital and, with close to one million inhabitants, the largest metropolitan
Metropolis
A metropolis is a very large city or urban area which is a significant economic, political and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections and communications...

 city of Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

. The city is the urban core of the Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley
The Kathmandu Valley , located in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites within this valley.-Etymology:The city of...

 in the Himalayas, which contains two sister cities: Lalitpur (Patan), 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to its south and Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur , also Bhadgaon or Khwopa is an ancient Newar town in the east corner of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It is located in Bhaktapur District in the Bagmati Zone...

 or Bhadgaon, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) to its east, and a number of smaller towns. It is also acronymed as 'KTM' and named 'tri-city'. In the last census (2001), the city of Kathmandu had 671,846 inhabitants. Population estimates for 2005 were 790,612 and for 2010 they stood at 989,273. The municipal area is (50.67 square kilometre) and the population density is 19,500 per km².

The city stands at an elevation of approximately 1400 metres (4,593.2 ft) in the bowl-shaped valley in central Nepal surrounded by four major hills, namely: Shivapuri, Phulchowki, Nagarjun and Chandragiri. Kathmandu valley is part of three districts, Kathmandu District
Kathmandu District
Kathmandu District is a district located in Kathmandu Valley, Bagmati Zone of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia. It is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, covers an area of 395 km2 and is the most densely populated district of Nepal with a population of 1,081,845 in 2001...

, Lalitpur District
Lalitpur District, Nepal
Lalitpur District of 337,785. It is one of the three districts in the Kathmandu Valley, along with Kathmandu and Bhaktapur.Lalitpur District has many schools, colleges and hotels. Adarsha Vidya Mandir, St. Xavier's School, St...

 and Bhaktapur District
Bhaktapur District
Bhaktapur district, located in the eastern part of Kathmandu valley, is the smallest among the seventy-five districts of Nepal. The district, with Bhaktapur as its district headquarters, covers an area of 119 km² and has a population of 225,461....

, with the highest population density in the country and accounting for about 1/15 of its population.

Kathmandu is not only the capital of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal but also the headquarters of the Central Region (Madhyamanchal) among the five development regions constituted by the 14 administrative zones of Nepal located at the central part of the country. The Central region has three zones namely, Bagmati, Narayani
Narayani Zone
- Geography :Narayani contains parts of the Terai, Inner Terai, and Hill regions of Nepal, but it does not contain any of the Mountain or Himalayan region. Narayani is rich in flora and fauna...

 and Janakpur. Kathmandu is located in the Bagmati Zone
Bagmati Zone
Bagmati Zone Bagmati is divided into eight districts:- See also :*Zones of Nepal*Regions of Nepal*Districts of Nepal...

.

Kathmandu, as the gateway to Nepal Tourism, is the nerve centre of the country’s economy. With the most advanced infrastructure among urban areas in Nepal, Kathmandu's economy is tourism centric accounting for 3.8% of the GDP in 1995–96 (had declined since then due to political unrest but has picked up again).

The city’s rich history is nearly 2000 years old, as inferred from an inscription in the valley. Its religious affiliations are dominantly Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 followed by Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

. People of other religious beliefs also live in Kathmandu giving it a cosmopolitan culture. Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 is the common language of the city, though many speak the Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa is one of the major languages of Nepal, and is also spoken in India, particularly in Sikkim where it is one of the 11 official languages. Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of about 3% of the people in Nepal . It is spoken mainly by the Newars, who chiefly inhabit the towns of the...

 as it is the center of the Newar
Newar
The Newa , Newār or Newāl) are the indigenous people and the creators of the historical civilization of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. The valley and surrounding territory have been known from ancient times as Nepal Mandala, its limits ever changing through history.Newas have lived in the Kathmandu...

 (meaning: citizens of Nepal) people and culture. English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

  is understood by the educated population of the city. Besides a significant number of the population speaks any of the foreign languages like : Hindi, French, German, Chinese, Hebrew, Korean etc. The literacy rate is 98% in the city.

From the point of view of tourism, economy and cultural heritage, the sister cities of Lalitpur (Patan) and Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur
Bhaktapur , also Bhadgaon or Khwopa is an ancient Newar town in the east corner of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. It is located in Bhaktapur District in the Bagmati Zone...

 are integral to Kathmandu. The cultural heritage recognition under the World Heritage list of the UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 has recognized all the monuments in the three cities as one unit under the title “Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley
The Kathmandu Valley , located in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites within this valley.-Etymology:The city of...

-UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

.

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Toponymy



The city of Kathmandu is named after a structure in Durbar Square
Durbar Square
Durbar Square is the generic name used to describe plazas opposite old royal palaces in Nepal. Before the Unification of Nepal, Nepal consisted of small kingdoms, and Durbar Squares are most prominent remnants of those old kingdoms in Nepal...

 called Kasthamandap
Kasthamandap
Kasthamandap is a three storied temple situated in Maru tole of Kathmandu. It is one of the largest and most noted pagodas of Nepal. The pagoda enshrines a statue of Gorakhnath.This temple is built in pagoda style design...

. In Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

, Kastha ({{lang-sa2|काष्ठ}}) is "wood" and Mandap ({{lang-sa2|मंडप/मण्डप}}) is "covered shelter." This unique temple, also known as Maru Sthal, was built in 1596 by King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The two-story structure is made entirely of wood, using no iron nails or supports. Legend has it that the timber used for this pagoda
Pagoda
A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist,...

 was obtained from a single tree.

The medieval era name of Kathmandu was Kantipur
Kantipur
Kantipur TV is a television network of Kantipur Publication of Nepal. This Publication House has a number of other notable publications such as The Katmandu Post, and kantipur daily....

 (कान्तिपुर), which is sometimes used to denote the city. This name derives from two Sanskrit words- Kanti and pur. "Kanti" is an alternate name of the Goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Lakshmi or Lakumi is the Hindu goddess of wealth, prosperity , light, wisdom, fortune, fertility, generosity and courage; and the embodiment of beauty, grace and charm. Representations of Lakshmi are also found in Jain monuments...

, and "pur" means place.

Its original name, "Yen", was given to it by the indigenous Newar people, before the introduction of Sanskritized culture. The meaning and significance of it is still unknown and under debate. In daily usage, locals call the city Yen. The Nepalbhasha version of the name of the metropolis is Yen Mahanagarpalika.

Geography


{{double image|right|Un-nepal-KV.png|170|Kathmandu Valley.jpg|180|Left: Map showing Kathmandu and the surrounding area. Right: Kathmandu Valley}}
The city is located in the northwestern part of Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley
The Kathmandu Valley , located in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites within this valley.-Etymology:The city of...

. The city covers an area of 50.67 square kilometre. The average elevation is 1350 metres (4,429.1 ft) above the sea level. The city is bounded by the Lalitpur Sub-metropolitan City in its south, Kirtipur Municipality
Kirtipur
Kirtipur is an ancient city in Nepal. It is located in Kathmandu District of Bagmati Zone 5 km south-west of the Kathmandu. It is one of the five municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley.-Etymology:...

 in south-west, Madyapur Thimi Municipality
Madhyapur Thimi
Madhyapur Thimi is a municipality in Bhaktapur District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 47,751....

 in east and different Village Development Committees of Kathmandu in north, west and north-east.

Eight rivers flow through the city of which the Bagmati, Bishnumati, Dhobikhola, Manohara, Hanumant and Tukucha rivers are predominant. The mountains from where these rivers originate are in the elevation range of 1500–3000 m (4,921.3–9,842.5 ft) and have passes, which provide access to and from Kathmandu and its valley. It falls in the central development region and it is the headquarters of the region.

{{double image|right|2009-03 Kathmandu 26.jpg|190|Bagmati-river.jpg|160|Bagmati River}}
The Bagmati river originates at Bagdwaar, also known as Bag Tiger or Dwar Gate. in the northern hills of Kathmandu valley about fifteen kilometres northeast of Kathmandu where three steams come together. The mountain streams that cascaded over boulders become a wide, swiftly flowing river, with a high load of suspended solids
Turbidity
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air. The measurement of turbidity is a key test of water quality....

, giving the river a grey appearance. The bottom here is coated with the grey silt of glacial flour
Rock flour
Rock flour, or glacial flour, consists of fine-grained, silt-sized particles of rock, generated by mechanical grinding of bedrock by glacial erosion or by artificial grinding to a similar size...

. The Bagmati flows southwesterly for about ten kilometres along the Kathmandu Valley which is predominately rice-patties in terraces up the slopes. A number of resistant rock strata interrupt the flow down the valley, among these is the outcrop that the Pashupatinath Temple
Pashupatinath temple
Pashupatinath Temple is one of the most significant Hindu temples of Lord Shiva in the world, located on the banks of the Bagmati River in the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. The temple served as the seat of the national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, Nepal is a secular country...

 is built upon. Afer passing the temple, the river flows south across the plain where it is joined by the larger Manohara River and turns westward. After entering the city the Bagmati is joined by a number of tributaries, notably the Dhobi Khola and the sewage-laden Tukucha Khola.

The natural vegetation is dictated by the climatic conditions and accordingly five vegetation zones have been defined for Nepal, out of which Kathmandu and its valley fall under the Deciduous Monsoon Forest Zone (altitude range of 1200–2100 m (3,937–6,889.8 ft)). The dominant tree species under this zone comprises oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

, elm
Elm
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae. The dozens of species are found in temperate and tropical-montane regions of North America and Eurasia, ranging southward into Indonesia. Elms are components of many kinds of natural forests...

, beech
Beech
Beech is a genus of ten species of deciduous trees in the family Fagaceae, native to temperate Europe, Asia and North America.-Habit:...

, maple
Maple
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in...

 and so forth with coniferous trees at higher elevation.
{{Wide image|Kathmandu Valley panorama.jpg|990px|Panorama of the Kathmandu Valley from Swayambhunath
Swayambhunath
Swayambhunath is an ancient religious complex atop a hill in the Kathmandu Valley, west of Kathmandu city. It is also known as the Monkey Temple as there are holy monkeys living in parts of the temple in the north-west...

 Temple}}

Climate


Climatic conditions vary to a large extent in view of several geographical factors (topography and altitude). Five major climatic regions have been deciphered in Nepal, out of which Kathmandu valley falls under the Warm Temperate Zone (elevation ranging from 1200–2300 m (3,937–7,545.9 ft)) where the climate is fairly pleasant, atypical of the region. This zone is followed by the Cool Temperate Zone with elevation varying between 2100 metres (6,889.8 ft) and 3300 metres (10,826.8 ft). Under Koppen’s climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, portions of the city with lower elevations features a mild form of a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 while portions of the city with higher elevations generally feature a subtropical highland climate. In the Kathmandu valley, which is representative of its valley’s climate the average temperature during the summer season varies from 28–30 °C (82.4–86 F). During the winter season the average temperature is 10.1 °C (50.2 °F).

The city generally has a pleasant climate with comfortable warm days followed by the cool mornings and nights. Unpredictability of weather is expected as during winter, temperatures during the winter months have dropped to 3 °C (37.4 °F). The rainfall which is mostly monsoon based (about 65% of the total concentrated during the monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

 months of June to August), which decreases (100 cm to 200 cm) substantially from eastern Nepal to western Nepal, has been recorded as about 1400 millimetres (55.1 in) for the Kathmandu valley and an average of 1407 millimetres (55.4 in) specifically for the Kathmandu city. On an average Humidity
Humidity
Humidity is a term for the amount of water vapor in the air, and can refer to any one of several measurements of humidity. Formally, humid air is not "moist air" but a mixture of water vapor and other constituents of air, and humidity is defined in terms of the water content of this mixture,...

 is 75%.

{{Weather box
|location = Kathmandu
|metric first = Y
|single line = Y
|Jan high C = 18.0
|Feb high C = 20.2
|Mar high C = 24.3
|Apr high C = 27.4
|May high C = 28.2
|Jun high C = 28.3
|Jul high C = 27.7
|Aug high C = 28.0
|Sep high C = 27.2
|Oct high C = 25.8
|Nov high C = 22.7
|Dec high C = 19.4
|year high C = 24.8
|Jan low C = 2.1
|Feb low C = 3.8
|Mar low C = 7.5
|Apr low C = 11.3
|May low C = 15.5
|Jun low C = 19.0
|Jul low C = 20.0
|Aug low C = 19.7
|Sep low C = 18.2
|Oct low C = 13.0
|Nov low C = 7.4
|Dec low C = 3.0
|year low C = 11.7
|Jan precipitation mm = 14.2
|Feb precipitation mm = 16.7
|Mar precipitation mm = 31.2
|Apr precipitation mm = 54.4
|May precipitation mm = 114.2
|Jun precipitation mm = 256.4
|Jul precipitation mm = 359.6
|Aug precipitation mm = 314.2
|Sep precipitation mm = 183.1
|Oct precipitation mm = 59.4
|Nov precipitation mm = 7.5
|Dec precipitation mm = 14.2
|year precipitation mm = 1425.1
|Jan rain days = 2
|Feb rain days = 3
|Mar rain days = 4
|Apr rain days = 6
|May rain days = 12
|Jun rain days = 17
|Jul rain days = 23
|Aug rain days = 22
|Sep rain days = 15
|Oct rain days = 4
|Nov rain days = 1
|Dec rain days = 1
|source 1 = World Meteorological Organisation (UN
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

)
|date=August 2010
}}
Based on the data source of the Nepal Bureau of Standards & Metrology, "Weather Meteorology" for 2005, climatic data chart is given, which provides Minimum and Maximum temperatures (the lowest and highest temperatures recorded during the month respectively). Annual amount of Precipitation is 1124 millimetres (44.3 in) for 2005, as per monthly data included in the table above.

Pollution


{{double image|right|Kathmandu police pollution.jpg |180|Kathmandu smoke.jpg|180|Left:Police officer taking pollution precautions by wearing a mask. Right:Industry in Kathmandu.}}
Air pollution
Air pollution
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere....

 is a serious problem in Kathmandu. Aside from the obvious human generated degradation produced by industry, by extensive traffic and congestion in the city and frequent burning associate with its temples and public cremation
Cremation
Cremation is the process of reducing bodies to basic chemical compounds such as gasses and bone fragments. This is accomplished through high-temperature burning, vaporization and oxidation....

s, natural meteorological factors play a dynamic role and interact with air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, shaping atmospheric stability, wind speed and direction, and precipitation, thus having considerable control over air dynamics in the urban climate. Its location in the Kathmandu Valley means that it is subject to mountain-valley circulations which may cause air pollution circulating away from the city to return at night, increasing pollution levels in the city in the evenings.

Economy


Kathmandu’s trade is an ancient profession that flourished along the route between India and Tibet. Trading caravans of merchants were famous for trading with Lhasa. Other traditional occupations are farming, metal casting, woodcarving, painting, weaving and pottery.
Kathmandu is famous for trading Nepalese Lokta paper
Lokta paper
Lokta paper known also as Nepali paper is made from the Lokta bush or Daphne bush, botanically known as Daphne bhoula or Daphne papyracea. The bush grows in the Himalayan mountainous region at 2,000 to 3,000 m . There are many different species of Daphne but only five of them are really suitable...

, a paper made from Lokta (Daphne bhoula or Daphne papyracea) and Pashmina
Pashmina
Pashmina refers to a type of fine cashmere wool and the textiles made from it. The name comes from Pashmineh , made from Persian pashm . The wool comes from changthangi or pashmina goat, which is a special breed of goat indigenous to high altitudes of the Himalayas in Nepal, Pakistan and northern...

 shawls which are very beautiful, light and warm and are used by women in Kathmandu valley to survive the cold winters.

Kathmandu is the most important industrial and commercial centre in Nepal, serving as the headquarters of most companies, banks and organizations. Other major economic hubs are the New Road of Kathmandu
New Road of Kathmandu
New Road is the financial hub, busiest high street of Nepal. It refers to a four lane street in the center of Kathmandu, as well as the surrounding neighborhood. It is one of the busiest marketplaces in the city...

, the Durbar Square, Ason and Putalisadak.

The city's economic output is worth more than NRs. 170 billion per year. Kathmandu exports handicrafts, artworks, garments, carpets, pashmina, paper etc. and trade accounts for 21% of its finances. Manufacturing comes next in importance and accounts for 19% of the revenue that Kathmandu generates with garments and woollen carpets being the most notable manufacturers.

The top five countries importing Nepali handicrafts are the US (Rs. 223 million), Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (Rs. 87 million), Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 (Rs. 74 million), the U.K. (Rs. 69 million) and Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 (Rs. 51 million).

In November 2009, The Kathmandu Post
The Kathmandu Post
The Kathmandu Post is a major daily newspaper published in Nepal. Centred in the capital Kathmandu, it is one of the largest English-language newspapers in the country. The Kathmandu Post is independently owned, and is published by Kantipur Publications, the owners of Nepal's largest selling...

 reported that Nepali handicraft products to third countries had decreased by 8.1% during the first quarter of the current fiscal year compared to the same period last year. According to the Federation of Handicraft Associations of Nepal (FHAN), the fall was mainly due to a decrease in the export of pashmina products, woollen goods, silk products, handmade paper products and wood crafts, of which Kathmandu is renowned for. Pashmina exports, which is one of the major export products, declined by 31.26% to Rs. 154 million and woollen commodities decreased by 10.94% to Rs. 159 million. Silk products had declined by 26.88% and handmade paper products and wood crafts declined by 16.55% and 31.38% respectively. According to data published by the FHAN, the export of textile products declined by 14.87% to Rs. 487 million against Rs. 572 million during the same quarter last year.
{{double image|right|Kathmandu wool hats.jpg|180|Kathmandu gloves.jpg|180|Kathmandu wool commodities}}
However, non-textile products has grown by 3.63%, largely to the growing production and export of silverware which had increased by 18.09%, accounting for Rs. 121 million as compared to Rs. 102 million in 2008.

Other money making sectors in Kathmandu include agriculture (9%), education (6%), transport (6%), and hotels and restaurants (5%). Although some of Nepal's wealthiest citizens live in Kathmandu, much of the city is living in poverty with a per capita income of just US $400 (World Bank, 2008).

Tourism


Tourism, considered as another important industry in Nepal, opened up as the country's political equation changed in 1950 and thus isloation with the rest of the world ended. In the following year, establishing air services and the opening of the Tribhuvan Highway between Kathmandu and Raxaul
Raxaul
Raxaul or Raxaul is a sub-divisional town in the East Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar. It is situated on the India-Nepal border with Birganj on the other side of the border.-Demographics:...

 at the border with India in 1956 were started. Separate organizations to promote this activity was created in the form of the Tourism Development Board, Department of Tourism and Civil Aviation Department in Kathmandu. Further, Nepal became a member of several international tourists associations. Establishing diplomatic relations with other nations further accentuated this activity. The hotel industry, travel agencies, training of tourist guides and targeted publicity campaigns are the chief reasons attributed for the remarkable growth of this industry in Nepal and in Kathmandu, in particular.

Since then tourism has opened up in the country manifold and as a result it is sometimes said to be the 'third religion' of Nepal, as the country's most important industry that plays a large role in the economic activity of Kathmandu. This activity is central to Kathmandu, the gateway to Nepal. It is a major source of income for most of the people of the city with some several hundred thousands of visitors annually. Hindu and Buddhist pilgrims from all over the world visit various religious places located in Kathmandu and the surrounding district such as Pashupatinath
Pashupatinath temple
Pashupatinath Temple is one of the most significant Hindu temples of Lord Shiva in the world, located on the banks of the Bagmati River in the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. The temple served as the seat of the national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, Nepal is a secular country...

, Swayambhunath
Swayambhunath
Swayambhunath is an ancient religious complex atop a hill in the Kathmandu Valley, west of Kathmandu city. It is also known as the Monkey Temple as there are holy monkeys living in parts of the temple in the north-west...

, Baudhanath, Budhanilkantha etc. From a mere 6,179 tourists in 1961–62, the number jumped to 491,504, but with political instability in the country in recent years, it dropped to 275,468 in 2002–03, but since then has shown a rising trend with the country turning into a Democratic Republic. In economic terms, the foreign exchange earning showed a remarkable trend registering 3.8 % of the GDP in 1995–96 but started declining. All this tourism is attributed to the natural grandeur of the Himalayas and rich cultural heritage of the country.

The neighborhood of Thamel
Thamel
Thamel is a popular tourist destination in Kathmandu, Nepal. It is a full Wi-fi zone in Nepal. Thamel has been the centre of the tourist industry in Kathmandu for over four decades starting from the hippie movement when many artists came to Nepal and spent weeks in Thamel...

 is Kathmandu's primary 'traveler's ghetto,' packed with guest houses, restaurants, shops and bookstores catering to tourists from abroad. Freak Street, also known as Jochhen Tole, is Kathmandu's original traveler's haunt made popular by the hippies of the 1970s and remains a popular alternative to Thamel.

Civic administration


Local

Metropolitan Kathmandu is divided into five sectors namely the Central Sector, the East Sector, the North Sector, the City Core and the West Sector. For civic administration, the city is further divided into 35 administrative wards.The Council administers the Metropolitan area of Kathmandu city through its 177 elected representatives and 20 nominated members. It holds biannual meetings to review, process, approve the annual budget and make major policy decisions. The ward profile documents for the 35 wards prepared by the Kathmandu Metropolitan Council is exhaustive and provides information for each ward on population, the structure and condition of the houses, the type of roads, educational, health and financial institutions, entertainment facilities, parking space, security provisions and so forth. It also includes lists of development projects completed, on-going and planned, along with informative data about the cultural heritage, festivals, historical sites and the local inhabitants. Ward 16 is the largest with an area of 437.4 ha and Ward 26 is the smallest with an area of 4 ha.

Kathmandu is also the metropolitan city centre of the surrounding Kathmandu District
Kathmandu District
Kathmandu District is a district located in Kathmandu Valley, Bagmati Zone of Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia. It is one of the seventy-five districts of Nepal, covers an area of 395 km2 and is the most densely populated district of Nepal with a population of 1,081,845 in 2001...

. The city of Kathmandu forms this district with some 57 Village Development Committees.

According to 2001 census, there are 235,387 households in the metropolitan city

National

During the time when the 1990 Constitution was in effect, the Parliament of Nepal
Parliament of Nepal
The Parliament of Nepal was dissolved by King Gyanendra in 2002, on the grounds that it was incapable of handling the Maoist rebels. The country's five main political parties have staged protests against the king, arguing that he must either call fresh elections or reinstate the elected legislature...

 had a two chamber
Bicameralism
In the government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. Thus, a bicameral parliament or bicameral legislature is a legislature which consists of two chambers or houses....

 parliament (Sansad). This included the House of Representatives
Nepal House of Representatives
The House of Representatives was the lower house of parliament during the 1990 Constitution in Nepal. It consisted of 205 members directly elected by the people. It had five-year terms, but it could be dissolved by the king on the advice of the prime minister before the ending of its term.On...

 (Pratinidhi Sabha) which had 205 members elected for five year term in single-seat constituencies and the House of the States (Rashtriya Sabha) which had 60 members, 35 members elected by the Pratinidhi Sabha, 15 representatives of Regional Development Areas and 10 appointed members. Since 2002, the parliament has had a turbulent history due to ongoing political unrest, and was dissolved by King Gyanendra of Nepal
Gyanendra of Nepal
Gyanendra Shah was the last King of Nepal. During his life, he has held the title of the King twice: first between 1950 and 1951 as a child when his grandfather Tribhuvan was forced into exile in India with the rest of his family; and from 2001 to 2008, following the Nepalese royal massacre.King...

 in 2002, on the grounds that it was incapable of handling the Maoist rebels, but in April 2006, in response to major pro-democratic protests
2006 democracy movement in Nepal
The 2006 Democracy Movement is a name given to the political agitations against the direct and undemocratic rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal. The movement is also sometimes referred to as Jana Andolan-II , implying it being a continuation of the 1990 Jana Andolan.-Reinstitution of Parliament:In a...

, it was announced that Parliament would be reestablished. However, on January 15, 2007, the old parliament was dissolved and replaced by the 330-member interim legislature of Nepal
Interim legislature of Nepal
On January 15, 2007 the Pratinidhi Sabha, the legislature of Nepal, was dissolved and a new Interim legislature was formed. The old parliament was elected in 1999...

.

Democratic Republic
After 10 years of Moasists’ rebel activities, Nepal became a Republic in May 2008. Monarchy in the modern history of Nepal ended in April 2009 when King Gyanedra had to end his rule in April 2006 under public pressure. By then insurrection had resulted in death of more than 10,000 people and displacement of 100,000 people. After holding discussions with the Maoist rebels, Parliament acceded to the condition of holding general elections to the Parliament, which was held in April 2006. With this, Gyanendra’s rule ended and Monarchy was finally abolished in May 2008. Two months after the country's new constituent assembly voted to abolish the 239-year-old monarchy, in July 2008, Mr Ram Baran Yadav
Ram Baran Yadav
Dr Ram Baran Yadav is the current President of Nepal. He was elected in July 2008 and is the country's first President. He previously served as Minister of Health and as General Secretary of the Nepali Congress party....

 became the first president of the Republic of Nepal. In August 2008, Maoists led Government with Prachanda
Prachanda
Puspa Kamal Dahal ; born Chhabilal Dahal on 11 December 1954, also known as Prachanda ]]. Prachanda led CPN as it launched an insurgency on 13 February 1996. In 2008 the ensuing civil war culminated in the overthrow of the Shah dynasty in favor of a communist...

 as Prime Minister was formed,. But this government was short lived because Prachanda resigned in protest as his decision to sack the army chief was not supported by the President. After a short impasse, Madhav Kumar Nepal
Madhav Kumar Nepal
Madhav Kumar Nepal is a Nepali politician who was Prime Minister of Nepal from May 25, 2009 until February 6, 2011. He was nominated as a PM through internal arrangements within the current ruling coaliation government of Nepal. Nepal announced his resignation as Prime Minister on June 30, 2010...

 was elected as Nepal’s new prime minister, on 23 May 2009. Moaists have protested and agitation is continuing. The Prime Minister is optimistic about bringing the Maoists' back into the government. He is also hopeful of introducing a new Nepalese constitution by May 2010.

International relations
Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC), in order to promote international relations with the objective of mobilization of resources and modernization of Kathmandu city, has established an International Relations Secretariat (IRC). KMC’s first international relationship was established in 1975 with the city of Eugene, Oregon
Eugene, Oregon
Eugene is the second largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Lane County. It is located at the south end of the Willamette Valley, at the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about east of the Oregon Coast.As of the 2010 U.S...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 (US). This activity has been further enhanced by establishing formal relationships with 8 other cities namely, the Motsumoto City
Matsumoto, Nagano
is a city located in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Matsumoto is designated as a Special City.-Outline:The new city of Matsumoto is the city comprising the mergers of the old city of Matsumoto and four villages. Matsumoto officially absorbed those villages without creating a new municipal...

 of Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, Rochester
Rochester
- United Kingdom :* Rochester, Kent* Rochester Castle, a medieval building in Rochester, Kent* Rochester , a Young Offenders Institution in Rochester, Kent* Rochester, Northumberland- United States :* Rochester, Illinois* Rochester, Indiana...

{{Disambiguation needed|date=July 2011}} in addition to Eugene, Yangon
Yangon
Yangon is a former capital of Burma and the capital of Yangon Region . Although the military government has officially relocated the capital to Naypyidaw since March 2006, Yangon, with a population of over four million, continues to be the country's largest city and the most important commercial...

 (earlier Rangoon) of Myanmar
Myanmar
Burma , officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar , is a country in Southeast Asia. Burma is bordered by China on the northeast, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, India on the northwest, the Bay of Bengal to the southwest, and the Andaman Sea on the south....

, Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

 of the People’s Republic of China, Minsk
Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

 of Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

 and Pyongyang
Pyongyang
Pyongyang is the capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, commonly known as North Korea, and the largest city in the country. Pyongyang is located on the Taedong River and, according to preliminary results from the 2008 population census, has a population of 3,255,388. The city was...

 of the Democratic Republic of Korea. KMC's constant endeavour is to enhance its interaction with SAARC countries, other International agencies and many other major cities of the world to achieve better uraban management and developmental programs for Kathmandu.

Police



Kathmandu Police is the law enforcing body in the city and under the wider administration of the Nepal Police Force. The police force was officially established in 1864, but enforcement was loosely based and it wasn't until the 1950s that the first police head quarters were established in Kathmandu. The police force developed under royal insistence and the Nepalese government sought advice from India. The Police Act of Kathmandu and Nepal was passed in 1956, and the first Inspector General of Police in Nepal and Kathmandu was Toran Shamsher J.B. Rana.

Departments of the Nepal Police include intelligence division, motor transport and radio sections, counter intelligence branch, criminal investigation branch, the human resource department, the community department and the narcotics department. The police force also operates missing persons squad and offers services for the protection of women and children. Today there are several police stations in the Kathmandu metropolitan area, including one around the Durbar. Police uniform is light blue with a policeman cap and it is common to see policemen with face masks, protecting themselves from the pollution.

Fire service


The fire service, known as the ‘Barun Yantra Karyalaya', opened its first station in Kathmandu in 1937, with a single vehicle. An iron tower was erected to monitor the city and watch out for fire and as a precautionary measure, fire servicemen were sent to the areas which were designated as accident prone areas. In 1944, the fire service was extended to the neighbouring cities of Lalitpur and Bhaktapur and in 1966, the fire service was established in Kathmandu airport. A German government donation in 1975, added seven fire engines to Kathmandu's fire service. The fire service in the city is also overlooked by an international non-governmental organization, the Firefighters Volunteer Association of Nepal (FAN) which was established in 2000 with the purpose of raising public awareness among the public about fire and improving safety.

Water supply



Water supply in Kathmandu is derived from two sources, namely, surface water (rivers and ponds) and groundwater; rainfall precipitation is the major contributor of these two sources. Nepal Water Supply Corporation (NWSC) is responsible for drinking water supply, both from surface water and ground water sources, to Kathmandu City.

Most of the drinking water source is from surface water of the Bagamati river. However, the supply is insufficient and there is chronic shortage of water. The daily demand is 200 million litres in Kathmandu but the supply is only 160 million litres. To overcome the shortage, ground water is being extracted increasingly and it is said that 60% of the household are resorting to ground water extraction by pumping from the sources, which has also caused lowering of ground water levels; this depletion as per ground water department sources is taking place at the rate of 2.5 m per year. A solution to address this problem has been evolved with project assistance from the Asian Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
The Asian Development Bank is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 to facilitate economic development of countries in Asia...

 (ADB) and Japan Bank for International Cooperation
Japan Bank for International Cooperation
The , also known by its acronym, JBIC, is a Japanese public financial institution and export credit agency, and was created on October 1, 1999, through the merging of the Japan Export-Import Bank and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund ....

 (JBIC) by diverting the perennial snow fed river flows of Melamachi through a 20 km (12 mi) tunnel. The project is stated to be under implementation and is expected to be completed by 2013.

Public health


Realizing the basic need of public health in the city, in 1994 Kathmandu Metropolitan City (KMC) launched a Community Urban Basic Health Service Programme in the city . Seven (7) community urban health clinics at ward level and Medical Facility Section in the Central level were established. An exclusive Public Health and Social Welfare Department (PHSWD) was also established. As of date, 21 community urban health clinics are functional. Acupuncture Service Center has also been added. Ministry of Health has also planned and launched several Social mobilization/health education awareness programmes to ensure the welfare of citizens by educating & empowering the people and mainstreaming the women, children, youth, elder people, Dalit, handicap backward people in the process of development.

Demographics


Kathmandu’s urban cosmopolitan character has made it the most populous city in Nepal, recording a population of 671,846 residents living in 235,387 households in the metropolitan city according to the 2001 census. It is a trend displayed since historical times created by its unique Newari people who continue to be one of the dominant groups in the city. The city has, over the years, absorbed people of various ethnicity resulting in an agreeable range of different traditions and cultural practices. In a decade, the population has increased from 427,045 in 1991 to 671,805 in 2001 and is projected to touch a figure of 915,071 in 2011 and 1319,597 by 2021. To keep up this population growth, KMC controlled area of 5076.6 hectares (12,544.5 acre) has expanded to 8214 ha in 2001. With this new area, the density of population which was 85 in 1991 is still 85 in 2001 (due to increase in area) and is likely to be 111 in 2011 and 161 in 2021.

Ethnic groups


The largest ethnic groups are Newars, Brahmins and Kshetris. Tamangs originating from surrounding hill districts can be seen quite clearly in Kathmandu. More recently, other hill ethnic groups and Caste groups from Terai have shown their presence as well. The major languages are Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

 and Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa is one of the major languages of Nepal, and is also spoken in India, particularly in Sikkim where it is one of the 11 official languages. Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of about 3% of the people in Nepal . It is spoken mainly by the Newars, who chiefly inhabit the towns of the...

. The major religions are Hinduism
Hinduism in Nepal
Hinduism is the major religion of Nepal. In the 2001 census, approximately 80.6 percent of the Nepalese people identified themselves as Hindus. Buddhists constitute 10.7%. The remainder followed other religions...

 and Buddhism
Buddhism in Nepal
Buddha was born in Shakya kingdom which lies in Rupandehi district, Lumbini zone of Nepal.10.74% of Nepal's population practice Buddhism, consisting mainly of groups of Tibeto-Burman origin.-Overview:...

. The city has also a significant and rapidly growing Muslim
Islam in Nepal
Islam is a minority religion in Nepal. According to the 2001 Nepal census, 4.27% of the population are Muslim.Islam is thought to have been introduced by Indian Muslims settling in Nepal....

 population.

The linguistic profile of Kathmandu underwent drastic changes during the Shah dynasty rule on account of their very strong bias towards the Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

ic culture. Sanskrit language, therefore, got a boost and people were encouraged to learn this language even by attending Sanskrit learning centres in India. Sanskrit schools were specially set up in Kathmandu and in the terai region to inculcate traditional Hindu culture and practices.

Architecture and cityscape


{{main|Architecture of Kathmandu}}
{{Kathmandu valley World Heritage Site (WHS) Monuments}}
The ancient and refined traditional culture in Kathmandu, for that matter in the whole of Nepal, is an uninterrupted and exceptional meeting of the Hindu and Buddhist ethos practiced by its highly religious people. It has also embraced in its fold the cultural diversity provided by the other religions such as Jainism
Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence towards all living beings. Its philosophy and practice emphasize the necessity of self-effort to move the soul towards divine consciousness and liberation. Any soul that has conquered its own inner enemies and achieved the state...

, Islam
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

 and Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

. The ancient trade route between India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 and Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

 that passed through Kathmandu enabled fusion of artistic and architectural traditions of other cultures to be amalgamated with local architectural and artistic culture.

Kathmandu has also been described variously as "Land of Gods" and as "land of the largest congregations of magnificent historical monuments and shrines ever built".

The City Core has most of the remarkable cultural wealth that evolved during the reign of the Malla (Nepal)
Malla (Nepal)
The Malla Dynasty was a ruling dynasty of Nepal from the 12th to the 18th century. Malla kings of Nepal visited Lumbini in the 11th and 12th century. It was during their reign the people living in and around the Kathmandu Valley began to be called as "Newars" . The Mallas were the ruling clan of...

 kings between 15th and 18th centuries. The city was filled with sculptures, pagodas, stupas and palace buildings of exceptional beauty. There are also 106 monastic courtyards (known as baha
Baha
Baha may refer to:-Given name:* Baha Akşit, Turkish physician and politician* Baha Araji, Iraqi politician* A...

{{Disambiguation needed|date=July 2011}} or bahi) known for their art and piety. The level of skill of the local artisans are the exquisite wood carving, stone carving, metal casting, weaving, pottery and other crafts. The finest wood carvings are seen on the ornate windows of old buildings and on the roof struts of temples. Carving skills of the local artisans are seen at every street corner in the form of images of gods and goddesses and sunken water spouts.

Architectural heritage of Kathmandu city is integral to that of the Kathmandu valley since all monuments have evolved over centuries of craftsmanship influenced by Hindu and Buddhist religious practices. The architectural treasure of the Kathmandu valley has been categorized under the well known seven groups of heritage monuments and buildings. In 2006, UNESCO declared these seven groups of monuments as a "World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

" (WHS). The seven monuments zones cover an area of 188.95 hectares (466.9 acre), with the buffer zone extending to 239.34 hectares (591.4 acre). The Seven Monument Zones (Mzs) inscribed originally in 1979 with a minor modification in inscribed year as 2006, are: Five monuments in Kathmandu – Durbar square
Durbar Square
Durbar Square is the generic name used to describe plazas opposite old royal palaces in Nepal. Before the Unification of Nepal, Nepal consisted of small kingdoms, and Durbar Squares are most prominent remnants of those old kingdoms in Nepal...

 of Hanuman Dhaka, Hindu temples of Pashupatinath and Changunarayan
Changu Narayan
Changu Narayan is the name of the deity enshrined in the Changu Narayan Temple, located near the Changunarayan village in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The temple is one of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley, and is believed to have been constructed in the 4th century. Changu Narayan is the name...

, the Buddha stupas of Swayambu and Boudhanath; and two monuments outside Kathmandu city limits, in the satellite towns of Patan and Bhktapur – Durbar square at Patan, Durbar square at Bhaktapur. Brief details of the five Kathmandu city monuments (template shows all seven for sake of completeness) are elaborated here.

Durbar square


{{Main|Durbar Square}}

The literal meaning of Durbar Square is a place of palaces. There are three preserved Durbar Squares in Kathmandu valley and one unpreserved in Kirtipur
Kirtipur
Kirtipur is an ancient city in Nepal. It is located in Kathmandu District of Bagmati Zone 5 km south-west of the Kathmandu. It is one of the five municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley.-Etymology:...

. The Durbar Square of Kathmandu is located in the old city and has heritage buildings representing four kingdoms (Kantipur, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Kirtipur), built over centuries, the earliest being the Licchavi dynasty. There were further additions and refurbishments during the reign of Mallas (9th century) and then the Ranas. The complex has 50 temples and is distributed in two quadrangles of the Durbar Square. The outer quadrangle has the Kasthamandap, Kumari Ghar and Shiva-Parvati Temple while the inner quadrangle has the Hanuman
Hanuman
Hanuman , is a Hindu deity, who is an ardent devotee of Rama, a central character in the Indian epic Ramayana and one of the dearest devotees of lord Rama. A general among the vanaras, an ape-like race of forest-dwellers, Hanuman is an incarnation of the divine and a disciple of Lord Rama in the...

 dhoka and the main palace.

Kasthamandap


{{Main|Kasthamandap}}
Kasthamandap
Kasthamandap
Kasthamandap is a three storied temple situated in Maru tole of Kathmandu. It is one of the largest and most noted pagodas of Nepal. The pagoda enshrines a statue of Gorakhnath.This temple is built in pagoda style design...

 is a three storied temple enshrining the deity of Goraknath – (Sanskrit for Gau+Raksha+Nath: Cow+Protect+Lord; The Lord who protects cows) – a form of the god Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

. It was built in the 16th century in Pagoda
Pagoda
A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist,...

 style. It is said to be one of the oldest wooden buildings in the world. The name of Kathmandu is a derivative of the Kashtamandap. It was built under the reign of King Laxmi Narsingha Malla and an interesting legend is stated to its wooden construction. The story narrated is about Gorakhnath, a disciple of Machindranath (Nepal Bhasa: Janamaadya
Janamaadya
Janabahaadya is one of the deities of Vajrayana Buddhism....

) Gorakhnath, who was spotted by a tantrik
Tantra
Tantra , anglicised tantricism or tantrism or tantram, is the name scholars give to an inter-religious spiritual movement that arose in medieval India, expressed in scriptures ....

 in human form, during the chariot procession of his guru Machhindranath (Nepal Bhasa: Janamaadya). The tantrik held him under a spell and sought his help seeking materials to build a temple in Kathmandu. Once the boon was bestowed, a huge tree started growing at the location where the present temple exists. With the wood of this single tree, the tantrik built the Kastamantap temple. Once a year a huge ceremony is performed in the temple. On that day people gather around the temple, and they stay up all night. This temple is one of the major tourist attractions too. There are no restrictions on entry to the temple. However, photography is prohibited inside the temple. The temple is open after midday until midnight.

Hanuman Dhoka


{{Main|Hanuman Dhoka}}
Hanuman Dhoka is a complex of structures with the Royal Palace of the Malla kings and also of the Shah dynasty. It is spread over five acres. The eastern wing with ten courtyards is the oldest part dated to the mid-16th century. It was expanded by King Pratap Malla in the 17th century with many temples. Sundari Chowk and Mohan Chowk in the north part of the palace are both closed. In 1768, in the southeast part of the palace, four lookout towers were added by Prithvi Narayan Shah. The royal family lived in this palace till 1886, where after they shifted to Narayanhiti Palace. The stone inscription outside is in fifteen languages and legend states that if all the 15 are read milk would spring from the middle of stone tablet.

Kumari Ghar


{{Main|Kumari}}{{Disambiguation needed|date=October 2011}}

Kumari Ghar is a palace in the center of the Kathmandu city, next to the Durbar square where a Royal Kumari selected from several Kumaris from several places resides. Kumari, or Kumari Devi, is the tradition of worshipping young pre-pubescent girls as manifestations of the divine female energy or devi in South Asian countries. In Nepal the selection process for her is very rigorous. Kumari is believed to be the bodily incarnation of the goddess Taleju (the Nepalese name for Durga) until she menstruates, after which it is believed that the goddess vacates her body. Serious illness or a major loss of blood from an injury are also causes for her to revert to common status. The current Royal Kumari, Matina Shakya, aged four, was installed in October 2008 by the Maoist government that replaced the monarchy.

Pashupatinath temple


{{Main|Pashupatinath temple}}
The Pashupatinath Temple
Pashupatinath temple
Pashupatinath Temple is one of the most significant Hindu temples of Lord Shiva in the world, located on the banks of the Bagmati River in the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. The temple served as the seat of the national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, Nepal is a secular country...

 is a famous Hindu temple
Hindu temple
A Mandir, Devalayam, Devasthanam, or a Hindu temple is a place of worship for followers of Hinduism...

 dedicated to Lord Shiva (Pashupati
Pashupati
Pashupati , "Lord of cattle", is an epithet of the Hindu god Shiva. In Vedic times it was used as an epithet of Rudra. The Rigveda has the related pashupa "protector of cattle" as a name of Pushan. The Pashupatinath Temple is the most important Hindu shrine for all Hindus in Nepal and also for many...

). Located on the banks of the Bagmati River
Bagmati
The Bagmati River is a river of Nepal and India. It flows through the Kathmandu valley and is the river separating Kathmandu from Lalitpur. It is considered a holy river both by Hindus and Buddhists...

 in the eastern part of Kathmandu, Pashupatinath Temple is the oldest Hindu temple in Kathmandu which is near to HARERAM GHAR established by PT KAVIPRASAD GAUTAM IN 1929 for endless 24hrs harerama kirtan and was established in the 5th century, and served as the seat of national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, until Nepal was secularized. However, a significant part of the temple was destroyed by Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 invaders in the 14th century and little or nothing remains of the original 5th century temple exterior. The temple as it stands today was built in the 19th century, although the image of the bull and the black four headed image of Pashupati are at least 300 years old. The temple is listed in UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. Shivaratri or the night of Lord Shiva is the most important festival, attracting thousands of devotees and sadhu
Sadhu
In Hinduism, sādhu denotes an ascetic, wandering monk. Although the vast majority of sādhus are yogīs, not all yogīs are sādhus. The sādhu is solely dedicated to achieving mokṣa , the fourth and final aśrama , through meditation and contemplation of brahman...

s.

Believers in Pashupatinath (mainly Hindus
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

) are allowed to enter the temple premises but non-Hindu visitors are allowed to view the temple from the across the bank of Bagmati river. The priests who perform the services at this temple have been Brahmin
Brahmin
Brahmin Brahman, Brahma and Brahmin.Brahman, Brahmin and Brahma have different meanings. Brahman refers to the Supreme Self...

s from South India since the time of Malla king Yaksha Malla. This tradition is believed to have been started at the request of Adi Shankaracharya who sought to unify the different states of Bharatam (Unified India) by encouraging cultural exchange. This procedure is also followed in other temples around India, which were sanctified by Adi Shankaracharya.

The temple is built in the pagoda
Pagoda
A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist,...

 style of architecture, with cubic constructions, beautifully carved wooden rafters on which they rest (tundal) and two level roofs made of copper and gilded in gold. It has four main doors, all covered with silver sheets and the western door has a statue of large bull or Nandi, again covered in gold. The deity is of black stone, about 6 feet in height and the same in circumference.

Boudhanath


{{Main|Boudhanath}}

The Boudhanath, (also written Bouddhanath, Bodhnath, Baudhanath or the Khāsa Chaitya
Chaitya
A chaitya is a Buddhist or Jain shrine including a stupa. In modern texts on Indian architecture, the term chaitya-griha is often used to denote assembly or prayer hall that houses a stupa.-History:...

), is one of the holiest Buddhist sites in Nepal along with Swayambhu
Swayambhu
Swayambhu means Self-manifested or that which is created by its own accord.-Vaishnavism:Based on details in Bhagavata Purana and Matsya Purana, Narayana or Krishna is said to be the Self-manifested Swayambhu form of Brahman as the first cause of creation...

, and it is one of the most popular tourist
Tourism
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes".Tourism has become a...

 sites in the Kathmandu area. It is known as Khāsti by Newars and as Bauddha or Bodh-nāth by modern speakers of Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

. Located about 11 km (7 mi) from the center and northeastern outskirts of Kathmandu, the stupa's massive mandala
Mandala
Maṇḍala is a Sanskrit word that means "circle". In the Buddhist and Hindu religious traditions their sacred art often takes a mandala form. The basic form of most Hindu and Buddhist mandalas is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point...

 makes it one of the largest spherical stupa
Stupa
A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist relics, typically the remains of Buddha, used by Buddhists as a place of worship....

s in Nepal. Boudhanath became a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 1979.
{{double image|right|Bodnath Sky.jpg|180|Bodnath Prayer Wheels.jpg|180|}}
The Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī documents that the Boudhanath was founded by the Nepalese Licchavi king Śivadeva (c. 590–604 AD); though other Nepalese chronicles date it to the reign of King Mānadeva (464–505 AD). Tibetan sources claim a mound on the site was excavated in the late 15th or early 16th century and the bones of king Aṃshuvarmā
Amshuvarma
Aṃshuvarmā was a monarch of the Nepali kingdom of Licchavi between 605 and 621. He is credited with opening trade routes to Tibet, though he is most famous for one of his daughters, Bhrikuti, who married a Tibetan ruler named Tsrong-tsong Gompo . She was instrumental in spreading Buddhism...

 605–621 were discovered there while other Nepali sources claim it was constructed by a prince to seek forgiveness for unwittingly killing his own father .
However, the Emperor of the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
The historic name for the Tibetan Empire is different from Tibet's present name.Traditional Tibetan history preserves a lengthy list of rulers, whose exploits become subject to external verification in the Chinese histories by the seventh century. From the 7th to the 11th century a series of...

, Trisong Detsän (r. 755 to 797) is also traditionally associated with the construction of the Boudhanath Stupa, after Songsten Gampo was converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 by his wives the Nepali princess Bhrikuti Devi and Princess Wen Cheng of China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 in the 7th century and passes it on to Detsän. However, given that Kathmandu was invaded by the Mughals in the 14th century who would have destroyed the monument, the current stupa is believed to date to sometime after this.

The base of the stupa has 108 small depictions of the Dhyani Buddha Amitabha
Amitabha
Amitābha is a celestial buddha described in the scriptures of the Mahāyāna school of Buddhism...

 and is surrounded with a brick wall with 147 niches, each with four or five prayer wheels engraved with the mantra, om mani padme hum. At the northern entrance where visitors must pass is a shrine dedicated to the goddess of smallpox
Smallpox
Smallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning "spotted", or varus, meaning "pimple"...

, Ajima
Ajima
Ajima is a group of goddess of Newar pantheon. The Goddess represents the female ancestors of a Newar. These goddess are respected by all sects and castes of Newars irrespective of religion.-Etymology:...

. The stupa attracts many Tibetan Buddhist pilgrims annually who perform full body prostrations in the inner lower enclosure, circumambulate the stupa with prayer wheels and chant and pray. Thousands of prayer flags are hoisted up from the top of the stupa downwards and dot the parameters of the complex. The influx of large populations of Tibetan refugees from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 has seen the construction of over 50 Tibetan Gompa
Gompa
Gompa and ling are Buddhist ecclesiastical fortifications of learning, lineage and sadhana , located in Tibet, India, Nepal, and Bhutan...

s (Monasteries
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

) around Boudhanath.

Swayambhu


{{Main|Swayambhu}}


Swayambhu, also known as the Monkey Temple as there are holy monkeys living in parts of the temple in the north-west, is among the oldest religious sites in Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

. Although the site is considered Buddhist, the place is revered by both Buddhists and Hindus. Numerous kings, Hindu followers, are known to have paid their homage to the temple, including Pratap Malla, the powerful king of Kathmandu, who is responsible for the construction of the eastern stairway in the 17th century. According to the {{IAST|Gopālarājavaṃśāvalī}} Swayambhu was founded by the great-grandfather of King Mānadeva (464–505 AD), {{IAST|King Vṛsadeva}}, about the beginning of the 5th century AD. This seems to be confirmed by a damaged stone inscription found at the site, which indicates that King Mānadeva ordered work done in 640 AD. However, Emperor Ashoka is said to have visited the site in the 3rd century BC and built a temple on the hill, which was later destroyed. Legend has it that the Buddha himself visited Swayambhu and gave teachings there two hundred years earlier.

The stupa consists of a dome at the base. Above the dome, there is a cubical structure present with eyes of Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

 looking in all four directions with the word "unity" in the main Nepali dialect between them. There are pentagonal Toran
Toran
Toran is the name in Hinduism of a sacred or honorific gateway in Buddhist architecture. Its typical form is a projecting cross-piece resting on two uprights or posts...

 present above each of the four sides with statues engraved in them. Behind and above the torana there are thirteen tiers. Above all the tiers, there is a small space above which the Gajur is present.

Changu Narayan


{{Main|Changu Narayan}}

Changu Narayan
Changu Narayan
Changu Narayan is the name of the deity enshrined in the Changu Narayan Temple, located near the Changunarayan village in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The temple is one of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley, and is believed to have been constructed in the 4th century. Changu Narayan is the name...

 is an ancient Hindu temple located near the village of Changunarayan
Changunarayan, Nepal
Changunarayan is a village and Village Development Committee in Bhaktapur District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 4909 with 877 houses in it....

 in the Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu Valley
The Kathmandu Valley , located in Nepal, lies at the crossroads of ancient civilizations of Asia, and has at least 130 important monuments, including several places of pilgrimage for the Hindus and the Buddhists. There are seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites within this valley.-Etymology:The city of...

 on top of a hill at the eastern end of the valley. Its location is 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) to the north of Bhakathapur and 22 kilometres (13.7 mi) from Kathmandu. The temple is one of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley, and is believed to have been constructed first in the 4th century. Changu Narayan is the name of Vishnu
Vishnu
Vishnu is the Supreme god in the Vaishnavite tradition of Hinduism. Smarta followers of Adi Shankara, among others, venerate Vishnu as one of the five primary forms of God....

, and the temple is dedicated to him. A stone slab discovered in the vicinity of the temple dates to the 5th century, and is the oldest such stone inscription discovered in Nepal. It was rebuilt after the old temple was devastated. Many stone sculptures here date to the Licchavi period. Changu Narayan Temple is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

The temple is a double-roofed structure where the idol of Lord Vishnu in his incarnation as Narayana is deified. The exquisitely built temple has intricate roof struts showing multi-armed Tantric deities. A kneeling image of Garuda
Garuda
The Garuda is a large mythical bird or bird-like creature that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology.From an Indian perspective, Garuda is the Hindu name for the constellation Aquila and...

 (dated to the 5th century), the vahana
Vahana
Vāhana denotes the being, typically an animal or mythical entity, a particular deva is said to use as a vehicle. In this capacity, the vāhana is often called the deity's mount. Upon the partnership between the deva and his vāhana is woven much iconography and mythology...

 or vehicle of Vishnu with a snake around its neck, faces the temple. The gilded door depicts stone lions guarding the temple. Gilded windows also flank the door. A conch and a disc, symbols of Vishnu, are carved on the two pillars at the entrance. Non-Hindus are not allowed inside the temple.

Bhimsen Tower (Dharahara)


{{Main|Dharahara}}

Dharahara
Dharahara
Dharahara , also called Bhimsen Tower, is a nine story tall tower at the center of Kathmandu sundhara. It was built in 1832 by the Prime Minister of the time, Bhimsen Thapa of Nepal. Thapa built the tower under the orders of Queen Lalit Tripura Sundari.The tower has a spiral staircase inside...

, also known as the Bhimsen Tower is a nine story (50.2 metres (164.7 ft)) tall tower in the center of Kathmandu. It was originally built in 1832 by the Prime Minister of the time, Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa was the Prime Minister of Nepal from 1806 to 1837. After his initial rise to become the prime minister of Nepal during the reign of Rana Bahadur, the successive minority of Girvan Yuddha Shah and Rajendra Bikram Shah, along with the support from Maharani Tripurasundari helped him to...

, under the command of Queen Lalit Tripura Sundari. It survived an earthquake
Earthquake
An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time...

 just two years after construction in 1834, but on January 15, 1934, another earthquake destroyed the tower and it was then rebuilt by the prime minister of the time, Juddha Shumsher, who renovated Dharahara to its previous form.

The tower has a spiral staircase inside containing 113 steps or none because there is an elevator. The 8th floor holds a circular balcony for observers that provides a panoramic view of the whole Kathmandu valley. The tower has a 5.2 metres (17.1 ft)) bronze mast on the roof. The tower has been open for the general public since 2005 for a small fee.

Narayanhiti Royal Palace


{{Main|Narayanhity Palace Museum}}

Narayanhiti, in Narayanhiti Palace, is made up of two words ‘narayan’ and ‘hiti’. 'Naryan' is a form of Hindu god "Lord Vishnu” whose temple is located opposite to the palace and ‘hiti’ means “water spout” which is also located to the east of main entrance in the precincts of the palace, and which has a legend associated with it. The entire enclosure surrounded by a compound wall, located in the north-central part of Kathmandu, is called the Narayanhiti palace. It was a new palace, in front of the old palace of 1915 vintage, built in 1970 in the form of a contemporary Pagoda
Pagoda
A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist,...

. It was built on the occasion of the marriage of King Birenda Bir Bikram Shah, the then heir apparent to the throne. The southern gate of the palace is located at the crossing of Prithvipath and Darbar Marg roads. The palace area covers (30 hectares (74.1 acre)) and is fully secured with gate controlled walls on all sides. The palace, as previously discused in Kathmandu's history, was the scene of a gruesome tragedy, termed “Nepal’s greatest tragedy”, on June 1, 2001 at the hall in the palace where the Crown Prince Dipendra in an inebriated state supposedly gunned down his immediate family consisting of his father King Birendra, his mother Queen Aishvarya, his brother and sister, and also five of his relatives, later killing himself. After the massacre of King Birendra and his family, the next king in line was his brother Gyanendra and his family who lived at the palace. The newly elected assembly on 28 May 2008, after a polling of 564 constituent assembly members, 560 voted to form a new government, with the monarchist Rastriya Prajatantra Party, which had four members in the assembly, registering a dissenting note. At that point, it was declared that Nepal had become a secular and inclusive democratic republic, with the government announcing a three-day public holiday from 28 to 30 May. The King was thereafter given 15 days to vacate the Narayanhiti Royal Palace, to reopen it as a public museum. until he was asked to move out of it.Now it has been turned into a Museum and is open for all to see.

Hotels



With the opening of the tourist industry after the change over in the political scenario of Nepal in 1950, the hotel industry drastically improved. Nowadays Kathmandu boasts several five star hotels like Hyatt Regency, Hotel Yak & Yeti, The Everest Hotel, Hotel Radisson, Soaltee Crown plaza, Hotel De L'Annapurna, The Malla Hotel, Shangri-La Hotel and The Shanker Hotel
The Shanker Hotel
The Shankar Hotel is a heritage hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal. It is located in Lazimpat, next to the historic Narayanhiti Royal Palace Museum. This was formerly a neo-classical Rana palace made by Agni Shumsher Jung Bahadur Rana, the then prime minister of Nepal...

 (Heritage hotel: formerly a Rana Palace). There are several four star hotels like Hotel Vaishali, Hotel Narayani, The Blue Star, Grand Hotel
Grand Hotel Kathmandu
Grand Hotel Kathmandu is a hotel in Kathmandu, Nepal, located on Red Cross Road in Tachachal, in the western central part of the city, near Kathmandu Engineering College. It is located in a distinct white and red building and is the tallest hotel in Nepal. The hotel has 91 rooms and 7 suites....

, Woodlands Dynasty Plaza and Royal Singh Hotel. The Garden Hotel, Hotel Ambassador and Aloha Inn are among the 3 star hotels in Kathmandu. Hotels like Hyatt Regency, De L'Annapurna, Hotel Yak & Yeti, Hotel Radisson, The Malla Hotel, Soaltee Crown Plaza are among the 5 star hotels providing casinos as well entertaining their customers while making huge profits on this account.

Arts



Kathmandu valley has been described as "an enormous treasure house of art and sculptures". These treasures are made of wood, stone, metal and terracotta, and found in profusion in various temples, shrines, stupas, gompas, chaityas and palaces. The art objects are also seen in street corners, lanes, private courtyards and in open ground; mostly in the form of icons of gods and goddesses. Kathmandu valley has been the repositary of all this art treasure for a long time but it got a world wide exposure only after the country opened its doors to the outside world in 1950.

The religious art of Nepal and Kathmandu in particular is iconic symbolism of the Mother Goddesses such as: the Bhavani, Durga, Gaja -Lakshmi, Hariti-Sitala, Mahsishamardini, Saptamatrika (seven mother goddesses) and Sri-Lakshmi. From the 3rd century BC, apart from the Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Buddhist monuments from the Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

n period (it is said that Ashoka visited Nepal in 250 BC) have also embellished Nepal in general and the valley in particular. These art and architectural edifices encompass three major periods of evolution namely, the Licchavi or classical period (500 to 900 AD) with motivation from the Gupta period in India; the post-classical period (1000 to 1400 AD) with strong influence of the Palla art form that extended to Tibet as well; and of the Malla period (1400 onwards) that exhibited explicitly tantric
Tantra
Tantra , anglicised tantricism or tantrism or tantram, is the name scholars give to an inter-religious spiritual movement that arose in medieval India, expressed in scriptures ....

 influences coupled with the demonic art from of Tibetan
Tibetan culture
Tibetan culture developed under the influence of a number of factors. Contact with neighboring countries and cultures- including Nepal, India and China - have influenced the development of Tibetan culture, but the Himalayan region's remoteness and inaccessibility have preserved distinctive local...

 Demonology
Demonology
Demonology is the systematic study of demons or beliefs about demons. It is the branch of theology relating to superhuman beings who are not gods. It deals both with benevolent beings that have no circle of worshippers or so limited a circle as to be below the rank of gods, and with malevolent...

.

A broad typology has been ascribed to the decorative designs and impressive carvings created by the creative and artistic people of Nepal, who have maintained a perfect blend of the two religious faiths of Hinduism and Buddhism. This typology based on the type of material used in the art forms is five in number. These are: the Stone Art, the Metal Art; the Wood Art; the Terracotta Art; and the Painting. These are briefly elaborated.

Stone art
In the earliest times, at the dawn of civilization, stone heaps (made of boulders, pebbles etc.) were worshipped in Nepal, which is seen at several locations. The first real stone carvings started under the influence of the Mathura Art of India; some of thse carvings are seen in the Pashupathinath temple complex. Later in mid 5th century AD Nepal Art evolved under the Ikshvaku, Gupta, Pala and Deccan Schools of Art forms. But the Nepalese sculptors improved on these forms which provide a typical style of Nepal.

Metal art

Metal images made of ashtadhatu (amalgam of eight metals) are common in Nepal and Indi, under both Hindu and Buddhist religious traditions. During the Licchavi period bronze in solid form was widely used for casting metallic sculptures; mostly between the seventh and eight centuries. But in the Medieval period Pala influence evolved into a distinct form. These can be seen in the form of large royal figures fixed on top of pillars in Durbar Squares of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. Smaller and hollow cast bronze statues were made as icons for worship. In Tiebtan metal work, a hole was left in the bronze statues for filling with mantras written on paper or filling with offering of grains, precious stones or miniature icons. But the hole was sealed with copper in the presence of a Lama before formal consecration of the image. Here again there are two forms- one of Gods and Goddesses of Mahayana
Mahayana
Mahāyāna is one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice...

 school in Pala art form and the other iconography inspiration of the Shamanic practice of Tibetan Demonology.

Wood art
It is the traditional architecture in the Kathmandu valley in temples, palaces, monasteries and houses a perfected Neawri art form generally carved very artistically out of Sal (Shorea), teak
Teak
Teak is the common name for the tropical hardwood tree species Tectona grandis and its wood products. Tectona grandis is native to south and southeast Asia, mainly India, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Burma, but is naturalized and cultivated in many countries, including those in Africa and the...

 (agarth), deodar (cedrus) and Sisso (dalbegia). Malla Kings patronized this art form from 12th century onwards. Its life span is affected by mild climate, linches, mosses, insects, borers, dry rots and biochemical defects. In the 14th century earthquake many of the wooden monuments were destroyed.

Terra cotta
Tera cotta art in Nepal is traced to the 300 BC. It was perfected between 16th and 18th centuries Archeological excavations have unearthed hand-pressed moulds at Dhum Varahi at the fringes of Kathmandu, which are preserved in the museums in Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur. The male and female figures decorated in bands around temples, called Nagabands were made of terra cotta. Other fine examples examples of terra cotta art mentioned are Mahabuddha and Mayadevi temples in Patan and gateway of the Teleju temple in Hanumandhoka complex. Clay is the basic ingredient of this art form .

Paintings
Painings are categorized under two broad head namely the religious and the non-religious. The religious category is further subdivided into three forms of painted manuscripts, Thankhas or Paubhas and Pattas (banners) or metal strips.

Museums



Kathmandu is home to a number of museums and art galleries, including the National Museum of Nepal
National Museum of Nepal
The National Museum of Nepal was established in 1928 as an arsenal museum in the historic building which was constructed in early 19th century by General Bhimsen Thapa. The initial name of this museum was Chhauni Silkhana which literally means "the stone house of arms and ammunition".It was opened...

 and the Natural History Museum of Nepal.
Nepals’s art and architecture is a dazzling display from medieval to the present, which is a heady amalgamation of two of the ancient and greatest religions of the world – Hinduism and Buddhhism. These are amply reflected not only in the many temples, shrines, stupas, monasteries and palaces in the seven well defined Monument Zones of the Kathmandu valley recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage site but also in its well planned and well exhibited displays in museums and art galleries spread all over the Metropolitan area and also in its sister cities of Patan and Bhaktapur. The museums display unique artifacts and paintings from 5th century AD onwards to date, including archeological exportations.

The Museums and Art galleries are: the National Museum; the Natural History Museum; Hanumandhoka Palace Complex; the Tribhuvan Museum; the Mahendra Museum; the Birendra Museum; National Library: the Birendra Museum; the Kaiser Library; the Asa Archives; the Patan Museum; the National Art Gallery; the Pujarimath Museum; the Bronze and Brass Museum; the NAFA Gallery; the Srijana Contemporary Art Gallery; the J Art Gallery; the NEF-ART (Nepal Fine Art) Gallery; the Moti Azima Gallery; and the Nepal Art Council Gallery. Some of the important museums and galleries are elaborated.

The National Museum is located in the western part of Kathmandu near the Swoyambhunath stupa
in the historical building which was constructed in early 19th century by General Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa
Bhimsen Thapa was the Prime Minister of Nepal from 1806 to 1837. After his initial rise to become the prime minister of Nepal during the reign of Rana Bahadur, the successive minority of Girvan Yuddha Shah and Rajendra Bikram Shah, along with the support from Maharani Tripurasundari helped him to...

. It is the most important museum in the country, housing an extensive collection of weapons, art and antiquities of historic and cultural importance. The museum was established in 1928 as a collection house of war trophies and weapons, and the initial name of this museum was Chhauni Silkhana, which literally means "the stone house of arms and ammunition". Given its focus, the museum contains an extensive quantity of weapons, including locally made firearms used in various wars and leather
Leather
Leather is a durable and flexible material created via the tanning of putrescible animal rawhide and skin, primarily cattlehide. It can be produced through different manufacturing processes, ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry.-Forms:...

 cannon
Cannon
A cannon is any piece of artillery that uses gunpowder or other usually explosive-based propellents to launch a projectile. Cannon vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees,...

s from the 18th–19th century and medieval and modern works in wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

, bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

, stone
Rock (geology)
In geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of minerals and/or mineraloids.The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made of rock. In general rocks are of three types, namely, igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic...

, and painting
Painting
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

s.

The Natural History Museum is located in the southern foothills of Swoyambhunath hill and has a sizeable collection of different species of animals, butterflies and plants. The museum is noted in particular for its serial display of diverse life species from prehistoric shells to the stuffed animals, birds, crocodile
Crocodile
A crocodile is any species belonging to the family Crocodylidae . The term can also be used more loosely to include all extant members of the order Crocodilia: i.e...

s and many others.

The Tribhuvan Museum contains artifacts related to the King Tribhuvan (1906–1955). It has a variety of pieces including his personal belongings, letters and papers and memorabilia related to events he was involved in and a rare collection of photos and paintings of Royal family members. The Mahendra Museum is also dedicated to a king, Mahendra
Mahendra of Nepal
Possibly no heir for the time period of 1911 through 1920. Previous Crown Prince: Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah, from 1906 to 1911....

 (1920–1972 ). Like the Tribhuvan Museum, it includes his personal belongings such as decorations, stamps
Postage stamp
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are made from special paper, with a national designation and denomination on the face, and a gum adhesive on the reverse side...

 and coin
Coin
A coin is a piece of hard material that is standardized in weight, is produced in large quantities in order to facilitate trade, and primarily can be used as a legal tender token for commerce in the designated country, region, or territory....

s and personal notes and manuscripts, but it also has structural reconstructions of his cabinet room and office chamber.

The Hanumandhoka Palace, a lavish medieval palace complex in the Durbar, contains three separate museums of historic importance, including the Birendra museum containing items related to the current monarch, King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah, including royal dress worn during various state and historic occasions, medals and honorary titles received from other head of states and many more.

Art galleries


{{double image|right|Religious art shop, religious art, Boudha Stupa, Kathmandu, Nepal.jpg|150|Wheel of life Kopan Monastery.jpg|150|Left:Buddhist art shop in Kathmandu near the stupa. Right: Buddhist artwork, a thangka
Thangka
A "Thangka," also known as "Tangka", "Thanka" or "Tanka" is a Tibetan silk painting with embroidery, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, famous scene, or mandala of some sort. The thankga is not a flat creation like an oil painting or acrylic painting...

 at Kopan Monastery
Kopan Monastery
Kopan Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery near Boudhanath, on the outskirts of Kathmandu, Nepal. It belongs to the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition , an international network of Gelugpa dharma centers, and once served as its headquarters.The monastery was established...

}}
Kathmandu is a center for art in Nepal, displaying the work of contemporary artists in the country and also collections of historical artists. Patan is particular is an ancient city noted for its fine arts and crafts. Art in Kathmandu is vibrant, demonstrating a fusion of traditionalism and modern art, derived from a great number of national, Asian and global influences. Nepalese art though is commonly divided into two areas, the idealistic traditional painting known as 'Paubhas' in Nepal and perhaps more commonly known as Thangka
Thangka
A "Thangka," also known as "Tangka", "Thanka" or "Tanka" is a Tibetan silk painting with embroidery, usually depicting a Buddhist deity, famous scene, or mandala of some sort. The thankga is not a flat creation like an oil painting or acrylic painting...

s in Tibetan, which are usually highly colorful and bold and closely linked to the country's religious history and then the contemporary western style painting, including nature based compositions or abstract artwork based on Tantric elements and social themes of which painters in Nepal are well noted for. Internationally, the British based charity, the Kathmandu Contemporary Art Centre is involved with protecting arts in Kathmandu.

Kathmandu contains many notable art galleries. The NAFA Gallery, operated by the Arts and crafts Department of the Royal Nepal Academy is housed in Sita Bhavan, a neo- classical old Rana palace, divided into two galleries, the permanent Birendra Art Gallery which displays works of successful contemporary painters and sculptors. and a temporary gallery featuring artwork of up and coming Nepalese artists of the country.

The Srijana Contemporary Art Gallery, located inside the Bhrikutimandap Exhibition grounds, hosts the work of contemporary painters and sculptors, and regularly organizes exhibitions, both solo and group shows. It also runs morning and evening classes in the various schools of art. Also of note is the Moti Azima Gallery, located in a three storied building in Bhimsenthan which contains an impressive collection of traditional utensils and handmade doll
Doll
A doll is a model of a human being, often used as a toy for children. Dolls have traditionally been used in magic and religious rituals throughout the world, and traditional dolls made of materials like clay and wood are found in the Americas, Asia, Africa and Europe. The earliest documented dolls...

s and items typical of a medieval Newar
Newar
The Newa , Newār or Newāl) are the indigenous people and the creators of the historical civilization of Nepal's Kathmandu Valley. The valley and surrounding territory have been known from ancient times as Nepal Mandala, its limits ever changing through history.Newas have lived in the Kathmandu...

 house, giving an important insight into Nepalese history. The J Art Gallery is also located in Kathmandu, near the Royal Palace in Durbarmarg, Kathmandu and displays the artwork of eminent, established Nepalese painters and the Nepal Art Council Gallery, which is located in the Babar Mahal, on the way to Tribhuvan International Airport
Tribhuvan International Airport
Tribhuvan International Airport is an international airport situated in Kathmandu, Nepal.Tribhuvan is the sole international airport in Nepal. There are two terminals, one domestic and one international...

 which contains artwork of both national and international artists and contains extensive halls regularly used for art exhibitions.

Literature


The National Library of Nepal, is located in Patan, the largest in country with in excess of more than 70,000 books, mostly in English, but also with many in Nepali
Nepali language
Nepali or Nepalese is a language in the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.It is the official language and de facto lingua franca of Nepal and is also spoken in Bhutan, parts of India and parts of Myanmar...

, Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

, Hindi
Hindi
Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

 and Newari. The library is in possession of rare scholarly books in Sanskrit and English dating from the 17th century AD. Kathmandu contains the Kaiser Library, located in the Kaiser Mahal on the ground floor of Ministry of Education building. The collection which totals around 45,000 books, is derived from a personal collection of the Field Marshal Kaiser Shumsher Rana. It covers a wide range of subjects including history, law, art, religion, philosophy etc. and a Sanskrit manual of 'Tantra
Tantra
Tantra , anglicised tantricism or tantrism or tantram, is the name scholars give to an inter-religious spiritual movement that arose in medieval India, expressed in scriptures ....

', believed to be over 1000 years old.
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The Asa Archives are also of major note and specialise in medieval history and religious traditions of the Kathmandu Valley. The archives are located in Kulumbbhula, and have a valuable collection of some 6,000 loose-leaf handwritten books and 1000 palm- leaf manuscripts, mostly in Sanskrit or Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa is one of the major languages of Nepal, and is also spoken in India, particularly in Sikkim where it is one of the 11 official languages. Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of about 3% of the people in Nepal . It is spoken mainly by the Newars, who chiefly inhabit the towns of the...

 and a manuscript dated to 1464.

Theatre and cinema



Kathmandu is home to the Nepalese theatre. The city contains several theatres of note including the National Dance Theatre in Kanti Path, the Ganga Theatre, the The Himalayan Theatre and the Aarohan Theatre Group, founded in 1982 and the M. Art Theatre is based in the city. The Gurukul: School of Theatre organizes the Kathmandu International Theatre Festival, attracting artists from all over the world. A mini theatre is also located at the Hanumandhoka Durbar Square, established by the Durbar Conservation and Promotion Committee.

Kathmandu is also the centre of the Nepalese film industry
Cinema of Nepal
Nepal does not have a very long film history but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country. Most Nepali films use Bollywood-style songs and narrative and are shot on 16-millimeter film...

 and for production. Kathmandu has a number of cinemas showing Nepali, Indian and western films including the Biswajyoti Cinema Hall, Ranjana Cinema Hall, Kumari Cinema Hall, Jai Nepal Cinema Hall, Tara Cinema Hall, Gopi Krishna Cinema Hall and the Kalanki Cinema Hall.

Music



Kathmandu is the centre of music and dance in Nepal and is integral to understanding the city.Various musical performances are organized in the cultural venues (Visit: Atul Gautam Memorail Society, Kirateshwor, Kapan Music Center) of the city throughout the year. The city contains prestigious musical training schools such as the Atul Gautam Memorail Society, Kirateshwor, Kapan Music Center,Asian Himalayan Music School.Many Musical bands like Sursudha, Sukarma, Sampada-The heritage band, Trikaal etc. are famous in Nepal. There are various music venues and musical performances may include the Bhanchha Ghar in Kamaladi, Bhojan Griha in Dillibazar and the Nepali Chulo in Durbar Marg. Given the importance of Kathmandu to Tibetan Buddhists, the city also attracts monks from Tibet and across the Himalayan region who in coordination with their rituals in visiting sites such as the Boudhanath, will perform music there.

Kathmandu is noted internationally for its jazz
Jazz
Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

 festival, popularly known as Jazzmandu
Jazzmandu
' is an annual Jazz Festival, organised by young Jazz enthusiasts from Kathmandu, Nepal. The title is a portmanteau of Jazz and Kathmandu...

. It is the only jazz festival in the entire Himalayan region and was established in March 2002. The festival attracts musicians from countries worldwide such as Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Benin
Benin
Benin , officially the Republic of Benin, is a country in West Africa. It borders Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east and Burkina Faso and Niger to the north. Its small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin is where a majority of the population is located...

, and India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

.

The city has been referenced in numerous songs, including works by Cat Stevens
Cat Stevens
Yusuf Islam , commonly known by his former stage name Cat Stevens, is an English singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, educator, philanthropist, and prominent convert to Islam....

 "Katmandu", Mona Bone Jakon
Mona Bone Jakon
Mona Bone Jakon is the third album released by singer-songwriter Cat Stevens. The album was released In July, 1970 on the Island Records label in the United Kingdom, and A&M record label in the United States and Canada...

 (1970)), Bob Seger
Bob Seger
Robert Clark "Bob" Seger is an American rock and roll singer-songwriter, guitarist and pianist.As a locally successful Detroit-area artist, he performed and recorded as Bob Seger and the Last Heard and Bob Seger System throughout the 1960s...

 ("Katmandu", Beautiful Loser
Beautiful Loser
Beautiful Loser is the eighth album by American rock singer/songwriter Bob Seger, released in 1975 .The album relied mostly on session musicians from the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section, but the Silver Bullet Band members were used separately on some songs and together on "Nutbush City Limits," a...

 (1975)), Rush
Rush (band)
Rush is a Canadian rock band formed in August 1968, in the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario. The band is composed of bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart...

 ("A Passage to Bangkok
A Passage to Bangkok
"A Passage to Bangkok" is the second song on Rush's album, 2112. Released in 1976, the song follows the album's title song 2112. The song opens with a driving guitar riff...

" ("Pulling into Kathmandu"), 2112
2112 (album)
2112 is the fourth studio album by Canadian rock band Rush, released in 1976.The album features an eponymous seven-part suite written by Geddy Lee and Alex Lifeson, with lyrics written by Neil Peart telling a dystopian story set in the year 2112. The album is sometimes described as a concept album...

, 1976), Krematorij
Krematorij
Krematorij is a Russian rock group. The group’s front man is Armen Grigoryan .-History:...

 ("Kathmandu", Three Springs (2000)), Fito Páez
Fito Páez
Rodolfo "Fito" Páez Ávalos is an Argentine popular rock and roll pianist, lyricist, Spanish language singer and film director.-Early career:...

 ("Tráfico por Katmandú" – "Traffic through Kathmandu"); Will Ackerman ("A Happy Home in Kathmandu", The Opening of Doors (1993)); Tantra ("The Hills of Katmandu", early 1980s); Ok Go
OK Go
OK Go is a rock band originally from Chicago, Illinois, USA, now residing in Los Angeles, California, USA. The band is composed of Damian Kulash , Tim Nordwind , Dan Konopka and Andy Ross , who joined them in 2005, replacing Andy Duncan...

 "Back From Kathmandu" (Of the Blue Colour of the Sky (2010)); and Godiego
Godiego
is a popular band from Japan, consisting of the Mickie Yoshino, Yukihide Takekawa, Takami Asano, Steve Fox, and Tommy Snyder...

 ("Coming Together in Kathmandu", 1980).
On June 9, 2008, US Cultural Envoy Gene Aitken inaugurated the Kathmandu Jazz Conservatory
Kathmandu Jazz Conservatory
The Kathmandu Jazz Conservatory is a new center for musical studies which opened in the fall of 2007 in the sub-metropolitan city of Lalitpur, just outside Kathmandu, Nepal....

 (KJC) in nearby Lalitpur. A 10-day workshop for over 50 music teachers and Nepali jazz educators was initially held. The mandate of the Conservatory is to create a musical environment where musicians can become knowledgeable in various musical subjects, be exposed to different music genre
Music genre
A music genre is a categorical and typological construct that identifies musical sounds as belonging to a particular category and type of music that can be distinguished from other types of music...

s, and most importantly, where all musicians, from beginners to advanced, can receive a proper music education
Music education
Music education is a field of study associated with the teaching and learning of music. It touches on all domains of learning, including the psychomotor domain , the cognitive domain , and, in particular and significant ways,the affective domain, including music appreciation and sensitivity...

. Investment in the school has been substantial. Facilities include a music hall which can seat 200 people, a music library
Music library
A music library contains music-related materials for patron use. Collections may also include non-print materials, such as digitized music scores or audio recordings. Use of such materials may be limited to specific patron groups, especially in private academic institutions...

, a listening lab, five practice rooms, two large rooms for ensemble rehearsal and group classes, separate rooms for both drum kit
Drum kit
A drum kit is a collection of drums, cymbals and often other percussion instruments, such as cowbells, wood blocks, triangles, chimes, or tambourines, arranged for convenient playing by a single person ....

 and percussion instruments, a piano practice room and a recording studio
Recording studio
A recording studio is a facility for sound recording and mixing. Ideally both the recording and monitoring spaces are specially designed by an acoustician to achieve optimum acoustic properties...

.

Cuisine


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The cultural diversity of Nepal has facilitated the growth of a number of cuisines based on the ethnic groups and the geographical features of the nation. Popularly served though is Dal bhat, which is a dish of lentils and rice, generally served with vegetable curries and forms a staple part of the diet. Given that Kathmandu only had one restaurant in 1955, a large number of restaurants in Kathmandu have since grown up catering in Nepalese cuisine
Nepalese cuisine
Nepalese cuisine refers to the cuisines of Nepal. The cultural and geographic diversity of Nepal provide ample space for a variety of cuisines based on ethnicity, soil and climate. Nevertheless dal-bhat-tarkari is eaten throughout the country. Dal is a soup made of lentils and spices...

, Tibetan cuisine and Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine consists of thousands of regional cuisines which date back thousands of years. The dishes of India are characterised by the extensive use of various Indian spices, herbs, vegetables and fruit. Indian cuisine is also known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society...

 in particular and many others to accommodate both for Nepalese people and for tourists from all around the world. The growth of tourism in Kathmandu has led to culinary creativity and the development of hybrid foods to accommodate for tourists such as American chop suey
Chop suey
Chop suey is a Chinese dish consisting of meat and eggs, cooked quickly with vegetables such as bean sprouts, cabbage, and celery and bound in a starch-thickened sauce...

, which is a sweet and sour sauce with crispy noodles, with a fried egg
Fried egg
A fried egg is a food made from an egg fried whole with minimal accompaniment. They are traditionally eaten for breakfast in western countries, but may be eaten at other times of the day.-China:...

 commonly added on top and other westernized adaptions of traditional cuisine.
Kathmandu is particularly famous for "Mo: mo:". Mo: mo: or म:म: is a type of dumpling that origined from Tibet.Many street vendors sell mo: mo:. It is one of the most popular fast food in Kathmandu

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The national drink of Nepal is tea, widely served in Kathmandu, but is served extremely weak by western standards. Chiya, however, is richer and contains tea leaves boiled with milk, sugar and spices and the drink lassi
Lassi
Lassi is a popular and traditional yogurt-based drink of the Indian Subcontinent. It is made by blending yogurt with water and Indian spices...

s, made of curd
Curd
Curds are a dairy product obtained by curdling milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then draining off the liquid portion. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins to tangle into solid masses, or curds. The remaining liquid, which contains only...

s and sugar
Sugar
Sugar is a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose, characterized by a sweet flavor.Sucrose in its refined form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet...

 is also served in cafes and restaurants. Nepalese beer is available in such venues and in markets, including the national Gorkha beer brand. The popular Himalayan drinks of Chhaang
Chhaang
Chhaang or chang is a Tibetan/Sherpa/Limbu/Newari alcoholic beverage also popular in parts of eastern Himalayas.-Geographical prevalence:...

 and Tongba
Tongba
Tongba is a millet-based alcoholic beverage found in the far eastern mountainous region of Nepal and the neighbouring Darjeeling and Sikkim districts of India. It is the traditional and indigenous drink of the Limbu people of eastern Nepal....

, typically made from fermented millet or barley and also sold, as are the harder spirit drinks of arak, made from fermented potatoes and rice. and rakshi, a modern type of Newari wine. Shops and bars in Kathmandu do, however, widely sell western and Indian beers, although shops are forbidden to sell alcohol on the first two days and last two days of the Newari month.

Fresh vegetables and fruit are widely sold in Kathmandu, particularly around the Durbar. The assortment of produce is diverse and some sellers may specialise in the sale of different forms of specific vegetables, such as beans for instance.Western convenience foods are sold in abundance in most of the shops, including Carlsberg beer, Coca Cola and various potato snacks and candy.

Festivals



Most of the fairs and festivals that are observed in Kathmandu have their origin to the Malla period. This was further given an urban cultural touch, not limiting it to the Newari festivities, subsequent to the Gorkha conquest in 1768–69. The culture of Parbatiyas and new migrant communities were also harmoniously amalgamated. The festivities usch as the Ghode (horse) jatra, Indra-Jatra, Dasai Durga Puja
Durga Puja
Durga puja ; দুর্গা পূজা,ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା,‘Worship of Durga’), also referred to as Durgotsava ; , is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga. It refers to all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and...

 festivals, Shivratri and many more are observed by all Hindu and Buddhist communities of Kathmandu with great devotional fervour and enthusiasm. Social regulation in the codes enacted incorporated the Hindu religious traditions and ethics. These were followed by the Shah Kings as had been followed by previous kings, as devout Hindus and protectors of Buddhist religion. Christian
Christian
A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded in the Canonical gospels and the letters of the New Testament...

 proselytizing was not allowed by the Shahs though Christian missionaries did try to spread the message of Christ
Christ
Christ is the English term for the Greek meaning "the anointed one". It is a translation of the Hebrew , usually transliterated into English as Messiah or Mashiach...

 in the Himalayan kingdom.
{{double image|left|Dewali festival garlands.jpg|180|Dewali festival rangoli.jpg|180|Tihar Festival.}}
Cultural continuity has been maintained for centuries – from ancient to modern period – in the exclusive worship of goddesses and deities such as the Ajima
Ajima
Ajima is a group of goddess of Newar pantheon. The Goddess represents the female ancestors of a Newar. These goddess are respected by all sects and castes of Newars irrespective of religion.-Etymology:...

, Taleju (or Tulja Bhavani), Degutaleju, Kumari (the living goddess) and so forth in Kathmandu and the rest of the country.

The artistic edifices have now become places of worship in every day life of the people and thus a roaster is maintained to observe the annual festivals, which is intimately linked with the daily life of the people. It is said that there are 133 festivals held in year.

Some of the traditional festivals observed in Kathmandu now are: Bada Dashain, Tihar,Chath Maghe Sankranti : (January), Naga Panchami, Janai Poornima, Pancha Dan Teej/Rishi Panchani, Indrajatra, Ghanta Karna, Buddha Jayanti, Sri Panchami, Maha Shivaratri, Phagu Poornima, Ghodejatra, Chaite Dashain, Nava Varsha, Seto Machchhendranath and Matatirtha Aunsi, apart from those mentioned earlier.

Religion


The main religions in Kathmandu as in the rest of Nepal are Hinduism
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

 and Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

, although there are minorities of Kirats, Sikhs, Jains, Muslims, Baha'ais and Christians.

Hinduism


{{Main|Hinduism in Nepal}}

Many Hindu temples in Kathmandu and the surrounding district are centuries old with some temples of national importance to Hindus. As discussed previously, the Pashupatinath Temple
Pashupatinath temple
Pashupatinath Temple is one of the most significant Hindu temples of Lord Shiva in the world, located on the banks of the Bagmati River in the eastern part of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal. The temple served as the seat of the national deity, Lord Pashupatinath, Nepal is a secular country...

, Changu Narayan
Changu Narayan
Changu Narayan is the name of the deity enshrined in the Changu Narayan Temple, located near the Changunarayan village in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The temple is one of the oldest Hindu temples of the valley, and is believed to have been constructed in the 4th century. Changu Narayan is the name...

 temple (the oldest) and the Kasthamandap
Kasthamandap
Kasthamandap is a three storied temple situated in Maru tole of Kathmandu. It is one of the largest and most noted pagodas of Nepal. The pagoda enshrines a statue of Gorakhnath.This temple is built in pagoda style design...

 are of particular importance. Other notable Hindu temples in Kathmandu and the surrounding valley include Bajrayogini Temple
Bajrayogini Temple
Bajrayogini Temple is a famous Tantrik temple of Kathmandu valley. It is also well known as Bodhisattva's temple....

, Dakshinkali Temple
Dakshinkali Temple
Dakshinkali Temple or Dakshin Kali Temple, located 22 km outside Kathmandu, and about 1 km outside the village of Pharping, is one of the main temples of Nepal dedicated to the goddess Kali...

, Guhyeshwari Temple
Guhyeshwari Temple
Guheswari Temple Kathmandu, NepalGuheswari temple, also spelled Guhyeshwari or Guhjeshwari temple is one of the revered holy temple in Kathmandu, Nepal. This temple is dedicated to Goddess Parvati. It is believed that Lord Shiva wandered the world carrying the body of Sati after she burned herself...

 and the Sobha Baghwati
Sobha Baghwati
Sobha Baghwati is a holy shrine devoted to the goddess Bhagawati on the bank of Bisnumati river in Kathmandu, Nepal. It is considered to be one of the most revered holy places in Kathmandu. Inside the temple, there is a statue of goddess herself....

 shrine.

The Bagmati
Bagmati
The Bagmati River is a river of Nepal and India. It flows through the Kathmandu valley and is the river separating Kathmandu from Lalitpur. It is considered a holy river both by Hindus and Buddhists...

 river which flows through Kathmandu is considered a holy river both by Hindus and Buddhists, and many Hindu temples are located on the banks of this river. The importance of the Bagmati also lies in the fact that Hindus are cremated on the banks of this holy river, and Kirants are buried in the hills by its side. According to the Nepalese Hindu tradition, the dead body must be dipped three times into the Bagmati river before cremation. The chief mourner (usually the first son) who lights the funeral pyre must take a holy river-water bath immediately after cremation. Many relatives who join the funeral procession also take bath in the Bagmati River or sprinkle the holy water on their bodies at the end of cremation as the Bagmati River is believed to purify the people spiritually.

Buddhism


{{Main|Buddhism in Nepal}}
{{double image|right|Kopan Monastery.jpg|125|AmitabhMonastery.jpg|220|Left:Kopan Monastery
Kopan Monastery
Kopan Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery near Boudhanath, on the outskirts of Kathmandu, Nepal. It belongs to the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition , an international network of Gelugpa dharma centers, and once served as its headquarters.The monastery was established...

. Right:Amitabh Monastery
Amitabh Monastery
Amitabh Monastery is a monastery in Nepal....

}}
Kathmandu and its historic stupas have been of major importance to Newar Buddhism
Newar Buddhism
Newar Buddhism is the form of Mahayana-Vajrayana Buddhism practiced by the Newar ethnic community of the Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. It has developed unique socio-religious elements, which include a non-monastic Buddhist society based on a caste system and patrilinial descent...

 and Tibetan Buddhist for centuries and attracts thousands of pilgrims annually. Kathmandu is the only place where Buddhism is still practiced in Sanskrit. Princess Bhrikuti
Bhrikuti
The Nepali Princess Bhrikuti Devi, known to Tibetans as Bal-mo-bza' Khri-btsun, Bhelsa Tritsun or, simply, Khri bTsun , is traditionally considered to have been the first wife of the earliest emperor of Tibet, Songtsän Gampo , and an incarnation of Tara...

 and Araniko
Araniko
Araniko or Anige was one of the key figures in the arts of Nepal, Tibet, and Yuan China, and the artistic exchanges in these areas. He was born in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, during the reign of Jaya Bhim Dev Malla...

 of Kathmandu valley had played a significant role in spread of Buddhism in Tibet. Besides, the clan of Shakyamuni Buddha are believed to have settled in Kathmandu valley. So, the valley imposes a large role for Buddhist pilgrims esp of the Bajrayana sect. Since the 1960s, the permanent Tibetan Buddhist population of Kathmandu has risen significantly so that there are now over 50 Buddhist monasteries in the area. Of major note are the International Buddhist Academy, Kopan Monastery
Kopan Monastery
Kopan Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery near Boudhanath, on the outskirts of Kathmandu, Nepal. It belongs to the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition , an international network of Gelugpa dharma centers, and once served as its headquarters.The monastery was established...

, Amitabh Monastery
Amitabh Monastery
Amitabh Monastery is a monastery in Nepal....

 and Tharlam Monastery
Tharlam Monastery
Tharlam Monastery is a Tibetan Buddhist monastery of the Sakya sect in Kathmandu, Nepal.The Tharlam Monastery was founded by a Tibetan, His Eminence Dezhung Rinpoche III, Kunga Tenpay Nyima, in 1981.-External links:*[ Official site]...

.

The International Buddhist Academy (IBA) provides an academy for non-monastic Buddhist study and teaches the key Classic Indian Buddhist treatises studied by all Mahayana and Tibetan traditions. Kopan Monastery is located near the Boudhanath on the outskirts and belongs to the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition
Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition
The Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition is a network of Buddhist centers focusing on the Gelugpa tradition of Tibet. Founded in 1975 by Lama Thubten Yeshe and Lama Thubten Zopa Rinpoche, who began teaching Buddhism to Western students in Nepal, the FPMT has grown to encompass...

 (FPMT), an international network of Gelugpa dharma centers. Kopan has become especially noted for teaching Buddhism to visiting Western foreigners. The first of what would become annual month-long (November–December) meditation courses was held in 1971 and was initially known as the Mount Everest Centre. These courses generally combine traditional Lam Rim teachings with informal discussion, several periods of guided meditation, and a vegetarian diet. Today the monastery is home to about 360 monks.

Kirant Mundhum



Kirant Mundhum is one of the indigenous animistic practices of Nepal. It is practiced by Kirat people. Some animistic aspects of Kirant beliefs, such as ancestor worship (worship of Ajima) is also found in Newars of Kirant origin. Ancient religious sites believed to be worshipped by ancient Kirats, such as Pashupatinath, Wanga Akash Bhairabh (Yalambar), Ajima are now worshipped by people of all Dharmic religions in Kathmandu. Kirats who have migrated from other parts of Nepal to Kathmandu practice Mundhum in various parts of city.

Sikhism


Sikhism is practiced primarily in Gurudwara at Kupundole. An earlier temple of Sikhism is also present in Kathmandu which went defunct.

Jainism


Jainism is practiced by the small Jain community of Kathmandu. A Jain temple is present in Gyaneshwar, where Jains practice their faith.

Bahai


According to the records of the Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of Nepal, there are approximately 300 Baha'is in Kathmandu valley. They have a National Office located in Shantinagar, Baneshwor. The Baha'is also have classes for children at the National Centre and other localities in Kathmandu.

Islam


{{Main|Islam in Nepal}}

Islam is practised in Kathmandu but Muslims are a minority, accounting for about 4.2% of the population of Nepal.

Christianity


{{Main|Christianity in Nepal}}
Even though Nepal's constitution provides freedom of religion, proselytization is forbidden. In this regard, the Christian population is a small minority (0.45% of the population) but is growing. Christian churches have been established only since 1950, after multiparty democracy was instituted, even though efforts were made in the 19th century to bring Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 to Nepal. The New Testament
New Testament
The New Testament is the second major division of the Christian biblical canon, the first such division being the much longer Old Testament....

 was translated into Nepali language as far back as 1821 and the complete Bible
Bible
The Bible refers to any one of the collections of the primary religious texts of Judaism and Christianity. There is no common version of the Bible, as the individual books , their contents and their order vary among denominations...

 in 1914. It is said that in Kathmandu alone there are 170 Christian churches. Christian missionary hospitals, welfare organizations, and schools are also operating. Nepali citizens who served as soldiers in Indian and British armies, who had converted to Christianity while in service, on return to Nepal continue to practice their religion. They have contributed richly to the spread of Christianity and the building of churches in Nepal and in Kathmandu, in particular. Their numbers is also steadily growing, as the latest population estimates indicate their numbers at 2% of the total population.

Education



The oldest school of Nepal, Durbar School and the oldest college, Tri Chandra College, are located in Kathmandu city. The largest (according to number of students and colleges), oldest and most distinguished university in Nepal is located in the Kathmandu Valley, near Kathmandu city, in Kathmandu district, in Kirtipur
Kirtipur
Kirtipur is an ancient city in Nepal. It is located in Kathmandu District of Bagmati Zone 5 km south-west of the Kathmandu. It is one of the five municipalities of the Kathmandu Valley.-Etymology:...

 called Tribhuvan University
Tribhuvan University
Tribhuvan University [त्रिभुवन विश्वविध्यालय] is a public university located in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal...

. The second largest university, Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University is the third oldest university in Nepal located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35Km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership"...

 (KU), is located in Dhulikhel, Kavre on the out-skirts of Kathmandu. It is the second oldest university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

 in Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

, established in November 1991,

Medical colleges


Tribhuwan University Institute of Medicine, the first medical college of Nepal, is located in Kathmandu. Besides this, a number of medical colleges including Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal Medical College, KIST Medical College, National Academy of Medical Sciences (NAMS), Patan Institute of Health Sciences (PIHS), Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences (KUSMS) are also located in or around Kathmandu.

Sports



Football and Cricket are the most popular sports among the younger generation in Nepal and there are several stadiums in the city. The sport is governed by the All Nepal Football Association
All Nepal Football Association
The All Nepal Football Association is the governing body of football in Nepal. It is responsible for the national team as well as club competitions....

 (ANFA) from its headquarters in Kathmandu. The only international football stadium in the city is the Dasarath Rangasala Stadium
Dasarath Rangasala Stadium
Dasarath Rangasala Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Tripureshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. It is the Biggest stadium in Nepal. It is currently used mostly for football matches and cultural and entertainment programs. The stadium holds 25,000 spectators and seats 5,000 was built in 1956. Most of...

, a multi-purpose stadium
Multi-purpose stadium
Multi-purpose stadiums are a type of stadium designed in such a way as to be easily used by multiple sports. While any stadium could potentially host more than one sport, this concept usually refers to a specific design philosophy that stresses multi-functionality over specificity...

 used mostly for football matches and cultural and entertainment programs in the neighborhood of Tripureshwor. It is the largest stadium in Nepal with a capacity of 25,000 and was built in 1956. Martyr's Memorial League is also held in this ground every year. The stadium was renovated with the help of China before the 8th South Asian Games were held in Kathmandu and had floodlights
Floodlights (sport)
Floodlights are broad-beamed, high-intensity artificial lights often used to illuminate outdoor playing fields while an outdoor sports event is being held during low-light conditions....

 installed so that it is able to organise matches and events in the evenings. Kathmandu is home to the oldest football clubs of Nepal such as RCT
Ranipokhari Corner Team
Ranipokhari Corner Team is a Nepalese football club from Ranipokhari, which plays in the town of Katmandu. They play in the Nepalese first division, the Nepal A- Division League...

, Sankata
Sankata Boys Sports Club
Sankata Boys Sports Club is a Nepali football club, which plays in the town of Katmandu...

, NRT
New Road Team
New Road Team is a Nepalese sports club, most widely known for its soccer achievements. The club is located in Kathmandu. They play in the Nepalese first division, the Nepal A- Division League soccer. Besides soccer, the club is involved in cricket, billiard etc.-History:N.R.T. was established in...

. Besides these, most of other prominent football clubs such as MMC
Manang Marsyangdi Club
Manang Marshyangdi Club is a Nepali professional football club based in Swayambhu, Kathmandu, known as MMC is one of the most popular sports club in Nepal, which plays in the town of Katmandu. They play in the Nepalese first division, the Nepal A- Division League.The club is one of the most...

, Machhindra FC, Tribhuwan Army Club (TAC), MPC
Mahendra Police Club
Nepal Police Club formerly known as Mahendra Police Club is departmental police football club of Nepal. They currently play in the top division of the country.-History:...

 etc.

Cricket is also very popular in Kathmandu. Nepal's U-18 Cricket team is known to be one of the best. Even though Nepal Soccer has not improved at all, Nepal cricket has improved a lot over these years, and it is capturing the eyes of more and more youth in the country. It has become like what baseball is to America, and almost as how Football is to Europe. Kathmandu is also home of some of the oldest cricket clubs of Nepal such as Yengal Sports club.

Sports complexes in Kathmandu are not well maintained and most of them are not up-to-date because of the lack of funding from the government or other sources.

Another international stadium for swimming events, is located in Satdobato, Lalitpur near Kathmandu. ANFA Technical Football Center is located just adjacent to this stadium.

Transport


{{multiple image
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| caption1 = Kathmandu taxi
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| caption2 = Red bus in Kathmandu
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{{multiple image
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| caption2 = Female tuk tuk driver
}}
The total length of roads in Nepal is recorded to be (17182 kilometres (10,676.4 mi)), as in 2003–04. This fairly large network (still considered a very inadequate connectivity with the rural hill areas) has helped in the economic progress of the country in the field of agriculture, horticulture, vegetable farming, industry and also tourism. In view of the hilly terrain, transportation facilities in Nepal in general and Kathmandu in particular, are mainly by road and air with limited rail link in the terai region.

Through the process of Five Year Plan developments, the first transmountain highway, later named Tribhuvan Highway
Tribhuvan Highway
The Tribhuvan Highway connects the outskirts of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal, with Birganj/ Raxaul on the Nepal-India border. NH 28 and NH 28A links Raxaul with Lucknow/ Barauni and other locations in India.-History:...

, linking Kathmandu with Bhaise
Bhaise
Bhaise is a village development committee in Makwanpur District in the Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 6615 people living in 1105 individual households....

, a distance of 126 km (78 mi), was built and further extended via Hetauda
Hetauda
Hetauda is a town in the Makwanpur District of the Narayani Zone in southern Nepal. It is also the administrative headquarters of the Makwanpur district. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 53,836 people living in 10,420 individual households...

 through Birganj
Birganj
Birganj is a sub-metropolitan municipality and border town in Parsa District in the Narayani Zone of southern Nepal. It lies 283 km south of the capital Kathmandu, 3 km north of the border of the Indian state of Bihar. As an entry point to Nepal from Patna and Calcutta it is also known...

 to Raxaul
Raxaul
Raxaul or Raxaul is a sub-divisional town in the East Champaran district of the Indian state of Bihar. It is situated on the India-Nepal border with Birganj on the other side of the border.-Demographics:...

 in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, a distance of 64 kilometres (39.8 mi) (built by Government of India
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

 in 1956). Another trans-Himalayan highway that was built in 1963 connects Kathmandu with Kodari, a distance of 114 kilometres (70.8 mi) (built by the Chinese), and links to Tibet
Tibet
Tibet is a plateau region in Asia, north-east of the Himalayas. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpas, Qiang, and Lhobas, and is now also inhabited by considerable numbers of Han and Hui people...

. Another highway called the Prithvi Highway, within the country, connects Kathmandu with the Pokhara
Pokhara
Pokhara Sub-Metropolitan City is the second largest city of Nepal. Pokhara is city of close to 350,000 inhabitants in central Nepal located at 28.25°N, 83.99°E, which is the centre of the country from east to west or from north to south, 198 km west of Kathmandu or 90 km west of Mugling, and...

 Valley over a distance of 200 kilometres (124.3 mi) (built by the Chinese
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

).

Air transport, the next in importance to Nepal (since it is a landlocked country) was also developed since 1953, first by the Indian Air Lines, and subsequently in 1959 by the Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation (RNAC) with internal services starting with Kathmandu as the hub linking with many towns and cities within Nepal. Gradually, it spread to Indian and other international destinations. Now, Nepal boasts of 44 airports throughout the country. The main international airport serving Kathmandu and indeed Nepal is the Tribhuvan International Airport
Tribhuvan International Airport
Tribhuvan International Airport is an international airport situated in Kathmandu, Nepal.Tribhuvan is the sole international airport in Nepal. There are two terminals, one domestic and one international...

, located about six kilometres from the city center in the Kathmandu valley. Operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal it has two terminals, one domestic and one international. At present, about 22 international airlines connect Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...

 to various other destinations in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 and the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, connected to cities such as Delhi
Delhi
Delhi , officially National Capital Territory of Delhi , is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest by population in India, next to Mumbai. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16,753,265 inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census...

, Kolkata
Kolkata
Kolkata , formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. Located on the east bank of the Hooghly River, it was the commercial capital of East India...

, Doha
Doha
Doha is the capital city of the state of Qatar. Located on the Persian Gulf, it had a population of 998,651 in 2008, and is also one of the municipalities of Qatar...

, Dubai
Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

, Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi
Abu Dhabi , literally Father of Gazelle, is the capital and the second largest city of the United Arab Emirates in terms of population and the largest of the seven member emirates of the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi lies on a T-shaped island jutting into the Persian Gulf from the central western...

, Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, Bangkok
Bangkok
Bangkok is the capital and largest urban area city in Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or simply Krung Thep , meaning "city of angels." The full name of Bangkok is Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahintharayutthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom...

, Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, Dhaka
Dhaka
Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka Division. Dhaka is a megacity and one of the major cities of South Asia. Located on the banks of the Buriganga River, Dhaka, along with its metropolitan area, had a population of over 15 million in 2010, making it the largest city...

, Islamabad
Islamabad
Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan and the tenth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory , the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.7 million in 2011...

, Karachi
Karachi
Karachi is the largest city, main seaport and the main financial centre of Pakistan, as well as the capital of the province of Sindh. The city has an estimated population of 13 to 15 million, while the total metropolitan area has a population of over 18 million...

, Paro
Paro, Bhutan
-History:Rinpung Dzong a fortress-monastery overlooking the Paro valley has a long history. A monastery was first built on the site by Padma Sambhava at the beginning of the tenth century, but it wasn't until 1646 that Ngawang Namgyal built a larger monastery on the old foundations, and for...

, Lhasa
Lhasa
Lhasa is the administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China and the second most populous city on the Tibetan Plateau, after Xining. At an altitude of , Lhasa is one of the highest cities in the world...

, Chengdu
Chengdu
Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

 and Guangzhou
Guangzhou
Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

. A recent extension to the international terminal has made the distance to the airplanes shorter and in October 2009 it became possible to fly directly to Kathmandu from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

 by Arkefly
Arkefly
ArkeFly is a Dutch charter airline headquartered in Schiphol-Rijk on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands. It is the charter carrier of the Dutch arm of the German travel conglomerate TUI and its main base is Schiphol Airport...

 Regionally, several Nepalese airlines operate from the city including Agni Air
Agni Air
Agni Air Pvt. Ltd. is an airline based in Nepal which started operations in March 2006. It has its headquarters in Kathmandu.-History:Agni Air started operations on 16 March 2006 on the Lukla and Tumlingtar sectors with a Dornier 228 and started flying to Biratnagar the next day.-Destinations:The...

, Buddha Air
Buddha Air
Buddha Air Pvt. Ltd‎ is an airline based in Jawalakhel, Lalitpur District, Nepal, near Patan. It operates domestic services within Nepal, serving mainly large towns and cities in Nepal, linking Kathmandu with nine destinations. Its main base is Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu...

, Cosmic Air
Cosmic Air
Cosmic Air was an airline based in Kathmandu, Nepal. It operated scheduled domestic and international services out of Kathmandu Airport, aiming at foreign tourists...

, Gorkha Airlines
Gorkha Airlines
Gorkha Airlines is an airline based in Kathmandu, Nepal. It operates scheduled and charter flights to domestic destinations, as well as daily mountain flights in the Himalayas. Its main base is Tribhuvan International Airport, Kathmandu.- History :...

, Nepal Airlines and Yeti Airlines
Yeti Airlines
Yeti Airlines Domestic Pvt. Ltd. is an airline based in Nepal. The airline was established in May 1998 and received its Air Operators Certificate on 17 August 1998. Yeti Airlines is the parent company of Tara Air. Together the two airlines form the largest domestic flight operator in Nepal...

 connecting Kathmandu to many other major towns across Nepal.

Ropeways


Ropeways are another important transportation means in hilly terrain. A ropeway
Ropeway
A ropeway is a form of naval lifting device used to transport light stores and equipment across rivers or ravines. It comprises a jackstay, slung between two sheers or gyns, one at either end, from which is suspended a block and tackle, that is free to travel along the rope and hauled back and...

 operated between Kathmandu and Hetauda over a length of 43 kilometres (26.7 mi), constructed with assistance from the US, could carry 25 tons of goods per hour. It has since been discontinued due to poor carrying capacity and maintenance issues. During the Rana period, a ropeway was constructed between Kathmandu (then Mathathirtha) to Dhorsing (Makawanpur) over 22 km (14 mi) length, which could carry cargo of 8 tons per hour. Now, a modern cable car ropeway (3.1 km long) has been built linking Kurintar (on the Prthvi Highway, near Kathmandu) with Manakamana, a famous temple in the Gorkha district
Gorkha District
Gorkha District of 288,134. It is the location of the Manakamana Temple. Also, the temples of great sage Gorakh Nath and goddess Gorakh Kali temple is located in district, after which the district got its name. Four major rivers run within and along it, they are Chepe, Daraudi, Marsyangdi and...

.

{{clear}}

Healthcare


Healthcare in Kathmandu is the most developed in Nepal, and the city and surrounding valley is home to some of the best hospitals and clinics in the country. Notable hospitals include Bir Hospital, Trubhuwan University Institute of Medicine (Teaching Hospital), Patan Hospital, Kathmandu Model Hospital, Tribhuwan Chandra Army Hospital, B & B Hospital, Om Hospital, Norvic Hospital and the city is supported by specialist hospitals such as Shahid Shukra Tropical Hospital, Kathmandu Veterinary Hospital, Nepal Eye Hospital, Kanti Children's Hospital, Prasuti Griha (Obstetrics & Gynecology center), Hospital and Rehabilitation Center for Disabled Children (HRDC), Gangalal Cardiology Hospital, Neuro Center, Spinal Rehabilitation center, Bhaktapur Cancer hospital. Most of the general hospitals are located in the city centre. although several clinics are located elsewhere in Kathmandu district.

Bir Hospital
Bir Hospital
Bir Hospital is the oldest and one of the busiest hospitals in Nepal. It was established in July 1889 by Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana. It is located at the center of Kathmandu city. The hospital is run by the National Academy of Medical Sciences, a government agency since 2003.The hospital...

 is the oldest (and busiest), established in July 1889 by Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana
Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana
Maharaja Sir Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana, GCSI, , was the 17th Prime Minister of Nepal. He was born to the Chief of the Army Dhir Shamsher Rana . He and his brothers plotted the assassination of their doddering uncle, the Prime Minister Renaudip Singh Bahadur...

. The hospital has been run by the National Academy of Medical Sciences, a government
Government of Nepal
The Government of Nepal, or Nepal Government, is the executive body and the Central government of Nepal. Prior to the abolition of Monarchy in Nepal, was officially known as His Majesty's Government....

 agency since 2003 and has a capacity of 458 beds. The hospital provides high quality medical and surgical treatments to people from all across the country. Nephrology
Nephrology
Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.-Scope of the specialty:...

 service in Nepal started at Bir Hospital, though although 40 kidney biopsies are done every year, due to lack of well trained manpower in the field of renal histopathology
Histopathology
Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease...

, glomerular diseases cannot be easily diagnosed with accuracy. Many patients from the rural areas come to this hospital to get free treatment. Every year the hospital produces qualified efficient and well trained post graduates in different subjects of clinical medicine such as general surgery, internal medicine, orthopaedic surgery, pathology etc. It has become an Internship centre for students who had passed MBBS from China and Russia and other parts of the world. Hundreds of nurses of different levels get nursing training in this hospital. The yearly budget of the hospital is about NRs 27 Crore (About US$ 4.1 million), two thirds of which is funded by the government but adequate funding is always a problem in running the hospital.

Media


Kathmandu is the television hub of Nepal. Nepal Television
Nepal Television
Nepal Television is the oldest and most watched television channel in Nepal.Nepal Television was for many years the only television channel native to Nepal, but several others have begun operation in recent years....

, established 1985, the oldest and most watched television channel in Nepal, as is the government owned NTV 2 Metro
NTV 2 Metro
NTV PLUS is a television channel in Nepal. It is a city channel owned by the Government of Nepal. Other main TV channels in Nepal include Nepal Television the national television channel, and two private channels Kantipur Television and Image Channel....

, Channel Nepal
Channel Nepal
Channel Nepal is the first Nepali Satellite TV channel, which caters for viewers across Asia and the Pacific. Owned by Jamim Shah, a renowned media entrepreneur, this channel is committed to provide entertainment, information and knowledge programming to the Nepalese living abroad....

, Image Channel
Image Channel
The Image Channel is a privately owned television channel in Nepal. It is owned by Image Group of Companies which also run FM station and located in Lazimpat, Kathmandu. It produces every kind of programs news, talkshows, entertainment shows, teleserials etc....

, Avenues TV
Avenues TV
Refer to Avenues TelevisionAvenues Television is 24 hour Nepali news channel. The rights to this TV channel was acquired by Ad avenues Nepal, a Nepali advertising agency few years ago.It produces news program and current affairs programs...

, Kantipur Television
Kantipur Television
Kantipur Television is a privately owned television channel in Nepal. It is run by Kantipur Publications, which has multiple print publications such as Saptahik, Kantipur Daily Newspaper, Kathmandu Post, etc. and Kantipur FM is also a sister organization...

, Sagermatha TV, Himalayan Television and other channels. The headquarters of many of the country's news outlets are also located in the city including the government owned Gorkhapatra
Gorkhapatra
Gorkhapatra is the oldest national daily newspaper of Nepal. It is run by Gorkhapatra Sansthan.-External links:*...

 which is the oldest national daily newspaper in Nepal, The Kathmandu Post
The Kathmandu Post
The Kathmandu Post is a major daily newspaper published in Nepal. Centred in the capital Kathmandu, it is one of the largest English-language newspapers in the country. The Kathmandu Post is independently owned, and is published by Kantipur Publications, the owners of Nepal's largest selling...

, Nepali Times
Nepali Times
Nepali Times is a leading English-language weekly newspaper that provides in-depth reporting and expert commentaries on Nepali politics, business, culture, travel and society in 16 pages every week. It has a loyal readership among Nepalis who are leaders in their fields...

, Kantipur Publications
Kantipur Publications
Kantipur Publications, Ltd. is a media firm based in Kathmandu, Nepal. The company operates five widely circulated print publications, a national television network, and a radio station. It is the first media organization in Nepal to gain membership to the World Association of Newspapers...

 and its paper Kantipur
Kantipur (daily)
Kantipur is a Nepali language daily newspaper, published from Kathmandu, Biratnagar, Nepalgunj, and Bharatpur of Nepal simultaneously.Kantipur's publishers report that the circulation of this newspaper is just above 250,000 copies per day...

 which is the largest selling Nepali language paper, The Himalayan Times which is the largest selling English broadsheet in Nepal, Karobar Economic Daily
Karobar Economic Daily
Karobar National Economic Daily is a Nepali language Daily economic newspaper published in Kathmandu, Nepal. The newspaper began it's circulation in December 2009....

 only economic daily in Nepal, Jana Aastha National Weekly
Jana Aastha National Weekly
The Jana Aastha National Weekly is a weekly tabloid published in Nepal. It generally publishes opinions and sensational breaking "news" that is followed by other national dailies.It's background is tilted to the left but known for exposing the irregularities of the Left Movement as well.Jana Astha...

, MyRepublica
MyRepublica
Republica is a national daily newspaper published by New Republic Media Pvt. Ltd. in Kathmandu. The newspaper began its online edition on January 1, 2009 and print edition on April 24, 2009. Ameet Dhakal is the editor-in-chief of the newspaper....

 and many others. There is a state run National News Agency (RSS). The Internet address is nepalnews.com, which provides private online news. Radio service of Radio Nepal
Radio Nepal
Radio Nepal was established on 1 April 1951. Initially, the transmission lasted for 4 hours and 30 minutes through a 250 Watt short-wave transmitter. Over the years, Radio Nepal has strengthened its institutional capacity considerably and diversified itself in terms of programme format, technical...

, a state-run organization operates national and regional Radio stations. The Radio stations, which are operational are: Hits FM – commercial; music-based -HBC 94 FM – operated by Himalayan Broadcasting Company, Radio Sagarmatha – FM, public, community station, Kantipur FM – commercial and Image FM. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) has also a FM broadcasting station at Kathmandu.

In popular culture


In some travelogues, the Kathmandu valley has been referred to as the "Emerald Valley". Numerous works of literature have been set in Kathmandu, including Kim Stanley Robinson
Kim Stanley Robinson
Kim Stanley Robinson is an American science fiction writer known for his award-winning Mars trilogy. His work delves into ecological and sociological themes regularly, and many of his novels appear to be the direct result of his own scientific fascinations, such as the fifteen years of research...

's 1989 work, Escape from Kathmandu
Escape from Kathmandu
Escape from Kathmandu by Kim Stanley Robinson is a 1989 collection of novellas about a group of American expatriates in Nepal.The novellas are:* Escape from Kathmandu** 1986: nominated for Nebula Award for Best Novella...

. Recently, the book ("Arresting God in Kathmandu") by Samrat Upadhyay
Samrat Upadhyay
Samrat Upadhyay is a Nepalese writer who writes in English. Upadhyay is a professor of creative writing as well as Director of Graduate Studies at Indiana University. He is the first Nepali-born fiction writer writing in English to be published in the West. He was born and raised in Kathmandu,...

 received international acclaim, as well as the non-fictional book written by Manjushree Thapa
Manjushree Thapa
Manjushree Thapa is a Nepali writer.She grew up in Nepal, Canada and the USA. She began to write upon completing her BFA in photography at the Rhode Island School of Design. Her first book was Mustang Bhot in Fragments...

 "Forget Kathmandu". Pico Iyer
Pico Iyer
Pico Iyer is a British-born essayist and novelist. He is the author of numerous books on travel including Video Night in Kathmandu. His shorter pieces regularly appear in Time, Harper's, NYRB and many other publications.-Life and career:...

, a British {see Wikipedia entry for Iyer} writer, also has a non-fiction book named "Video nights in Kathmandu", although only one chapter of the book is dedicated to Kathmandu. In the novel Deadeye Dick
Deadeye Dick
Deadeye Dick is a novel by Kurt Vonnegut originally published in 1982.- Plot summary :The novel's main character, Rudy Waltz, nicknamed Deadeye Dick, commits accidental manslaughter as a child and lives his whole life feeling guilty and seeking forgiveness for it...

 by Kurt Vonnegut
Kurt Vonnegut
Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. was a 20th century American writer. His works such as Cat's Cradle , Slaughterhouse-Five and Breakfast of Champions blend satire, gallows humor and science fiction. He was known for his humanist beliefs and was honorary president of the American Humanist Association.-Early...

 the protagonist Rudy Waltz writes a play titled "Katmandu" in which a man takes a journey on foot to Katmandu. The song called "Kathmandu" is upbeat rock 'n' roll by Bob Seger
Bob Seger
Robert Clark "Bob" Seger is an American rock and roll singer-songwriter, guitarist and pianist.As a locally successful Detroit-area artist, he performed and recorded as Bob Seger and the Last Heard and Bob Seger System throughout the 1960s...

. It's also mentioned in the 1984 song Nobody Told Me
Nobody Told Me
"Nobody Told Me" is a song by the British musician John Lennon. Recorded shortly before his death in 1980, the song was later completed by Lennon's widow Yoko Ono in 1983 and released as the first single from Lennon and Ono's album Milk and Honey in 1984. The song was later released in the UK in...

 by John Lennon
John Lennon
John Winston Lennon, MBE was an English musician and singer-songwriter who rose to worldwide fame as one of the founding members of The Beatles, one of the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed acts in the history of popular music...

 in which the lyrics make reference to "a little yellow idol to the north of Kathmandu" which is similar to a line from J. Milton Hayes
J. Milton Hayes
John Milton Hayes , better known as J. Milton Hayes, was an English actor and poet, best known for his 1911 dramatic monologue The Green Eye of the Yellow God, much parodied by his contemporary Stanley Holloway and later by The Goon Show. He also wrote and performed many other monologues...

' poem entitled The Green Eye of the Yellow God
The Green Eye of the Yellow God
The Green Eye of the Little Yellow God is a 1911 poem by J. Milton Hayes that is a famous example of the genre of "dramatic monologue", which was a music hall staple in the early twentieth century...

. Hayes' line was "There’s a one-eyed yellow idol to the north of Kathmandu".

Kathmandu has also been mentioned in numerous films including in the film Bewitched
Bewitched
Bewitched is an American situation comedy originally broadcast for eight seasons on ABC from 1964 to 1972, starring Elizabeth Montgomery, Dick York and Dick Sargent , Agnes Moorehead, and David White. The show is about a witch who marries a mortal and tries to lead the life of a typical suburban...

 as the title of a fictional movie Will Ferrell's character stars in prior to his role in the Bewitched remake and by Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz
Cameron Michelle Diaz is an American actress and former model. She became famous during the 1990s with roles in the movies The Mask, My Best Friend's Wedding, and There's Something About Mary. Other high-profile credits include the two Charlie's Angels films, voicing the character Princess Fiona...

 in There's Something about Mary
There's Something About Mary
There's Something About Mary is a 1998 American comedy film, directed by the Farrelly brothers, Bobby and Peter. It stars Cameron Diaz, Matt Dillon and Ben Stiller, and it is a combination of romantic comedy and gross-out film....

.
In the comic titled "Tintin in Tibet" the characters land in Kathmandu and spend some time before heading towards Tibet.