Bachelor's degree

Bachelor's degree

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A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree
Academic degree
An academic degree is a position and title within a college or university that is usually awarded in recognition of the recipient having either satisfactorily completed a prescribed course of study or having conducted a scholarly endeavour deemed worthy of his or her admission to the degree...

 awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world. In some exceptional cases, it may also be the name of a postgraduate
Postgraduate education
Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor's degree generally is required, and is normally considered to be part of higher education...

 degree, such as a Bachelor of Civil Law
Bachelor of Civil Law
Bachelor of Civil Law is the name of various degrees in law conferred by English-language universities. Historically, it originated as a postgraduate degree in the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but many universities now offer the BCL as an undergraduate degree...

, the Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music. In the United States, it is a professional degree; the majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music, usually requiring a...

, the Bachelor of Philosophy
Bachelor of Philosophy
Bachelor of Philosophy is the title of an academic degree. The degree usually involves considerable research, either through a thesis or supervised research projects...

, or the Bachelor of Sacred Theology
Bachelor of Sacred Theology
The Bachelor of Sacred Theology is a graduate-level academic degree in theology.The Bachelor of Sacred Theology is offered by a number of Pontifical Universities. It is sometimes offered as a graduate degree, for students who have already completed a B.A. or other first degree...

.

During the Renaissance, doctors, upon passing their final examinations, were decorated with berried branches of bay, an ancient symbol of highest honor. From this ancient custom derives the French word baccalauréat (from the Latin bacca, a berry, and laureus, of the bay laurel
Bay Laurel
The bay laurel , also known as sweet bay, bay tree, true laurel, Grecian laurel, laurel tree, or simply laurel, is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region. It is the source of the bay leaf used in cooking...

), and, by modification, the term "bachelor" in referring to a university degree.

Honours Degrees and academic distinctions


Under the British system, and those influenced by it, such as the Australian, Bangladeshi, Canadian, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, Irish, Indian, Jordanian, Malaysian, Maltese, Nigerian, Sri Lankan, and Singaporean systems, undergraduate degrees are differentiated either as pass degrees (also known in some areas as ordinary degrees) or as Honours Degrees, the latter sometimes denoted by the appearance of "(Hons)" after the degree abbreviation.

An honours degree generally requires a higher academic standard than a pass degree, and in Maltese, Singaporean, Australian, Pakistani, Philippines, New Zealand, Scottish, Sri Lankan, Malaysian, South African and some Canadian universities an extra year of study.

In England most first degrees not leading to professions (such as law) are now assumed to be honours degrees, although ordinary degrees are still awarded to those who do not meet the required pass mark for a third-class honours degree.

Canada


Education in Canada is governed independently by each province or territory, so there can be many differences between provinces when it comes to granting of degrees. The western provinces tended to follow American models, while the province of Ontario tended to be a leader in education, with many other provinces adopting its model. Depending on the province, a bachelor's degree takes either three or four years to complete. Going back in history, a three-year degree was also called a pass degree or general degree, and a four-year degree was called an honours degree. In provinces that grant three-year bachelor's degrees, a student may choose to complete an additional year of studies to obtain a four-year honours degree.

Most Canadian universities no longer offer three-year pass degrees, and grant four-year degrees exclusively. As such, the term "honours degree" has fallen somewhat into disuse in certain parts of the country. In general, obtaining an honours bachelor's degree requires completion of a number of credits, completion of one or more majors or a specialist program, and maintaining a certain grade point average.

The honours bachelor's degree should not be confused with a bachelor's degree with honours, which is an academic distinction awarded to students who achieve an honours bachelor's degree with a sufficiently high overall average, and who typically fulfill a short thesis requirement.

An honours bachelor's degree is generally a prerequisite for admission into graduate studies in Canada.

However, in the province of Quebec, students have to go through a minimum of two years of CEGEP
Cégep
CEGEP is an acronym for , which is literally translated as "College of General and Vocational Education" but commonly called "General and Vocational College" in circles not influenced by Quebec English. It refers to the public post-secondary education collegiate institutions exclusive to the...

 (College of General and Vocational Education) before entering, as examples, a three year B.Sc. or a four year B.Eng. As a consequence, there are no "Honors Degree" but there are some specializations called "Concentrations" in French, which are mostly taken as optional courses. The utility of CEGEP
Cégep
CEGEP is an acronym for , which is literally translated as "College of General and Vocational Education" but commonly called "General and Vocational College" in circles not influenced by Quebec English. It refers to the public post-secondary education collegiate institutions exclusive to the...

 has been recently subject to controversy.

England, Wales and Northern Ireland


The degrees awarded carry a designation related to the broad subject area such as BA, BSc, and BEng. The majority of bachelor's degrees are now honours degrees. Until the mid-20th century, some candidates (but not, for example, at Oxford or Cambridge) would take an ordinary degree, and then be selected to go on for a final year for the Honours degree. A first degree course is usually three years, but it might be reduced to two either by direct second year entry (for people who have done foundation degree
Foundation degree
The Foundation Degree is a vocational qualification introduced by the government of the United Kingdom in September 2001, which is available in England, Wales and Northern Ireland...

s or changed subject or similar) or by doing compressed courses (which are being piloted by several newer universities). For funding reasons (funding for undergraduate programs is automatic, funding for postgraduate programs is not) it is becoming increasingly common to skip the bachelor's stage entirely and go straight to Masters level on a four-year (five-year if with industrial experience) course (which often shares the first two years with the equivalent bachelor's course).

Honours degrees are of a superior academic standard. An honours degree is always awarded in one of four classes depending upon the marks gained in the final assessments and examinations. The top students are awarded a first class degree, the next best, an upper second class degree (usually referred to as a 2:1), the next a lower second class degree (usually referred to as a 2:2), and those with the lowest marks gain a third class degree. An ordinary or unclassified degree (which does not give the graduate the right to add (Hons)) may be awarded if a student has completed the full honours degree course but has not obtained the total required passes sufficient to merit a third-class honours degree. Alternatively a student may be denied honours if he/she has had to retake courses.

Ordinary degrees are unclassified degrees awarded to all students who have completed the course and obtained sufficient marks to pass the final assessments and examinations. Although ordinary degree courses are often considered to be easier than honours degree courses, this is not always the case, and much depends on the university attended and the subject being studied. Some modern universities offer the opportunity for ordinary degree students to transfer to an honours degree course in the same subject if an acceptable standard is reached after the first or second year of study.

The Graduateship (post-nominal GCGI) and Associateship (post-nominal ACGI) awarded by the City & Guilds of London Institute are mapped to a British Honours degree.

The Engineering Council Graduate Diploma set at the same level as the final year of a British BEng.

Nigeria


Honours degrees in Nigeria are differentiated only on the basis of performance. Honours degrees include the first class degree, second class degrees (upper and lower) and the third class degree but not the pass. All university students must do an obligatory independent research project which applies the knowledge obtained during the previous years of study.

The project work must be submitted in the semester before graduation and usually takes a significant number of points. Further course works are not precluded during the project work but are fewer courses but of advanced nature. Project works are orally defended before the faculty and peers. In the sciences and engineering a demonstration of the project is usually required. The exceptions are theoretical works where a media project is required.

Scotland


At Scottish universities, undergraduate degrees are differentiated as either Designated Degrees or Honours Degrees.

An Honours degree, BA (Hons), (awarded as an MA (Hons)
Master of Arts (Scotland)
A Master of Arts in Scotland can refer to an undergraduate academic degree in humanities and social sciences awarded by the ancient universities of Scotland – the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh, while the University of...

 by some universities) for arts and social sciences, or BSc (Hons) for sciences, is awarded for students who have completed four years at university — two years at sub-honours level, studying a variety of different subjects, and two years at honours level studying one subject in depth (sometimes the third and fourth years are divided into junior honours and senior honours and in other cases the final year is called the honours year, usually including a dissertation in the final year. Honours degrees are further subdivided in classes. These are first class, upper second class (2:1), lower second class (2:2) and third class.

A designated degree (BA, MA or BSc) is awarded to students who have completed three years at university studying a variety of related subjects. The first two years, sometimes three, of both a designated degree and an honours degree are identical, but, candidates for the designated degree study in less depth in their final year and often over a wider variety of subjects. Candidates for the designated degree do not usually complete a dissertation. A Scottish Designated Degree is different from an English pass degree even though both are denoted BSc Bachelor of Science and are often referred to as an ordinary degree. In keeping with the Scottish "broad education" philosophy, ordinary degrees (and more rarely honours ones) may mix different disciplines such as sciences and humanities taught in different faculties and in some cases even different universities (e.g. a Dundee University degree could have included St Andrews courses).

UK medical schools


Different universities and/or degrees however may have different processes. For example, the University of St Andrews
University of St Andrews
The University of St Andrews, informally referred to as "St Andrews", is the oldest university in Scotland and the third oldest in the English-speaking world after Oxford and Cambridge. The university is situated in the town of St Andrews, Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. It was founded between...

' Bute Medical School
Bute Medical School
The University of St Andrews School of Medicine is the school of medicine at the University of St Andrews in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland; it used to be known as the 'Bute Medical School' until the 2010–2011 academic year...

 traditionally awards medical students a BSc. (Hons) after a three-year degree course – one year studying "Foundations of Medicine" involving basic medicine training, followed by a two year honours course and dissertation. This is contrary to the usual 4 years required to attain such a degree.

Medical students at many other UK institutions have the further privilege however of obtaining intercalated degrees (see Medical school in the United Kingdom); a process which allows participants to obtain an intercalated BSc in a given field after only one year of study. Such programmes are available at most universities and is in place to offer students studying medicine a wider perspective on fields that are often only briefly covered in a medicine course.

Students are not automatically eligible to participate.
This process in many ways reflects the US system of first obtaining a degree before studying postgraduate medicine.

Discussed below is the norm for obtaining a degree in Medicine, and Medical school in the United Kingdom

Southern Africa


In South Africa, an honors degree is usually an additional postgraduate qualification in the same area as the undergraduate major, and requires at least one further year of study. In the Namibian and Zimbabwean systems, an honours degree must include a project course that the students must complete individually, with different projects carried out by each student.

United States


Many United States universities and colleges award bachelor's degrees with latin honors
Latin honors
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of academic distinction with which an academic degree was earned. This system is primarily used in the United States, Canada, and in many countries of continental Europe, though some institutions also use the English translation of these...

, usually (in ascending order) cum laude 'with honor/praise,' magna cum laude 'with great honor/praise,' summa cum laude 'with highest honor/praise,' and the occasionally seen maxima cum laude 'with maximal honor/praise.' Degrees without honors are awarded rite. Requirements for such notations of honors generally include minimum grade point averages (GPA), with the highest average required for the summa distinction (or maxima, when that distinction is present). In the case of a few rigorous schools, such as Reed College
Reed College
Reed College is a private, independent, liberal arts college located in southeast Portland, Oregon. Founded in 1908, Reed is a residential college with a campus located in Portland's Eastmoreland neighborhood, featuring architecture based on the Tudor-Gothic style, and a forested canyon wilderness...

, Bates College
Bates College
Bates College is a highly selective, private liberal arts college located in Lewiston, Maine, in the United States. and was most recently ranked 21st in the nation in the 2011 US News Best Liberal Arts Colleges rankings. The college was founded in 1855 by abolitionists...

, Colby College
Colby College
Colby College is a private liberal arts college located on Mayflower Hill in Waterville, Maine. Founded in 1813, it is the 12th-oldest independent liberal arts college in the United States...

, Middlebury College
Middlebury College
Middlebury College is a private liberal arts college located in Middlebury, Vermont, USA. Founded in 1800, it is one of the oldest liberal arts colleges in the United States. Drawing 2,400 undergraduates from all 50 United States and over 70 countries, Middlebury offers 44 majors in the arts,...

, Franklin College Switzerland
Franklin College Switzerland
Franklin College Switzerland is a private, independent, liberal arts college in Switzerland with an enrollment of approximately 450 students. Located in the Italian speaking city of Lugano, Franklin offers Bachelor of Arts degrees that are accredited by both the Commission on Higher Education of...

, and larger universities like the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, founded by Thomas Jefferson...

, a senior thesis
Thesis
A dissertation or thesis is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings...

 for degrees in the humanities
Humanities
The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

 or laboratory
Laboratory
A laboratory is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific research, experiments, and measurement may be performed. The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories...

 research
Research
Research can be defined as the scientific search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method...

 for natural science
Natural science
The natural sciences are branches of science that seek to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world by using empirical and scientific methods...

 (and sometimes social science) degrees is also required. Four notable exceptions are the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

, The Evergreen State College
The Evergreen State College
The Evergreen State College is an accredited public liberal arts college and a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. It is located in Olympia, Washington, USA. Founded in 1967, Evergreen was formed to be an experimental and non-traditional college...

, Sarah Lawrence College
Sarah Lawrence College
Sarah Lawrence College is a private liberal arts college in the United States, and a leader in progressive education since its founding in 1926. Located just 30 minutes north of Midtown Manhattan in southern Westchester County, New York, in the city of Yonkers, this coeducational college offers...

, and Bennington College
Bennington College
Bennington College is a liberal arts college located in Bennington, Vermont, USA. The college was founded in 1932 as a women's college and became co-educational in 1969.-History:-Early years:...

, which do not have a dean's list, Latin honors recognition, or undergraduate honors program or subjects.

Bachelor's degrees in the United States are typically designed to be completed in four years of full-time study, although some programs (such as engineering or architecture) usually take five, and some universities and colleges, such as Grace College
Grace College
Grace College is an evangelical Christian college located in Winona Lake, Indiana. The college is associated with Grace Theological Seminary and the Fellowship of Grace Brethren Churches.-Accreditation:...

 allow ambitious students (usually with the help of summer school and/or high school Advanced Placement
Advanced Placement Program
The Advanced Placement program is a curriculum in the United States and Canada sponsored by the College Board which offers standardized courses to high school students that are generally recognized to be equivalent to undergraduate courses in college...

 courses) to complete them in as little as three years. Some U.S. colleges and universities have a separate academic track known as an "honors" or "scholars" program, generally offered to the top percentile of students (based on GPA), that offers more challenging courses or more individually-directed seminars or research projects in lieu of the standard core curriculum
Core Curriculum
The Core Curriculum was originally developed as the main curriculum used by Columbia University's Columbia College. It began in 1919 with "Contemporary Civilization," about the origins of western civilization. It became the framework for many similar educational models throughout the United States...

. The students are awarded the same bachelor's degree as students completing the standard curriculum, but with the notation in cursu honorum
In cursu honorum
In cursu honorum is a Latin phrase that translates to "in a course of honors." It refers to specialized study at the undergraduate level. Generally, a small percentage of a student body will be invited to pursue a more rigorous course of study, and be required to maintain a high average...

on the transcript and the diploma
Diploma
A diploma is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study or confers an academic degree. In countries such as the United Kingdom and Australia, the word diploma refers to...

. Usually, the above Latin honors are separate from the notation for this honors course, but a student in the honors course generally must maintain grades worthy of at least the cum laude notation anyway. Hence, a graduate might receive a diploma Artium Baccalaureatum rite or Artium Baccalaureatum summa cum laude in the regular course or Artium Baccalaureatum summa cum laude in cursu honorum in the honors course.

If the student has completed the requirements for an honors degree only in a particular discipline (e.g., English language and literature), the degree is designated accordingly (e.g., BA with Honors in English). In this case, the degree candidate will complete the normal curriculum for all subjects except the selected discipline ("English," in the preceding example). The requirements in either case usually require completion of particular honors seminars, independent research at a level higher than usually required (often with greater personal supervision by faculty than usual), and a written honors thesis in the major subject.

British


The Universities of Oxford and Cambridge are perhaps alone in the United Kingdom today in awarding the BA for all undergraduate degrees. Almost all American universities award both BA and BS degrees, though a number of small liberal arts college
Liberal arts college
A liberal arts college is one with a primary emphasis on undergraduate study in the liberal arts and sciences.Students in the liberal arts generally major in a particular discipline while receiving exposure to a wide range of academic subjects, including sciences as well as the traditional...

s award only the BA (and some military academies award only the BS). However, on a global scale, many universities over the last hundred years have expanded the range of bachelor's degrees enormously, especially in countries such as Australia, New Zealand, Pakistan, India, and South Africa. This represents a move towards specialization in tertiary education
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

, in which college or university in these countries is intended to be a training for a specific career, and therefore akin to vocational education
Vocational education
Vocational education or vocational education and training is an education that prepares trainees for jobs that are based on manual or practical activities, traditionally non-academic, and totally related to a specific trade, occupation, or vocation...

. It is a departure from the liberal arts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

 approach common in the United States, in which the graduate is versed in a wide variety of subjects in addition to an academic major
Academic major
In the United States and Canada, an academic major or major concentration is the academic discipline to which an undergraduate student formally commits....

 with the intent they be well prepared to pursue any number of careers or a progression of careers.

A full list of British degree abbreviations
British degree abbreviations
Degree abbreviations are used as an alternative way to specify an academic degree instead of spelling out the title in full, such as in reference books like Who's Who and on business cards...

 is also available.

BA, AB, BS, BSc, SB, ScB, BAAS,


Today, the most common undergraduate degrees given are the Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Arts
A Bachelor of Arts , from the Latin artium baccalaureus, is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both...

 (Artium Baccalaureus) (BA, AB) and the Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years .-Australia:In Australia, the BSc is a 3 year degree, offered from 1st year on...

 (Scientiæ Baccalaureus) (BS, BSc, SB, ScB). Originally, in the universities of Oxford
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a university located in Oxford, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking world. Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096...

, Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

 and Dublin
University of Dublin
The University of Dublin , corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin , located in Dublin, Ireland, was effectively founded when in 1592 Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter for Trinity College, Dublin, as "the mother of a university" – this date making it...

, all undergraduate degrees were in the Faculty of Arts, hence the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences
Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences
The Bachelor of Applied Arts and Sciences, often abbreviated as BAAS or BAASc, is an undergraduate degree.-Usage:In the United States BAAS is awarded based on a combination of formal education, work experience and work-related training and certification completed by the student...

 (BAAS) is an undergraduate degree that bridges academic and work-life experiences.

Since the late 19th century, most universities in the Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 have followed the practice of the University of London
University of London
-20th century:Shortly after 6 Burlington Gardens was vacated, the University went through a period of rapid expansion. Bedford College, Royal Holloway and the London School of Economics all joined in 1900, Regent's Park College, which had affiliated in 1841 became an official divinity school of the...

 in dividing undergraduate degree subjects other than Law, Medicine, and Engineering, into the two broad categories of arts
ARts
aRts, which stands for analog Real time synthesizer, is an audio framework that is no longer under development. It is best known for previously being used in KDE to simulate an analog synthesizer....

 and sciences – conferring the degree of Bachelor of Arts upon students of the former and the degree of Bachelor of Science to the latter.

In the United States, many colleges (particularly liberal arts colleges) as well as universities award the Bachelor of Arts for all academic (non pre-professional) subjects. In these institutions, students studying academic subjects (e.g. English
English studies
English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language , English linguistics English studies is an academic discipline that includes the study of literatures written in the English language (including literatures from the U.K., U.S.,...

, chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

, etc.) would receive a Bachelor of Arts while students studying for professions (e.g. nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

) would receive a Bachelor of Science. Some schools award the Bachelor of Arts for the humanities
Humanities
The humanities are academic disciplines that study the human condition, using methods that are primarily analytical, critical, or speculative, as distinguished from the mainly empirical approaches of the natural sciences....

 and the Bachelor of Science for both natural sciences and social sciences
Social sciences
Social science is the field of study concerned with society. "Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences usually exclusive of the administrative or managerial sciences...

. In some cases a student may choose between a BA course of study and a BS course of study in the same subject at the same college, where the difference in the degrees lies in the core requirements for the degree rather than in the major requirements.

Four American universities—the California Institute of Technology
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering...

, the Georgia Institute of Technology
Georgia Institute of Technology
The Georgia Institute of Technology is a public research university in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States...

, the Colorado School of Mines
Colorado School of Mines
The Colorado School of Mines is a small public teaching and research university devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources. Located in Golden, Colorado, CSM was ranked 29th, in America among national...

, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT has five schools and one college, containing a total of 32 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological education and research.Founded in 1861 in...

— the six State Maritime Academies; as well as the five United States Service academies—the Military
United States Military Academy
The United States Military Academy at West Point is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located at West Point, New York. The academy sits on scenic high ground overlooking the Hudson River, north of New York City...

, Naval
United States Naval Academy
The United States Naval Academy is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in Annapolis, Maryland, United States...

, Air Force
United States Air Force Academy
The United States Air Force Academy is an accredited college for the undergraduate education of officer candidates for the United States Air Force. Its campus is located immediately north of Colorado Springs in El Paso County, Colorado, United States...

, Merchant Marine
United States Merchant Marine Academy
The United States Merchant Marine Academy is one of the five United States Service academies...

, and Coast Guard
United States Coast Guard Academy
Founded in 1876, the United States Coast Guard Academy is the military academy of the United States Coast Guard. Located in New London, Connecticut, it is the smallest of the five federal service academies...

 Academies—award the Bachelor of Science for all subjects, including subjects that at other institutions would be awarded a Bachelor of Arts (such as literature) (though their courses of study are heavily weighted in the sciences and engineering, even if a student/Cadet/Midshipman decides to major in a topic such as English or History). Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

, on the other hand, offers only the degrees "Bachelor of Arts" and "Bachelor of Liberal Arts
Bachelor of Liberal Arts
The Bachelor of Liberal Arts is the title of an undergraduate academic degree. Generally, it is awarded to students who major in liberal arts, pursue interdisciplinary studies, or design their own concentrations....

" except to engineering students who may be awarded an SB in engineering as a supplement to the Bachelor of Arts, which still must be earned first.

BTS


The Bachelor of Tourism Studies (BTS) is awarded to those who complete the four or five year course of study in tourism, laws regarding tourism, Planning and Development, Marketing, Economics, Sociology, Anthropology, Arts and World History (dependent on the country you take the course in), ticketing, Hospitality, computer applications and much more. The course would have an interdisciplinary approach with a vast range of units so the Tourismologist professional is able to identify necessary actions toward a sustainable touristic environment focus on local community uniqueness, values and traditions.
As Tourism is a growing industry, there is a big scope for this course in India. It is available in select universities.

BDes


The Bachelor of Design
Bachelor of Design
A Bachelor of Design degree is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts three or four years. It is an arts-centered degree that is a counterpart to the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree...

 (BDes, or SDes in Indonesia) is awarded to those who complete the four or four and a half years course of study in design, usually majoring in a specific field of design such as interior design or graphic design.

Engineering degrees

  • The Bachelor of Engineering
    Bachelor of Engineering
    The Bachelor of Engineering is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at universities in Armenia, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland , Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Korea,...

     (Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) degree or Bachelor of Applied Science
    Bachelor of Applied Science
    The Bachelor of Applied Science, often abbreviated as BAS, BSAS. BASc or BAppSc is an undergraduate degree awarded for a course of study that generally lasts three to four years in the United Kingdom and Australia, and four to six years in Canada, the Netherlands and the United States.-Usage:In...

     degree is a professional degree awarded to students who have completed the three or four year course of study in engineering
    Engineering
    Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

    . Common abbreviations include BEng, BE, BSE, BESc, BSEng, BASc, BTech, BSc(Eng), AMIE ,GradIETE. The BAI (Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria) is awarded by the University of Dublin
    University of Dublin
    The University of Dublin , corporately designated the Chancellor, Doctors and Masters of the University of Dublin , located in Dublin, Ireland, was effectively founded when in 1592 Queen Elizabeth I issued a charter for Trinity College, Dublin, as "the mother of a university" – this date making it...

     (Trinity College Dublin); some South African Universities refer to their Engineering degrees as BIng (Baccalaureus Ingeniaria).
  • There are more specific variants for many subfields, such as the BSEE degree (Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering). The BSE and BSEng (Bachelor of Software Engineering) are awarded by the University of Waterloo
    University of Waterloo
    The University of Waterloo is a comprehensive public university in the city of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. The school was founded in 1957 by Drs. Gerry Hagey and Ira G. Needles, and has since grown to an institution of more than 30,000 students, faculty, and staff...

     and University of Victoria
    University of Victoria
    The University of Victoria, often referred to as UVic, is the second oldest public research university in British Columbia, Canada. It is a research intensive university located in Saanich and Oak Bay, about northeast of downtown Victoria. The University's annual enrollment is about 20,000 students...

    , respectively. In India the Bachelor of Engineering
    Bachelor of Engineering
    The Bachelor of Engineering is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at universities in Armenia, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland , Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Korea,...

    , Bachelor of Technology
    Bachelor of Technology
    The Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution...

     and AMIE (Association of Membership of Institution of Engineers) are professional degrees awarded in specific discipline such as computers, electrical, electronics, mechanical, communication, civil, plastics, chemical etc. Specialization is referred into brackets e.g. "BE (computers)".
  • The Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology degree (BSET) is a professional degree awarded to students who have completed a four year course of study in engineering technology. There are variants including general engineering technology, mechanical engineering technology, electrical engineering technology and civil engineering technology. Some of these variants even have optional areas of concentration. For instance mechanical engineering technology could include mechanical systems design, manufacturing systems, marine engineering technology, among others. Engineering technology degrees usually lead to licensing as engineering technologists requiring further studies for licensing as Professional Engineer
    Professional Engineer
    Regulation of the engineering profession is established by various jurisdictions of the world to protect the safety, well-being and other interests of the general public, and to define the licensure process through which an engineer becomes authorized to provide professional services to the...

    s.

Business and management degrees

  • The Bachelor of Business Administration
    Bachelor of Business Administration
    The Bachelor of Business Administration is a bachelor's degree in Commerce and business administration. In most universities, the degree is conferred upon a student after four years of full-time study in one or more areas of business concentrations; see below...

     (BBA) is awarded to students who complete three to four years of full-time study in business administration. The degree often, though not always, requires a major in a specific field such as accounting
    Accountancy
    Accountancy is the process of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers. The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management; the art lies in...

    , finance
    Finance
    "Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...

    , HRM/personnel
    Human resource management
    Human Resource Management is the management of an organization's employees. While human resource management is sometimes referred to as a "soft" management skill, effective practice within an organization requires a strategic focus to ensure that people resources can facilitate the achievement of...

    , marketing
    Marketing
    Marketing is the process used to determine what products or services may be of interest to customers, and the strategy to use in sales, communications and business development. It generates the strategy that underlies sales techniques, business communication, and business developments...

    , management
    Management
    Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively...

    , management information systems, real estate
    Real estate
    In general use, esp. North American, 'real estate' is taken to mean "Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this; an item of real property; buildings or...

    , strategic management
    Strategic management
    Strategic management is a field that deals with the major intended and emergent initiatives taken by general managers on behalf of owners, involving utilization of resources, to enhance the performance of firms in their external environments...

    , and others. Similar programs include the Bachelor of Science in Business Administration, Bachelor of Science in Business, Bachelor in Management Studies and Bachelor of Administrative Studies.
  • The Bachelor of Commerce
    Bachelor of Commerce
    A Bachelor of Commerce is an undergraduate degree in commerce and related subjects. The degree is also known as the Bachelor of Commerce and Administration, or BCA...

     (BCom, or BComm in Canada) is, likewise, an undergraduate degree in general business management, although it is more theoretically based, and usually incorporates an academic major
    Academic major
    In the United States and Canada, an academic major or major concentration is the academic discipline to which an undergraduate student formally commits....

    . The distinction between the BComm and the BBA then is, often, that the latter allows students to apply theories to real-life business situations, while the former concentrates on ideas and concepts. It is often offered as a three year program.
  • The Bachelor of Business
    Bachelor of Business
    A Bachelor of Business is a three or four year business degree offered by traditional and newer universities from the post-Dawkins era in Australia and New Zealand...

     (BBus or BBus(Major)) is an undergraduate degree in general business management offered by universities in Australia and New Zealand. Similar in nature to the Bachelor of Commerce, Bachelor of Business degrees are often awarded at technology focused universities in accordance with the Dawkins review (1986) of the Australian higher education sector. At many Australian universities a Bachelor of Business enables graduates to undertake greater specialty in their chosen academic major as compared to a general BBA degree.
  • The Bachelor in Management and Organizational Studies (BMOS in Canada) is a four-year undergraduate degree in business management. However, this degree teaches knowledge based business and is as much theoretical as it is case based. A key distinction with the BMOS degree is that it offers a social science component, in that, it mixes business with social science courses, such as psychology, sociology, economics, etc.; this way students become well rounded thinkers.
  • The Bachelor of Business Science
    Bachelor of Business Science
    The Bachelor of Business Science is a four year Honours level degree providing for a scientifically based study of economic and management sciences. The degree is offered in South Africa, and elsewhere in the Commonwealth.-Structure:...

     (BBusSc) is similar to the BCom, however it is a four-year Honours level course with an increased focus on the major, and which covers management theory in further depth. Additionally, students here are able to major in various quantitative disciplines not (typically) available in the BComm or BBA; relatedly - and similarly in distinction - all BBusSc students require a full first-year mathematics
    Mathematics
    Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

     course.
  • The Bachelor of Accountancy
    Bachelor of Accountancy
    The degree of Bachelor of Accountancy is the principal academic degree in accountancy in several countries, and is often the only degree recognised for subsequent practice; see First professional degree. It is abbreviated B.Acy. or B.Acc. or B. Accty....

     (B.Acy. or B.Acc. or B. Accty) is a specialized degree in accountancy
    Accountancy
    Accountancy is the process of communicating financial information about a business entity to users such as shareholders and managers. The communication is generally in the form of financial statements that show in money terms the economic resources under the control of management; the art lies in...

    ; it is often the principal (or only) undergraduate degree recognized for later professional practice. It is distinct from a BBA or BComm with a major in accountancy in that the entire program is focused on accountancy, while other topics are supplementary. It is also known as: Bachelor of Accounting or Bachelor of Accounting Science or Bachelor of Comptrolling (B.Acc.Sci. or B.Compt.).
  • The Bachelor of Economics (BEc, BEconSc; sometimes BA(Econ) or BSc(Econ)) is similarly a specialized degree in the field of economics
    Economics
    Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek from + , hence "rules of the house"...

    . Courses may last anywhere from three years, to as long as six years, and are typically more theoretical and mathematical than the BBA or BComm with a major in economics (often substantially so). Economics is not a business discipline, as such, but a social science, and economics degrees are therefore often offered through liberal arts colleges.
  • There are various other specialised business degrees. An example is the Bachelor of Arts in Organizational Management (BAOM) which is awarded to students who complete a four year course of study in the field. The core functions of this program are to learn organizational functions, communication, group behavior, decision making, human resource management, ethics, and to develop and deploy effective skills in management and leadership.

Computer science and information systems


There are various undergraduate degrees in information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 incorporating programming, database design, software engineering, networks and information systems. These programs prepare graduates for further postgraduate research
Postgraduate research
Postgraduate research represents a formal area of study that is recognized by a university or institute of higher learning...

 degrees or for employment in any variety of roles in the information technology
Information technology
Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

 industry. The program focus may be on the technical or theoretical aspects of the subject matter, depending on which course is taken.
  • Theoretically oriented degrees focus on computer science
    Computer science
    Computer science or computing science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems...

     and are correspondingly titled. These include: the Bachelor of Computing
    Bachelor of Computing
    Bachelor of Computing is a bachelor's degree in Computing. This degree is offered only in some universities, and is slightly different from a B.Sc. in Computer Science or Information Technology or B.Sc IT...

     (BComp) and Bachelor of Computer Science
    Bachelor of Computer Science
    The Bachelor of Computer Science, , is a type of bachelor's degree, usually awarded after four or more calendar years of collegiate study in computer science, but can be awarded in fewer years depending on factors such as an institution's course requirements and academic calendar...

     (BCompSc). Computer science is also offered as a major within most Bachelor of Science
    Bachelor of Science
    A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years .-Australia:In Australia, the BSc is a 3 year degree, offered from 1st year on...

     programs.

  • The practically oriented degrees cover many disciplines from within the IT industry
    Information technology
    Information technology is the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal, pictorial, textual and numerical information by a microelectronics-based combination of computing and telecommunications...

     including software engineering, information systems, and data communications. Examples here include the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
    Bachelor of Science in Information Technology
    A Bachelor of Science in Information Technology, , is a bachelor's degree awarded for the completion of an undergraduate course or program in information technology....

     (BSc IT), the Bachelor of Computer Applications
    Bachelor of Computer Applications
    Bachelor of Computer Applications is an undergraduate academic degree in computer Science awarded in India after completion of three years course. B.C.A. or Bachelor of Computer Application is a course which is equivalent with B.Tech/B.E in Computer Science or Information technology. It is a...

     (BCA), the Bachelor of Information Technology
    Bachelor of Information Technology
    A Bachelor of Information Technology degree is an undergraduate academic degree that generally requires three to five years of study to acquire. While the degree has a major focus on computers and technology, it differs from a Computer Science degree in that students are also expected to study...

    , and the Bachelor of Applied Science (Information Technology) (BAppSc(IT)). Many of the disciplines taught as part of this degree are covered under other degrees as well, such as engineering.

  • Degrees combining IT with business study are also offered at many universities. Specialised programs in information systems
    Information systems
    Information Systems is an academic/professional discipline bridging the business field and the well-defined computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific area of study...

     – such as the Bachelor of Business Information Systems (BBIS) – are often positioned as professionally orientated degrees. More general degrees here would include business degrees, such as the BBA
    Bachelor of Business Administration
    The Bachelor of Business Administration is a bachelor's degree in Commerce and business administration. In most universities, the degree is conferred upon a student after four years of full-time study in one or more areas of business concentrations; see below...

     or BComm, with Information systems as a major.

Medicine


In countries following British tradition, (the University of Malta
University of Malta
The University of Malta is the highest educational institution in Malta Europe and is one of the most respected universities in Europe. The University offers undergraduate Bachelor's Degrees, postgraduate Master's Degrees and postgraduate Doctorates .-History:The University of Malta was founded in...

 is an exception) medical students pursue an undergraduate medical education and receive Bachelor's degrees in Medicine and Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery
Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery, or in Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus, Baccalaureus Chirurgiae , are the two first professional degrees awarded upon graduation from medical school in medicine and surgery by universities in various countries...

 (MB BChir, MBBS, BMBS, BM, MB ChB etc).
This was historically taken at the universities of Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin after the initial BA degree, and in Oxford, Cambridge and Dublin the BA is still awarded for the initial three years of medical study, with the BM BCh, MB BChi, or MB BCh BAO respectively being awarded for the subsequent clinical stage of training. Some British universities give a bachelor's degree in science, or medical science, mid-way through the medical course, and most allow students to intercalate a year of more specialised study for an intercalated Bachelor of Science (BSc), Bachelor of Medical Science (BMedSci) or Bachelor of Medical Biology (BMedBiol) degree with honours.
Although notionally MB and BS are two degrees, they must be taken together, and by convention entitle the bearer to use the title of Doctor
Doctor (title)
Doctor, as a title, originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre . It has been used as an honored academic title for over a millennium in Europe, where it dates back to the rise of the university. This use spread...

. In some Irish universities a third degree, Bachelor of Obstetrics (BAO), is added. However, this third degree is an anachronism from the 19th century and is not registerable with the Irish Medical Council.
The non-university (licentiate) qualifications allowing registration as a medical practitioner in the UK, which have not been awarded by the United Examining Board
United Examining Board
The United Examining Board was formed in 1993 to administer non-university qualifying examinations in medicine and surgery. The diplomas offered by the United Examining Board were registerable with the General Medical Council in order to register as a medical practitioner in the United Kingdom,...

 since 1999, also conferred the courtesy title of "doctor."

Dentistry


Dentistry is offered both as an undergraduate and a postgraduate course. The Doctorate of Dental Surgery (DDS) is the usual undergraduate program. Postgraduate courses such as the Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent) – awarded exclusively by the University of Sydney (Sydney Faculty of Dentistry
Sydney Faculty of Dentistry
The Faculty of Dentistry is a constituent body of the University of Sydney, Australia. It is an Australian graduate-entry dental school based at two locations: Westmead Centre for Oral health which is a part of Westmead hospital, and Sydney Dental Hospital which is situated between Chalmers...

) in Australia – require a previous bachelor's degree.

Physical therapy


Physical therapy is offered both as an undergraduate and a postgraduate course. The [Bachelor of Physiotherapy] (BPT) is the usual undergraduate program. Postgraduate courses such as the Masters of Physiotherapy

Optometry


Optometry is a three year course (or four years in Scotland). Although students graduate with a BSc after three years of study, passing a further supervised pre-registration year is required to become a fully qualified optometrist.

Nursing


The Bachelor of Nursing is a three- to four-year undergraduate degree that prepares students for a career in nursing
Nursing
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death....

. Often the degree is required to gain "registered nurse
Registered nurse
A registered nurse is a nurse who has graduated from a nursing program at a university or college and has passed a national licensing exam. A registered nurse helps individuals, families, and groups to achieve health and prevent disease...

", or equivalent, status – subject to completion of exams in their area of residence. Sometimes, though, the degree is offered only to Nurses who are already registered. Alternate titles include Bachelor of Science in Nursing
Bachelor of Science in Nursing
The Bachelor of Science in Nursing is an American four year academic degree in the science and principles of nursing, granted by a tertiary education university or similarly accredited school...

 and Bachelor of Nursing Science, with abbreviations, BN, BNSc, BScN, BSN, BNurs, BSN, BHSc.

Veterinary Science


The Bachelor of Veterinary Science
Bachelor of Veterinary Science
The Bachelor of Veterinary Science or "Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine" is a bachelor's degree for studies in veterinary science in the United Kingdom and some other countries. In the US, these degrees are equivalent to DVM/VMD degrees...

 is, generally, a five-year course of study that is required for becoming a veterinarian
Veterinarian
A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon , is a professional who treats disease, disorder and injury in animals....

. It is also known as the Bachelor of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery at some universities; BVSc, BVMS, BVM&S, BVMedSci.

Pharmacy


The Bachelor of Pharmacy
Bachelor of Pharmacy
A Bachelor of Pharmacy is an undergraduate academic degree in the field of pharmacy. The degree is the basic prerequisite for registration to practice as a pharmacist in many countries. In some countries, it has been superseded by the Master of Pharmacy and Doctor of Pharmacy degrees...

 (BPharm) is the principal undergraduate degree
Undergraduate degree
An undergraduate degree is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is usually offered at an institution of higher education, such as a university...

 for the practice of pharmacy
Pharmacy
Pharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...

. In the United States, however, all colleges of pharmacy have now phased out the degree in favor of the PharmD, or Doctor of Pharmacy
Doctor of Pharmacy
A Doctor of Pharmacy is a professional doctorate degree in pharmacy. In some countries, it is a first professional degree, and a prerequisite for licensing to exercise the profession of pharmacist.-Kenya :...

, degree. Some Universities, such as the University of Mississippi, award a Bachelor of Science in Pharmaceutical Sciences (BSPS) degree as a part of the seven-year PharmD program after the completion of the first four years. However, the BSPS degree does not allow the practice of pharmacy, requiring students to continue on to pursue a PharmD degree.

Public health


Public Health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

 is usually studied at the master’s level. The Bachelor of Science in Public Health
Bachelor of Science in Public Health
The Bachelor of Science in Public Health is an undergraduate degree that prepares students to pursue careers in the public, private, or non-profit sector in areas such as public health, environmental health, health administration, epidemiology, nutrition, biostatistics, or health policy and...

 (BSPH) is a four-year undergraduate degree that prepares students for careers in the public, private, or non-profit sector in areas such as public health, environmental health, health administration, epidemiology, or health policy and planning.

Medical and health sciences

  • The Bachelor of Health Science (BHS & BHSc) is a specialized degree awarded to students whose studies have focused on health care or the health sciences. Specific areas of study can include nursing, radiography, health care management, and other allied health fields. The degree is typically awarded following four to five years of collegiate study.
  • The title BMedSc, BMSc or BVMedSci is granted to students who have qualified in the field of biomedical science
    Biomedical scientist
    A biomedical scientist is a scientist trained in biology, particularly in the context of medicine...

     and medical science or veterinary medical science respectively. Such universities that offer this course are the University of Western Ontario
    University of Western Ontario
    The University of Western Ontario is a public research university located in London, Ontario, Canada. The university's main campus covers of land, with the Thames River cutting through the eastern portion of the main campus. Western administers its programs through 12 different faculties and...

     and McMaster University
    McMaster University
    McMaster University is a public research university whose main campus is located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The main campus is located on of land in the residential neighbourhood of Westdale, adjacent to Hamilton's Royal Botanical Gardens...

     in Canada, University of Birmingham
    University of Birmingham
    The University of Birmingham is a British Redbrick university located in the city of Birmingham, England. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Birmingham Medical School and Mason Science College . Birmingham was the first Redbrick university to gain a charter and thus...

     in the UK and the University of New South Wales
    University of New South Wales
    The University of New South Wales , is a research-focused university based in Kensington, a suburb in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

    , the University of Canberra
    University of Canberra
    Over the years the Stone Day program has gradually become larger and larger, taking up a whole week and now Stonefest is one of Australia's most popular music festivals. The first foundation celebrations were held in 1971. In 1973 Stone Day celebrations were held over two days, which was expanded...

    , the University of Queensland
    University of Queensland
    The University of Queensland, also known as UQ, is a public university located in state of Queensland, Australia. Founded in 1909, it is the oldest and largest university in Queensland and the fifth oldest in the nation...

    , the University of Sydney
    University of Sydney
    The University of Sydney is a public university located in Sydney, New South Wales. The main campus spreads across the suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington on the southwestern outskirts of the Sydney CBD. Founded in 1850, it is the oldest university in Australia and Oceania...

    , Flinders University
    Flinders University
    Flinders University, , is a public university in Adelaide, South Australia. Founded in 1966, it was named in honour of navigator Matthew Flinders, who explored and surveyed the South Australian coastline in the early 19th century.The university has established a reputation as a leading research...

    , Griffith University
    Griffith University
    Griffith University is a public, coeducational, research university located in the southeastern region of the Australian state of Queensland. The university has five satellite campuses located in the Gold Coast, Logan City and in the Brisbane suburbs of Mount Gravatt, Nathan and South Bank. Current...

    , Monash University
    Monash University
    Monash University is a public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1958 and is the second oldest university in the state. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight and the ASAIHL....

    , Australian National University
    Australian National University
    The Australian National University is a teaching and research university located in the Australian capital, Canberra.As of 2009, the ANU employs 3,945 administrative staff who teach approximately 10,000 undergraduates, and 7,500 postgraduate students...

     and the University of Melbourne
    University of Melbourne
    The University of Melbourne is a public university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded in 1853, it is the second oldest university in Australia and the oldest in Victoria...

     in Australia.
  • The degree of BMedSci/BSc (Med) can be awarded for students completing an intercalated degree whilst studying medicine
    Medical school
    A medical school is a tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches medicine. Degree programs offered at medical schools often include Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine, Bachelor/Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Philosophy, master's degree, or other post-secondary...

     as an intermediate award. The degree of BMedSci may also be awarded to an individual who, having followed the prescribed course of study for the degrees of MB ChB/MB BS, does not complete their undergraduate clinical training. In brief, this is normally awarded having completed successfully the first three years of an undergraduate medical degree at certain UK (and Commonwealth) medical institutions.
  • BSc Human Biology
    Undergraduate Human Biology Program
    Several universities have designed interdisciplinary courses with a focus on human biology at the undergraduate level. There is a wide variation in emphasis ranging from business, social studies, public policy, healthcare and pharmaceutical research....

     is awarded by several universities around the world and focuses on biomedical research, healthcare, biotech business, pharmaceutical sciences, or a combination thereof.

Kinesiology


The Bachelor of Kinesiology
Kinesiology
Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics is the scientific study of human movement. Kinesiology addresses physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms. Applications of kinesiology to human health include: biomechanics and orthopedics, rehabilitation, such as physical and occupational...

 degree (BKin, BSc(Kin), BHK)is a specialized degree in the field of human movement and kinetics. Some schools still offer it under the aegis of a School of Physical Education
Physical education
Physical education or gymnastics is a course taken during primary and secondary education that encourages psychomotor learning in a play or movement exploration setting....

 (BPE or BHPE), although "kinesiology" or "human kinetics" is currently the more popular accepted term for the discipline.

BArch


The Bachelor of Architecture
Bachelor of Architecture
The Bachelor of Architecture is an undergraduate academic degree designed to satisfy the academic component of professional accreditation bodies, to be followed by a period of practical training prior to professional examination and registration. It is awarded for a course of study that lasts up...

 is a professional degree awarded to students who complete the five year course of study in the field.

BAvn


The Bachelor of Aviation
Bachelor of Aviation
The Bachelor of Aviation is a bachelor's degree for studies in the field of aviation. It may take 3 or 4 years.Bachelor of Aviation graduates generally receive a pilot's licence, and may work as professional pilots....

 is awarded to students who complete a four year course of study in the field.

BD, BTh, BRS, BBS, BRE


The Bachelor of Divinity
Bachelor of Divinity
In Western universities, a Bachelor of Divinity is usually an undergraduate academic degree awarded for a course taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies....

, Bachelor of Theology
Bachelor of Theology
The Bachelor of Theology is a three to five year undergraduate degree in theological disciplines. Candidates for this degree typically must complete course work in Greek or Hebrew, as well as systematic theology, biblical theology, ethics, homiletics and Christian ministry...

, Bachelor of Religious Studies, Bachelor of Biblical Studies
Bachelor of Biblical Studies
The Bachelor of Biblical Studies is an undergraduate academic degree offering a comprehensive curriculum in the areas of Judeo-Christian scripture, , and theology. Approximately three quarters of the program is invested in studies outside of the liberal arts...

 or Bachelor of Religious Education
Bachelor of Religious Education
The Bachelor of Religious Education, or BRE, or B.R.E. is an undergraduate degree. It offers a broad education in the areas of scripture and theology. It differs from a BA degree in that approximately three quarters of the program is invested in studies outside of the liberal arts...

 is awarded on completion of a program of study of divinity
Divinity (academic discipline)
Divinity is the study of Christian and other theology and ministry at a school, divinity school, university, or seminary. The term is sometimes a synonym for theology as an academic, speculative pursuit, and sometimes is used for the study of applied theology and ministry to make a distinction...

 or related disciplines, such as theology
Theology
Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

, religious studies
Religious studies
Religious studies is the academic field of multi-disciplinary, secular study of religious beliefs, behaviors, and institutions. It describes, compares, interprets, and explains religion, emphasizing systematic, historically based, and cross-cultural perspectives.While theology attempts to...

, or religious education
Religious education
In secular usage, religious education is the teaching of a particular religion and its varied aspects —its beliefs, doctrines, rituals, customs, rites, and personal roles...

. In some universities it is a first degree, in others it is a higher degree. While it is generally conferred upon completion of a four-year program, it is also conferred in some specialized three-year programs. From there the next level of advancement is generally the Master of Divinity
Master of Divinity
In the academic study of theology, the Master of Divinity is the first professional degree of the pastoral profession in North America...

, Master of Theology
Master of Theology
A Master of Theology is an advanced theological research degree offered by universities, divinity schools, and seminaries.-North America:In North America, the Master of Theology is considered by the Association of Theological Schools to be the minimum educational credential for teaching...

, Master of Religious Studies, or Master of Religious Education
Master of Religious Education
The Master of Religious Education is a terminal academic degree in preparation for professional teaching ministry, usually offered by Christian institutions. The curriculum includes two years of theological study and sometimes a thesis....

.

BFA


The Bachelor of Fine Arts
Bachelor of Fine Arts
In the United States and Canada, the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, usually abbreviated BFA, is the standard undergraduate degree for students seeking a professional education in the visual or performing arts. In some countries such a degree is called a Bachelor of Creative Arts or BCA...

 is a specialized degree awarded for courses of study in the fine and/or performing arts, frequently by an arts school or conservatory, although it is equally available at a significant number of traditional colleges and universities. In contrast to the BA or BS, which are generally considered to be academic degrees, the BFA is usually referred to as a professional degree, whose recipients have generally received four years of study and training in their major field, as compared to the two years of study in the major field usually found in most traditional non-Commonwealth Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science programs.

BF&TV


The Bachelor of Film and Television
Bachelor of Film and Television
Bachelor of Film and Television is an undergraduate bachelor's degree awarded to students who have studied elements of Filmmaking and Television production at a three-year accredited university....

 is an undergraduate degree for the study of film and/or television production including areas of cinematography, directing, scriptwriting, sound, animation and typography.

BIS


The Bachelor of Integrated Studies
Bachelor of Integrated Studies
Bachelor of Integrated Studies is an interdisciplinary bachelor's degree offered by several universities in the United States and Canada. It allows students to design a customized and specific course of study to best suit their educational and professional objectives. Generally, this degree is...

 is an interdisciplinary bachelor's degree offered by several universities in the United States and Canada that allows students to design a customized and specific course of study to best suit their educational and professional objectives. Generally, this degree is sponsored by two or more departments within the university. Schools which confer the BIS degree include the University of Manitoba
University of Manitoba
The University of Manitoba , in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, is the largest university in the province of Manitoba. It is Manitoba's most comprehensive and only research-intensive post-secondary educational institution. It was founded in 1877, making it Western Canada’s first university. It placed...

, Pittsburg State University
Pittsburg State University
Pittsburg State University, also called Pitt State or PSU, is a public university with approximately 7,100 students located in Pittsburg, Kansas, United States. A large percentage of the student population consists of residents within the Pittsburg region; the gender proportion is relatively equal...

, University of South Carolina Upstate
University of South Carolina Upstate
The University of South Carolina Upstate is a public university located in Spartanburg, South Carolina, United States. Formerly known as the University of South Carolina Spartanburg, the school changed its name in the summer of 2004...

, Weber State University
Weber State University
Weber State University is a public university located in the city of Ogden in Weber County, Utah, USA. It was founded in 1889 and is a coeducational, publicly supported university offering professional, liberal arts and technical certificates, as well as associate, bachelor's and master's degrees...

, Ferris State University
Ferris State University
Ferris State University is a public university with its main campus in Big Rapids, Michigan, USA. Founded in 1884 as the Big Rapids Industrial School by Woodbridge Nathan Ferris, an educator from New England who later served as governor of the State of Michigan and finally in the US Senate where...

, Arizona State University
Arizona State University
Arizona State University is a public research university located in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area of the State of Arizona...

, University of Minnesota
University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university located in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. It is the oldest and largest part of the University of Minnesota system and has the fourth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 52,557...

, and the University of New Brunswick
University of New Brunswick
The University of New Brunswick is a Canadian university located in the province of New Brunswick. UNB is the oldest English language university in Canada and among the first public universities in North America. The university has two main campuses: the original campus founded in 1785 in...

, University of Virginia, among others.

BJ, BAJ, BSJ, BJourn


The Bachelor of Journalism
Bachelor of Journalism
The Bachelor of Journalism degree is a professional degree awarded at some universities to students who have studied journalism in a three or four year undergraduate program. In the United States, some schools that do not award the B.J...

 degree is a professional degree awarded to students who have studied journalism at a four-year accredited university. Not all universities, however, grant this degree. In the United States, schools tend to offer the BA or BS with a major in journalism instead. The world's oldest school of journalism at the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri System is a state university system providing centralized administration for four universities, a health care system, an extension program, five research and technology parks, and a publishing press. More than 64,000 students are currently enrolled at its four campuses...

 offers a BJ degree, not to be confused with the bachelor's degree in jurisprudence at Oxford University. In South Africa, Rhodes University
Rhodes University
Rhodes University is a public research university located in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, established in 1904. It is the province’s oldest university, and is one of the four universities in the province...

 offers the oldest school of journalism in Africa, and allows students to take a fourth year specialisation to improve their BA, to BJourn status, equivalent to a B.A. Hons.

BLArch


The Bachelor of Landscape Architecture is awarded to students who complete the five (in some countries – four) year course of study in the field. For example at Texas Tech University
Texas Tech University
Texas Tech University, often referred to as Texas Tech or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas, United States. Established on February 10, 1923, and originally known as Texas Technological College, it is the leading institution of the Texas Tech University System and has the...

.

BLA, ABL, BGS, BSGS, BAS, BPS


The Bachelor of Liberal Arts
Bachelor of Liberal Arts
The Bachelor of Liberal Arts is the title of an undergraduate academic degree. Generally, it is awarded to students who major in liberal arts, pursue interdisciplinary studies, or design their own concentrations....

, Bachelor of General Studies
Bachelor of General Studies
A Bachelor of General Studies degree is an undergraduate degree, offered by many universities in the Western World. It is very similar to a Bachelor of Arts or Liberal Arts degree, although there are often fewer requirements for studies in humanities and social sciences...

, Bachelor of Liberal Studies
Bachelor of Liberal Studies
The purpose of the Bachelor of Liberal Studies degree is to provide students with a solid multidisciplinary preparation in the Humanities, Natural Sciences, Social Sciences and the Arts, subsequently allowing them to pursue careers in education, business, government, and other such fields...

, Bachelor of Science in General Studies or Bachelor of Applied Studies is sometimes awarded to students who major in the liberal arts
Liberal arts
The term liberal arts refers to those subjects which in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free citizen to study. Grammar, Rhetoric and Logic were the core liberal arts. In medieval times these subjects were extended to include mathematics, geometry, music and astronomy...

, general, or interdisciplinary studies. The Bachelor of Professional Studies is awarded to students who major in professional career studies.

BLS, BLib, BLIS


The Bachelor of Library Science
Bachelor of Library Science
The bachelor of library science is a degree sometimes awarded to students majoring in library science...

 or Bachelor of Library and Information Science is sometimes awarded to students who major in library science
Library science
Library science is an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation, and dissemination of information resources; and the...

.

BM or BMus


The Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music
Bachelor of Music is an academic degree awarded by a college, university, or conservatory upon completion of program of study in music. In the United States, it is a professional degree; the majority of work consists of prescribed music courses and study in applied music, usually requiring a...

 degree is a professional or academic undergraduate degree in music
Music
Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence. Its common elements are pitch , rhythm , dynamics, and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture...

 at most conservatories in the US and the UK. It is also commonly awarded at schools of music in large private or public universities. Areas of study typically include music performance, music education, music therapy, music composition, academic fields (music history/musicology, music theory, ethnomusicology), and may include jazz, commercial music, recording technology, sacred music/music ministry, or music business. Small liberal arts colleges and universities without schools of music often award only BAs in music, with different sets of requirements. (see also: BFA)

BME


The Bachelor of Music Education degree is an academic undergraduate degree in music. Oberlin Conservatory first offered the Bachelor of Music Education degree.

BMS


The Bachelor of Mortuary Science is a professional undergraduate degree, only awarded by the Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science
Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science
Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science is a primarily two-year, non-profit, private mortuary science college, located adjacent to St. Xavier High School in Finneytown, Ohio, just outside Cincinnati. CCMS claims to be the oldest school of its kind in the United States, tracing its history back to...

 of Cincinnati, Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

. It was introduced in 1986 and is currently awarded to students that complete 120 semester hours of course work and receive passing scores on the National Board Exam administered by The International Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards.

BPhil, PhB


The Bachelor of Philosophy
Bachelor of Philosophy
Bachelor of Philosophy is the title of an academic degree. The degree usually involves considerable research, either through a thesis or supervised research projects...

 degree is either an undergraduate or graduate degree. Generally, it entails independent research or a thesis/capstone project.

BAPSY, BSc(Psych)


The Bachelor of Arts or Science in psychology
Psychology
Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society...

 is a degree awarded to students who have completed a course of study in the field of psychology. Courses typically last three years, but may last as long as six. In Nepal there are three- and four-year course available for higher-level students.

BSE, BS in Ed


The Bachelor of Science in Education is a four-year undergraduate degree offered by many US colleges and universities for those preparing to be licensed as teachers
Education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

. Variants include the BEd, BA Ed, BAT (Bachelor of Arts for Teaching), and BST. Preparatory to the MS in Ed, this degree is most often taken by those interested in early childhood, elementary level, and special education, or by those planning to be school administrators. Secondary level teachers often major in their subject area instead (such as history, chemistry, or mathematics), with a minor in education.
BSE is also used to designate a Bachelor of Science and Engineering, similar to a BEng (above).

BScEd


The Bachelor of Science and/with Education is a degree awarded to students who complete the four- to five-year course of study in the field of science (major and minor in biology, chemistry, physics, math) and education. Although notionally BSc and BEd are two degrees, they must be taken together. The graduates will work as Science (Physics, Chemistry, Biology) teacher in high schools, lecturer in pre-university colleges and matriculation centres and can progress to postgraduate programs (M. Sc. and PhD) in various areas in Science or Education.

B.S.F. or B.Sc.F.


The Bachelor of Science in Forestry is a degree awarded to students who complete the four-year course of study in the field of forestry.

BSL


The Bachelor of Science in Law
Bachelor of Science in Law
The Bachelor of Science in Law is a somewhat special-purpose undergraduate degree that is typically intended for students who have completed some undergraduate education, but not received a baccalaureate degree, and are intending to resume their education and commence the study of law, ultimately...

 is a special-purpose degree that allows someone who has had some prior studies but has not achieved a bachelor's degree to resume their education and pursue the study of law towards an eventual Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor is a professional doctorate and first professional graduate degree in law.The degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the United States in the late 19th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree Juris Doctor (see etymology and...

 degree.

BSocSc


The Bachelor of Social Science
Bachelor of Social Science
The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science requires three to four years of study at an institution of higher education, primarily found in the Commonwealth of Nations....

 is a three or four year undergraduate British degree that enables students to specialize in the area of social science. Compared to the Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Arts
A Bachelor of Arts , from the Latin artium baccalaureus, is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both...

, which allows students to study a vast range of disciplines, the Bachelor of Social Science
Bachelor of Social Science
The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science requires three to four years of study at an institution of higher education, primarily found in the Commonwealth of Nations....

 enables students to develop more central and specialized knowledge of the social sciences. Many universities place the Bachelor of Social Science
Bachelor of Social Science
The academic undergraduate degree of Bachelor of Social Science requires three to four years of study at an institution of higher education, primarily found in the Commonwealth of Nations....

 between the Bachelor of Arts
Bachelor of Arts
A Bachelor of Arts , from the Latin artium baccalaureus, is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, the sciences, or both...

 and Bachelor of Science
Bachelor of Science
A Bachelor of Science is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years .-Australia:In Australia, the BSc is a 3 year degree, offered from 1st year on...

 undergraduate degrees.

BSW or BASW


The Bachelor of Arts in Social Work is a four year undergraduate degree. Usually the first two years consist of liberal arts courses and the last two years focusing on social work classes in human development, policy/law, research, and practice. Programs accredited by the Council of Social Work Education require BSW students to complete a minimum of 400 field education or internship hours. Accredited BSW programs often allow students who are interested in obtaining a Master of Social Work
Master of Social Work
The Master of Social Work is a master's degree in social workand especiality of sociology.- United States :In the United States, MSW degrees must be received from a graduate school that has been approved by the Council on Social Work Education...

 to complete the degree in a shorter amount of time or waive courses.

B.Tech


The Bachelor of Technology
Bachelor of Technology
The Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution...

 is a three or four year undergraduate degree. Generally, it is comparable to a Bachelor of Science degree program which is additionally supplemented by either occupational placements (supervised practical or internships) or practice-based classroom courses.

LLB, LL.B., LL. B., Ll.B


The Bachelor of Laws
Bachelor of Laws
The Bachelor of Laws is an undergraduate, or bachelor, degree in law originating in England and offered in most common law countries as the primary law degree...

 is the principal academic degree in law in most common law
Common law
Common law is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action...

 countries other than the United States and Canada, where it has been superseded by the Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor is a professional doctorate and first professional graduate degree in law.The degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the United States in the late 19th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree Juris Doctor (see etymology and...

 degree.

BTL


The Bachelor of Talmudic Law
Bachelor of Talmudic Law
The Bachelor of Talmudic law is a law degree, comprising the study, analysis and application of ancient Biblical sources. The laws derived from these texts comprise the origin of many of today’s judicial systems....

 is the degree awarded in most Yeshivas around the United States.

BMath and BMathSc


The Bachelor of Mathematics
Bachelor of Mathematics
A Bachelor of Mathematics is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for successfully completing a program of study in mathematics or related disciplines, such as computer science or statistics....

 or Bachelor of Mathematical Sciences degree is offered as a 4 year honors program or a 3 year general program. Several universities, mostly in Canada and Australia award such degrees.

BURP and BPlan


The Bachelor of Urban & Regional Planning (or just Bachelor of Planning) is a degree offered at some institutions as a 4 year professional undergraduate degree in urban planning.

BPAPM


The Bachelor of Public Affairs and Policy Management
Arthur Kroeger College of Public Affairs
The Arthur Kroeger College of Public Affairs is an institute within the Faculty of Public Affairs at Carleton University. It offers the Bachelor of Public Affairs and Policy Management , a specialized four-year honours degree dedicated to the study of public policy within an interdisciplinary...

 is a specialized four-year honours degree dedicated to the study of public policy within an interdisciplinary framework. The degree was created as a direct response to the changing nature of civic society and the growing need for university graduates who can work effectively in the new policy environment.

Other


There are many other specialised bachelor's degrees offered. Some are in very specialised areas, like the five-year BID or BSID degree in industrial design
Industrial design
Industrial design is the use of a combination of applied art and applied science to improve the aesthetics, ergonomics, and usability of a product, but it may also be used to improve the product's marketability and production...

. Others are offered only at a limited number of universities, such as the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
Georgetown University
Georgetown University is a private, Jesuit, research university whose main campus is in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1789, it is the oldest Catholic university in the United States...

's Bachelor of Science in Foreign Service (BSFS). The University of Delaware offers a Bachelor of Applied Arts and Science (BAAS) degree for many majors within their school of Arts and Science, which often indicate an interdisciplinary course of study. Stanford University
Stanford University
The Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly referred to as Stanford University or Stanford, is a private research university on an campus located near Palo Alto, California. It is situated in the northwestern Santa Clara Valley on the San Francisco Peninsula, approximately northwest of San...

's Bachelor of Arts and Science
Bachelor of Arts and Science
Bachelor of Arts and Science is an undergraduate bachelor's degree given by a small number of American universities and a fair number of universities in other English-speaking countries . Generally, to receive a B.A.S...

 degree is for students completing two Arts and Sciences majors, one of which would ordinarily lead to the BA while the other would ordinarily lead to the BS, but who are receiving only one degree.

At many institutions one can only complete a two-degree program if the bachelor's degrees to be earned are of different types, e.g., one could earn a BA in philosophy
Philosophy
Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

 and a BS ChE in chemical engineering
Chemical engineering
Chemical engineering is the branch of engineering that deals with physical science , and life sciences with mathematics and economics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms...

 simultaneously, but a person studying philosophy and English would receive only a single BA with the two majors. Rules on this vary considerably, however.

Africa


The University System in most African countries follow the model of their patron countries. For example, the Nigerian University System is similar to the British system while the Ivorian system is akin to the French.

Nigeria


University Admission is extremely competitive with attendant advantages and disadvantages. Nonetheless, it takes four to five years to complete a bachelor's degree. In cases of poor performance, time limit is double the standard amount of time. For example one may not study for more than 10 years for a five year course. Students are normally asked to leave if they must take longer. Nigerian Universities offer BSc, BTech (Usually from Universities of Technology), BArch (six years) and other specialized undergraduate degrees such as BEng (Bachelor of Engineering). Science undergraduate degree's may require 6 months or a semester dedicated to SIWES (Students Industrial Work Exchange Scheme) but its usually mandatory for all engineering degrees. A semester for project work/thesis is required not excluding course work during the bachelor thesis in the final year. The classification of degrees are: first class, second class (upper and lower), Third Class (with honours i.e. BSc (Hons)) and a Pass (no honours). First- and second-class graduates are immediately eligible for advanced post graduate degrees i.e. MScs and PhDs but other classes may be required to do an additional post graduate diploma before such eligibility.

Furthermore, all graduating students are obliged to do the National Youth Service Corps(NYSC) which usually takes one year after which they are eligible to pursue higher degrees. The NYSC is a paramilitary service entailing students being posted to different parts of the country to serve in various capacities. A few principal objectives of the NYSC is to forge national cohesion, encourage students to apply their obtained knowledge to solving problems of rural Nigeria and so on. The NYSC was enacted after the Nigerian Civil war.

Polytechnics in Nigeria are not considered Universities. They are mandated to educate technicians of high calibre, they offer the OND (ordinary national diploma) and the HND (higher national diploma). The polytechnics focus very strongly on practical technical training. The BSc and HND are compared in engineering circles but there are significant differences in training philosophies.

Asia-Pacific


The education systems in Asian countries are largely patterned after the western models.

Australia


In Australia the award of Honours is given to students who have achieved a higher level of performance in a fourth additional year to a typical bachelor's degree. Some bachelor's degrees have inclusive Honours as part of a four year degree (such as engineering or psychology). This Honours year generally consists of half coursework units and half thesis for professional courses such as engineering or music, but is more often entirely research towards a thesis in more general degrees. Honours is generally for those who want to take up a research track for postgraduate studies. Differing between universities is the marking scale for Honours. Generally, First Class Honours (80–100%) excellent standard; Second Class Division 1 (75–79%) high standard; Second Class Division 2 (70–74%) good standard; Third Class (65–69%) satisfactory standard; and a honours degree is not awarded (0–64%) unsatisfactory or fail.

The postgraduate honours programme allows researchers to pursue an independent research project in an area of interest under the supervision of an academic staff member. Students acquire skills which will enable them to work without close supervision in a research environment in industry or government, or to proceed to a research higher degree (such as a PhD). First class and second class (first division) is generally the standard required for entry into a PhD or Masters by Research in Australia. In science, a 2nd class research honours or higher is generally prerequiste for entrance to a Ph.D. programme (master's is uncommon route). As such the UK awarded honours (undergraduate) should not be confused with Australian awarded honours (postgraduate).

Bangladesh


In Bangladesh, universities and colleges award three- and four-year degrees (3 years degree are called pass course and four years degree are called honours course) in science and business (BSc, BBS, BBA (four year and three months, etc.) and three and four year degrees in arts (BA, BSS, etc.). Engineering universities provide four years degree programs for bachelor’s degrees. Medical colleges have 5 year degree programme. In law education there is a two year LLB degree after completing three years in BA program for a total of five years of study. And there is also 4 years LLB honours degree. All of these programs begin after achieving Higher Secondary Certificate (HSC— in total 12 years of education).

China


Since the undergraduate education
Undergraduate education
Undergraduate education is an education level taken prior to gaining a first degree . Hence, in many subjects in many educational systems, undergraduate education is post-secondary education up to the level of a bachelor's degree, such as in the United States, where a university entry level is...

 system in Mainland China
Mainland China
Mainland China, the Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geopolitical term that refers to the area under the jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China . According to the Taipei-based Mainland Affairs Council, the term excludes the PRC Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and...

 is modeled after its American counterpart, all the degrees are adapted from those of the United States excepting the release of the degree certificate. Once a student has fulfilled his/her course requirements, a graduate certificate will be given. In order to get the degree, they must finish and pass the dissertation stage and only then will they be awarded a degree credentialed by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China
Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China
The Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China , formerly Ministry of Education, Central People's Government from 1949 to 1954, State Education Commission from 1985 to 1998, is headquartered in Beijing. It is the agency of the State Council which regulates all aspects of the...

. Four years of education is the standard length, although some private small colleges do offer 3 year programs, but they are not credentialed by the Ministry of Education. Normally, about 90% of graduates are able to obtain a degree, however, no degree is awarded with excellency or honor. It is also referred to as a "xueshi" (学士).

Fiji


The colonial link and the establishment of the University of the South Pacific
University of the South Pacific
The University of the South Pacific is a public university with a number of locations spread throughout a dozen countries in Oceania. It is an international centre for teaching and research on Pacific culture and environment. USP's academic programmes are recognised worldwide, attracting students...

 in 1968 allowed the education system to follow suit from the qualification system of the Commonwealth
Commonwealth
Commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically, it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic."More recently it has been used for fraternal associations of some sovereign nations...

. University of the South Pacific
University of the South Pacific
The University of the South Pacific is a public university with a number of locations spread throughout a dozen countries in Oceania. It is an international centre for teaching and research on Pacific culture and environment. USP's academic programmes are recognised worldwide, attracting students...

 is the only university in the Oceania
Oceania
Oceania is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Conceptions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and volcanic islands of the South Pacific to the entire insular region between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Malay Archipelago...

 region to be internationally recognized outside of Australia and New Zealand with its bachelor's and other awards programme. It is also the highest ranked in the university ranking in the island region and also ranked above some Australian universities like the University of Canberra
University of Canberra
Over the years the Stone Day program has gradually become larger and larger, taking up a whole week and now Stonefest is one of Australia's most popular music festivals. The first foundation celebrations were held in 1971. In 1973 Stone Day celebrations were held over two days, which was expanded...

, University of Sunshine Coast and New Zealand universities like Lincoln University
Lincoln University, New Zealand
Lincoln University is a New Zealand university that was formed in 1990 when Lincoln College, Canterbury was made independent of the University of Canterbury...

 and Waikato Institute of Technology
Waikato Institute of Technology
The Waikato Institute of Technology, marketed as Wintec, is a technological learning institute based in Hamilton, New Zealand, and the fifth largest institute of technology/polytechnic within New Zealand, with around 16,000 full-time and part-time students, 1,200 full-time and part-time staff — and...

.

India


In India, arts, commerce and science colleges provide three year and four year bachelor's degrees (BA, B Tech, BScIT, BBA, BCA, B Com, etc.). Generally these programs are of three to four years duration and begin after secondary school year (10+2). After successful completion of these programs, a bachelor's degree is awarded by the respective university to which the college is affiliated.

Engineering and medical colleges provide 3 to 5 years degree programs for bachelor's degree (BE,Graduate in Engineering, B Arch, B Tech, BS, MBBS, BVSC&AH) that also begin after secondary school year 12(also called +2). The Bachelor of Architecture (BArch) degree program is of 5 years duration. Some of the institutes also provide the Graduate diploma courses. A graduate diploma is basically the same thing as a graduate certificate. This terminology is more common in England, Australia, Canada, Scotland, Wales, etc., whereas "certificate" is more common in the US.

The bachelor's degree in agriculture (Bachelor of Agriculture, BAg or BSc (Agriculture) Honours) is a four-year full-time degree course.

Indonesia


In Indonesia, most of the current bachelor's degrees are domain-specific degrees. Therefore, there are probably more than 20 bachelor's degrees. For instance, S.T for Sarjana Teknik (literally translated as Bachelor of Engineering), S.Si for Sarjana Sains (literally translated as Bachelor of Science), S.Farm for Sarjana Farmasi (literally translated as Bachelor of Pharmacy), S.Kom for Sarjana Ilmu Komputer (literally translated as Bachelor of Computer Science) or S.Sos for Sarjana Ilmu Sosial (literally translated as Bachelor of Social Sciences). In the past, Indonesian academic system adopted the old European/western degrees, such as Ir (inginieur) for engineering degree and Drs. (doktorandus) for either social or natural sciences.

Nepal


In Nepal, bachelor's degree for computer science is awarded by Tribhuvan University
Tribhuvan University
Tribhuvan University [त्रिभुवन विश्वविध्यालय] is a public university located in Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. Established in 1959, TU is the oldest of the five universities in Nepal...

, Purwanchal University, Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University
Kathmandu University is the third oldest university in Nepal located in Dhulikhel, Kavrepalanchok District, about 35Km east of Kathmandu. KU was established in 1991 with the motto "Quality Education for Leadership"...

 and Pokhara University
Pokhara University
Pokhara University was established in 1996 as Nepal's fifth University. The central office of the university is located in Pokhara, Kaski district, Western Development Region. Along with Purbanchal University, PU was formed as part of the government's policy to pursue a multi-university system for...


Malaysia


Institutes of higher learning in Malaysia provide three or four years of education leading to a BSc Hons Degree. There are also twinning programs with American, Australian, UK and French universities.

New Zealand


In New Zealand, only recognised institutions—usually universities—have degree awarding powers.

Most bachelor's degrees are three years full time, but certain degrees such as the Bachelor of Laws and the Bachelor of Engineering require four years of study. A Bachelor of Medicine requires a minimum of six years.

Where students opt to study two bachelor's degrees simultaneously—referred to as a 'conjoint degree' or 'double degree
Double degree
A double-degree program, sometimes called a combined degree, conjoint degree, dual degree, or simultaneous degree program, involves a student's working for two different university degrees in parallel, either at the same institution or at different institutions , completing them in less time than...

' – an extra year of study is added. The number of years of study required is determined based on the degree with the greatest number of years. For example, a Bcom degree requires three years of full-time study, but a double Bcom-LLB degree will require five years of full-time study because the LLB degree is four years long. Exceptional students may choose to complete a degree in a shorter amount of time by taking on extra courses, and usually with the help of summer school. Students who complete a double degree programme will have two separate bachelor's degrees at the end of their studies.

Consistently high-performing students may also be invited to complete the 'Honours' programme. This usually requires an extra year of study with an extra Honours thesis. An Honours award is credited with 'Hons.', for example, 'Bachelor of Laws (Hons.)'.

Pakistan


In Pakistan, commerce and science colleges provide four year bachelor's degrees (BA, BSc, BS, BBA, BCom, etc.). Generally these programs are of four years duration and begin after secondary school year 12. After successful completion of these programs, a bachelor's degree is awarded by the respective university to which the college is affiliated. Generally BA is for two years and BCom is for 4 years and could be enrolled as external candidate (external candidate are enrolled for examination & study program on self basis or through private tuition providers). Main universities offering these two programs are University of Punjab and University of Karachi where more than 50,000 students appear in BA & BCom exam as external candidates.

Engineering and medical colleges provide four- and five-year degree programs respectively for bachelor's degree (BE
Bachelor of Engineering
The Bachelor of Engineering is an undergraduate academic degree awarded to a student after three to five years of studying engineering at universities in Armenia, Australia, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Denmark, Egypt, Finland , Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Korea,...

, BS (Engg), BSc (Engg), BArch, B.Tech begin after 3 year Diploma of Associate Engineer
Bachelor of Technology
The Bachelor of Technology is an undergraduate academic degree conferred after completion of a three or four year program of studies at an accredited university or accredited university-level institution...

, MBBS) that also begin after secondary school year 12. BTech(Hon's) degree is at par and compatible to BE/BSc engineering. The Bachelor of Architecture (BArch) degree program is of 5 years duration

Philippines


In the Philippines, where the term "course" is commonly used to refer to a bachelor's degree major, course of study or program, several undergraduate categories exist — the two most common degrees awarded being Bachelor of Science (BS) and Bachelor of Arts (AB or BA). Specializations ("majors") in economics, business administration, accountancy, radiologic technology, nursing, architecture and engineering are offered as BS degrees in most colleges and universities. The latter two specializations require five years of schooling, in contrast to the standard of four years. Other common degrees are Bachelor in Education (BEd), and Bachelor of Laws (LLB, a professional degree). Being patterned after the United States, all universities and colleges offer graduation with honors — cum laude, magna cum laude, and summa cum laude.

Republic of Korea


Universities, colleges and institution of higher learning provide a bachelor's degree, called 'haksa' . Take, for example, a university graduate student having majored in literature obtains BA, called 'munhaksa' . Even if not going to educational institutes, people can get a bachelor's degree through Bachelor's Degree Examination for Self-Education
Bachelor's Degree Examination for Self-Education
Bachelor's Degree Examination for Self-Education makes it possible to obtain a bachelor's degree without attending a regular college or university by passing the examination administered by the government....

.

Sri Lanka


Recognised institutes of higher learning only are authorised to award degrees in Sri Lanka. Three years full time bachelor's degree without an area of specialization is known as a general degree. A degree with a specialization (in chemistry, plant biotechnology, zoology, physics, engineering, IT, law, etc.) is known as a special degree, and requires four years of study and more entrance qualifications. A degree in medicine, an MBBS
MBBS
MBBS was a popular BBS system in the Nordic countries during the mid-1990s. It was created by a team of Oslo-based enthusiasts, led by Mike Robertson. As many BBS systems of that era, it was only available for the DOS platform. Since one process could only handle one node, multitaskers such as...

 requires a minimum of six years.

Latin America


Usually the region presents bachelor's, master's, doctoral and postdoctoral degrees.

Brazil


In Brazil a bachelor's degree takes from three to six years until completion. A bachelor's degree is the title sought by Brazilians in order to be a professional in a certain area of human knowledge. Master's and doctoral degrees are additional degrees for those seeking an academic career.

Comparison Brazil–Europe
  • Brazil–Europe: a Brazilian "bachelor's" roughly corresponds to a European First Cycle. A Brazilian "bachelor's" takes 3 to 6 years for completion, as well as usually a written monograph or concluding project, in the same way a European "bachelor's" can be finished in 3–4 years, after which time Europeans may embark on a 1- to 2-year program called "master's" according to the Bologna Process
    Bologna process
    The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

    . Depending on programs and personal choices Europeans can achieve a "master's" degree in as little as 4 years (3-year bachelors, 1-year masters), and as long as 6 years (4-year bachelor's, 2-years master's), while in Brazil would be possible to have a master as short as 3 years (2 years "tecnólogo" degree and additional 1 year master) or as long as 8 year (6 years professional degrees, plus 2 years master).

  • Brazil–US: the Brazilian bachelor's could be compared to the Bachelors Hons in the US. Master's and Doctoral degrees could be directly comparable

Costa Rica



In this country there are two titles that should not be confused:
  1. High school students who pass their bachillerato exams, obtain a certificate of Bachiller en Educación Secundaria (Bachellor's Degree in Secondary Education) which is a must to enter a university, and is usually requested by companies in their profiles.
  2. University students obtain a Bachiller degree in their respective career after approving 4 years of education (and other requisites unique to each institution), enabling them to work as professionals in that area, for example a Bachiller en Enseñanza Secundaria (Bachelor's Degree in Secondary Teaching) enables a person to work as a high school teacher. Currently there is a tendency for universities not to offer a bachellor's degree, and a Licentiate
    Licentiate
    Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a licence. The term may derive from the Latin licentia docendi, meaning permission to teach. The term may also derive from the Latin licentia ad practicandum, which signified someone who held a certificate of competence to...

    's degree instead after 5 years of education.

Europe


Bachelor's degrees exist in almost every country in Europe. However, these degrees were only recently introduced in some Continental Europe
Continental Europe
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands....

an countries, where bachelor's degrees were unknown before the Bologna process
Bologna process
The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

. Undergraduate programmes in Europe overall lead to the following most widely accepted degrees:
  • BSc.: Bachelor of Science (35% – 40% of undergraduate programmes)
  • B.A.: Bachelor of Arts (30%- 35% of undergraduate programmes)
  • LL.B.: The Bachelor of Law (1% of total programmes however widely accepted in the Law discipline)

The rest of the programmes typically lead to B.Eng, BBA, or other variants. Also, the AD (Associate Degree) is rising in popularity on the undergraduate level in Europe.

On a per-country, per-discipline and sometimes even per-institute basis, the duration of an Undergraduate degree programme is typically either three or four years. This is an important factor in the student's decision making process.

Austria


The historical situation in Austria is very similar to the situation in Germany. The traditional first degrees are also the Magister and the Diplom. A new piece of educational legislation in 2002 reintroduced the bachelor's degree (awarded after three years) also in Austria.

Belgium


In accordance with the agreements made in the Bologna process, the system of higher education in Belgium was reformed. A 3-year bachelor's training was introduced to replace the former 2- or 3-year degree which was called "graduaat" (in Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

)/"graduat" (in French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

) or "kandidatuur" (in Dutch)/"candidature" (in French), the latter being part of a college or university education.

Czech Republic


Historically, the baccalareus was undergraduate degree awarded to students, who graduated the course of trivium (grammar
Grammar
In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics,...

, dialectic
Dialectic
Dialectic is a method of argument for resolving disagreement that has been central to Indic and European philosophy since antiquity. The word dialectic originated in Ancient Greece, and was made popular by Plato in the Socratic dialogues...

 and rhetorics) at a faculty of liberal arts (either at the Charles University or at the University of Olomouc). It was a necessary prerequisite to continue either at the faculty of liberal arts (quadrivium
Quadrivium
The quadrivium comprised the four subjects, or arts, taught in medieval universities, after teaching the trivium. The word is Latin, meaning "the four ways" , and its use for the 4 subjects has been attributed to Boethius or Cassiodorus in the 6th century...

 leading to master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

, and further to doctoral degree) or to study at the other three historical faculties – law, medicine or theology.

Bachelor's degree, abbreviated BcA. in the field of arts and Bc. (Bakalář in Czech) in other fields is awarded for accredited undergraduate programmes at universities and colleges.

The vast majority of undergraduate programmes offered in the Czech Republic have a standard duration of 3 years.

In the Czech tertiary education system, most universities and colleges today offer a three-year bachelor programme, which can be followed up with a typically two-year master's (graduate) programme. Some specialisations, such as doctors of medicine and lawyers, hold exceptions from the general system in that the only option is a five- or six-year master's programme with no bachelor stage. This is due mainly to the difficulty of meaningfully splitting up the education for these specialisations.

Denmark


The bachelor's degree was re-introduced at universities in Denmark in 1993, after the original degree baccalaureus was abandoned in 1775. The bachelor's degree is awarded after 3 or 4 years of study at a university, and follows a scheme much similar to the British one. Two bachelor degrees are used at the university level today:
  • Bachelor of Science (BSc), awarded to students with main focus on scientific, medical or technical areas.
  • Bachelor of Arts (BA), awarded to students with main focus on humanistic, theological or jurisprudence areas.


The bachelor's degree has also been used since the late 1990s in a number of areas like nursing and teaching. Usually referred to as a profession-bachelor's these degrees usually requires 4 years of study at a college. These bachelor degrees do not grant automatic access to a university master's program, as opposed to the traditional bachelor's degrees awarded by universities.

France


The traditional bachelor's degree is the equivalent of the French "Licence" 3-year degree. Since the new European system of 2004 "LMD" Bologna process was founded, it has become standard to recognize a bachelor's over three years, a master's over five years and a doctorate
Doctorate
A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder to teach in a specific field, A doctorate is an academic degree or professional degree that in most countries refers to a class of degrees which qualify the holder...

 over eight. However, most American universities will accept a bachelor's degree as the equivalent of a
"Maitrise" 4-year degree.

Germany



Bachelor's degrees, called Bakkalaureus, originally existed in Germany, but were abolished up until 1820 as part of educational reforms at this time. The Abitur
Abitur
Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years.The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as...

 degree—the final degree received in school after a specialized 'colloge phase' of two years—replaced it, and universities only awarded graduate degrees.

The Magister
Magister (degree)
Magister is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.-Argentina:...

 degree, a graduate degree, was awarded after five years of study. In 1899 a second graduate degree, the Diplom
Diplom
A Diplom is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland , Greece, Hungary, Russia, Serbia, Macedonia, Slovenia, and Ukraine...

, was introduced when the Technische Hochschule
Technische Hochschule
Technische Hochschule is what an Institute of Technology used to be called in German-speaking countries, as well as in the Netherlands, before most of them changed their name to Technische Universität or Technische Universiteit in the 1970s and in the...

n
received university status. Since the introduction of the Universities of applied sciences
Fachhochschule
A Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of tertiary education institution, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas . Fachhochschulen were founded in Germany and later adopted by Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Greece...

, a shortened version of the latter, referred to as Diplom (FH) and designed to take three to four years, was introduced between 1969 to 1972.

However, to comply with the Bologna process, in 1998 a new educational law reintroduced the bachelor's degree (first degree after 3 years of study) in Germany. Today these degrees can be called either Bakkalaureus or Bachelor (in accordance with federal law) but the English term is more common. The traditional degrees will be abolished by 2010.

The traditional degrees have been re-mapped to the new European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
This page describes ECTS-credits. For information about the ECTS grading system go to ECTS grading scale.European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union and other...

 (ECTS) point system, to make them comparable to the new bachelor's degree. Traditional and Bologna process degrees are ranked as follows in Germany:

Bachelor o.d. (ordinary degree): New, 180 or 210 ECTS points required
Diplom FH: Traditional, 240 ECTS
Diplom Uni or TH: Traditional, 300 ECTS
Master: New, also 300 ECTS (including Bachelor)

So the new bachelor's degree is not a direct replacement of the traditional Diplom FH.

Italy


The old four-, five-, or six-year laurea
Laurea
In Italy, the laurea is the main post-secondary academic degree.-Reforms due to the Bologna process:Spurred by the Bologna process, a major reform was instituted in 1999 to introduce easier university degrees comparable to the bachelors...

 system was discontinued in the early 2000s as per the Bologna process
Bologna process
The purpose of the Bologna Process is the creation of the European Higher Education Area by making academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe, in particular under the Lisbon Recognition Convention...

, with some exceptions such as law school or medical school. The bachelor's degree, called "Laurea
Laurea
In Italy, the laurea is the main post-secondary academic degree.-Reforms due to the Bologna process:Spurred by the Bologna process, a major reform was instituted in 1999 to introduce easier university degrees comparable to the bachelors...

", takes three years to complete (note that Italian students graduate from high school at age 19) and grants access to graduate degrees (known as "Laurea magistrale" or discontinued "Laurea specialistica"). In order to graduate, students must earn 180 credits (CFU) and write an original research thesis. Graduation marks go from 66 to 110. According to each faculty internal ruling, a lode (distinction) may be awarded to candidates with a 110/110 mark for recognition of the excellence of the final project.

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia


In 2003 the German style education system was changed to conform to the ECTS, because of the Bologna process. The existing academic degree granted with a diploma was transformed into a baccalaureus (bachelor's degree). The universities usually award a bachelor's degree after three years (following which, a master's degree will be two years long) or four years (following which, a master's degree will be one year long).

Netherlands


In the Netherlands, the Bachelor of Arts and Master of Arts degrees were introduced in 2002. Until that time, a single program that led to the doctorandus
Doctorandus
Doctorandus is a Dutch academic title according to the pre-bachelor-master system. The title is acquired by passing the doctoraalexamen, traditionally a matriculation exam for admission to study at doctoral level....

 degree was in effect, which comprised the same course load as the Bachelor and Master programs put together. (The doctorandus title was in use for almost all fields of study; other titles were used for legal studies (meester) and engineering (ingenieur).) Those who had already started the doctorandus program could, upon completing it, opt for the doctorandus degree (before their name, abbreviated to 'drs.'), or simply use the Master's degree (behind their name) in accordance with the new standard. Since these graduates do not have a separate Bachelor’s degree (which is in fact – in retrospect – incorporated into the program), the Master’s degree is their first academic degree.

In 2003/2004, the Dutch degree system was changed because of the Bologna process. Former degrees included:
  • baccalaureus (bc. for bachelor, corresponding to a BASc or BAA degree, it may be formally rendered as B eventually followed by the specialization field, instead of bc.)
  • doctorandus (prefix abbreviated to drs.; it corresponds to MA or MSc, but it may be formally rendered as M instead of drs.),

ingenieur
  • ing. for graduates of the four-year courses offered by Dutch higher vocational colleges (HBO, that is;hoger beroepsonderwijs) see: university of applied science. It is similar with a BASc, BEng, BBE, B AS or B ICT (B IT), it may be formally rendered as B followed by the specialization field, instead of ing.
  • ir. for those having graduated from technical university after a minimum of 5 years, corresponding to a MSc, but it may be formally rendered as M, instead of ir.),
  • meester in de rechten (mr.; it corresponds to LL.M., but it may be formally rendered as M instead of mr.) and
  • doctor (dr.; it corresponds to Ph.D, but it may formally be rendered as D instead of dr.) are still granted along with their international equivalents.


While the titles ing., bc., ir., mr., drs. and dr. are used before one's own name, the degrees B, M or D are mentioned after one's name. It is still allowed to use the traditional titles.

Whether a bachelor's degree is granted by a hogeschool or university is highly relevant as these parallel systems of higher education have traditionally served very different purposes with the vocational colleges concentrating on skills and practical training. A B.A or B.Sc from a university grants 'immediate' entry into a master's program. Moreover this is usually considered a formality to allow students to switch to foreign universities master's programs. Meanwhile those having completed a HBO from a vocational college, which represented the highest possible level of vocational education available, can only continue to a "Masters" on completion of a challenging year of additional study, which in itself can serve as a type of selection process, with the prospective M.Sc students being required to cover a great deal of ground in a single year.

Recently, HBO (vocational) masters degrees have been introduced in the Netherlands. Graduates thereof may use neither the extension "of Arts" (MA) nor "of Science" (MSc). They may use an M followed by the field of specialization (e.g. M Design).

This year of study to "convert" from the vocational to academic (WO-wetenschappelijk onderwijs, literally "scientific education") is also known as a 'bridge' or 'pre-master' year. Note that despite the use of the terminology "university of applied science" the higher vocational colleges are not considered "universities" within The Netherlands.

Important aspects of Dutch bachelor's degree courses (and others) relative to some of those offered abroad include:
  • Duration. While in many countries courses are completed in a given time under normal circumstances, degree courses offered at some (though by no means all) Dutch institutions, including the most prestigious, can only be completed in three years by the best performing students.
  • Academic year. The Dutch academic year has a formal duration of 42 weeks. In practice students are often expected, and necessitated to spend a great deal of the "free" time revising for examinations. This is not always true elsewhere, as in many countries a very long summer break is taken and/or examinations before the winter break rather than after.
  • Learning curve. Some education systems, notably the British one, involve a gentle introduction during the first year. This is generally not the case in the Netherlands, with the difficulty level in the first year serving as a type of "self selection" with less committed and less able students routinely finding it difficult to keep up.


In February, 2011, the Dutch State Secretary of Education decided to adhere to the recommendations written in a report by the Veerman Commission. In the near future, the distinction between acaedemic and higher vocational degrees will disappear.

Poland


In Poland, the licentiate degree corresponds to the bachelor's degree in Anglophone countries. In Polish it is called licencjat. To obtain the licencjat degree one must complete 3 years of study. There is also a similar degree called Engineer (Inżynier) which differs from the licencjat in that it is awarded by technical universities and the program usually lasts for 3.5 years. After that the student can continue education for 2 or 1.5 years, respectively, to obtain the Polish magisterium degree, which corresponds to a Master's degree.

Portugal


Presently the Portuguese equivalent of a bachelor's degree is the licenciatura, awarded after three years of study at an accredited university or polytechnical institution. It is an undergraduate 1st study cycle program which is required to advance into further studies like master's degree programs. Before the Bologna process (2006/2007) in Portuguese higher education, a licenciatura referred to a licentiate
Licentiate
Licentiate is the title of a person who holds an academic degree called a licence. The term may derive from the Latin licentia docendi, meaning permission to teach. The term may also derive from the Latin licentia ad practicandum, which signified someone who held a certificate of competence to...

 degree, which was a major bachelor's degree with professional accreditation. It required five years of study (equivalent to the present bachelor's plus the masters) but this was changed due to the European uniformization of scholarship degrees.

Russia and Ukraine


The Specialist's degree
Specialist degree
-The Specialist degree in the Commonwealth of Independent States:The specialist degree was the only first degree in the former Soviet Union and currently is being phased out by the bakalvr's - magister's degrees....

 , was the first academic distinction in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, awarded to students upon completion of 5-year studies at the University level. The degree can be compared both to the bachelor's and master's degree. In the early 1990s, Bakalavr (Бакалавр) or (bachelor's) degrees were introduced in all the countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional organization whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union....

, except Turkmenistan. After Bakalavr degree, one can earn a Master's degree (another 1–2 years) while preserving the old 5-year Specialist scheme. Specialist degree is now being discontinued in universities that take part in the Bologna process, so new students do not have this option.

Spain


In Spain the traditional system (up to 2009/2010) was split in two categories of undergraduates degrees. There were so-called first-cycle degrees: "Diplomado" or "Ingeniero Técnico", both 3-year. There were also second-cycle degrees: "Licenciado" or "Ingeniero Superior" with nominal durations varying between 4 and 6 years. The master's degree was not part of the structure of the official Spanish educational system. Therefore, although universities and other institutions offered master's studies, they were not officially recognized. In fact, the official second-cycle degrees are comparable in terms of duration, scope and educational outcomes to a bachelor's + master's combination if compared with the Anglo-Saxon system. In the traditional system the access to doctoral studies was granted only to the holders of "Licenciado" or "Ingeniero Superior" degrees. Due to the ongoing transition to a model compliant with the Bologna agreement, an exact equivalent to the typical Anglo-Saxon bachelor's degree is being implemented progressively and is called "Título de Grado", its duration generally being four years. The "Título de Grado" is now the prerequisite for graduate studies (master's or doctoral).

Sweden


The Swedish equivalent of a bachelor's degree is the kandidatexamen. It is awarded after three years of study: a year and a half in the major subject and a year and a half in other subjects. A thesis equivalent to 15 ECTS credits must be included in the degree. The exception to this system is Theology, where a teologie kandidat (Bachelor of Theology) is a four-year degree, equivalent to a Master's. Previously, there was a Bachelor of Law degree (juris kandidat) which contained 4.5 years of study, but this degree has now changed its name to juristexamen ("law degree").

Switzerland


Similarly to Austria and Germany, Switzerland did not have a tradition of bachelor's and master's degrees. In 2003, after the application of the Bologna process, Bachelor's and graduate master's degrees replaced the old degrees. As of 1 December 2005 the Rectors' Conference of the Swiss Universities granted holders of a Lizentiat or Diploma the right to use the corresponding master title. As of 2006 certificates of equivalence are issued by the respective university that issued the original degree. Currently three to four years of study are required to be awarded a bachelor's degree. A master's degree will require another two to three years of coursework and a thesis.

See also


  • College of Europe
    College of Europe
    The College of Europe is an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium...

  • Degrees of the University of Oxford
  • Graduate school
    Graduate school
    A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree...

  • Licensure
    Licensure
    Licensure refers to the granting of a license, which gives a "permission to practice." Such licenses are usually issued in order to regulate some activity that is deemed to be dangerous or a threat to the person or the public or which involves a high level of specialized skill...

  • List of admission tests to colleges and universities
  • List of universities in Nigeria
  • Validation of foreign studies and degrees
    Validation of foreign studies and degrees
    Validation can be total or partial validation of foreign university and non-university studies and degrees.- Mutual recognition of professional qualifications:...



External links