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20th century


Shortly after 6 Burlington Gardens was vacated, the University went through a period of rapid expansion. Bedford College, Royal Holloway
Royal Holloway, University of London
Royal Holloway, University of London is a constituent college of the University of London. The college has three faculties, 18 academic departments, and about 8,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students from over 130 different countries...

 and the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university specialised in the social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

 all joined in 1900, Regent's Park College, which had affiliated in 1841 became an official divinity school of the university in 1901, Goldsmiths College joined in 1904, Imperial College
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, business and medicine...

 was founded in 1907, Queen Mary College
Queen Mary, University of London
Queen Mary, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

 joined in 1915, the School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies
The School of Oriental and African Studies is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London...

 was founded in 1916 and Birkbeck
Birkbeck, University of London
Birkbeck, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It offers many Master's and Bachelor's degree programmes that can be studied either part-time or full-time, though nearly all teaching is...

 joined in 1920. This rapid expansion meant that the University's new premises would prove insufficient by the 1920s, requiring yet another move. A large parcel of land in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
-Places:* Bloomsbury is an area in central London.* Bloomsbury , related local government unit* Bloomsbury, New Jersey, New Jersey, USA* Bloomsbury , listed on the NRHP in Maryland...

 near the British Museum
British Museum
The British Museum is a museum of human history and culture in London. Its collections, which number more than seven million objects, are amongst the largest and most comprehensive in the world and originate from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its...

 was acquired from the Duke of Bedford
Herbrand Russell, 11th Duke of Bedford
Herbrand Arthur Russell, 11th Duke of Bedford KG KBE DL LLD FRS FSA was the son of Francis Russell, 9th Duke of Bedford.-Family:...

 and Charles Holden
Charles Holden
Charles Henry Holden, Litt. D., FRIBA, MRTPI, RDI was a Bolton-born English architect best known for designing many London Underground stations during the 1920s and 1930s, for Bristol Central Library, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's headquarters at 55 Broadway and for the...

 was appointed architect with the instruction to create a building "not to suggest a passing fashion inappropriate to buildings which will house an institution of so permanent a character as a University." This unusual remit may have been inspired by the fact that William Beveridge
William Beveridge
William Henry Beveridge, 1st Baron Beveridge KCB was a British economist and social reformer. He is best known for his 1942 report Social Insurance and Allied Services which served as the basis for the post-World War II welfare state put in place by the Labour government elected in 1945.Lord...

, having just become director of LSE, upon asking a taxi driver to take him to the University of London was met with the response "Oh, you mean the place near the Royal School of Needlework
Royal School of Needlework
The Royal School of Needlework is a hand embroidery school in the United Kingdom, founded in 1872.It has an archive of over 30,000 images covering every period of British history...

". Holden responded by designing Senate House, the current headquarters of the university, and at the time of completion the second largest building in London.

During the Second World War, the colleges of the university (with the exception of Birkbeck) and their students left London for safer parts of the UK, while Senate House was used by the Ministry of Information, with its roof becoming an observation point for the Royal Observer Corps
Royal Observer Corps
The Royal Observer Corps was a civil defence organisation operating in the United Kingdom between 29 October 1925 and 31 December 1995, when the Corps' civilian volunteers were stood down....

. Though the building was hit by bombs several times, it emerged from the war largely unscathed; rumour at the time had it that the reason the building had fared so well was that Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 had planned to use it as his headquarters in London.

The latter half of the last century was less eventful. In 1948, Athlone Press was founded as the publishing house for the university, and sold to the Bemrose Corporation in 1979, subsequent to which it was acquired by Continuum publishing
Continuum International Publishing Group
The Continuum International Publishing Group is a publisher of books, with its editorial offices in London and New York City. It had been owned by Nova Capital Management since 2005...

. However, the post-WWII period was mostly characterised by expansion and consolidation within the university, such as the acquisition as a constituent body of the Jesuit theological institution Heythrop College on its move from Oxfordshire in 1969. Nevertheless, some of the larger colleges (most notably UCL, King's, LSE and Imperial) periodically put forward the possibility of their departure from the university. There was a marked transference of academic and financial power in this period from the central authorities in Senate House
Senate House (University of London)
Senate House is the administrative centre of the University of London, situated in the heart of Bloomsbury, London between the School of Oriental and African Studies to the north, with the British Museum to the south...

 to the individual colleges. There was also a tendency for smaller colleges to be amalgamated into larger "super-colleges". A significant development in this process was the closing down of the Convocation
Convocation
A Convocation is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose.- University use :....

 of all University of London alumni in October 2003; this recognised that individual college alumni associations were now increasingly the centre of focus for alumni.

21st century


In 2002, Imperial College and UCL
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 mooted the possibility of a merger. This raised a question mark over the future of the University of London and the autonomy of smaller colleges within it. Subsequently considerable opposition from academic staff of both UCL and Imperial led to a rejection of the merger.

On 9 December 2005, Imperial College became the first college to make a formal decision to leave the university. Its council announced that it was beginning negotiations to withdraw from the university in time for its own centenary celebrations, and in order to be able to award its own degrees. On 5 October 2006, the University of London accepted Imperial's formal request to withdraw from the federation. Imperial became fully independent on 9 July 2007, as part of the celebrations of the college's centenary.

The Times Higher Education Supplement announced in February 2007 that the London School of Economics
London School of Economics
The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university specialised in the social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

, University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 and King's College London
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

 all plan to start awarding their own degrees, rather than degrees from the federal University of London as they have done previously, from the start of the new academic year (starting in Autumn 2007). Although this plan to award their own degrees does not amount to a decision to formally leave the University of London, the THES suggests that this 'rais[es] new doubts about the future of the federal University of London'. However, the University continues to grow and, in 2005, admitted the Central School of Speech and Drama
Central School of Speech and Drama
The Central School of Speech and Drama was founded in London in 1906 by Elsie Fogerty to offer a new form of training in speech and drama for young actors and other students...

.

As of 1 April 2010, London Business School
London Business School
London Business School is an international business school and a constituent college of the federal University of London, located in central London, beside Regent's Park...

 has formally ceased awarding University of London affiliated degrees. It was decided on 13 May 2011, after a consultation and development process, that the School of Pharmacy, University of London would merge with University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 (UCL).

Location


The University of London owns a considerable central London estate of 180 buildings in Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
-Places:* Bloomsbury is an area in central London.* Bloomsbury , related local government unit* Bloomsbury, New Jersey, New Jersey, USA* Bloomsbury , listed on the NRHP in Maryland...

, near Russell Square tube station
Russell Square tube station
Russell Square is a London Underground station on Bernard Street, Bloomsbury in the London Borough of Camden. It is a small but busy station, often used by office workers and by tourists who are staying in Bloomsbury's numerous hotels. The station is a Grade II listed building.-History:The station...

.

Some of the University's colleges have their main buildings on the estate. The Bloomsbury Campus also contains eight Halls of Residence and Senate House
Senate House (University of London)
Senate House is the administrative centre of the University of London, situated in the heart of Bloomsbury, London between the School of Oriental and African Studies to the north, with the British Museum to the south...

, which houses the Senate House Library, the chancellor's official residence and previously housed the School of Slavonic and East European Studies
School of Slavonic and East European Studies
The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies is a school of University College London . It is the largest centre for the study and research of Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, and Russia in the United Kingdom...

, now part of University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 (UCL) and housed in its own new building. Almost all of the School of Advanced Study
School of Advanced Study
The School of Advanced Study, a postgraduate institution of the University of London, is the UK's national centre for the promotion and facilitation of research in the humanities and social sciences...

 is housed in Senate House and neighbouring Stewart House.

The University also owns many of the squares which formed part of the Bedford Estate, including Gordon Square
Gordon Square
Gordon Square is in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, London, England . It was developed by Thomas Cubitt in the 1820s, as one of a pair with Tavistock Square, which is a block away and has the same dimensions...

, Tavistock Square
Tavistock Square
Tavistock Square is a public square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden with a fine garden.-Public art:The centre-piece of the gardens is a statue of Mahatma Gandhi, which was installed in 1968....

, Torrington Square
Torrington Square
Torrington Square is a square in Bloomsbury, owned by the University of London, located in central London, England. Today it is a square in name only, most of the houses having been demolished by the university. Birkbeck College and the School of Oriental and African Studies are located here. To...

 and Woburn Square
Woburn Square
Woburn Square is the smallest of the Bloomsbury Squares and owned by the University of London. Designed by Thomas Cubitt and built between 1829 and 1847, it is named after Woburn Abbey, the main country seat of the Dukes of Bedford, who developed much of Bloomsbury.The original construction was of...

.

The estate includes several properties outside Bloomsbury also, with many of the University's colleges and institutes occupying their own estates across London. Clare Market
Clare Market
Clare Market was an area of London to the west of Lincoln's Inn Fields, between the Strand and Drury Lane, with Vere Street adjoining its western side...

 and part of Aldwych
Aldwych
Aldwych is a place and road in the City of Westminster in London, England.-Description:Aldwych, the road, is a crescent, connected to the Strand at both ends. At its centre, it meets the Kingsway...

 where the London School of Economics and Political Science is based, as well as the West Wing of Somerset House
Somerset House
Somerset House is a large building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, England, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge. The central block of the Neoclassical building, the outstanding project of the architect Sir William Chambers, dates from 1776–96. It...

, the location for the Courtauld Institute of Art
Courtauld Institute of Art
The Courtauld Institute of Art is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art. The Courtauld is one of the premier centres for the teaching of art history in the world; it was the only History of Art department in the UK to be awarded a top...

 and King's College London
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

, St Bart's Hospital, the University of London Boat Club in Chiswick
Chiswick
Chiswick is a large suburb of west London, England and part of the London Borough of Hounslow. It is located on a meander of the River Thames, west of Charing Cross and is one of 35 major centres identified in the London Plan. It was historically an ancient parish in the county of Middlesex, with...

 and the Egham campus of Royal Holloway with its historic Founder's Building
Founder's Building
The Founder's Building was the original building of Royal Holloway College and is an example of Gothic Revival architecture in the United Kingdom. Today it is the dominant building on the campus of Royal Holloway, University of London in Egham, Surrey.The construction of the building began in...

 are also examples of properties which form part of the University's estate.

In addition, there are several properties outside London, including the University Marine Biological Station, Millport
University Marine Biological Station, Millport
The University Marine Biological Station Millport is a higher education institute located on the island of Great Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland...

 on the Isle of Cumbrae, a number of residential and catering units further afield and the premises of the University of London Institute in Paris
University of London Institute in Paris
The University of London Institute in Paris is a college of the University of London located in Paris. It is currently the only UK University Institute in Continental Europe.-History:...

 which offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in French and Historical Studies.

Coat of arms


The University of London first received a grant of arms in April 1838. The arms depict a cross of St George upon which there is a Tudor rose surrounded by detailing and surmounted by a crown. Above all of this there is a blue field with an open book upon it.

In terms of heraldry the arms would be described as:

Argent, the Cross of St George, thereon the Union Rose irradiated and ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper, a Chief Azure, thereon an open Book also proper, Clasps gold

Organisation


The nine largest institutions of the federal university, usually termed the colleges, are Birkbeck
Birkbeck, University of London
Birkbeck, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It offers many Master's and Bachelor's degree programmes that can be studied either part-time or full-time, though nearly all teaching is...

, Goldsmiths, King's College London
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

, the London Business School
London Business School
London Business School is an international business school and a constituent college of the federal University of London, located in central London, beside Regent's Park...

, Queen Mary
Queen Mary, University of London
Queen Mary, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

, Royal Holloway, the School of Oriental and African Studies
School of Oriental and African Studies
The School of Oriental and African Studies is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London...

, London School of Economics and Political Science and University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 (UCL). Formerly a constituent college, the Imperial College London
Imperial College London
Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, business and medicine...

 left the University of London in 2007.

For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Legally speaking they are known as Recognised Bodies, with the authority to examine students and have the university award them degrees. Some colleges have recently obtained the power to award their own degrees and the University has amended its statutes to allow them to do so and yet remain in the University federation. For instance, beginning in the 2007/08 academic year, the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE), King's College London
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

, the Institute of Education
Institute of Education
The Institute of Education is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom specialised in postgraduate study and research in the field of education and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest education research body in the United Kingdom, with...

, and University College London
University College London
University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

 began awarding their own degree certificates while retaining their constituent-college status within the University of London.

The twelve institutes, or Listed Bodies, within the University of London offer courses leading to degrees that are both examined and awarded by the University of London. Additionally, twelve universities in England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

, several in Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 and many in other Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 countries (notably in East Africa
East Africa
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easterly region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. In the UN scheme of geographic regions, 19 territories constitute Eastern Africa:...

) began life as associate colleges of the university offering such degrees. By the 1970s, almost all of these colleges had achieved independence from the University of London. An increasing number of overseas academic institutes offer courses to support students registered for the University of London International Programmes's diplomas and degrees and a new Institutions Policy Framework is currently being developed to accommodate these institutions. Up to now, no accreditation from London for these schools has existed other than the final examinations administered by the University of London which all pupils take.




Administrative structure


Most decisions affecting the constituent colleges and institutions of the University of London are made at the level of the colleges or institutions themselves. The University of London does retain its own decision-making structure, however, with the Collegiate Council and Board of Trustees, responsible for matters of academic policy. The Collegiate Council is made up of the Heads of Colleges of the University.

Colleges of the University of London



The constituent colleges of the University of London are currently divided as follows, in alphabetical order:
  • Birkbeck, University of London
    Birkbeck, University of London
    Birkbeck, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It offers many Master's and Bachelor's degree programmes that can be studied either part-time or full-time, though nearly all teaching is...

     (BBK) [entered in 1920]
  • The Central School of Speech and Drama
    Central School of Speech and Drama
    The Central School of Speech and Drama was founded in London in 1906 by Elsie Fogerty to offer a new form of training in speech and drama for young actors and other students...

     (CSSD) [entered in 2005]
  • Courtauld Institute of Art
    Courtauld Institute of Art
    The Courtauld Institute of Art is a self-governing college of the University of London specialising in the study of the history of art. The Courtauld is one of the premier centres for the teaching of art history in the world; it was the only History of Art department in the UK to be awarded a top...

      [created and admitted in 1932]
  • Goldsmiths, University of London (GUL) [entered in 1904]
  • Heythrop College
    Heythrop College
    Heythrop College is the specialist philosophy and theology constituent college of the University of London situated in Kensington Square, Kensington, London. It offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in philosophy, theology and psychology, as well as research in related fields.It was founded...

     (HEY) [entered in 1971]
  • Institute of Cancer Research
    Institute of Cancer Research
    The Institute of Cancer Research is a cancer research institute located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. The ICR was founded in 1909 as a research department of the Royal Marsden Hospital and joined the University of London in 2003...

     (ICR) [entered in 2003]
  • Institute of Education
    Institute of Education
    The Institute of Education is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom specialised in postgraduate study and research in the field of education and a constituent college of the federal University of London. It is the largest education research body in the United Kingdom, with...

     (IoE) [entered in 1909]
  • King's College London
    King's College London
    King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

     (KCL) [founding college]
  • London Business School
    London Business School
    London Business School is an international business school and a constituent college of the federal University of London, located in central London, beside Regent's Park...

     (LBS) [created and admitted in 1964]
  • The London School of Economics and Political Science
    London School of Economics
    The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university specialised in the social sciences located in London, United Kingdom, and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

     (LSE) [entered in 1900]
  • London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) [entered in 1924]
  • Queen Mary, University of London
    Queen Mary, University of London
    Queen Mary, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

     (QMUL) [entered in 1915]
  • Royal Academy of Music
    Royal Academy of Music
    The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is a conservatoire, Britain's oldest degree-granting music school and a constituent college of the University of London since 1999. The Academy was founded by Lord Burghersh in 1822 with the help and ideas of the French harpist and composer Nicolas...

     (RAM) [entered in 2003]
  • Royal Holloway, University of London
    Royal Holloway, University of London
    Royal Holloway, University of London is a constituent college of the University of London. The college has three faculties, 18 academic departments, and about 8,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students from over 130 different countries...

     (RHUL) [entered in 1900]
  • Royal Veterinary College
    Royal Veterinary College
    The Royal Veterinary College is a veterinary school located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. The RVC was founded in 1791 and joined the University of London in 1949...

     (RVC) [entered in 1915]
  • School of Oriental and African Studies
    School of Oriental and African Studies
    The School of Oriental and African Studies is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the University of London...

     (SOAS) [created and entered in 1916]
  • St George's, University of London
    St George's, University of London
    St George's, University of London is a medical school located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

    , formerly St George's Hospital Medical School (SGUL) [affiliated in the 19th Century]
  • The School of Pharmacy, University of London [entered in 1949]
  • University College London
    University College London
    University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

     (UCL) [founding college]
  • University of London Institute in Paris
    University of London Institute in Paris
    The University of London Institute in Paris is a college of the University of London located in Paris. It is currently the only UK University Institute in Continental Europe.-History:...

     (ULIP) [entered in 1969]

Central Academic Bodies of the University of London

  • the University of London Institute in Paris
    University of London Institute in Paris
    The University of London Institute in Paris is a college of the University of London located in Paris. It is currently the only UK University Institute in Continental Europe.-History:...

    , formerly known as the British Institute in Paris
  • the School of Advanced Study
    School of Advanced Study
    The School of Advanced Study, a postgraduate institution of the University of London, is the UK's national centre for the promotion and facilitation of research in the humanities and social sciences...

     comprising the following institutes:
    • the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies
      Institute of Advanced Legal Studies
      The Institute of Advanced Legal Studies is part of the School of Advanced Study of the University of London. It was founded in 1946 as a national academic institution to promote and advance legal research, implementing a proposal of 1934 report of the Legal Education Committee chaired by Lord Atkin...

    • the Institute of Classical Studies
      Institute of Classical Studies
      The Institute of Classical Studies is a research institution associated with the University of London. A member of the School of Advanced Study. The Institute is a national and international research Institute in the languages, literature, history, art, archaeology and philosophy of the ancient...

    • the Institute of Commonwealth Studies
      Institute of Commonwealth Studies
      The Institute of Commonwealth Studies, abbreviated to ICS, was founded by the University of London in 1949 to promote academic study of the Commonwealth of Nations and its constituent countries. It became part of the School of Advanced Study in 1994...

    • the Institute of English Studies
      Institute of English Studies
      The Institute of English Studies is a centre of excellence in the research, promotion and facilitation in the field English Literature and Language. With a specialisation in Book History, Palaeography and Textual Scholarship, the IES facilitates the advanced study and research of English Studies...

       (including the Centre for Manuscript and Print Studies),
    • the Institute of Germanic & Romance Studies
    • the Institute of Historical Research
      Institute of Historical Research
      The Institute of Historical Research is a British educational organisation providing resources and training for historical researchers. It is part of the School of Advanced Study in the University of London and is located at Senate House. The Institute was founded in 1921 by A. F...

    • the Institute of Musical Research
      Institute of Musical Research
      The Institute of Musical Research is a research institution associated with the University of London. A member of the School of Advanced Study, its focus is the facilitation of research in music of all traditions and eras, and to support freelance and affiliated scholars alike.Located at Senate...

    • the Institute of Philosophy
      Institute of Philosophy
      The Institute of Philosophy is a research institution associated with the University of London. A member of the School of Advanced Study, its focus is to promote and facilitate high quality research in philosophy, making it available to the widest possible audience both inside and outside the UK's...

    • the Institute for the Study of the Americas
      Institute for the Study of the Americas
      The Institute for the Study of the Americas was founded in August 2004 through a merger of the Institute of Latin American Studies with the Institute of United States Studies , both of which had been founded in 1965 at 31 Tavistock Square...

    • the Warburg Institute
      Warburg Institute
      The Warburg Institute is a research institution associated with the University of London in central London, England. A member of the School of Advanced Study, its focus is the study of the influence of classical antiquity on all aspects of European civilisation.-History:The Institute was founded by...

  • the University Marine Biological Station, Millport
    University Marine Biological Station, Millport
    The University Marine Biological Station Millport is a higher education institute located on the island of Great Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland...

  • University of London International Programmes

Former colleges


Some colleges of the University of London have been amalgamated into larger colleges or left the University of London. These include:
  • Bedford College - Inner Circle Regent's Park
    Regent's Park
    Regent's Park is one of the Royal Parks of London. It is in the north-western part of central London, partly in the City of Westminster and partly in the London Borough of Camden...

    ; now part of Royal Holloway and Bedford New College (the registered Royal Charter title of Royal Holloway, University of London
    Royal Holloway, University of London
    Royal Holloway, University of London is a constituent college of the University of London. The college has three faculties, 18 academic departments, and about 8,000 undergraduate and postgraduate students from over 130 different countries...

    )
  • Chelsea College
    Chelsea College of Science and Technology
    Chelsea College of Science and Technology was established as a College of Advanced Technology on a single site on the corner of Manresa Road and King's Road, Chelsea, London as part of the University of London in 1966 and was granted its Royal Charter in 1971....

     - Manresa Road, Chelsea
    Chelsea, London
    Chelsea is an area of West London, England, bounded to the south by the River Thames, where its frontage runs from Chelsea Bridge along the Chelsea Embankment, Cheyne Walk, Lots Road and Chelsea Harbour. Its eastern boundary was once defined by the River Westbourne, which is now in a pipe above...

    ; now part of King's College
    King's College London
    King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London. King's has a claim to being the third oldest university in England, having been founded by King George IV and the Duke of Wellington in 1829, and...

  • Imperial College London
    Imperial College London
    Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, business and medicine...

     - became independent in July 2007
  • Queen Elizabeth College
    Queen Elizabeth College
    Queen Elizabeth College had its origins in the Ladies' Department of King's College London, England, opened in 1885. The first King's 'extension' lectures for ladies were held at Richmond in 1871, and from 1878 in Kensington, with chaperones in attendance.In 1881, the Council resolved 'to...

     - Campden Hill Road, Kensington
    Kensington
    Kensington is a district of west and central London, England within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. An affluent and densely-populated area, its commercial heart is Kensington High Street, and it contains the well-known museum district of South Kensington.To the north, Kensington is...

    ; now part of King's College
  • Westfield College
    Westfield College
    Westfield College was a small college situated in Kidderpore Avenue, Hampstead, London, and was a constituent college of the University of London from 1882 to 1989. The college originally admitted only women as students and became coeducational in 1964. In 1989, Westfield College merged with Queen...

     - Kidderpore Avenue, Hampstead
    Hampstead
    Hampstead is an area of London, England, north-west of Charing Cross. Part of the London Borough of Camden in Inner London, it is known for its intellectual, liberal, artistic, musical and literary associations and for Hampstead Heath, a large, hilly expanse of parkland...

    ; now part of Queen Mary and Westfield College (the registered Royal Charter title of Queen Mary, University of London
    Queen Mary, University of London
    Queen Mary, University of London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and a constituent college of the federal University of London...

    )
  • Wye College
    Wye College
    The College of St. Gregory and St. Martin at Wye, more commonly known as Wye College, was an educational institution in Kent, United Kingdom. It was founded in 1447 by John Kempe, the Archbishop of York, as a college for the training of priests. It is located in the small village of Wye, Kent, 60...

     - Wye, Kent; Wye courses are now run by the University of Kent
    University of Kent
    The University of Kent, previously the University of Kent at Canterbury, is a public research university based in Kent, United Kingdom...

     in partnership with Imperial College London
    Imperial College London
    Imperial College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, specialising in science, engineering, business and medicine...

    , and graduating students receive a University of Kent
    University of Kent
    The University of Kent, previously the University of Kent at Canterbury, is a public research university based in Kent, United Kingdom...

     degree and an Imperial Associateship of Wye College
  • Royal Postgraduate Medical School
    Royal Postgraduate Medical School
    The Royal Postgraduate Medical School was an independent medical school, based primarily at Hammersmith Hospital in west London. In 1988, the school merged with the Institute of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, and in 1997 became part of the Imperial College School of Medicine.-History:The medical school...

    ; now part of the Imperial College School of Medicine
    Imperial College School of Medicine
    The Imperial College School of Medicine is the medical school of Imperial College London in England, and one of the United Hospitals....

  • St Thomas's Hospital Medical School; now part of King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry
    King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry
    King's College London School of Medicine is the medical school of King's College London, and one of the United Hospitals...

  • New College London
    New College London
    New College London was founded as a Congregationalist college in 1850.-Predecessor institutions:...

    , was closed in 1980. Despite the name the college never had any association with Royal Holloway and Bedford New College.
  • School of Slavonic and East European Studies
    School of Slavonic and East European Studies
    The UCL School of Slavonic and East European Studies is a school of University College London . It is the largest centre for the study and research of Central, Eastern and South-Eastern Europe, and Russia in the United Kingdom...

     - now part of University College London
    University College London
    University College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom and the oldest and largest constituent college of the federal University of London...

  • Regent's Park College moved to Oxford in 1927, becoming a Permanent Private Hall
    Permanent Private Hall
    A Permanent Private Hall at the University of Oxford is an educational institution within the university. There are six Permanent Private Halls at Oxford, five of which admit undergraduates. They were founded by different Christian denominations....

     of the University of Oxford
    University of Oxford
    The University of Oxford is a university located in Oxford, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking world. Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096...

     from 1957.

University colleges in the International degree programme


A number of major universities originated as university colleges teaching the degrees of the University of London International Programmes. After developing the ability to function fully, these colleges became able to award their own degrees.
  • University College Colombo, established by the Ceylon University Ordinance Act in 1942 as the University of Ceylon
    University of Ceylon
    The University of Ceylon was the only university in Sri Lanka from 1942 until 1972. It had several constituent campuses at various locations around Sri Lanka. The University of Ceylon Act No. 1 of 1972, replaced it with the University of Sri Lanka which existed from 1973 to 1978. In 1978 it was...

    .
  • University College Nottingham, awarded a Royal Charter in 1948 as the University of Nottingham
    University of Nottingham
    The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, United Kingdom, with further campuses in Ningbo, China and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia...

    .
  • University College Southampton, awarded a Royal Charter in 1952 as the University of Southampton
    University of Southampton
    The University of Southampton is a British public university located in the city of Southampton, England, a member of the Russell Group. The origins of the university can be dated back to the founding of the Hartley Institution in 1862 by Henry Robertson Hartley. In 1902, the Institution developed...

    .
  • University College Leicester, awarded a Royal Charter in 1957 as the University of Leicester
    University of Leicester
    The University of Leicester is a research-led university based in Leicester, England. The main campus is a mile south of the city centre, adjacent to Victoria Park and Wyggeston and Queen Elizabeth I College....

    .


A number of other colleges had degrees validated and awarded by the University of London.
  • St. Patrick's, Carlow College
    St. Patrick's, Carlow College
    St Patrick's, Carlow College, founded in 1782 by Dr James Keefe, then Roman Catholic Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, and his co-adjutor Bishop Daniel Delany, and opened in 1793, is a college in Carlow, Ireland. Initially he attempted to open a seminary in Tullow, but instead took out a 999 year...

    , Ireland - from 1840-1892 students studied for primary degrees in Arts (BA) and Law(BLL).
  • St. Patrick's College, Thurles
    St. Patrick's College, Thurles
    St. Patrick's College, Thurles is a third level college of education in Thurles, Co. Tipperary, formerly a seminary the College specializes in Humanities courses in Accounting, Business Studies, Irish and Religious Studies.-History:...

    , Ireland - from 1849 the University of London, allowed Thurles to offer degrees.
  • Huddersfield College
  • Queen's College, Birmingham
    Queen's College, Birmingham
    The Birmingham Medical School was founded by surgeon William Sands Cox in 1828 as a residential college for medical students in central Birmingham, England. It was the first Birmingham institution to award degrees, through the University of London. Cox went on to found the Queen's Hospital in Bath...

  • Stonyhurst College
    Stonyhurst College
    Stonyhurst College is a Roman Catholic independent school, adhering to the Jesuit tradition. It is located on the Stonyhurst Estate near the village of Hurst Green in the Ribble Valley area of Lancashire, England, and occupies a Grade I listed building...

    , a Catholic college in Lancashire.
  • Wesleyan Collegiate Institution, Taunton
    Queen's College, Taunton
    Queen's College is a co-educational independent school located in Taunton, the county town of Somerset, England. It is a day/boarding school for children aged 2–18. The school incorporates Nursery, Pre-Prep, Junior and Senior schools. The current headmaster of the Senior School is Chris Alcock...

    , which became Queen's College, Taunton.
  • Ceylon Technical College, 1933 - 1950 students studied for engineering degrees in BSc in Engineering.

Colleges in special relation


Between 1946 and 1970, the University entered into 'schemes of special relation' with university colleges in the Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

. These schemes encouraged the development of independent universities by offering a relationship with the University of London. University colleges in these countries were granted a Royal Charter
Royal Charter
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate. They were, and are still, used to establish significant organizations such as cities or universities. Charters should be distinguished from warrants and...

. An Academic Board of the university college negotiated with the University of London over the entrance requirements for the admission of students, syllabuses, examination procedures and other academic matters. During the period of the special relationship, graduates of the colleges were awarded University of London degrees.

Some of the colleges which were in special relation are listed below, along with the year in which their special relation was established.
  • 1946 - The University College of the West Indies, until 1961. (Now the University of the West Indies
    University of the West Indies
    The University of the West Indies , is an autonomous regional institution supported by and serving 17 English-speaking countries and territories in the Caribbean: Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica,...

    )
  • 1948 - University College, Ibadan, until 1967. (Now the University of Ibadan
    University of Ibadan
    The University of Ibadan is the oldest Nigerian university, and is located five miles from the centre of the major city of Ibadan in Western Nigeria...

    )
  • 1956 - University College of Rhodesia and Nyasaland (now the University of Zimbabwe
    University of Zimbabwe
    The University of Zimbabwe in Harare, is the oldest and largest university in Zimbabwe. It was founded through a special relationship with the University of London and it opened its doors to its first students in 1952. The university has ten faculties offering a wide variety of degree programmes...

    ).
  • 1961 - Royal College Nairobi (now the University of Nairobi
    University of Nairobi
    The University of Nairobi is the largest university in Kenya. Although its history as an educational institution goes back to 1956, it did not become an independent university until 1970 when the University of East Africa was split into three independent universities: Makerere University in...

    ).
  • 1963 - University of East Africa
    University of East Africa
    The University of East Africa was established in 1963 and served Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The University was originally instituted as an independent external college of the University of London. In 1970 it was split into three independent universities which are now:*University of Nairobi...



In 1970, the 'Schemes of Special Relation' were phased out.

Student life


Some 135,090 students (approximately 5% of all UK students) attend one of the University of London's affiliated schools
Federated school
An affiliated school is an educational institution that operates independently, but also has a formal collaborative agreement with another, usually larger institution that may have some level of control or influence over its academic policies, standards or programs.While a university may have one...

. Additionally, over 45,000 students follow the University of London International Programmes.

The ULU building on Malet Street
Malet Street
Malet Street is a street in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, central London, England. It runs between Torrington Place and the British Museum, parallel to Gower Street and Tottenham Court Road...

 (adjacent to Senate House) is home to the University of London Union
University of London Union
The University of London Union is the university-wide students' union for the University of London...

, which acts as the student union
Students' union
A students' union, student government, student senate, students' association, guild of students or government of student body is a student organization present in many colleges and universities, and has started appearing in some high schools...

 for all University of London students alongside the individual college and institution unions. As well as representing students, the union plays host to a number of shops and bars (including a nightclub and live music venue), owns London Student
London Student
London Student is the newspaper of the University of London Union. It began publishing in 1979. It is an editorially independent publication with ultimate control over content and editorial appointments vested in the elected full-time Editor, who is currently Joe Rennison.It distributes 12,500...

(the largest student newspaper in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

) and offers its own gym and swimming pool for student use.

Sports, clubs and traditions


Though most sports teams are organised at the college level, ULU
Ulu
An ulu is an all-purpose knife traditionally used by Eskimo women, both Yupik and Inuit. It is utilized in applications as diverse as skinning and cleaning animals, cutting a child's hair, cutting food and, if necessary, trimming blocks of snow and ice used to build an igloo...

 does run a number of sports clubs of its own, some of which (for example the basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 team) compete in BUCS leagues. The union also organises its own leagues for college teams to participate in. These leagues and sports clubs are supported by Friends of University of London Sport which aims to promote them.

In addition to these, ULU caters for sports not covered by the individual colleges through clubs such as the University of London Union Lifesaving Club
University of London Union Lifesaving Club
The University of London Union Lifesaving Club is one of the sports clubs of the University of London.It carries out awards training, such as the Bronze Medallion, or the Award of Merit in lifesaving, as well as taking part in competitive lifesaving in the BULSCA league....

, which helps students gain awards and learn new skills in lifesaving
Lifesaving
Lifesaving is the act involving rescue, resuscitation and first aid. It often refers to water safety and aquatic rescue however it could include ice rescue, flood and river rescue, swimming pool rescue and other emergency medical services. Lifesaving also refers to sport where lifesavers compete...

 as well as sending teams to compete throughout the country in the BULSCA
BULSCA
The British Universities Lifesaving Clubs' Association is the governing body for lifesaving sport at the University level in the United Kingdom. It organises the university-level competition schedule, assists with the training of judges, and hosts an annual Student National Championship...

 league.

By far the most successful ULU is the Dragons, the Universities Ice Hockey team who continue time and time again win in the British Universities Ice Hockey Association
British Universities Ice Hockey Association
The British Universities Ice Hockey Association was founded in spring term 2003 by a group of enthusiastic hockey players from the universities of Oxford, London, Nottingham and Newcastle.- History of the BUIHA :...

 Division 1 and Division 2. The Dragons have also previously competed in tourney's including professional teams and have come away with several gold and silver medals from these events.

ULU also organises a number of societies, ranging from Ballroom and Latin American Dance to Shaolin Kung Fu
Shaolin kung fu
Shaolin Kung Fu refers to a collection of Chinese martial arts that claim affiliation with the Shaolin Monastery.Of the multitude styles of kung fu and wushu, only some are actually related to Shaolin...

, and from the University of London Big Band
University of London Big Band
The University of London Big Band one of London's busiest amateur jazz orchestras. Many of their top players are on the verge of professional musical careers, and some play with the National Youth Jazz Orchestra...

 to the Breakdancing Society. Affiliated to the University is the University of London Society of Change Ringers
University of London Society of Change Ringers
The University of London Society of Change Ringers is the official society dedicated to change ringing in London universities and was founded just after the end of the Second World War...

, a society for bellringers at all London universities.

The University runs the famous University of London Boat Club
University of London Boat Club
University of London Boat Club is the rowing club for the University of London, covering all the university's constituent Colleges . The club has its boat house on the River Thames in Chiswick, London, United Kingdom...

, which is considered along with the Oxford University Boat Club
Oxford University Boat Club
The Oxford University Boat Club is the rowing club of the University of Oxford, England, located on the River Thames at Oxford. The club was founded in the early 19th century....

 and the Cambridge University Boat Club
Cambridge University Boat Club
The Cambridge University Boat Club is the rowing club of the University of Cambridge, England, located on the River Cam at Cambridge, although training primarily takes place on the River Great Ouse at Ely. The club was founded in 1828...

 to be one of the three best university rowing clubs in the country.

The University also has a representative football team, which dates back to 1913 and is a collection of the best players from the various colleges. The team plays games against sides such as Cambridge's and Oxford's 'Blues' sides as well as the R.A.F, Navy and Army. Currently the team has use of both Motspur Park Athletics Stadium (Fulham F.C.
Fulham F.C.
Fulham Football Club is a professional English Premier League club based in southwest London Fulham, in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Founded in 1879, they play in the Premier League, their 11th current season...

's training ground, and a former University of London property) and the Honourable Artillery Company
Honourable Artillery Company
The Honourable Artillery Company was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII. Today it is a Registered Charity whose purpose is to attend to the “better defence of the realm"...

's grounds for training and home match purposes. Former players and managers of the team include Bobby Robson
Bobby Robson
Sir Robert William "Bobby" Robson, CBE was an English footballer and manager, who coached seven European clubs and the England national team during his career....

 and Jimmy Hill
Jimmy Hill
James William Thomas "Jimmy" Hill OBE is an English association football personality. His career has taken in virtually every role in football, including player, union leader, coach, manager, director, chairman, television executive, presenter, analyst and match official.-Early life:Hill was born...

.

University of London Orienteering Club is an umbrella club for all University of London orienteering groups. Members participate in orienteering events across the UK, and occasionally further afield. In 1997, the club sent a team to participate in the US championships in Colorado.

Student housing


The University also runs eight intercollegiate halls of residence, accommodating students from most of the colleges and institutions of the University:
  • College Hall, Malet Street
    Malet Street
    Malet Street is a street in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden, central London, England. It runs between Torrington Place and the British Museum, parallel to Gower Street and Tottenham Court Road...

    , WC1
  • Connaught Hall
    Connaught Hall, London
    Connaught Hall is a fully catered hall of residence owned by the University of London and situated on Tavistock Square, Bloomsbury, London, UK. It is an intercollegiate hall, and as such provides accommodation for full-time students at constituent colleges and institutions of the University of...

    , Tavistock Square
    Tavistock Square
    Tavistock Square is a public square in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden with a fine garden.-Public art:The centre-piece of the gardens is a statue of Mahatma Gandhi, which was installed in 1968....

    , WC1
  • International Hall, Brunswick Square
    Brunswick Square
    Brunswick Square is a public garden in Bloomsbury, in the London Borough of Camden. It is overlooked by the School of Pharmacy and the Foundling Museum to the north and the Brunswick Centre to the west...

    , WC1
  • Lillian Penson Hall, Talbot Square, W2 (postgraduate students only)
  • Nutford House, Brown Street, W1


The Garden Halls
  • Canterbury Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1
  • Commonwealth Hall
    Commonwealth Hall
    Commonwealth Hall is one of eight intercollegiate halls of the University of London. Situated in Cartwright Gardens, London, between Bloomsbury and the Euston Road, it is part of the Garden Halls.- References :...

    , Cartwright Gardens, WC1 (paired with Hughes-Parry Hall for administration)
  • Hughes Parry Hall, Cartwright Gardens, WC1 (paired with Canterbury Hall for administration)

Notable alumni, faculty and staff



A large number of famous individuals have passed through the University of London, either as staff or students, including at least 4 monarchs, 52 president
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

s or prime minister
Prime minister
A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government. In most systems, the prime...

s, 72 Nobel laureates
Nobel Prize
The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

, 6 Grammy
Grammy Award
A Grammy Award — or Grammy — is an accolade by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States to recognize outstanding achievement in the music industry...

 winners, 2 Oscar
Academy Awards
An Academy Award, also known as an Oscar, is an accolade bestowed by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers...

 winners and 3 Olympic
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 gold medalists. The Fourth supreme head of The Worldwide Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is the larger of two communities that arose from the Ahmadiyya movement founded in 1889 in India by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian . The original movement split into two factions soon after the death of the founder...

 Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad
Mirza Tahir Ahmad was Khalifatul Masih IV, Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and fourth successor to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad...

 also studied at the School of Oriental and African Studies in the 1950s.

Staff and students of the university, past and present, have contributed to a number of important scientific advances, including the discovery of vaccine
Vaccine
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins...

s by Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
Edward Anthony Jenner was an English scientist who studied his natural surroundings in Berkeley, Gloucestershire...

 and Henry Gray
Henry Gray
Henry Gray was an English anatomist and surgeon most notable for publishing the book Gray's Anatomy. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society at the age of 25.-Biography:...

 (author of Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy
Gray's Anatomy is an English-language human anatomy textbook originally written by Henry Gray. The book is widely regarded as an extremely influential work on the subject, and has continued to be revised and republished from its initial publication in 1858 to the present day...

). Additional vital progress was made by University of London people in the following fields: the discovery of the structure of DNA
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

 (Francis Crick
Francis Crick
Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS was an English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, and most noted for being one of two co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953, together with James D. Watson...

, Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Wilkins
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins CBE FRS was a New Zealand-born English physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel Laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar...

 and Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Franklin
Rosalind Elsie Franklin was a British biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made critical contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal and graphite...

); the invention of modern electronic computers Tommy Flowers
Tommy Flowers
Thomas "Tommy" Harold Flowers, MBE was an English engineer. During World War II, Flowers designed Colossus, the world's first programmable electronic computer, to help solve encrypted German messages.-Early life:...

; the discovery of penicillin
Penicillin
Penicillin is a group of antibiotics derived from Penicillium fungi. They include penicillin G, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin, and penicillin V....

 (Alexander Fleming
Alexander Fleming
Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. He wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology, and chemotherapy...

 and Ernest Chain); the development of X-Ray
X-ray
X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation. X-rays have a wavelength in the range of 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz and energies in the range 120 eV to 120 keV. They are shorter in wavelength than UV rays and longer than gamma...

 technology (William Henry Bragg
William Henry Bragg
Sir William Henry Bragg OM, KBE, PRS was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquely shared a Nobel Prize with his son William Lawrence Bragg - the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics...

 and Charles Glover Barkla
Charles Glover Barkla
Charles Glover Barkla was a British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays .-Biography:...

); discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10
Interleukin 10
Interleukin-10 , also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor , is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. In humans IL-10 is encoded by the IL10 gene....

 (Anne O'Garra
Anne O'Garra
Anne O'Garra, FRS, is a distinguished British immunologist who made important discoveries on the mechanism of action of Interleukin 10. She is a fellow of the Royal Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science , and the Academy of Medical Sciences.-Biography:Since 2001 O'Garra...

); the formulation of the theory of electromagnetism
Electromagnetism
Electromagnetism is one of the four fundamental interactions in nature. The other three are the strong interaction, the weak interaction and gravitation...

 (James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell
James Clerk Maxwell of Glenlair was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. This united all previously unrelated observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into a consistent theory...

); the determination of the speed of light
Speed of light
The speed of light in vacuum, usually denoted by c, is a physical constant important in many areas of physics. Its value is 299,792,458 metres per second, a figure that is exact since the length of the metre is defined from this constant and the international standard for time...

 (Louis Essen
Louis Essen
Louis Essen FRS O.B.E. was an English physicist whose most notable achievements were in the precise measurement of time and the determination of the speed of light...

); the development of antiseptics (Joseph Lister
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister
Joseph Lister, 1st Baron Lister OM, FRS, PC , known as Sir Joseph Lister, Bt., between 1883 and 1897, was a British surgeon and a pioneer of antiseptic surgery, who promoted the idea of sterile surgery while working at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary...

); the development of fibre optics (Charles K. Kao
Charles K. Kao
The Honorable Sir Charles Kuen Kao, GBM, KBE, FRS, FREng is a pioneer in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications...

); and the invention of the telephone
Telephone
The telephone , colloquially referred to as a phone, is a telecommunications device that transmits and receives sounds, usually the human voice. Telephones are a point-to-point communication system whose most basic function is to allow two people separated by large distances to talk to each other...

 (Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone....

).
Notable political figures who have passed through the University of London include Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal, Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi is an Italian politician and statesman. He served as the Prime Minister of Italy, from 17 May 1996 to 21 October 1998 and from 17 May 2006 to 8 May 2008...

, Junichiro Koizumi
Junichiro Koizumi
is a Japanese politician who served as Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. He retired from politics when his term in parliament ended.Widely seen as a maverick leader of the Liberal Democratic Party , he became known as an economic reformer, focusing on Japan's government debt and the...

, Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi
Aung San Suu Kyi, AC is a Burmese opposition politician and the General Secretary of the National League for Democracy. In the 1990 general election, her National League for Democracy party won 59% of the national votes and 81% of the seats in Parliament. She had, however, already been detained...

, Archbishop Desmond Tutu
Desmond Tutu
Desmond Mpilo Tutu is a South African activist and retired Anglican bishop who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid...

, Taro Aso
Taro Aso
was the 92nd Prime Minister of Japan serving from September 2008 to September 2009, and was defeated in the August 2009 election.He has served in the House of Representatives since 1979. He was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2005 to 2007, and was Secretary-General of the LDP briefly in 2007 and...

, Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999, and was the first South African president to be elected in a fully representative democratic election. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of Umkhonto we Sizwe, the armed wing...

, John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy , often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963....

 and Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi , pronounced . 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the pre-eminent political and ideological leader of India during the Indian independence movement...

.

In the arts field the university has produced the novelists Malcolm Bradbury
Malcolm Bradbury
Sir Malcolm Stanley Bradbury CBE was an English author and academic.-Life:Bradbury was the son of a railwayman. His family moved to London in 1935, but returned to Sheffield in 1941 with his brother and mother...

, G. K. Chesterton
G. K. Chesterton
Gilbert Keith Chesterton, KC*SG was an English writer. His prolific and diverse output included philosophy, ontology, poetry, plays, journalism, public lectures and debates, literary and art criticism, biography, Christian apologetics, and fiction, including fantasy and detective fiction....

, H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
Herbert George Wells was an English author, now best known for his work in the science fiction genre. He was also a prolific writer in many other genres, including contemporary novels, history, politics and social commentary, even writing text books and rules for war games...

, Thomas Hardy
Thomas Hardy
Thomas Hardy, OM was an English novelist and poet. While his works typically belong to the Naturalism movement, several poems display elements of the previous Romantic and Enlightenment periods of literature, such as his fascination with the supernatural.While he regarded himself primarily as a...

, Arthur C. Clarke
Arthur C. Clarke
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, famous for his short stories and novels, among them 2001: A Space Odyssey, and as a host and commentator in the British television series Mysterious World. For many years, Robert A. Heinlein,...

, J.G. Ballard and the poet John Keats
John Keats
John Keats was an English Romantic poet. Along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, he was one of the key figures in the second generation of the Romantic movement, despite the fact that his work had been in publication for only four years before his death.Although his poems were not...

. Many artist
Artist
An artist is a person engaged in one or more of any of a broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only...

s have been associated with the university, including Jonathan Myles-Lea
Jonathan Myles-Lea
Jonathan Myles-Lea is an English painter of country houses, historic buildings, and landscapes in a miniaturist technique, typically taking the form of aerial views. Myles-Lea also works in portraiture, creates abstract paintings and installations.-Life and career:Jonathan Myles-Lea was born in...

, and several of the leading figures in the Young British Artists
Young British Artists
Young British Artists or YBAs is the name given to a loose group of visual artists who first began to exhibit together in London, in 1988...

 movement (including Ian Davenport
Ian Davenport
Ian Davenport is an English painter, and former Turner Prize nominee.-Life and work:Ian Davenport was born in Sidcup in London, and studied art at the Northwich College of Art and Design in Cheshire before going to Goldsmiths College from where he graduated in 1988...

, Tracey Emin
Tracey Emin
Tracey Karima Emin RA is a British artist of English and Turkish Cypriot origin. She is part of the group known as Britartists or YBAs ....

 and Damien Hirst
Damien Hirst
Damien Steven Hirst is an English artist, entrepreneur and art collector. He is the most prominent member of the group known as the Young British Artists , who dominated the art scene in Britain during the 1990s. He is internationally renowned, and is reportedly Britain's richest living artist,...

). Outstanding musician
Musician
A musician is an artist who plays a musical instrument. It may or may not be the person's profession. Musicians can be classified by their roles in performing music and writing music.Also....* A person who makes music a profession....

s across a wide range include the conductor Sir Simon Rattle
Simon Rattle
Sir Simon Denis Rattle, CBE is an English conductor. He rose to international prominence as conductor of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra and since 2002 has been principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic ....

, the soprano Felicity Lott
Felicity Lott
Dame Felicity Ann Emwhyla Lott, DBE, FRCM is an English soprano.-Education:From her earliest years she was musical, having started studying piano at age 5. She also played violin and began singing lessons at 12. She is an alumna of Royal Holloway, University of London, obtaining a BA in French and...

 and both members of Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan
Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian-era theatrical partnership of the librettist W. S. Gilbert and the composer Arthur Sullivan . The two men collaborated on fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which H.M.S...

 to Mick Jagger
Mick Jagger
Sir Michael Philip "Mick" Jagger is an English musician, singer and songwriter, best known as the lead vocalist and a founding member of The Rolling Stones....

, Elton John
Elton John
Sir Elton Hercules John, CBE, Hon DMus is an English rock singer-songwriter, composer, pianist and occasional actor...

, Dido
Dido (singer)
Dido Florian Cloud de Bounevialle O'Malley Armstrong , known as Dido, is an English singer-songwriter.Dido shot to worldwide success with her debut album, No Angel...

, and members of the bands Coldplay
Coldplay
Coldplay are a British alternative rock band formed in 1996 by lead vocalist Chris Martin and lead guitarist Jonny Buckland at University College London. After they formed Pectoralz, Guy Berryman joined the group as a bassist and they changed their name to Starfish. Will Champion joined as a...

, Suede
Suede (band)
Suede are an English alternative rock band from London, formed in 1989. The group's most prominent early line-up featured singer Brett Anderson, guitarist Bernard Butler, bass player Mat Osman and drummer Simon Gilbert. By 1992, Suede were hailed as "The Best New Band in Britain", and attracted...

, The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground
The Velvet Underground was an American rock band formed in New York City. First active from 1964 to 1973, their best-known members were Lou Reed and John Cale, who both went on to find success as solo artists. Although experiencing little commercial success while together, the band is often cited...

, Blur
Blur (band)
Blur is an English alternative rock band. Formed in London in 1989 as Seymour, the group consists of singer Damon Albarn, guitarist Graham Coxon, bassist Alex James and drummer Dave Rowntree. Blur's debut album Leisure incorporated the sounds of Madchester and shoegazing...

, Iron Maiden
Iron Maiden
Iron Maiden are an English heavy metal band from Leyton in east London, formed in 1975 by bassist and primary songwriter Steve Harris. Since their inception, the band's discography has grown to include a total of thirty-six albums: fifteen studio albums; eleven live albums; four EPs; and six...

, Placebo
Placebo (band)
Placebo are a British rock band from London, England, formed in 1994 by singer and guitarist Brian Molko and bass guitarist Stefan Olsdal. The band was joined by drummer Robert Schultzberg, who was later replaced by Steve Hewitt after conflicts with Molko. Hewitt left the band in October 2007 and...

, The Libertines
The Libertines
The Libertines were an English rock band, formed in London in 1997 by frontmen Carl Barât and Pete Doherty . The band, centred on the song-writing partnership of Barat and Doherty, also included John Hassall and Gary Powell for most of its recording career...

 and Queen
Queen (band)
Queen are a British rock band formed in London in 1971, originally consisting of Freddie Mercury , Brian May , John Deacon , and Roger Taylor...

.

The University of London has also played host to film director
Film director
A film director is a person who directs the actors and film crew in filmmaking. They control a film's artistic and dramatic nathan roach, while guiding the technical crew and actors.-Responsibilities:...

s (Christopher Nolan
Christopher Nolan
Christopher Jonathan James Nolan is a British-American film director, screenwriter and producer.He received serious notice after his second feature Memento , which he wrote and directed based on a story idea by his brother, Jonathan Nolan. Jonathan went to co-write later scripts with him,...

, Derek Jarman
Derek Jarman
Michael Derek Elworthy Jarman was an English film director, stage designer, diarist, artist, gardener and author.-Life:...

), philosophers (Karl Popper
Karl Popper
Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH FRS FBA was an Austro-British philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics...

, Roger Scruton
Roger Scruton
Roger Vernon Scruton is a conservative English philosopher and writer. He is the author of over 30 books, including Art and Imagination , Sexual Desire , The Aesthetics of Music , and A Political Philosophy: Arguments For Conservatism...

), explorers (David Livingstone
David Livingstone
David Livingstone was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation, "Dr...

), international academics (Sam Karunaratne
Sam Karunaratne
Emeritus Professor Samarajeewa "Sam" Karunaratne, FIET, FIESL is an Professor of Engineering and a leading Sri Lankan academic who is the founding & current Chancellor of the Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology and the former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Moratuwa...

), and leading businessmen (Michael Cowpland
Michael Cowpland
Michael Cowpland is a British-born entrepreneur, businessman, and the founder and one-time president, chairman and CEO of Corel, a Canadian software company.-Early life:...

, George Soros
George Soros
George Soros is a Hungarian-American business magnate, investor, philosopher, and philanthropist. He is the chairman of Soros Fund Management. Soros supports progressive-liberal causes...

).

Among the more controversial alumni and professors can be included the pornographer David Sullivan, the international terrorist Carlos the Jackal
Carlos the Jackal
Ilich Ramírez Sánchez , better known as Carlos the Jackal, is a Venezuelan pro-Palestinian currently serving a life sentence in France for shooting to death two French secret agents and a Lebanese informer in 1975....

, Al-Qaeda operative Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab
Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab , popularly referred to as the "Underwear Bomber", is a suspected terrorist who attempted to detonate plastic explosives hidden in his underwear while on board Northwest Airlines Flight 253, en route from Amsterdam to Detroit, Michigan, on December 25,...

 and the Soviet double agent Anthony Blunt
Anthony Blunt
Anthony Frederick Blunt , was a British art historian who was exposed as a Soviet spy late in his life.Blunt was Professor of the History of Art at the University of London, director of the Courtauld Institute of Art, Surveyor of the King's Pictures and London...

.

Chancellors



  • William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Burlington
    William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire
    William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire KG, PC , styled as Lord Cavendish of Keighley between 1831 and 1834 and known as The Earl of Burlington between 1834 and 1858, was a British landowner, benefactor and politician.-Background and education:Cavendish was the son of William Cavendish, eldest...

     1836-1856
  • Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville
    Granville Leveson-Gower, 2nd Earl Granville
    Granville George Leveson Gower, 2nd Earl Granville KG, PC FRS , styled Lord Leveson until 1846, was a British Liberal statesman...

     1856-1891
  • Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby
    Edward Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby
    Edward Henry Stanley, 15th Earl of Derby KG, PC, FRS , known as Lord Stanley from 1844 to 1869, was a British statesman...

     1891-1893
  • Farrer Herschell, 1st Baron Herschell
    Farrer Herschell, 1st Baron Herschell
    Farrer Herschell, 1st Baron Herschell GCB, PC, QC was Lord Chancellor of Great Britain in 1886, and again from 1892 to 1895.-Early career:...

     1893-1899
  • John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley
    John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley
    John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley KG , PC , known as the Lord Wodehouse from 1846 to 1866, was a British Liberal politician...

     1899-1902
  • Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
    Archibald Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery
    Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, KG, PC was a British Liberal statesman and Prime Minister. Between the death of his father, in 1851, and the death of his grandfather, the 4th Earl, in 1868, he was known by the courtesy title of Lord Dalmeny.Rosebery was a Liberal Imperialist who...

     1902-1929
  • William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp
    William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp
    William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp KG, KCMG, PC , styled Viscount Elmley until 1891, was a British Liberal politician. He was Governor of New South Wales between 1899 and 1901, a member of the Liberal administrations of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H...

     1929-1931
  • Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
    Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone
    Major-General Alexander Augustus Frederick William Alfred George Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone , was a close relative of the shared British and Canadian royal family, as well as a British military commander and major-general who served as Governor-General of the Union of South Africa, the...

     1932-1955
  • Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother
    Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
    Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon was the queen consort of King George VI from 1936 until her husband's death in 1952, after which she was known as Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, to avoid confusion with her daughter, Queen Elizabeth II...

     1955-1981
  • The Princess Anne
    Anne, Princess Royal
    Princess Anne, Princess Royal , is the only daughter of Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh...

     (The Princess Royal
    Princess Royal
    Princess Royal is a style customarily awarded by a British monarch to his or her eldest daughter. The style is held for life, so a princess cannot be given the style during the lifetime of another Princess Royal...

     from 1987) 1981
    University of London Chancellor election, 1981
    The 1981 University of London election for the position of Chancellor was called upon when the incumbent Chancellor, Queen Elizabeth, The Queen Mother announced in December 1980 that she was retiring from the position...

    -present

See also



  • Golden Triangle (UK universities)
    Golden Triangle (UK universities)
    The "Golden Triangle" is a term used to describe a number of leading British research universities based in Cambridge, London and Oxford.The city of Cambridge, represented by the University of Cambridge, and the city of Oxford, represented by the University of Oxford, form two corners of the triangle...

  • List of modern universities in Europe (1801–1945)
  • Universities in London
  • University of London Union
    University of London Union
    The University of London Union is the university-wide students' union for the University of London...

  • United Hospitals
    United Hospitals
    United Hospitals is the historical collective name of the medical schools of London. They are all part of the University of London with the exception of Imperial College School of Medicine which left in 2007. The original United Hospitals referred to Guy's Hospital and St Thomas's Hospital and...

  • University of London Big Band
    University of London Big Band
    The University of London Big Band one of London's busiest amateur jazz orchestras. Many of their top players are on the verge of professional musical careers, and some play with the National Youth Jazz Orchestra...

  • Academic dress of the University of London
    Academic dress of the University of London
    Academic dress of the University of London describes the robes, gowns and hoods which are prescribed by the university for its graduates and undergraduates. The University of London was created out of a partnership between University College and Kings College, receiving its royal charter in 1836....

  • The Careers Group, University of London
    The Careers Group, University of London
    The Careers Group, University of London is a division of the central University of London notable for its long history and independent governance structure which answers to the University of London as a whole in the same way as the Senate House Libraries.They currently serve five groups, detailed...

  • University of London Institute in Paris
    University of London Institute in Paris
    The University of London Institute in Paris is a college of the University of London located in Paris. It is currently the only UK University Institute in Continental Europe.-History:...

     (ULIP)
  • Third oldest university in England debate
    Third oldest university in England debate
    The title of third-oldest university in England is a topic of much debate, with prime contenders for the title usually being considered to include University College London, King's College London, Durham University and the University of London, however deciding which is truly the 'oldest' depends...


External links