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Abitur

Abitur

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Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 and Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

 for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years
Abitur after twelve years
after twelve years, or in eight years describes the reduction from the duration in the from nine to eight school years in many of the States of Germany. In the States Berlin, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern the reduction took place from seven to six years because, there, primary...

.

The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as Abiturzeugnis, issued after candidates have passed their final exams, is the document which contains their grades and formally enables them to attend university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

. This means it includes the functions of a school graduation certificate and a university entrance exam.

The importance of the Abitur has grown beyond admission to the university, however, in that it has increasingly become a prerequisite to start an apprenticeship in some professions (e.g. banking). Therefore, career opportunities for Hauptschule
Hauptschule
A Hauptschule is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education according to the International Standard Classification of Education...

 or Realschule
Realschule
The Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. It has also existed in Croatia , Denmark , Sweden , Hungary and in the Russian Empire .-History:The Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and...

 graduates who do not have the Abitur have almost universally seen a downturn in recent years. More than just being a leaving certificate, the Abitur is widely regarded as a matter of personal prestige as well.

The official term in Germany for this certificate of education is Allgemeine Hochschulreife; the contraction Abi is common in colloquial usage. In 2005, a total of 400,000 students passed the Abitur exam in Germany.

History


Up until the 18th century, every German university had its own entrance examination. In 1788 Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 introduced the Abiturreglement, a law that—for the first time within Germany—established the Abitur as an official qualification. It was later also established in the other German states. In 1834 it became the only university entrance exam in Prussia, and it remained so in all states of Germany
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 until 2004. Since then the German state of Hesse
Hesse
Hesse or Hessia is both a cultural region of Germany and the name of an individual German state.* The cultural region of Hesse includes both the State of Hesse and the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring Rhineland-Palatinate state...

 allows also students with the Fachhochschulreife (see below) to study at the universities within the state.

Equivalency


The academic level of the Abitur is comparable to the International Baccalaureate
IB Diploma Programme
The International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme is a two-year educational programme for students aged 16–19that provides an internationally accepted qualification for entry into higher education, and is recognised by universities worldwide. It was developed in the early to mid-1960s in Geneva by...

 and Advanced Placement tests
Advanced Placement Program
The Advanced Placement program is a curriculum in the United States and Canada sponsored by the College Board which offers standardized courses to high school students that are generally recognized to be equivalent to undergraduate courses in college...

 — indeed, the study requirements for the International Baccalaureate differ little from the Finnish exam requirements. It is the only school-leaving certificate in all states of Germany that allows the graduate (or Abiturient) to move directly to university
University
A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees in a variety of subjects. A university is an organisation that provides both undergraduate education and postgraduate education...

. The other school leaving certificates, the Hauptschulabschluss
Hauptschulabschluss
The Hauptschulabschluss is a school leaving certificate in Germany. The Hauptschulabschluss may be awarded to students who graduate from a Hauptschule or Abendhauptschule...

and the Realschulabschluss, do not allow their holders to matriculate at a university. Those granted certificates of Hauptschulabschluss or Realschulabschluss can gain a specialized Fachabitur or an Abitur if they graduate from a Berufsschule and than attend Berufsoberschule
Berufsoberschule
Berufsoberschule is an optional part of the German education system, and is an additional way to be allowed at university for students who didn't get an Abitur at a Gymnasium.- Requirements :...

.

However, the Abitur is not the only entrance exams, as some universities set up their own entrance examinations. Also students do not necessarily need to hold the Abitur in order to enter the university, because succeeding at the "Begabtenprüfung
Begabtenprüfung
The Begabtenprüfung is a college admission examination in Germany which provides an alternative to the Abitur or qualifies the student for a "field-specific Abitur"...

" ("test of aptitude") also opens the way to college. Also students from other countries, who hold a highschool leaving certificate that is not counted as the Abitur (such as the American high school diploma) who did well on the ACT or SAT
SAT
The SAT Reasoning Test is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a nonprofit organization in the United States. It was formerly developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service which still...

 may enter college even if they do not hold the Abitur. A person, who does not hold the Abitur and didnt participate in an aptitude test, may still be allowed to go to college if he or she completed at least 10th grade and does well on an IQ-Test (see: Hochbegabtenstudium
Hochbegabtenstudium
The Hochbegabtenstudium is a programme in Germany that allows students of prerequisite intellectual ability to attend college even if they do not hold the Abitur...

).

Terminology


The official term for Abitur in Germany is Zeugnis der allgemeinen Hochschulreife (often translated as General Qualification for University Entrance or Certificate for Overall Maturity for Higher Education). During the two final years of studies and at the final exams students receive grades on a scale of 15 (best) to 0 points (failed). These points are weighted and then added up and converted to the final grade on a scale from 1 (best) to 6 (failed). If a student receives 14 points or more on average in all of his/her courses and exams he/she will get the best possible final grade of 1.0.

Other qualifications called Abitur in colloquial usage


In the German language
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 the European Baccalaureate
European Baccalaureate
The European Baccalaureate is awarded to students who successfully managed to complete the final year exam at a European School. These are mainly attended by students whose parents work for a European Institution. There are currently 14 European Schools.This diploma should not be confused with...

 is called europäisches Abitur, and the International Baccalaureate is called internationales Abitur, both not to be confused with the German Abitur.

Fachabitur was used up until the 1970s in all of Germany for a variation of the Abitur. The official term for this German qualification is fachgebundene Hochschulreife. This qualification includes only one foreign language (in most cases English). The Abitur, in contrast, mostly includes two foreign languages. This school leaving certificate also allows the graduate to start studying at a university. However, he is limited to a specified range of majors. The range of majors depends on the specific subjects covered in his Abitur examinations. But the graduate is allowed to study all majors at a Fachhochschule
Fachhochschule
A Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of tertiary education institution, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas . Fachhochschulen were founded in Germany and later adopted by Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Greece...

(University of Applied Sciences, in some ways comparable to polytechnics). Today this school leaving certificate is called fachgebundenes Abitur.

Now the term Fachabitur is used in most parts of Germany for the Fachhochschulreife. This school leaving certificate was introduced in West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

 in the 1970s together with the Fachhochschule
Fachhochschule
A Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences is a German type of tertiary education institution, sometimes specialized in certain topical areas . Fachhochschulen were founded in Germany and later adopted by Austria, Liechtenstein, Switzerland and Greece...

n
. It enables the graduate to start studying at a Fachhochschule, and in Hesse also at a university within the state. In the Gymnasium
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

s of some states it is reached in the year before the Abitur is reached. However, the normal way to receive the Fachhochschulreife is the graduation from a German Fachoberschule, a vocational high school also introduced in the 1970s.

The term Notabitur is used for a qualification which existed only during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 and World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. It was granted to male German Gymnasium (prep school) students who voluntarily enlisted for military service before graduation. The Notabitur during WWI included an examination, roughly equivalent to the Abitur exam. The WWII Notabitur, in contrast, was granted without any examinations. After the war this was a major disadvantage for Germans with this qualification since it was, unlike its WWI counterpart, generally not recognised in West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

 and never recognised in East Germany.

Emphasis on languages or sciences


An emphasis has to be put on either languages or the sciences, i.e. either (at least) two foreign languages or (at least) two natural sciences (one of which must be a ‘classical’ one) have to be covered during the four semesters of study.

Equivalent High School Graduation Certificate in Other Countries


The equivalent graduation certificate in Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 and other countries of continental Europe
Continental Europe
Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands....

 is the Matura
Matura
Matura or a similar term is the common name for the high-school leaving exam or "maturity exam" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia,...

; while in England, Wales
Wales
Wales is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west. It has a population of three million, and a total area of 20,779 km²...

, Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

, Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, and the West Indies, it is A-levels; in Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 it is Higher Grade ; in Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 and Cyprus
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 it is the "apolytirion
Apolytirion
Apolytirio , is the main school-leaving certificate for secondary education in Greece and Cyprus, obtained after successfully completing the third grade of Lyceum In Greece, it is graded on a 20-point scale....

" (a kind of high school diploma); in Malta
Malta
Malta , officially known as the Republic of Malta , is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia and north of Libya, with Gibraltar to the west and Alexandria to the east.Malta covers just over in...

 it is the Matriculation Certificate
Matriculation Certificate
The Matriculation Certificate is a certificate awarded to post secondary students and the admission requirement of the University of Malta. It is based on the premise that students seeking admission to University are more likely to develop into mature persons if their education spans both the...

 (MATSEC).

In Australia, the graduation certificate awarded to high school students is the Senior Secondary Certificate of Education
Senior Secondary Certificate of Education
The Senior Secondary Certificate of Education is the graduation certificate awarded to most students in Australian high schools, and is equivalent to the High School Diploma of North America and the A-Levels of the United Kingdom. Students completing the SSCE are usually aged 16 to 18 and study...

 (SSCE). However, the name of the SSCE varies from state to state. In Victoria, it is called the Victorian Certificate of Education
Victorian Certificate of Education
The Victorian Certificate of Education or VCE is the credential awarded to secondary school students who successfully complete high school level studies in the state of Victoria, Australia. Study for the VCE is usually completed over two years, but it can be spread over a longer period in some cases...

 (VCE).

Scoring


Each semester of a subject studied in the final two years yields up to 15 points for a student. Core subjects count double and the final examinations or Abiturprüfungen count quadruple.

Passing the Abitur requires a composite score of at least 280. Students with a score below 280 fail and will not receive the Abitur. There are some more conditions that the student has to meet in order to receive the Abitur, e.g. taking mandatory courses in different subject areas and limits to the number of failing grades in core subjects. Finally, often students have the option of omitting some courses from their composite score if they have taken more than strictly necessary.

A score between 768 points and the maximum of 840 generally leads to the best-possible grade of 1.0; the fraction of students achieving this score is normally only around 0.3-2% even among the already selective population of Abitur candidates. Around 12%-30% of Abitur candidates achieve grades between 1.0 and 1.9.

Percent of persons holding the Abitur


Historically, very few people received their Abitur in Germany, because there were a number of attractive jobs which did not need one. Even now, there are still attractive jobs that do not require the Abitur, such as in nursing or early childhood education. The number of persons holding the Abitur has been going up since the 1970s and younger jobholders are more likely to hold the Abitur than older ones, but the vast majority of Germans still do not hold the Abitur and the majority of students graduating from German schools do not receive the Abitur. According to the Statistisches Bundesamt from 1992 till 2003 an average of about 40% of all students leaving school graduated with an Abitur (West Germany: 41%; East Germany: 40%; students with migration background: 18%)

Percentage of jobholders holding Hauptschulabschluss
Hauptschulabschluss
The Hauptschulabschluss is a school leaving certificate in Germany. The Hauptschulabschluss may be awarded to students who graduate from a Hauptschule or Abendhauptschule...

, Realschulabschluss or Abitur in Germany:

1970 1982 1991 2000
Hauptschulabschluss
Hauptschulabschluss
The Hauptschulabschluss is a school leaving certificate in Germany. The Hauptschulabschluss may be awarded to students who graduate from a Hauptschule or Abendhauptschule...

87.7 % 79.3 % 66.5 % 54.9 %
Realschulabschluss 10.9 % 17.7 % 27 % 34.1 %
Abitur 1.4 % 3 % 6.5 % 11 %

Abitur in Finland



A similar test has also existed in Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

 since the mid-19th century. The test is called ylioppilastutkinto in Finnish
Finnish language
Finnish is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland Primarily for use by restaurant menus and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is one of the two official languages of Finland and an official minority language in Sweden. In Sweden, both standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a...

 and studentexamen in Swedish
Swedish language
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along its coast and on the Åland islands. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish...

. The official English language translation is matriculation
Matriculation
Matriculation, in the broadest sense, means to be registered or added to a list, from the Latin matricula – little list. In Scottish heraldry, for instance, a matriculation is a registration of armorial bearings...

 examination
. Since 1919, the test has been arranged by a national body, the Matriculation Examination Board. Before that, the administration of the test was the responsibility of the University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
The University of Helsinki is a university located in Helsinki, Finland since 1829, but was founded in the city of Turku in 1640 as The Royal Academy of Turku, at that time part of the Swedish Empire. It is the oldest and largest university in Finland with the widest range of disciplines available...

.

Successful completion formerly legally entitled one to enroll as a university student (hence "matriculation"). Although the legal requirement has been lifted, matriculation without completing the test is still an exception. The universities are now free to arrange their own entrance examinations in addition to considering scores from the Matriculation Examination. Thus, universities accept students based both on entrance exam points, matriculation exam points, and also by a combined score from the two. Matriculation entitles one to wear the student cap
Student cap
In various European countries, student caps of different types are or have been worn, either as a marker of a common identity, as is the case in the Nordic countries, or to identify the bearer as member of a smaller corporation within the larger group of students, as is the case with the caps worn...

.

Exams


Each examinee is required to participate in at least four tests in order to matriculate. As of 2005 the only mandatory part of the test is that of äidinkieli ("mother tongue"; Finnish for most students, Swedish
Swedish language
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken by approximately 10 million people, predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, especially along its coast and on the Åland islands. It is largely mutually intelligible with Norwegian and Danish...

 or Sámi
Sami languages
Sami or Saami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. Sami is frequently and erroneously believed to be a single language. Several names are used for the Sami...

 for some), including a composition test. The student then has to choose three other subjects from
  • Second domestic language (Swedish for Finnish speakers
    Mandatory Swedish
    In Finland, Swedish is a mandatory school subject for Finnish-speaking pupils in the last three years of the primary education . It is also mandatory in high schools, vocational schools, and vocational universities. Furthermore, all Finnish-speaking university graduates must demonstrate a certain...

     or Finnish for Swedish speakers)
  • Foreign language Languages are separated into A and B levels depending on the demanded skill. The language counted as part of the four obligatory subjects must be one of A-level. However, if a student takes advanced level mathematics as an obligatory subject, he may take B-level language exams. English, German and French are the most popular choices among students, but in addition, the students may take Russian, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, Inari Sámi
    Inari Sami
    Inari Sámi is a Uralic, Sami language spoken by the Inari Sami of Finland. It has approximately 300 speakers, the majority of whom are middle-aged or older and live in the municipality of Inari. According to the Sami Parliament of Finland 269 persons used Inari Sami as their first language. It is...

    , and Northern Sámi
    Northern Sami
    Northern or North Sami is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. The speaking area of Northern Sami covers the northern parts of Norway, Sweden and Finland...

     exams. The foreign language exams include listening and reading comprehension tests, grammar test and an essay.
  • Mathematics (ordinary or advanced level), including 15 assignments 10 of which must be completed.
  • Reaali in which examinees take between one or two exams, and are only allowed to answer questions from a single subject per exam. These subjects have to be chosen by the examinee well in advance prior to the exam. Exams consist of questions which require answers in the form of an essay
    Essay
    An essay is a piece of writing which is often written from an author's personal point of view. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. The definition...

    . The subjects of reaali category are
    • Religion, Evangelical Lutheran
    • Religion, Orthodox Christian
    • Education on ethics and moral history
    • Philosophy
    • Psychology
    • History
    • Civics
    • Physics
    • Chemistry
    • Biology
    • Geography
    • Health education

The exam takes place at schools according to minute regulations laid out by the national board. Each exam takes six hours. After the exam, the teachers grade the papers and send the graded papers to the national board which then re-grades every paper. The grading of the exam may be appealed against. In this case, the board re-examines the grading. The result of the re-examination is final and cannot be appealed to any authority.

Scoring


The score of each test varies with the subject. For example, the maximum score for the test in Finnish or Swedish as a first language is 114 points, in mathematics 66 points and in foreign languages 299 points. The tests are graded according to normal distribution into seven verbal grades with Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 names: Improbatur (I), Approbatur (A), Lubenter Approbatur (B), Cum Laude Approbatur (C), Magna Cum Laude Approbatur (M), Eximia Cum Laude Approbatur (E) and Laudatur (L), from bottom to top. (A rough translation of the grades is "rejected", "accepted", "gladly accepted", "accepted with praise", "accepted with much praise", "accepted with excellent praise", and "praised"/"lauded".) In general, at least the grade A is required for the test to be passed. The grades received by the students generally follow a distribution of:
  • 5% of students receive a laudatur
  • 15% of students receive an eximia cum laude approbatur
  • 20% of students receive a magna cum laude approbatur
  • 24% of students receive a cum laude approbatur
  • 20% of students receive a lubenter approbatur
  • 11% of students receive an approbatur
  • 5% of students receive an improbatur.


Traditionally, the test is taken in the spring, but it is also arranged every autumn and may be taken in up to three parts. Thus completing the matriculation exam may take up to one and half years. Usually, the last set of exams is taken at the end of the third year in upper secondary school. The exams take place in late March, but for the school-leavers, the school ends in mid-February, giving the students ample time to prepare for the test in solitary study. This occasion is celebrated by the traditional festivity of penkkarit
Penkkarit
Penkkarit is a yearly tradition among Finnish upper secondary school students. The event is celebrated in the spring of their final, usually third, year as the final day of school, before the start of the matriculation exams...

.

Compensation system


If the student receives an improbatur in any of the obligatory exams, the whole exam is failed. However, a single failed obligatory exam may be compensated by good results from other exams. For this purpose, there is a compensation system where the total exam result of the student is calculated and it is compared to the result of the failed test. In order to get his/her diploma accepted, student must gather enough compensation points from all the other exams. Improbatur is divided to four classes (i+, i, i−, i=), each describing the depth of student's failure (i+ being the least bad) and each class has its own number of compensation points to be reached for an acceptable result (12, 14, 16 and 18 respectively). Points from accepted exams are awarded as follows: L 7 points, E 6, M 5, C 4, B 3 and A 2.

See also

  • Education in Germany
    Education in Germany
    The responsibility for the German education system lies primarily with the states while the federal government plays only a minor role. Optional Kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years of age, after which school attendance is compulsory, in most cases for...

  • Abitur after twelve years
    Abitur after twelve years
    after twelve years, or in eight years describes the reduction from the duration in the from nine to eight school years in many of the States of Germany. In the States Berlin, Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern the reduction took place from seven to six years because, there, primary...

  • Education in Finland
    Education in Finland
    The Finnish education system is an egalitarian Nordic system, with no tuition fees and with free meals served to full-time students. The present Finnish education system consists of well-funded and carefully thought out daycare programs and a one-year "pre-school" ; a nine-year compulsory basic...

  • Matura
    Matura
    Matura or a similar term is the common name for the high-school leaving exam or "maturity exam" in various countries, including Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo, Liechtenstein, Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia,...



External links