Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Tigranes V of Armenia

Tigranes V of Armenia

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Tigranes V of Armenia'
Start a new discussion about 'Tigranes V of Armenia'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Tigranes V, also known as Tigran V ' onMouseout='HidePop("11719")' href="http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Armenian_language">Armenian
Armenian language
The Armenian language is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian people. It is the official language of the Republic of Armenia as well as in the region of Nagorno-Karabakh. The language is also widely spoken by Armenian communities in the Armenian diaspora...

: Տիգրան, 16 BC-36) was a Herodian Prince
Herodian Dynasty
The Herodian Dynasty was a Jewish dynasty of Idumean descent, client Kings of Roman Judaea Province between 37 BCE and 92 CE.- Origin :During the time of the Hasmonean ruler John Hyrcanus 134-104 BCE, Israel conquered Edom and forced the Edomites to convert to Judaism.The Edomites were integrated...

 and served as a Roman Client King of Armenia from the years 6 to 12.

Family & Life in the Herodian Court


Tigranes was the first born son of Alexander
Alexander, son of Herod
Alexander, son of Herod was born about 35 BC; died about 7 BC. His mother was the Hasmonean princess Mariamne.The unfortunate fate which persistently pursued the Hasmonean house overtook this prince also. As heir presumptive to the throne by right of descent on his mother's side, he was sent to...

 and Glaphyra
Glaphyra
Glaphyra was an Anatolian Princess from Cappadocia and through marriage was related to the Herodian Dynasty. -Family and early life:Glaphyra was a royal princess of Greek, Armenian and Persian descent. Her father was the Roman ally king Archelaus of Cappadocia, her only natural sibling was her...

. His younger brother was called Alexander
Alexander (grandson of Herod the Great)
Alexander, also known by his Roman name Gaius Julius Alexander was a Herodian Prince.Alexander was the second born son of Alexander and Glaphyra. His oldest brother was called Tigranes and had a younger unnamed sister. His father Alexander was a Judean Prince, of Jewish, Nabataean and Edomite...

 and had a younger unnamed sister. His nephew Tigranes VI
Tigranes VI of Armenia
Tigranes VI, also known as Tigran VI or by his Roman name Gaius Julius Tigranes was a Herodian Prince and served as a Roman Client King of Armenia in the 1st century....

 served as a Roman Client King of Armenia during the reign of the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

 Nero
Nero
Nero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....

 (reigned 54-68). His father Alexander was a Judean Prince
Judea
Judea or Judæa was the name of the mountainous southern part of the historic Land of Israel from the 8th century BCE to the 2nd century CE, when Roman Judea was renamed Syria Palaestina following the Jewish Bar Kokhba revolt.-Etymology:The...

, of Jewish
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

, Nabataean
Nabataeans
Thamudi3.jpgThe Nabataeans, also Nabateans , were ancient peoples of southern Canaan and the northern part of Arabia, whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus , gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates to the Red Sea...

 and Edom
Edom
Edom or Idumea was a historical region of the Southern Levant located south of Judea and the Dead Sea. It is mentioned in biblical records as a 1st millennium BC Iron Age kingdom of Edom, and in classical antiquity the cognate name Idumea was used to refer to a smaller area in the same region...

ite descent and was a son of King of Judea, Herod the Great
Herod the Great
Herod , also known as Herod the Great , was a Roman client king of Judea. His epithet of "the Great" is widely disputed as he is described as "a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis." He is also known for his colossal building projects in Jerusalem and elsewhere, including his...

 and his wife Mariamne
Mariamne (second wife of Herod)
Mariamne I, also called Mariamne the Hasmonean was the second wife of Herod the Great. She was known for her great beauty, as was her brother Aristobulus...

. His mother Glaphyra was a Cappadocian Princess
Cappadocia
Cappadocia is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in Nevşehir Province.In the time of Herodotus, the Cappadocians were reported as occupying the whole region from Mount Taurus to the vicinity of the Euxine...

, who was of Greek
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Armenian
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

 and Persian descent
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

. She was the daughter of the King Archelaus of Cappadocia
Archelaus of Cappadocia
-Family & Early Life:Archelaus was a Cappadocian Greek nobleman, possibly of Macedonian descent. His full name was Archelaus Sisines. He was the first born son, namesake of the Roman Client and High Priest Ruler Archelaus, of the temple state of Comana, Cappadocia and Glaphyra. Archelaus’ father...

  and her mother was an unnamed Princess from Armenia, possibly a relation of the Artaxiad Dynasty
Artaxiad Dynasty
The Artaxiad Dynasty or Ardaxiad Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. Their realm included Greater Armenia, Sophene and intermittently Lesser Armenia and parts of Mesopotamia...

.

Tigranes was named in honor of his mother’s Armenian and Hellenic lineage
Hellenistic period
The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic era describes the time which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. It was so named by the historian J. G. Droysen. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia...

. The name Tigranes was the most common royal name in the Artaxiad Dynasty and was among the most ancient names of the Armenian Kings. Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

 Augustus
Augustus
Augustus ;23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) is considered the first emperor of the Roman Empire, which he ruled alone from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.The dates of his rule are contemporary dates; Augustus lived under two calendars, the Roman Republican until 45 BC, and the Julian...

 mentions Tigranes’ Armenian ancestry in his political testament:
When he was murdered I sent into that kingdom Tigranes [Tigrans V, ca. A.D. 6], who was sprung from the royal family of the Armenians.
[Res Gestae Divi Augusti, V. xxvi. pp.390/1]


Tigranes was born and raised in Herod’s court in Jerusalem. After the death of Tigranes' father in 7 BC Herod acted in an extreme and brutal manner returning his mother to Cappadocia, forcing her to leave her children under the sole custody of Herod in Jerusalem. Tigranes and his brother remained under Herod’s guardianship so he could be able to control their fates. Another son of Herod’s Antipater, was concerned for Tigranes and his brother as he expected them to attain higher station than their own late fathers, because of the assistance Antipater considered likely from their maternal grandfather Archelaus.

Herod died in 4 BC in Jericho
Jericho
Jericho ; is a city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank of the Palestinian territories. It is the capital of the Jericho Governorate and has a population of more than 20,000. Situated well below sea level on an east-west route north of the Dead Sea, Jericho is the lowest permanently...

. After the death of Herod, Tigranes and his brother decided to leave Jerusalem and to live with their mother and her family in the Cappadocian Royal Court. After Tigranes and his brother arrived in Cappadocia, they disinherited their Jewish descent, deserted their Jewish religion
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 and embraced their Greek descent, including the religion. However the family connections to the Herodian Dynasty wasn’t wholly broken. After Tigranes and his brother disinherited their Jewish descent, they were considered among fellow Jews as gentiles. Archelaus had sent Tigranes to live and be educated in Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

.

King of Armenia


In the year 2 monarchs from the Artaxiad Dynasty
Artaxiad Dynasty
The Artaxiad Dynasty or Ardaxiad Dynasty ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12. Their realm included Greater Armenia, Sophene and intermittently Lesser Armenia and parts of Mesopotamia...

 had encountered civil war and Augustus had appointed to the Armenian throne kings of Armenian or Mede
Medes
The MedesThe Medes...

 origin to govern the country that were eventually killed. Augustus revised his foreign policy and appointed Tigranes as King of Armenia. Tigranes was accompanied by Archelaus and Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

 to Armenia, where he was installed as King at Artaxata
Artashat
Artashat , is a city on Araks River in the Ararat valley, 30 km southeast of Yerevan. Being one of the oldest cities of Armenia, Artashat is the capital of Ararat Province. Modern Artashat is situated on the Yerevan-Nakhichevan-Baku and Nakhichevan-Tabriz railway and on...

. Artaxata became Tigranes' capital. In the year 6, Tigranes ruled Armenia was a sole ruler. Sometime into his reign, the Armenian nobles were unsatisfied with his reign. They rebelled later that year and restored Erato
Erato of Armenia
Erato was a Princess, queen of Armenia and the last member on the throne of the Artaxiad Dynasty. She was the daughter of Armenian King Tigranes III and half-sister/wife of King Tigranes IV. In the centuries before Christianity, incestuous marriages were common at Hellenistic courts in order to...

 back to the throne. From the years 6-12, Tigranes co-ruled with Erato. His co-rule with Erato is based on numismatic evidence.

Little is known about his reign of Armenia although some coinage has survived from his reign. The surviving coinage is a reflection from his Hellenic
Hellenistic period
The Hellenistic period or Hellenistic era describes the time which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great. It was so named by the historian J. G. Droysen. During this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its zenith in Europe and Asia...

 and Armenian descent
History of Armenia
Armenia lies in the highlands surrounding the Biblical mountains of Ararat. The original Armenian name for the country was Hayk, later Hayastan , translated as the land of Haik, and consisting of the name Haik and the suffix '-stan' ....

 and is evidence that he relinquished his Jewish connections. His royal title is in Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΤΙΓΡΑΝΟΥ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ which means of great King Tigranes. In 12, Erato and Tigranes were overthrown for unknown reasons. Augustus kept Armenia as a client kingdom and appointed Vonones I of Parthia
Vonones I of Parthia
Vonones I of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his coins) ruled the Parthian Empire from about 8 to 12 AD. He was the eldest son of Phraates IV of Parthia Vonones I of Parthia (ΟΝΩΝΗΣ on his...

 as King of Armenia.

Life after being King of Armenia


After his kingship, Tigranes may have remained in Armenia in contention to reclaim his throne in the first years of the reign of the Roman Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

. Around about the year 18 Vonones I died. His maternal grandfather attempted to re-establish Tigranes as King of Armenia. Tigranes may have called upon Archelaus to assist him in regaining his throne and Archelaus may have been charged for treason in Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 for helping a relative who for unknown reasons wasn’t now in favor with the Romans. The Armenian kingship was given to Artaxias III
Artaxias III
Artaxias III, also known as Zeno-Artaxias, Artaxes or Artashes was a prince of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and Roman Client King of Armenia....

. If Tigranes was successful is regaining his throne and succeeding Archelaus, he would have presided directly or indirectly over a virtual empire.

After the year 18, little is known about the life of Tigranes. His wife was the unnamed daughter of Pheroras, by whom he had no children. Pheroras was his paternal great-uncle and a brother to Herod. Tacitus
Tacitus
Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors...

 records that Tigranes as a victim of the reign of terror that marked the latter years of Tiberius
Tiberius
Tiberius , was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Tiberius was by birth a Claudian, son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced Nero and married Augustus in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian...

. The charges brought against him by Tiberius in year 36 are not stated but it is clear that he did not survive them. His death followed the Roman installation in year 35 of a new client king in Armenia, the Iberian Prince
Caucasian Iberia
Iberia , also known as Iveria , was a name given by the ancient Greeks and Romans to the ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli , corresponding roughly to the eastern and southern parts of the present day Georgia...

 Mithridates
Mithridates of Armenia
Mithridates of Armenia was an Iberian prince and a king of Armenia under the protection of the Roman Empire.Mithridates was installed by his brother Pharasmanes I of Iberia who, encouraged by Tiberius, invaded Armenia and captured its capital Artaxata in 35...

, as a part of a broader campaign against Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia
Artabanus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about AD 10 to 38. He was the son of a princess of the Arsacid Dynasty, who lived in the East among the Dahan nomads...

.

Sources

  • Tacitus
    Tacitus
    Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors...

    , Annals Book VI
  • Millar, Fergus, Schürer, Emil, Vermes & Geza, The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ (175 B.C. - A.D. 135), Continuum International Publishing Group, 1973
  • H. Temporini & W. Haase, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im spiegel der neueren Forschung, Walter de Gruyter, 1977
  • H. Temporini & W. Haase, Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Geschichte und Kultur Roms im Spiegel der neueren Forschung, Walter de Gruyter, 1980
  • R. Syme & A.R. Birley, Anatolica: studies in Strabo, Oxford University Press, 1995
  • A.E. Redgate, The Armenians, Wiley-Blackwell, 2000
  • R.G. Hovannisian, The Armenian People from Ancient to Modern Times, Volume 1: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century, Palgrave Macmillan, 2004
  • D. Dueck, H. Lindsay & S. Pothecary, Strabo’s cultural geography: the making of a kolossourgia, Cambridge University Press, 2005
  • A. Kasher & E. Witztum, King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, Walter de Gruyter, 2007
  • Marriage and Divorce in the Herodian Family: A Case Study of Diversity in Late Second Temple Judaism by Ingrid Johanne Moen Department of Religion in the Graduate School of Duke University
  • acsearch.info ancient coin search engine: Kings of Armenia
  • Eisenman's "New Testament Code", Chapter 4

External links