Honorific

Honorific

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Encyclopedia
An honorific is a word or expression with connotations conveying esteem or respect when used in addressing or referring to a person. Sometimes, the term is used not quite correctly to refer to an honorary title
Honorary title (academic)
Honorary titles in academia may be conferred on persons in recognition of contributions by a non-employee or by an employee beyond regular duties...

. It is also often conflated with systems of honorific speech
Honorifics (linguistics)
In linguistics, an honorific is a grammatical or morphosyntactic form that encodes the relative social status of the participants of the conversation...

 in linguistics, which are grammatical or morphological ways of encoding the relative social status of speakers.

Typically, honorifics are used for second and third persons
Grammatical person
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to a participant in an event; such as the speaker, the addressee, or others. Grammatical person typically defines a language's set of personal pronouns...

; use for first person is less common. Some languages have anti-honorific (despective or humilific) first person forms (meaning something like "your most humble servant" or "this unworthy person") whose effect is to enhance the relative honor accorded to a second or third person.

Modern English honorifics


The most common honorifics in modern English
English honorifics
In the English language an English honorific is a title prefixing a person's name, e.g.: Miss, Ms., Mr, Sir, Mrs, Dr and Lord...

 are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject. Honorifics which can be used of any adult of the appropriate sex include "Mr
MR
MR, Mr, mr, or mR may refer to:*Mr. an honorific title of menPlaces:* Morocco country code * Martinique country code...

", "Mrs
MRS
MRS can refer to:* Magnetic resonance spectroscopy* Mandibular repositioning splint* Marginal rate of substitution, in economics* Marseille Provence Airport, IATA airport code* Materials Research Society* Melbourne Rectangular Stadium...

", "Miss
Miss
Miss is an English language honorific traditionally used only for an unmarried woman . Originating in the 17th century, it is a contraction of mistress, which was used for all women. A period is not used to signify the contraction...

", and "Ms
Ms.
Ms. or Ms is an English honorific used with the last name or full name of a woman. According to The Emily Post Institute, Ms...

", and an example of a gender neutral honorific is "Mx". Other honorifics denote the honored person’s occupation, for instance "Doctor
Doctor (title)
Doctor, as a title, originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning. The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre . It has been used as an honored academic title for over a millennium in Europe, where it dates back to the rise of the university. This use spread...

", "Captain", "Coach
Coach (sport)
In sports, a coach is an individual involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople.-Staff:...

", Officer, "Reverend" for all clergy
Clergy
Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. A clergyman, churchman or cleric is a member of the clergy, especially one who is a priest, preacher, pastor, or other religious professional....

 and/or "Father" (for a Catholic priest) and some Anglican clergy, or "Professor". Abbreviations of academic degrees or professional certifications, used after a person's name, may also be seen as a kind of honorific (e.g. "Jane Doe, Ph.D.") "Master" as a prefix ahead of the name of boys and young men up to about 16 years of age is less common than it used to be, but is still used by older people addressing the young in formal situations and correspondence.

Some honorifics act as complete replacements for a name, as "Sir" or "Ma'am", or "Your Honor". Subordinates will often use honorifics as punctuation before asking a superior a question or after responding to an order: "Yes, Sir" or even "Sir, yes Sir."

A judge is addressed as "Your Honor" when on the bench
Bench (metonymy)
Bench can be used as a metonym for a group of people associated with sitting on particular benches. The words chair, seat and desk can be used in similar ways....

, and may be referred to as "His/Her Honor"; the plural form would be "Your Honors". Similarly, a monarch (ranking as a king or emperor) and his consort
Queen consort
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...

 may be addressed or referred to as "Your/His/Her Majesty", "Their Majesties", etc. (but there is no customary honorific accorded to a female monarch's consort, as he is usually granted a specific style). Monarchs below king
King
- Centers of population :* King, Ontario, CanadaIn USA:* King, Indiana* King, North Carolina* King, Lincoln County, Wisconsin* King, Waupaca County, Wisconsin* King County, Washington- Moving-image works :Television:...

ly rank are addressed as "Your/His/Her Highness
Highness
Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

", the exact rank being indicated by an appropriate modifier, e.g. "His Serene Highness
Serene Highness
His/Her Serene Highness is a style used today by the reigning families of Liechtenstein and Monaco. It also preceded the princely titles of members of some German ruling and mediatised dynasties as well as some non-ruling but princely German noble families until 1918...

" for a member of a prince
Prince
Prince is a general term for a ruler, monarch or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family, and is a hereditary title in the nobility of some European states. The feminine equivalent is a princess...

ly dynasty, or "Her Grand Ducal Highness" for a member of a family that reigns over a grand duchy
Grand duchy
A grand duchy, sometimes referred to as a grand dukedom, is a territory whose head of state is a monarch, either a grand duke or grand duchess.Today Luxembourg is the only remaining grand duchy...

. Verbs with these honorifics as subject are conjugated in the third person (e.g. "you are going" vs. "Your Honor is going" or "Her Royal Highness is going".)

In music, a distinguished conductor or virtuoso instrumentalist may be known as "Maestro".

In aviation, airline
Airline
An airline provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight. Airlines lease or own their aircraft with which to supply these services and may form partnerships or alliances with other airlines for mutual benefit...

/charter
Charter
A charter is the grant of authority or rights, stating that the granter formally recognizes the prerogative of the recipient to exercise the rights specified...

 pilots who serve as Pilot in command
Pilot in command
The pilot in command of an aircraft is the person aboard the aircraft who is ultimately responsible for its operation and safety during flight. This would be the "captain" in a typical two- or three-pilot flight crew, or "pilot" if there is only one certified and qualified pilot at the controls of...

 are usually addressed as "Captain" plus their full name or surname. This tradition is slowly diminishing in the United States and most EU countries. However, a lot of other countries, especially in Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

, fully adhere to this tradition and address airline pilots, military pilots, and flight instructors exclusively as "Captain" even outside of the professional environment. In addition, such countries etiquette
Etiquette
Etiquette is a code of behavior that delineates expectations for social behavior according to contemporary conventional norms within a society, social class, or group...

 rules dictate to place this title on all the official letters and social invitations, business cards, identification documents, etc. In the United States, when addressing a pilot, common etiquette does not require the title "Captain" to be printed on official letters or invitations before the addressee's full name. However, this is optional (akin to lawyer's "Esq
Esquire
Esquire is a term of West European origin . Depending on the country, the term has different meanings...

" title after the name) and may be used where appropriate, especially when addressing airline pilots with many years of experience.

Pakistan


Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 has a large number of honorific forms that may be used with or as a substitute for names. The most common honorifics in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject or immediately after the subject. There are many variations across Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

.
Prefix type

The traditional Urdu
Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 honorific in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 for a male is the prefix Mohtaram. For example, Syed Mohammad Jahangir would become Syed Mohammad Jahangir Al-Mohtaram.
The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 for a female is the prefix Mohtarama. For example, Shamim Ara would become Shamim Ara Al-Mohtarama.
Suffix type

The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 for a male is the suffix Sahab. For example, Syed Zaki Ahmed would become Syed Zaki Ahmed Sahab.
The traditional Urdu honorific in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 for a female is the suffix Sahiba; for instance, Shamim Ara would become Shamim Ara Sahiba.

Ancient Rome


Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 had Roman honorifics like that of Augustus
Augustus (honorific)
Augustus , Latin for "majestic," "the increaser," or "venerable", was an Ancient Roman title, which was first held by Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus , and subsequently came to be considered one of the titles of what are now known as the Roman Emperors...

, which turned into title
Title
A title is a prefix or suffix added to someone's name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. In some languages, titles may even be inserted between a first and last name...

s over time.

Spanish


Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 has a number of honorific forms that may be used with or as substitutes for names, such as señor or caballero ("Mr.", "Sir", "Gentleman"); señora ("Madam", "Mrs.", "Lady", "ma'am") and señorita ("Miss", "young lady"); licenciado for a person with bachelor's or a professional degree (e.g., attorney
Lawyer
A lawyer, according to Black's Law Dictionary, is "a person learned in the law; as an attorney, counsel or solicitor; a person who is practicing law." Law is the system of rules of conduct established by the sovereign government of a society to correct wrongs, maintain the stability of political...

s and engineer
Engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

s); maestro for a teacher, master mechanic, or person with a master's degree; doctor ("doctor"); etc. Also used is don (male) or doña (female) for people of rank or, in some Latin American countries (e.g., Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico , officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico , is an unincorporated territory of the United States, located in the northeastern Caribbean, east of the Dominican Republic and west of both the United States Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands.Puerto Rico comprises an...

), for any senior citizen.

Italy


Italian honorifics
Italian honorifics
-Nobility:As part of the republican constitution that became effective in Italy on 1 January 1948, titles of nobility ceased to be recognized in law , and the organ of state which had regulated them, the Consulta Araldica, was eliminated...

 are usually limited to formal situations. Professional titles like Ingegnere (engineer) are often substituted for the ordinary Signore (mister), while Dottore (doctor) is used very freely for any graduate of a university.
When ending with an e, honorifics lose it when juxtaposed to a surname: dottor Rossi, cardinal Martini, ragionier Fantozzi.

Turkey


Turkish
Turkish language
Turkish is a language spoken as a native language by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey and Northern Cyprus with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo,...

 honorifics generally follow the first name, especially if they refer to gender or particular social statuses (e.g. Name Bey [Mr.], Name Hanım [Ms.], Name Öğretmen [teacher or cleric]). Such honorifics are used both in formal and informal situations. A newer honorific is Sayın, which precedes the surname or full name, and is not gender-specific. (e.g. Sayın Name Surname, or Sayın Surname). They are generally used in very formal situations.

India


Indian honorifics
Indian honorifics
Indian honorifics are honorific titles or appendices to names used in India, covering formal and informal relationships for social, commercial, spiritual and generational links. Honorifics may be prefix, suffix or replacement types.-Prefix type:...

 abound, covering formal and informal relationships for social, commercial, spiritual, and generational links. Honorifics may be prefix, suffix, or replacement types. There are many variations.

India: Prefix type


The most common honorifics in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 are usually placed immediately before the name of the subject. Honorifics which can be used of any adult of the appropriate sex include Sri
Sri
Sri , also transliterated as Shri or Shree or shre is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in the Indian subcontinent as polite form of address equivalent to the English "Mr." in written and spoken language, or as a title of veneration for deities .-Etymology:Sri has the root meaning of radiance, or...

 (also Romanised as Shri, acronym for Sriman), Smt (acronym for Srimati), and Kum (acronym for Kumari). In Tamil, Thiru (acronym of Thiruvalar for males) and Thirumathi (for females) are used.

India: Replacement type


Some honorifics, like Bhavān or Bhavatī, act as complete replacements for a name.

For example, in Gujarati
Gujarati language
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. It is derived from a language called Old Gujarati which is the ancestor language of the modern Gujarati and Rajasthani languages...

, for an uncle who is your mother's brother, the replacement honorific maama (long "a" then short "a") is used, and a male friend will often earn the suffix honorific of bhai.

India: Suffix type

  • The traditional Hindi
    Hindi
    Standard Hindi, or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi, also known as Manak Hindi , High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, and Literary Hindi, is a standardized and sanskritized register of the Hindustani language derived from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi...

     honorific is the suffix -ji. For example, M.K. Gandhi (the Mahatma) was often referred to as Gandhi-ji. (Hindi, like many languages, distinguishes between pronouns for persons older in age or status. Such a person is referred as aap; a person of same status is called tum [both substituting for "you" in English]. A similar distinction exists for third person pronouns. When honorifics are attached in Hindi, the verb matches the plural case.)
  • The traditional Kannada honorific is the suffix -avaru. For example, Visveswariah was referred to as Visveswariah-avaru.
  • The traditional Marathi
    Marathi language
    Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...

     honorific is the suffix -rao. For example, Madhav Scindia was referred to as Madhav-rao.
  • The traditional Tamil
    Tamil language
    Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...

     honorific is the suffix Avargal/Vaal. The Dalai Lama would become Dalai Lama Avargal.
  • The traditional Telugu
    Telugu language
    Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...

     honorific is the suffix Garu. Thus, the Potti Sriramulu would be Potti Sriramulu Garu.
  • The traditional Bengali
    Bengali language
    Bengali or Bangla is an eastern Indo-Aryan language. It is native to the region of eastern South Asia known as Bengal, which comprises present day Bangladesh, the Indian state of West Bengal, and parts of the Indian states of Tripura and Assam. It is written with the Bengali script...

     honorific for ordinary men is the suffix Babu, used with the person's given (first) name. Thus, Shubhash Basu would be Shubhash-Babu. For men with whom one has a more formal relationship, the suffix Moshai (mohashoi) is used with the person's family (last) name. Thus, Shubhash Basu would be Basu-Moshai.

China


During the ancient and imperial periods, Chinese honorifics
Chinese honorifics
Chinese honorifics were developed due to class consciousness and Confucian principles of order and respect in Ancient and Imperial China. The Chinese polite language also affects Japanese honorifics conceptually; both emphasized the idea of classes and in-group vs. out-group. So the language used...

 varied greatly based on one's social status, but with the end of Imperial China, many of these distinctions fell out of colloquial use. Some honorifics remain in use today, especially in formal writings for the court and business setting. In fact, the ability to use honorifics in China is now seen as a display of social status. In other words, educated people tend to rigidly use honorifics as a display of their status.

In addition, the use of honorifics vary greatly across Chinese-speaking regions in the world. In Taiwan, for example, honorifics are more widely used in daily interactions. In Mainland China, however, honorifics tend to recede to formal settings.

Japan


Japanese honorifics
Japanese honorifics
The Japanese language has many honorifics, parts of speech which show respect, and their use is mandatory in many social situations. Honorifics in Japanese may be used to emphasize social distance or disparity in rank, or to emphasize social intimacy or similarity in rank.The system of honorifics...

 are similar to English titles like "Mister" and "Miss", but in Japanese, which has many honorifics, their use is mandatory in many formal and informal social situations. Japanese grammar as a whole tends to function on hierarchy — honorific stems are appended to verbs and some nouns, and in many cases one word may be exchanged for another word entirely with the same verb- or noun-meaning, but with different honorific connotations.

Java


Indonesia's Javanese majority ethnicity has many honorifics.

I Gusti means "His or Her Royal Majesty". Bendara Raden Mas, Bendara Mas, or the contraction ndoro mean "Prince, flag-bearer 'His Higness'". Bapak and its contraction Pak mean: Sir, Mister, or literally "Father".

Ibu and its contraction Bu mean: Madam, Ma'am, Ms, or Mrs, literally "Mother".

Raden Emas and its contraction Mas mean: Mr. among colleagues, friends, and others of slightly higher age or social status, literally "Golden Son", "Lord", or "Heir Apparent".
Raden Emas Behi, contracted to Mas Behi, means "2nd Heir Apparent" and is now obsolete.
Raden Behi, contracted to Den Behi, means "Heir Apparent" and is now obsolete.
mbak yu and the more common mbak are derived from Surakarta court to address adolescent or marriage age unmarried women, but is now for women, with no age or marital status connotation.

Eyang Puteri and its contraction Eyang mean: grandmother, literally "Grand Lady".

Eyang Putera Kakung and its contraction Eyang Kakung mean: grandfather, literally "Grand Sir".

Bapak Gede and its contraction Pak de are used for a big father, uncle, or relative older than one's father, literally "Grand Sir".

Bapak Cilik and its contraction Pak lik are used for a very familiar friend or sir, literally a small father or a relative younger than one's Gaflakapus father — but very familiar.

Mbok is not an honorific and denotes an older woman of very low status.

Bang or Bung is a somewhat outdated, egalitarian term to refer to a brotherhood among males. Bang is Betawi language for Mas.

Korean


Korean honorifics
Korean honorifics
The Korean language reflects the important observance of a speaker or writer's relationships with both the subject of the sentence and the audience. Korean grammar uses an extensive system of honorifics to reflect the speaker's relationship to the subject of the sentence and speech levels to...

 are similar to Japanese honorifics; their use is mandatory in many formal and informal social situations. Korean grammar as a whole tends to function on hierarchy — honorific stems are appended to verbs and some nouns, and in many cases, one word may be exchanged for another word entirely with the same verb- or noun-meaning, but with different honorific connotations. Linguicists say that there are six levels of honorifics in Korean but, in daily conversation, only three of them are widely used in contemporary Korean.

Malay


Malay honorifics are the Malay language
Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It is the official language of Malaysia , Indonesia , Brunei and Singapore...

's complex system of titles and honorifics which is still extensively used in Malaysia and Brunei
Brunei
Brunei , officially the State of Brunei Darussalam or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace , is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, in Southeast Asia...

. Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, whose Malay royalty was abolished by the British colonial government in 1891, has adopted civic titles for its leaders.

Kenya, Tanzania


In areas of East Africa, where the Bantu
Bantu languages
The Bantu languages constitute a traditional sub-branch of the Niger–Congo languages. There are about 250 Bantu languages by the criterion of mutual intelligibility, though the distinction between language and dialect is often unclear, and Ethnologue counts 535 languages...

 language Kiswahili is spoken, mzee is frequently used for an elder to denote respect by younger speakers. It is used in direct conversation and used in referring to someone in the third person.

Opposition


People who have a strong sense of egalitarianism
Egalitarianism
Egalitarianism is a trend of thought that favors equality of some sort among moral agents, whether persons or animals. Emphasis is placed upon the fact that equality contains the idea of equity of quality...

, such as Quakers and certain socialists, eschew honorific titles. When addressing or referring to someone, they will use the person's name, an informal pronoun
Pronoun
In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun , such as, in English, the words it and he...

, or some other style implying social equality, such as "brother", "friend", or "comrade
Comrade
Comrade means "friend", "colleague", or "ally". The word comes from French camarade. The term is frequently used by left-wing organizations around the globe. "Comrade" has often become a stock phrase and form of address. This word has its regional equivalents available in many...

". This was also the practice in Revolutionary France
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...

 which used Citoyen ("Citizen") as the manner of address.

Culturally specific usage

  • Indian honorifics
    Indian honorifics
    Indian honorifics are honorific titles or appendices to names used in India, covering formal and informal relationships for social, commercial, spiritual and generational links. Honorifics may be prefix, suffix or replacement types.-Prefix type:...

  • Canadian honorifics
    Canadian honorifics
    Canadian honorifics are few, many of which are maintained from before Confederation and originate from the British honours system.-Royal and governmental honorifics:-Military honorifics:...

  • French honorifics
    French honorifics
    French honorifics include "Monsieur" for a man, "Madame" for a married woman and "Mademoiselle" for an unmarried woman. Feminist movements are pushing for "Madame" being used for all women, on the basis that it would be sexist to have only one word for men, whether they're married or not, but...

  • Islamic honorifics
  • Chinese honorifics
    Chinese honorifics
    Chinese honorifics were developed due to class consciousness and Confucian principles of order and respect in Ancient and Imperial China. The Chinese polite language also affects Japanese honorifics conceptually; both emphasized the idea of classes and in-group vs. out-group. So the language used...

  • Japanese honorifics
    Japanese honorifics
    The Japanese language has many honorifics, parts of speech which show respect, and their use is mandatory in many social situations. Honorifics in Japanese may be used to emphasize social distance or disparity in rank, or to emphasize social intimacy or similarity in rank.The system of honorifics...

  • Korean honorifics
    Korean honorifics
    The Korean language reflects the important observance of a speaker or writer's relationships with both the subject of the sentence and the audience. Korean grammar uses an extensive system of honorifics to reflect the speaker's relationship to the subject of the sentence and speech levels to...

  • Kunya (Arabic)
    Kunya (Arabic)
    A kunya is a teknonym, the name of an adult derived from their child, especially their eldest son, in Arabic names.A kunya is expressed by the use of abū or umm in a genitive construction, i.e "father of" or "mother of" as a honorific in place of or alongside given names in the Arab world and the...

  • Honorifics in Judaism
    Honorifics in Judaism
    There are a number of honorifics in Judaism that vary depending on the status of and the relationship to the person to whom one is referring.-Rabbi:"Rabbi" which means a religious 'teacher' is commonly used in English to refer to any ordained Jewish scholar....

  • Thai royal and noble titles
    Thai royal and noble titles
    Thai royal and noble titles are the royal and noble styles signifying relationship to the King introduced by King Trailokanat, who reigned 1448 to 1488. The system is rooted in the Thai language equivalent of feudalism, .It is somewhat similar to that of peerage, but is complicated and usually not...


General usage

  • The Honourable
    The Honourable
    The prefix The Honourable or The Honorable is a style used before the names of certain classes of persons. It is considered an honorific styling.-International diplomacy:...

  • Style (manner of address)
    Style (manner of address)
    A style of office, or honorific, is a legal, official, or recognized title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal...

  • Use of courtesy titles and honorifics in professional writing
    Use of courtesy titles and honorifics in professional writing
    The use of honorifics and styles differs greatly among publications in both journalism and academia. The differences are based on tradition, practical concerns , and cultural norms...

  • T-V distinction
    T-V distinction
    In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction is a contrast, within one language, between second-person pronouns that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee....