Turkish language

Turkish language

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{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}} '''Turkish''' (Turkish: {{Audio|Turkce.ogg|''Türkçe''}}) is a [[language]] spoken as a [[first language|native language]] by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the [[Turkic languages]]. Its speakers are located predominantly in [[Turkey]] and [[Northern Cyprus]] with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the [[Republic of Macedonia]], [[Kosovo]]{{ref label|status|a|}}, Albania and other parts of Eastern Europe.
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{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}} '''Turkish''' (Turkish: {{Audio|Turkce.ogg|''Türkçe''}}) is a [[language]] spoken as a [[first language|native language]] by over 83 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the [[Turkic languages]]. Its speakers are located predominantly in [[Turkey]] and [[Northern Cyprus]] with smaller groups in Iraq, Greece, Bulgaria, the [[Republic of Macedonia]], [[Kosovo]]{{ref label|status|a|}}, Albania and other parts of Eastern Europe. Turkish is also spoken by several million people of immigrant origin in Western Europe, particularly in Germany. The language contains many dialects but the standard is '''Istanbul Turkish'''. The roots of the language can be traced to Central Asia, with the first known written records dating back nearly 1,300 years. To the west, the influence of [[Ottoman Turkish language|Ottoman Turkish]]—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the [[Ottoman Empire]]—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of [[Atatürk's Reforms]] in the early years of the [[Republic of Turkey]], the [[Ottoman Turkish alphabet|Ottoman script]] was replaced with a phonetic variant of the [[Latin alphabet]]. Concurrently, the newly founded [[Turkish Language Association]] initiated a drive to reform and standardize the language. The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are [[vowel harmony]] and extensive [[agglutination]]. The basic word order of Turkish is [[subject–object–verb]]. Turkish has no [[noun class]]es or [[grammatical gender]]. Turkish has a strong [[T-V distinction]] and usage of [[honorific]]s. Turkish uses [[second-person]] [[pronoun]]s that distinguish varying levels of politeness, [[social distance]], age, courtesy or familiarity toward the addressee. The plural second-person pronoun and verb forms are used referring to a single person out of respect. On occasion, double plural second-person "sizler" may be used to refer to a much-respected person. == Classification == {{Main|Turkic languages|Altaic languages}} Turkish is a member of the Turkic, or Western, subgroup of the [[Oghuz languages]], which includes [[Gagauz language|Gagauz]] and [[Azerbaijani language|Azerbaijani]]. The Oghuz languages form the Southwestern subgroup of the [[Turkic languages]], a language family comprising some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and Siberia. Some linguists believe the Turkic languages to be a part of a larger [[Altaic languages|Altaic language family]]. About 40% of all speakers of Turkic languages are native Turkish speakers. The characteristic features of Turkish, such as [[vowel harmony]], [[agglutination]], and lack of [[grammatical gender]], are universal within the Turkic family and the Altaic languages. There is a high degree of [[mutual intelligibility]] between Turkish and the other Oghuz languages, including Azerbaijani, [[Turkmen language|Turkmen]], [[Qashqai language|Qashqai]], Gagauz, and [[Balkan Gagauz Turkish language|Balkan Gagauz Turkish]]. [[File:Kyzyl orkhon inscription.jpg|thumb|left|upright|[[Old Turkic language|Old Turkic]] inscription with the [[Orkhon script]] (c. 8th century). [[Kyzyl]], Russia]] == History == {{see also|Turkish people|History of the Turkish people}} The earliest known Turkic inscriptions are the two monumental [[Orkhon inscriptions]] found in modern [[Mongolia]]. Erected in honour of the prince [[Kul Tigin]] and his brother Emperor [[Bilge Khan]], and dating back to some time between 732 and 735, they constitute another important early record. After the discovery and excavation of these monuments and associated stone slabs by Russian archaeologists in the wider area surrounding the [[Orkhon Valley]] between 1889 and 1893, it became established that the language on the inscriptions was the [[Old Turkic language]] written using the [[Orkhon script]], which has also been referred to as "Turkic runes" or "runiform" due to a superficial similarity to the [[Germanic languages|Germanic]] [[runic alphabet]]s. With the [[Turkic expansion]] during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries), peoples speaking Turkic languages spread across [[Central Asia]], covering a vast geographical region stretching from Siberia to Europe and the Mediterranean. The [[Seljuq dynasty|Seljuqs]] of the [[Oghuz Turks]], in particular, brought their language, [[Oghuz languages|Oghuz Turkic]]—the direct ancestor of today's Turkish language—into [[Anatolia]] during the 11th century. Also during the 11th century, an early linguist of the Turkic languages, [[Mahmud al-Kashgari]] from the [[Kara-Khanid Khanate]], published the first comprehensive Turkic language dictionary and map of the geographical distribution of Turkic speakers in the ''Compendium of the Turkic Dialects'' (Ottoman Turkish: ''Divânü Lügati't-Türk''). === Ottoman Turkish === {{Main|Ottoman Turkish language}} [[File:Karamanoglu.jpg|thumb|right|175px|Statue depicting [[Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey]] declaring Turkish as the official language of the state and all its institutions. (circa [[1277]])]] Following the adoption of [[Islam]] c. 950 by the [[Kara-Khanid Khanate]] and the [[Seljuq dynasty|Seljuq Turks]], who are both regarded as the ethnic and cultural ancestors of the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottomans]], the administrative language of these states acquired a large collection of loanwords from [[Arabic language|Arabic]] and [[Persian language|Persian]]. [[Turkish literature]] during the Ottoman period, particularly [[Ottoman poetry|Ottoman Divan poetry]], was heavily influenced by Persian, including the adoption of poetic meters and a great quantity of imported words. The literary and official language during the [[Ottoman Empire]] period (c. 1299–1922) is termed [[Ottoman Turkish language|Ottoman Turkish]], which was a mixture of Turkish, Persian, and Arabic that differed considerably and was largely unintelligible to the period's everyday Turkish known as ''kaba Türkçe'' or "rough Turkish", spoken by the less-educated lower and also rural members of society, which was much purer and which is the basis of the modern Turkish language. === Language reform and modern Turkish === [[File:Literacy-1924-Turkey.png|Literacy rates before the language reform in Turkey (1927). The literacy rates rose to 48.4% among males and 20.7% among females in 1950.|thumb|right|250px]] After the foundation of the [[Republic of Turkey]] and the [[#Writing system|script reform]], the [[Turkish Language Association]] (TDK) was established in 1932 under the patronage of [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk]], with the aim of conducting research on Turkish. One of the tasks of the newly established association was to initiate a [[language reform]] to replace [[loanword]]s of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents. By banning the usage of imported words in the press, the association succeeded in removing several hundred foreign words from the language. While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, it also opted for reviving Old Turkish words which had not been used for centuries. Owing to this sudden change in the language, older and younger people in Turkey started to differ in their vocabularies. While the generations born before the 1940s tend to use the older terms of Arabic or Persian origin, the younger generations favor new expressions. It is considered particularly ironic that Atatürk himself, in [[Nutuk|his lengthy speech]] to the new [[Grand National Assembly of Turkey|Parliament]] in 1927, used a style of Ottoman which sounded so alien to later listeners that it had to be "translated" three times into modern Turkish: first in 1963, again in 1986, and most recently in 1995. There is also a political dimension to the language debate, with conservative groups tending to use more archaic words in the press or everyday language. The past few decades have seen the continuing work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language, mostly from English. Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance. However, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial. Some earlier changes—such as ''bölem'' to replace ''fırka'', "political party"—also failed to meet with popular approval (''fırka'' has been replaced by the French loanword ''parti''). Some words restored from [[Old Turkic]] have taken on specialized meanings; for example ''betik'' (originally meaning "book") is now used to mean "[[Scripting language|script]]" in [[computer science]]. Many of the words derived by TDK coexist with their older counterparts. This usually happens when a loanword changes its original meaning. For instance, ''dert'', derived from the Persian ''dard'' (درد "pain"), means "problem" or "trouble" in Turkish; whereas the native Turkish word ''ağrı'' is used for physical pain. Sometimes the loanword has a slightly different meaning from the native Turkish word, creating a situation similar to the coexistence of [[Germanic languages|Germanic]] and [[Romance languages|Romance]] words in English (see [[List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents]]). Among some of the old words that were replaced are terms in geometry, [[cardinal directions]], some months' names, and many nouns and adjectives. Some examples of modern Turkish words and the old loanwords are: {| class="wikitable" |- ! align=left | Ottoman Turkish ! align=left | Modern Turkish ! align=left | English translation ! align=left | Comments |- |müselles || ''üçgen'' || triangle || Compound of the noun ''üç'' ("three") and the very old Turkic noun ''gen'' ("tension", "side") |- |tayyare || ''uçak'' || airplane || Derived from the verb ''uçmak'' ("to fly"). The word was first proposed to mean "airport". |- |nispet || ''oran'' || ratio || The old word is still used in the language today together with the new one. The modern word is from [[Old Turkic]] verb ''or-'' (to cut). |- |şimal || ''kuzey'' || north || Derived from the Old Turkic noun ''kuz'' ("cold and dark place", "shadow"). The word is restored from [[Middle Turkic]] usage. |- |teşrinievvel || ''ekim'' || October || The noun ''ekim'' means "the action of planting", referring to the planting of cereal seeds in autumn, which is widespread in Turkey |} {{mainlist|List of replaced loanwords in Turkish}} == Geographic distribution == {{see also|Turkish diaspora}} [[File:TurkishRoadSign-WelcomeToEurope Modified.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Road sign at the European end of the [[Bosphorus Bridge]] in [[Istanbul]]. (Photo taken during the 28th [[Eurasia Marathon]] in 2006)]] Turkish is natively spoken by the [[Turkish people]] in Turkey and by the [[Turkish diaspora]] in some 30 other countries. In particular, Turkish-speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the [[Ottoman Empire]], such as Bulgaria, [[Cyprus]], Greece (primarily in [[Western Thrace]]), the [[Republic of Macedonia]], Romania, and Serbia. More than two million Turkish speakers live in Germany; and there are significant Turkish-speaking communities in the United States, France, The Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Due to the [[cultural assimilation]] of Turkish immigrants in host countries, not all ethnic Turkish immigrants speak the language with native fluency. The number of native speakers in Turkey is over 67 million, corresponding to about 93 percent of the population. There are roughly another 10 million native speakers worldwide. Turkish is spoken as a first or second language by almost all of Turkey's residents, with [[Kurdish language|Kurdish]] making up most of the remainder (about 3,950,000 as estimated in 1980). However, even most linguistic minorities in Turkey are bilingual, speaking Turkish as a second language to levels of native fluency. === Official status === Turkish is the official language of [[Turkey]] and is one of the official languages of [[Cyprus]]. It also has official (but not primary) status in the [[Prizren District]] of [[Kosovo]] and several municipalities of the [[Republic of Macedonia]], depending on the concentration of Turkish-speaking local population. In Turkey, the regulatory body for Turkish is the [[Turkish Language Association]] (''Türk Dil Kurumu'' or TDK), which was founded in 1932 under the name ''Türk Dili Tetkik Cemiyeti'' ("Society for Research on the Turkish Language"). The Turkish Language Association was influenced by the ideology of [[linguistic purism]]: indeed one of its primary tasks was the replacement of loanwords and foreign grammatical constructions with equivalents of Turkish origin. These changes, together with the adoption of the new [[Turkish alphabet]] in 1928, shaped the [[#Language reform and modern Turkish|modern Turkish language]] spoken today. TDK became an independent body in 1951, with the lifting of the requirement that it should be presided over by the Minister of Education. This status continued until August 1983, when it was again made into a governmental body in the [[Constitution of Turkey|constitution of 1982]], following the military [[1980 Turkish coup d'état|coup d'état of 1980]]. === Dialects === [[File:Tu-map.png|thumb|right|300px|Map of Turkey]] Modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of [[Istanbul]]. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the [[Dialect levelling|levelling]] influence of the standard used in mass media and the [[Education in Turkey|Turkish education system]] since the 1930s. Academically, researchers from Turkey often refer to Turkish dialects as ''ağız'' or ''şive'', leading to an ambiguity with the linguistic concept of [[Accent (linguistics)|accent]], which is also covered with these words. Projects investigating Turkish dialects are being carried out by several universities, as well as a dedicated work group of the Turkish Language Association. Work is currently in progress for the compilation and publication of their research as a comprehensive dialect [[atlas]] of the Turkish language. ''Rumelice'' is spoken by [[Immigration to Turkey|immigrants]] from [[Rumelia]], and includes the distinct dialects of [[Deliorman]], Dinler, and Adakale, which are influenced by the theoretized [[Balkan linguistic union]]. ''Kıbrıs Türkçesi'' is the name for [[Cypriot Turkish]] and is spoken by the [[Turkish Cypriots]]. ''Edirne'' is the dialect of [[Edirne]]. ''Ege'' is spoken in the [[Aegean Sea|Aegean]] region, with its usage extending to [[Antalya]]. The nomadic [[Yörük]] tribes of the [[Mediterranean Region, Turkey|Mediterranean Region]] of Turkey also have their own dialect of Turkish. This group is not to be confused with the Yuruk nomads of Macedonia, Greece, and European Turkey who speak [[Balkan Gagauz Turkish language|Balkan Gagauz Turkish]]. ''Güneydoğu'' is spoken in the southeast, to the east of [[Mersin]]. ''Doğu'', a dialect in [[Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey|Eastern Anatolia]], has a [[dialect continuum]] with [[Azerbaijani language|Azeri]], particularly with [[Karapapak]] dialects in some areas. The [[Central Anatolia Region, Turkey|Central Anatolia]] region speaks ''Orta Anadolu''. ''Karadeniz'', spoken in the Eastern [[Black Sea Region, Turkey|Black Sea Region]] and represented primarily by the [[Trabzon]] dialect, exhibits [[substratum]] influence from [[Greek language|Greek]] in [[phonology]] and [[syntax]]; it is also known as ''Laz dialect'' (not to be confused with the [[Laz language]]). ''Kastamonu'' is spoken in [[Kastamonu]] and its surrounding areas. The [[Hemşince|Hemşinli dialect]], known as ''Hemşince'', is spoken by the eastern group of [[Hamshenis]] around [[Artvin]], influenced by [[Armenian language|Armenian]]. ''[[Karamanli Turkish|Karamanlıca]]'' is spoken in Greece, where it is also named ''Kαραμανλήδικα'' (Karamanlidika). It is the literary standard for [[Karamanlides]]. ==== Anatolian Dialects ==== {{Turkey Labelled Map|float=right}} The classification of the Anatolian dialects of Turkish language: '''1. Eastern Anatolian Dialects''' '''1.1.1.''' [[Ağrı]], [[Malazgirt]]
'''1.1.2.''' [[Muş]], [[Bitlis]]
'''1.1.3.''' [[Ahlat]], [[Adilcevaz]], [[Bulanık]], [[Van, Turkey|Van]]
'''1.1.4.''' [[Diyarbakır]]
'''1.1.5.''' [[Palu (District), Elazığ|Palu]], [[Karakoçan]], [[Bingöl]], [[Karlıova]], [[Siirt]] '''1.2.1.''' [[Kars]] (''Yerli'')
'''1.2.2.''' [[Erzurum]], [[Aşkale]], [[Ovacık, Tunceli|Ovacık]], [[Narman]]
'''1.2.3.''' [[Pasinler District|Pasinler]], [[Horasan]], [[Hınıs]], [[Tekman]], [[Karayazı]], [[Tercan]] (''partim'')
'''1.2.4.''' [[Bayburt]], [[İspir]] (excl. northern), [[Erzincan]], [[Çayırlı]], [[Tercan]] (''partim'')
'''1.2.5.''' [[Gümüşhane]]
'''1.2.6.''' [[Refahiye]], [[Kemah, Turkey|Kemah]]
'''1.2.7.''' [[Kars]] (''[[Azerbaijani people|Azeri]] and [[Karapapak|Terekeme]]'') '''1.3.1.''' [[Posof]], [[Artvin]], [[Şavşat]], [[Ardanuç]], [[Yusufeli]]
'''1.3.2.1.''' [[Ardahan]], [[Olur]], [[Oltu]], [[Şenkaya]]; [[Meskhetian Turks|Ahıska Turks]] (''[[Georgia (country)|Georgia]]'')
'''1.3.2.2.''' [[Tortum]]
'''1.3.2.3.''' [[İspir]] (''northern'') '''1.4.1.''' [[Kemaliye]], [[İliç]], [[Ağın]]
'''1.4.2.''' [[Tunceli]], [[Hozat]], [[Mazgirt]], [[Pertek]]
'''1.4.3.''' [[Harput]]
'''1.4.4.''' [[Elazığ]], [[Keban (District), Elazığ|Keban]], [[Baskil]] '''2. Northeastern Anatolian Dialects''' '''2.1.1.''' [[Vakfıkebir]], [[Akçaabat]], [[Tonya]], [[Maçka]], [[Of (District), Trabzon|Of]], [[Çaykara]]
'''2.1.2.''' [[Trabzon]], [[Yomra]], [[Sürmene]], [[Araklı]], [[Rize]], [[Kalkandere]], [[İkizdere]] '''2.2.1.''' [[Çayeli]]
'''2.2.2.''' [[Çamlıhemşin]], [[Pazar]], [[Hemşin]], [[Ardeşen]], [[Fındıklı]] '''2.3.1.''' [[Arhavi]], [[Hopa]] (included Kemalpaşa belde)
'''2.3.2.''' [[Hopa]] (''a little part'')
'''2.3.3.''' [[Borçka]], [[Muratlı]], [[Camili]], [[Meydancık]], Ortaköy (Berta) ''bucak'' of Artvin (''merkez'') '''3. Western Anatolian Dialects''' '''3.1.1.''' [[Afyonkarahisar]], [[Eskişehir]], [[Uşak]], [[Nallıhan]]
'''3.1.2.''' [[Çanakkale]], [[Balıkesir]], [[Bursa]], [[Bilecik]]
'''3.1.3.''' [[Aydın]], [[Burdur]], [[Denizli]], [[Isparta]], [[İzmir]], [[Kütahya]], [[Manisa]], [[Muğla]]
'''3.1.4.''' [[Antalya]] '''3.2.''' [[İzmit]], [[Sakarya Province|Sakarya]] '''3.3.1.''' [[Zonguldak]], [[Devrek]], [[Karadeniz Ereğli|Ereğli]]
'''3.3.2.''' [[Bartın]], [[Çaycuma]], [[Amasra]]
'''3.3.3.''' [[Bolu]], [[Ovacık, Karabük|Ovacık]], [[Eskipazar]], [[Karabük]], [[Safranbolu]], [[Ulus, Bartın|Ulus]], [[Eflani]], [[Kurucaşile]]
'''3.3.4.''' [[Kastamonu]] '''3.4.1.''' [[Göynük]], [[Mudurnu]], [[Kıbrıscık]], [[Seben]]
'''3.4.2.''' [[Kızılcahamam]], [[Beypazarı]], [[Çamlıdere]], [[Güdül]], [[Ayaş]]
'''3.4.3.''' [[Çankırı]], [[İskilip]], [[Kargı]], [[Bayat, Çorum|Bayat]], [[Osmancık]], [[Tosya]], [[Boyabat]] '''3.5.1.''' [[Sinop, Turkey|Sinop]], [[Alaçam]]
'''3.5.2.''' [[Samsun]], [[Kavak, Turkey|Kavak]], [[Çarşamba]], [[Terme]]
'''3.5.3.''' [[Ordu]], [[Giresun]], [[Şalpazarı]] '''3.6.1.''' [[Ladik]], [[Havza]], [[Amasya]], [[Tokat]], [[Erbaa]], [[Niksar]], [[Turhal]], [[Reşadiye]], [[Almus]]
'''3.6.2.''' [[Zile]], [[Artova]], [[Sivas]], [[Yıldızeli]], [[Hafik]], [[Zara, Turkey|Zara]], [[Mesudiye, Ordu|Mesudiye]]
'''3.6.3.''' [[Şebinkarahisar]], [[Alucra]], [[Suşehri]]
'''3.6.4.''' [[Kangal]], [[Divriği]], [[Gürün]], [[Malatya]], [[Hekimhan]], [[Arapkir]] '''3.7.1.''' [[Akçadağ]], [[Darende]], [[Doğanşehir]]
'''3.7.2.''' [[Afşin]], [[Elbistan]], [[Göksun]], [[Andırın]], [[Adana]], [[Hatay Province|Hatay]], [[Tarsus, Mersin|Tarsus]], [[Ereğli, Konya|Ereğli]]
'''3.7.3.''' [[Kahramanmaraş]], [[Gaziantep]]
'''3.7.4.''' [[Adıyaman]], [[Halfeti]], [[Birecik]], [[Kilis]] '''3.8.''' [[Ankara]], [[Haymana]], [[Balâ, Ankara|Balâ]], [[Şereflikoçhisar]], [[Çubuk]], [[Kırıkkale]], [[Keskin]], [[Kalecik, Ankara|Kalecik]], [[Kızılırmak, Çankırı|Kızılırmak]], [[Çorum]], [[Yozgat]], [[Kırşehir]], [[Nevşehir]], [[Niğde]], [[Kayseri]], [[Şarkışla]], [[Gemerek]] '''3.9.''' [[Konya]], [[Mersin]] == Sounds == {{IPA notice}} {{main|Turkish phonology}} {{hatnote|See [[Turkish alphabet]] for a pronunciation guide}} ===Consonants=== {| class="wikitable" |+ '''Consonant phonemes of Standard Turkish''' |- ! ! colspan="2" | [[Labial consonant|Labial]] ! colspan="2" | [[Dental consonant|Dental]] ! colspan="2" | [[Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]] ! colspan="2" | [[Postalveolar|Post-
alveolar]] ! colspan="2" | [[Palatal consonant|Palatal]] ! colspan="2" | [[Velar consonant|Velar]] ! colspan="2" | [[Glottal consonant|Glottal]] |- align=center ![[Nasal consonant|Nasal]] | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|m}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|n}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | |- align=center ![[Stop consonant|Stop]] | {{IPAlink|p}} | {{IPAlink|b}} | {{IPAlink|t̪}} | {{IPAlink|d̪}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | {{IPAlink|c}} | {{IPAlink|ɟ}} | {{IPAlink|k}} | {{IPAlink|ɡ}} | colspan="2" | |- align=center ![[Affricate consonant|Affricate]] | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | {{IPAlink|t͡ʃ}} || {{IPAlink|d͡ʒ}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | |- align=center ![[Fricative consonant|Fricative]] | {{IPAlink|f}} | | colspan="2" | | {{IPAlink|s}} | {{IPAlink|z}} | {{IPAlink|ʃ}} | {{IPAlink|ʒ}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|h}} |- align=center ![[Approximant consonant|Approximant]] | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|ʋ}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|ɫ}} | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|l}} | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|j}} | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|ɰ}} | colspan="2" | |- align=center ![[Rhotic consonant|Rhotic]] | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | {{IPAlink|ɾ}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | |} The phoneme {{IPA|/ɰ/}}, usually referred to as ''yumuşak g'' ("soft g"), ⟨ğ⟩ in Turkish [[orthography]], represents a rather weak front-velar or palatal approximant between front vowels. It never occurs at the beginning of a word or a syllable, but always follows a vowel. When word-final or preceding another consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel. In native Turkic words, the sounds {{IPA|[c]}}, {{IPA|[ɟ]}}, and {{IPA|[l]}} are in [[complementary distribution]] with {{IPA|[k]}}, {{IPA|[ɡ]}}, and {{IPA|[ɫ]}}; the former set occurs adjacent to front vowels and the latter adjacent to back vowels. The distribution of these [[phoneme]]s is often unpredictable, however, in foreign borrowings and proper nouns. In such words, {{IPA|[c]}}, {{IPA|[ɟ]}}, and {{IPA|[l]}} often occur with back vowels: some [[Turkish language#Writing system|examples]] are given below. When a vowel is added to many nouns ending with postvocalic ⟨k⟩, the ⟨k⟩ becomes ⟨ğ⟩ by consonant [[alternation (linguistics)|alternation]]. A similar alternation applies to certain loan-words ending in ⟨p⟩ and ⟨t⟩, which become ⟨b⟩ and ⟨d⟩, respectively, with the addition of a vowel. This is because the final {{IPA|/k/}}, {{IPA|/t/}}, and {{IPA|/p/}} gain voicing when followed by a vowel. === Vowels === [[Image:Turkish vowel chart.png|thumb|250px|Vowels of Turkish. From {{Harvcoltxt|Zimmer|Orgun|1999|p=155}}]] The vowels of the Turkish language are, in their alphabetical order, ⟨a⟩, ⟨e⟩, ⟨[[Turkish dotted and dotless I|ı]]⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ö⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨ü⟩. The Turkish vowel system can be considered as being three-dimensional, where vowels are characterised by three features: [[Vowel backness|front and back]], [[Roundedness|rounded and unrounded]] and [[Vowel height]]. {| class="wikitable" style="float:right; margin-left:1em;" |+ Turkish vowels |- ! || colspan="2" | Front || colspan="2" | Back |- ! || Unrounded || Rounded || Unrounded || Rounded |- ! High | ''i'' || ''ü'' || ''ı'' || ''u'' |- ! Low | ''e'' || ''ö'' || ''a'' || ''o'' |} There are no [[diphthongs]] in Turkish; when two vowels come together, which occurs in some Arabic [[loanword]]s, each vowel retains its individual sound. However, a slight diphthong can occur when two vowels surround a ''yumuşak g''. For example, the word ''soğuk'' ("cold") can be pronounced {{IPA|[soʊk]}} (resembling the English ''soak'') by some speakers. === Vowel harmony === {{Details|Vowel harmony}} Vowel harmony is the principle by which a native Turkish word incorporates either exclusively [[back vowel]]s (''a'', ''ı'', ''o'', and ''u'') or exclusively [[front vowel]]s (''e'', ''i'', ''ö'', and ''ü''). The pattern of vowels is shown in the table above. Grammatical [[affix]]es have "a chameleon-like quality", and obey one of the following patterns of vowel harmony: * '''twofold (''-e/-a'')''': the [[locative]] suffix, for example, is ''-de'' after front vowels and ''-da'' after back vowels. The notation ''-de''² is a convenient shorthand for this pattern. * '''fourfold (''-i/-ı/-ü/-u'')''': the [[genitive]] suffix, for example, is ''-in'' or ''-ın'' after unrounded vowels (front or back respectively); and ''-ün'' or ''-un'' after the corresponding rounded vowels. In this case, the shorthand notation ''-in''4 is used. The following examples, based on the [[Turkish copula|copula]] ''-dir''4 ("[it] is"), illustrate the principles of vowel harmony in practice: ''Türkiye''''dir''''' ("it is Turkey"), ''kapı'''dır''''' ("it is the door"), bu ''gün'''dür''''' ("it is the day"), ''palto'''dur''''' ("it is the coat"). There are some exceptions to the rules of vowel harmony. In [[compound words]], the vowels need not harmonize between the constituent words of the compound. Forms like ''bu+gün'' ("today") or ''baş+kent'' ("capital") are permissible. In addition, vowel harmony does not apply in [[loanword]]s and some invariant affixes, such as ''-yor'' (present tense) and ''-bil-'' (potential). Some loanwords do, however, exhibit partial or even complete vowel harmony (e.g. ''mümkün'' "possible" < Arabic ''mumkin''; and ''dürbün'' "binoculars" < Persian ''dūrbīn''). There are also a few native Turkish words that do not follow the rule, such as ''anne'' ("mother"). In such words, suffixes harmonize with the final vowel: thus ''annedir'' ("she is a mother"). Many loanwords from Arabic and French, however, take front-vowel suffixes after final back vowels: for example ''halsiz'' < ''hal'' + ''-siz4'' "listless", ''meçhuldür'' < ''meçhul'' + ''-dir4'' "it is unknown", ''harfler'' < ''harf'' + ''-ler²'' "(alphabetical) letters" (instead of the expected *''halsız'', *''meçhuldur'' and *''harflar''). The [[#Geographic distribution|road sign in the photograph]] above illustrates several of these features: * a native compound which does not obey vowel harmony: ''Orta+köy'' ("middle village"—a place name) * a loanword also violating vowel harmony: ''viyadük'' ("viaduct" < French ''viaduc'') * the possessive suffix'' -i''4 harmonizing with the final vowel (and softening the ''k'' by consonant [[alternation (linguistics)|alternation]]): ''viyadüğü'' === Stress === {{Details|Turkish phonology#Stress}} [[Stress (linguistics)|Stress]] is usually on the last syllable. Exceptions include some [[suffix]] combinations and [[loanword]]s, particularly from Italian and [[Modern Greek language|Greek]], as well as interjections, adverbs, and many proper names. While such loanwords are usually stressed on the penultimate syllable ({{IPA|[ɫoˈkanta]}} ''lokanta'' "restaurant" or {{IPA|[isˈcele]}} ''iskele'' "quay"), the stress of proper names is less predictable ({{IPA|[isˈtanbuɫ]}} ''İstanbul'', {{IPA|[ˈaŋkaɾa]}} ''Ankara''). == Grammar == {{main|Turkish grammar}} Turkish is an [[agglutinative language]] and frequently uses [[affix]]es, and specifically suffixes, or endings. One word can have many affixes and these can also be used to create new words, such as creating a verb from a noun, or a noun from a verbal root (see the section on [[#Word formation|Word formation]]). Most affixes indicate the grammatical function of the word. The only native prefixes are [[alliteration|alliterative]] intensifying syllables used with adjectives or adverbs: for example '''''sım'''sıcak'' ("boiling hot" < ''sıcak'') and '''''mas'''mavi'' ("bright blue" < ''mavi''). The extensive use of affixes can give rise to long words. It is jokingly said that the longest Turkish word is ''Çekoslovakyalılaştıramadıklarımızdanmışsınız'', meaning "You are said to be one of those that we couldn't manage to convert to a Czechoslovak". This example is of course contrived; but long words do frequently occur in normal Turkish, as in this heading of a newspaper obituary column: ''Bayramlaşamadıklarımız'' (Bayram [festival]-Recipr-Impot-Partic-Plur-PossPl1; "Those of our number with whom we cannot exchange the season's greetings"). Another example can be seen in the final word of this heading of the online Turkish Spelling Guide (''İmlâ Kılavuzu''): ''Dilde birlik, ulusal birliğin vazgeçilemezlerindendir'' ("Unity in language is among the indispensables [dispense-Pass-Impot-Plur-PossS3-Abl-Copula] of national unity ~ Linguistic unity is a ''[[sine qua non]]'' of national unity"). === Nouns === There is no [[definite article]] in Turkish, but definiteness of the object is implied when the accusative ending is used (see below). Turkish nouns decline by taking case-endings, as in [[Latin]]. There are six [[Declension|noun cases]] in Turkish, with all the endings following vowel harmony (shown in the table using the shorthand [[#Vowel harmony|superscript notation]]. The [[plural]] marker ''-ler''² immediately follows the noun before any case or other affixes (e.g. ''köylerin'' "of the villages"). {| class="wikitable" |- !rowspan="2"|Case !rowspan="2"|Ending !colspan="2"|Examples !rowspan="2"|Meaning |- !''köy'' "village" !''ağaç'' "tree" |- |[[Nominative case|Nominative]] |Ø (none) |''köy'' |''ağaç'' |(the) village/tree |- |[[Genitive case|Genitive]] |''-in''4 |''köyün'' |''ağa'''c'''ın'' |the village's/tree's
of the village/tree |- |[[Dative case|Dative]] |''-e''² |''köye'' |''ağa'''c'''a'' |to the village/tree |- |[[Accusative case|Accusative]] |''-i''4 |''köyü'' |''ağa'''c'''ı'' |the village/tree |- |[[Ablative case|Ablative]] |''-den''² |''köyden'' |''ağaç'''t'''an'' |from the village/tree |- |[[Locative case|Locative]] |''-de''² |''köyde'' |''ağaç'''t'''a'' |in the village/on the tree |} The accusative case marker is used only for definite objects; compare ''(bir) ağaç gördük'' "we saw '''a''' tree" with ''ağacı gördük'' "we saw '''the''' tree". The plural marker ''-ler''² is generally not used when a class or category is meant: ''ağaç gördük'' can equally well mean "we saw trees [as we walked through the forest]"—as opposed to ''ağaçları gördük'' "we saw the trees [in question]". The declension of ''ağaç'' illustrates two important features of Turkish phonology: consonant [[assimilation (linguistics)|assimilation]] in [[suffix]]es (''ağaç'''t'''an, ağaç'''t'''a'') and [[voice (phonetics)|voicing]] of final consonants before vowels (''ağa'''c'''ın, ağa'''c'''a, ağa'''c'''ı''). Additionally, nouns can take suffixes that assign [[grammatical person|person]]: for example ''-imiz''4, "our". With the addition of the [[Turkish copula|copula]] (for example ''-im''4, "I am") complete sentences can be formed. The [[interrogative word|interrogative]] particle ''mi''4 immediately follows the word being questioned: ''köye mi?'' "[going] to the village?", ''ağaç mı?'' "[is it a] tree?". {| class="wikitable" |- !Turkish !English |- |''ev'' |align="right"|(the) house |- |''evler'' |align="right"|(the) houses |- |''evin'' |align="right"|your (sing.) house |- |''eviniz'' |align="right"|your (pl./formal) house |- |''evim'' |align="right"|my house |- |''evimde'' |align="right"|at my house |- |''evlerinizin'' |align="right"|of your houses |- |''evlerinizden'' |align="right"|from your houses |- |''evlerinizdendi'' |align="right"|(he/she/it) was from your houses |- |''evlerinizdenmiş'' |align="right"|(he/she/it) was (apparently/said to be) from your houses |- |''Evinizdeyim.'' |align="right"|I am at your house. |- |''Evinizdeymişim.'' |align="right"|I was (apparently) at your house. |- |''Evinizde miyim?'' |align="right"|Am I at your house? |} The Turkish [[personal pronouns]] in the nominative case are ''ben'' (1s), ''sen'' (2s), ''o'' (3s), ''biz'' (1pl), ''siz'' (2pl, or formal/polite 2s), and ''onlar'' (3pl). They are declined regularly with some exceptions: ''benim'' (1s gen.); ''bizim'' (1pl gen.); ''bana'' (1s dat.); ''sana'' (2s dat.); and the oblique forms of ''o'' use the root ''on''. All other pronouns (reflexive ''kendi'' and so on) are declined regularly. ==== Linking nouns (''Tamlama'') ==== Two nouns, or groups of nouns, may be joined in either of two ways: * definite (possessive) compound (''belirtili tamlama''). E.g. ''Türkiye'nin sesi'' "the voice of Turkey (radio station)": the voice belonging to Turkey. Here the relationship is shown by the genitive ending ''-in''4 added to the first noun; the second noun has the third-person suffix of possession ''-(s)i''4. * indefinite (qualifying) compound (''belirtisiz tamlama''). E.g. ''Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'' "Turkey-Republic = the Republic of Turkey": not the republic belonging to Turkey, but the Republic that is Turkey. Here the first noun has no ending; but the second noun has the ending ''-(s)i''4—the same as in definite compounds. The following table illustrates these principles. In some cases the constituents of the compounds are themselves compounds; for clarity these subsidiary compounds are marked with [square brackets]. The suffixes involved in the linking are underlined. Note that if the second noun group already had a possessive suffix (because it is a compound by itself), no further suffix is added. {| class="wikitable" style="margin-left:1em;" |+ Linked nouns and noun groups |- ! Definite (possessive) || Indefinite (qualifier) || Complement || Meaning |- | ''kimsenin'' || || ''yanıtı'' || nobody's answer |- | || ''"kimse"'' || ''yanıtı'' || the answer "nobody" |- | ''Atatürk'ün'' || || ''evi'' || Atatürk's house |- | || ''Atatürk'' || ''Bulvarı'' || Atatürk Boulevard (named after, not belonging to Atatürk) |- | ''Orhan'ın'' || || ''adı'' || Orhan's name |- | || ''"Orhan"'' || ''adı'' || the name "Orhan" |- | || ''r'' || ''sessizi'' || the consonant ''r'' |- | [''r sessizi'']''nin'' || || ''söylenişi'' || pronunciation of the consonant ''r'' |- | || ''Türk'' || [''Dil Kurumu''] || Turkish language-association |- | || [''Türk Dili''] || ''Dergisi'' || Turkish-language magazine |- | || ''Ford'' || [''aile arabası''] || Ford family car |- | ''Ford'un'' || || [''aile arabası''] || (Mr) Ford's family car |- | [''Ford ailesi'']''nin'' || || ''araba'' || the Ford family's car |- | || ''Ankara'' || [''Kız Lisesi''] || Ankara Girls' School |- | || [''yıl sonu''] || ''sınavları'' || year-end examinations |- | ''Bulgaristan'ın'' || || [''İstanbul Başkonsolosluğu''] || the Istanbul Consulate-General of Bulgaria (located in Istanbul, but belonging to Bulgaria) |- | || [ [''İstanbul Üniversitesi''] [''Edebiyat Fakültesi''] ] || [ [''Türk Edebiyatı''] ''Profesörü''] || Professor of Turkish Literature in the Faculty of Literature of the University of Istanbul |- | || ''ne oldum'' || ''delisi'' || "what-have-I-become!" madman = [[parvenu]] who gives himself airs |} As the last example shows, the qualifying expression may be a substantival sentence rather than a noun or noun group. === Adjectives === Turkish adjectives are not [[declension|declined]]. However most adjectives can also be used as nouns, in which case they are declined: e.g. ''güzel'' ("beautiful") → ''güzeller'' ("(the) beautiful ones / people"). Used attributively, adjectives precede the nouns they modify. The adjectives ''var'' ("existent") and ''yok'' ("non-existent") are used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", ''e.g.'' ''süt yok'' ("there is no milk", ''lit.'' "(the) milk (is) non-existent"); the construction "''noun 1''-GEN ''noun 2''-POSS var/yok" can be translated "''noun 1'' has/doesn't have ''noun 2''"; ''imparatorun elbisesi yok'' "the emperor has no clothes" ("(the) emperor-''of'' clothes-''his'' non-existent"); ''kedimin ayakkabıları yoktu'' ("my cat had no shoes", ''lit.'' "cat-''my''-''of'' shoe-''plur.''-''its'' non-existent-''past tense''"). === Verbs === {{see also|Turkish copula}} Turkish verbs indicate [[Grammatical person|person]]. They can be made negative, potential ("can"), or impotential ("cannot"). Furthermore, Turkish verbs show [[Grammatical tense|tense]] ([[Present tense|present]], [[Past tense|past]], [[Future tense|future]], and [[aorist]]), [[Grammatical mood|mood]] ([[Conditional mood|conditional]], [[Imperative mood|imperative]], [[Inferential mood|inferential]], [[Necessitative mood|necessitative]], and [[Optative mood|optative]]), and [[Grammatical aspect|aspect]]. Negation is expressed by the [[infix]] ''-me²-'' immediately following the stem. {| class="wikitable" |- !Turkish !English |- |''gel-'' |align="right"|(to) come |- |''gelebil-'' |align="right"|(to) be able to come |- |''gelme-'' |align="right"|not (to) come |- |''geleme-'' |align="right"|(to) be unable to come |- |''gelememiş'' |align="right"|Apparently (s)he couldn't come |- |''gelebilecek'' |align="right"|(s)he'll be able to come |- |''gelmeyebilir'' |align="right"|(s)he may (possibly) not come |- |''gelebilirsen'' |align="right"|if thou can come |- |''gelinir'' |align="right"|(''passive'') one comes, people come |- |''gelebilmeliydin'' |align="right"| thou shouldst have been able to come |- |''gelebilseydin'' |align="right"|if thou could have come |- |''gelmeliydin'' |align="right"|thou shouldst have come |} All Turkish verbs are conjugated in the same way, except for the [[irregular verbs|irregular]] and [[defective verb]] ''i-'', the [[Turkish copula]] (corresponding to English ''to be''), which can be used in compound forms (the shortened form is called an [[enclitic]]): ''Gelememişti'' = ''Gelememiş idi'' = ''Gelememiş + i- + -di''. ==== Attributive verbs (participles) ==== Turkish verbs have [[Attributive verb|attributive forms]], including present (with the ending ''-en''²), future (''-ecek''²), indirect/inferential past (''-miş''4), and [[aorist]] (-''er''² or -''ir''4). These forms can function as either adjectives or nouns: ''oynamayan çocuklar'' "children who do not play", ''oynamayanlar'' "those who do not play"; ''okur yazar'' "reader-writer = literate", ''okur yazarlar'' "literates". The most important function of attributive verbs is to form modifying phrases equivalent to the [[relative clause]]s found in most European languages. The attributive forms used in these constructions are the future (''-ecek''²) and an older form (-''dik''4), which covers both present and past meanings. The use of these "personal or relative participles" is illustrated in the following table, in which the examples are presented according to the grammatical case which would be seen in the equivalent English relative clause. {| class="wikitable" |- !colspan="2"|English equivalent !rowspan="2"|Example !colspan="2"|Translation |- !Case of relative pronoun !Pronoun !Literal !Idiomatic |- |Nominative |who, which/that |''şimdi konuşan adam'' |"now speaking man" |the man (who is) now speaking |- |Genitive |whose (nom.) |''babası şimdi konuşan adam'' |"father-his now speaking man" |the man whose father is now speaking |- | |whose (acc.) |''babasını dün gördüğüm adam'' |"father-his-ACC yesterday seen-my man" |the man whose father I saw yesterday |- | |at whose |''resimlerine baktığımız ressam'' |"pictures-his-to looked-our artist" |the artist whose pictures we looked at |- | |of which |''muhtarı seçildiği köy'' |"mayor-its been-chosen-his village" |the village of which he was elected mayor |- | |of which |''muhtarı seçilmek istediği köy'' |the village of which he wishes to be elected mayor |- |Remaining cases (incl. prepositions) |whom, which |''yazdığım mektup'' |"written-my letter" |the letter (which) I wrote |- | |from which |''çıktığımız kapı'' |"emerged-our door" |the door from which we emerged |- | |on which |''geldikleri vapur'' |"come-their ship" |the ship they came on |- | |which + subordinate clause |''yaklaştığını anladığı hapishane günleri'' |"approach-their-ACC understood-his prison days-its" |the prison days (which) he knew were approaching |} === Word order === Word order in simple Turkish sentences is generally [[subject–object–verb]], as in Korean and [[Latin]], but unlike English. In more complex sentences, the basic rule is that the qualifier precedes the qualified: this principle includes, as an important special case, the [[Turkish language#Attributive verbs (participles)|participial modifiers]] discussed above. The definite precedes the indefinite: thus ''çocuğa hikâyeyi anlattı'' "she told the child the story", but ''hikâyeyi bir çocuğa anlattı'' "she told the story to a child". It is possible to alter the word order to stress the importance of a certain word or phrase. The main rule is that the word before the verb has the stress without exception. For example, if one wants to say "Hakan went to school" with a stress on the word "school" (''okul'', the indirect object) it would be "Hakan ''okula'' gitti". If the stress is to be placed on "Hakan" (the subject), it would be "Okula ''Hakan'' gitti" which means "it's Hakan who went to school". == Vocabulary == {{main|Turkish vocabulary}} [[File:TurkishVocabulary.png|thumb|right|200px|Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary, which contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin]] Latest 2010 edition of “Büyük Türkçe Sözlük” (''Great Turkish Dictionary''), the official dictionary of the Turkish language published by Turkish Language Association, contains 616,767 words, expressions, terms and nouns. The 2005 edition of ''Güncel Türkçe Sözlük'', the official dictionary of the Turkish language published by Turkish Language Association, contains 104,481 words, of which about 86% are Turkish and 14% are of foreign origin. Among the most significant foreign contributors to Turkish vocabulary are Arabic, French, Persian, Italian, English, and Greek. === Word formation === Turkish extensively uses [[agglutination]] to [[Word formation|form new words]] from nouns and verbal stems. The majority of Turkish words originate from the application of derivative suffixes to a relatively small set of core vocabulary. An example set of words derived from a substantive root: {| class="wikitable" |- !Turkish !Components !English !Word class |- |''göz'' |''göz'' |eye |Noun |- |''gözlük'' |''göz + -lük'' |eyeglasses |Noun |- |''gözlükçü'' |''göz + -lük + -çü'' |optician |Noun |- |''gözlükçülük'' |''göz + -lük + -çü + -lük'' |optician's trade |Noun |- |''gözlem'' |''göz + -lem'' |observation |Noun |- |''gözlemci'' |''göz + -lem + -ci'' |observer |Noun |- |''gözle-'' |''göz + -le'' |observe |Verb (order) |- |''gözlemek'' |''göz + -le + -mek'' |to observe |Verb (infinitive) |} Another example, starting from a verbal root: {| class="wikitable" |- !Turkish !Components !English !Word class |- |''yat-'' |''yat-'' |lie down |Verb (order) |- |''yatmak'' |''yat-mak'' |to lie down |Verb (infinitive) |- |''yatık'' |''yat- + -(ı)k'' |leaning |Adjective |- |''yatak'' |''yat- + -ak'' |bed, place to sleep |Noun |- |''yatay'' |''yat- + -ay'' |horizontal |Adjective |- |''yatkın'' |''yat- + -gın'' |inclined to; stale (from lying too long) |Adjective |- |''yatır-'' |''yat- + -(ı)r-'' |lay down |Verb (order) |- |''yatırmak'' |''yat- + -(ı)r-mak'' |to lay down |Verb (infinitive) |- |''yatırım'' |''yat- + -(ı)r- + -(ı)m'' |laying down; deposit, investment |Noun |- |''yatırımcı'' |''yat- + -(ı)r- + -(ı)m + -cı'' |depositor, investor |Noun |} New words are also frequently formed by [[Compound (linguistics)|compounding]] two existing words into a new one, as in German. A few examples of compound words are given below: {| class="wikitable" |- !Turkish !English !Constituent words !Literal meaning |- |''pazartesi'' |Monday |''pazar'' ("Sunday") and ''ertesi'' ("after") |after Sunday |- |''bilgisayar'' |computer |''bilgi'' ("information") and ''say-'' ("to count") |information counter |- |''gökdelen'' |skyscraper |''gök'' ("sky") and ''del-'' ("to pierce") |sky piercer |- |''başparmak'' |thumb |''baş'' ("prime") and ''parmak'' ("finger") |primary finger |- |''önyargı'' |prejudice |''ön'' ("before") and ''yargı'' ("splitting; judgement") |fore-judging |} == Writing system == {{main|Turkish alphabet}} [[File:Ataturk-September 20, 1928.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|Atatürk]] introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of [[Sinop, Turkey|Sinop]]. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French ''L'Illustration'' magazine)]] Turkish is written using a modified version of the [[Latin alphabet]] introduced in 1928 by [[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|Atatürk]] to replace the [[Arabic alphabet|Arabic]]-based [[Ottoman Turkish alphabet]]. The Ottoman alphabet marked only three different vowels—long ''ā, ū'' and ''ī''—and included several redundant consonants, such as variants of ''z'' (which were distinguished in Arabic but not in Turkish). The omission of short vowels in the Arabic script was claimed to make it particularly unsuitable for Turkish, which has [[#Vowel harmony|eight vowels]]. The reform of the script was an important step in the [[Atatürk's Reforms|cultural reforms]] of the period. The task of preparing the new alphabet and selecting the necessary modifications for sounds specific to Turkish was entrusted to a [[Turkish alphabet#Modern Turkish alphabet|Language Commission]] composed of prominent linguists, academics, and writers. The introduction of the new Turkish alphabet was supported by public education centers opened throughout the country, cooperation with publishing companies, and encouragement by Atatürk himself, who toured the country teaching the new letters to the public. As a result, there was a dramatic increase in literacy from its original Third World levels. The Latin alphabet was applied to the Turkish language for educational purposes even before the 20th-century reform. Instances include a 1635 Latin-Albanian dictionary by [[Frang Bardhi]], who also incorporated several sayings in the Turkish language, as an appendix to his work (e.g. ''alma agatsdan irak duschamas'' – 'An apple does not fall far from its tree'). Turkish now has an alphabet suited to the sounds of the language: the spelling is largely [[Phonetic spelling|phonetic]], with one letter corresponding to each [[phoneme]]. Most of the letters are used approximately as in English, the main exceptions being ⟨c⟩, which denotes {{IPA|[dʒ]}} (⟨j⟩ being used for the {{IPA|[ʒ]}} found in Persian and European loans); and the undotted ⟨ı⟩, representing {{IPA|[ɯ]}}. As in German, ⟨ö⟩ and ⟨ü⟩ represent {{IPA|[ø]}} and {{IPA|[y]}}. The letter ⟨ğ⟩, in principle, denotes {{IPA|[ɣ]}} but has the property of lengthening the preceding vowel and assimilating any subsequent vowel. The letters ⟨ş⟩ and ⟨ç⟩ represent {{IPA|[ʃ]}} and {{IPA|[tʃ]}}, respectively. A [[circumflex]] is written over [[back vowel]]s following ⟨k⟩, ⟨g⟩, or ⟨l⟩ when these consonants represent {{IPA|[c]}}, {{IPA|[ɟ]}}, and {{IPA|[l]}}—almost exclusively in Arabic and Persian [[loanword|loans]]. An [[apostrophe]] is used to separate [[proper nouns]] from any suffixes: e.g. {{lang|tr|''İstanbul'da''}} 'in Istanbul'. The specifically Turkish letters and spellings described above are illustrated in this table: {| class="wikitable" |- !Turkish spelling !Pronunciation !Meaning |- |{{lang|tr|''[[Cağaloğlu]]''}} |{{IPA|ˈdʒaːɫoːɫu}} |[İstanbul district] |- |{{lang|tr|''çalıştığı''}} |{{IPA|tʃaɫɯʃtɯˈɣɯ}} |where/that s/he works/worked |- |{{lang|tr|''müjde''}} |{{IPA|myʒˈde}} |good news |- |{{lang|tr|''lazım''}} |{{IPA|laˈzɯm}} |necessary |- |{{lang|tr|''mahkûm''}} |{{IPA|mahˈcum}} |condemned |} == Sample == ''Dostlar Beni Hatırlasın'' by [[Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu]] (1894–1973), a [[minstrel]] and highly regarded poet in the [[Turkish folk literature]] tradition. {| border="0" style="width:100%; font-family:serif; font-size:115%; text-align:center;" |- ! style="width:25%;"|Orthography ! style="width:35%;"|[[Help:IPA|IPA]] ! style="width:40%;"|Translation |- |Ben giderim adım kalır |{{IPA|bæn ɟid̪e̞ɾim äd̪ɯm käɫɯɾ}} |I depart, my name remains |- |Dostlar beni hatırlasın |{{IPA|d̪o̞st̪ɫäɾ be̞ni hätɯɾɫäsɯn}} |May friends remember me |- |Düğün olur bayram gelir |{{IPA|d̪yjyn o̞ɫuɾ bäjɾäm ɟe̞liɾ}} |There are weddings, there are feasts |- |Dostlar beni hatırlasın |{{IPA|d̪o̞st̪ɫäɾ be̞ni hätɯɾɫäsɯn}} |May friends remember me |- |
|- |Can kafeste durmaz uçar |{{IPA|d͡ʒän käfe̞st̪e̞ d̪uɾmäz ut͡ʃäɾ}} |The soul won't stay caged, it flies away |- |Dünya bir han konan göçer |{{IPA|d̪ynjä biɾ hän ko̞nän ɟø̞t͡ʃæɾ}} |The world is an inn, residents depart |- |Ay dolanır yıllar geçer |{{IPA|äj d̪o̞ɫänɯɾ jɯɫːäɾ ɟe̞t͡ʃæɾ}} |The moon wanders, years pass by |- |Dostlar beni hatırlasın |{{IPA|d̪o̞st̪ɫäɾ be̞ni hätɯɾɫäsɯn}} |May friends remember me |- |
|- |Can bedenden ayrılacak |{{IPA|d͡ʒän be̞d̪ænd̪æn äjɾɯɫäd͡ʒäk}} |The soul will leave the body |- |Tütmez baca yanmaz ocak |{{IPA|t̪yt̪mæz bäd͡ʒä jänmäz o̞d͡ʒäk}} |The chimney won't smoke, furnace won't burn |- |Selam olsun kucak kucak |{{IPA|se̞läːm o̞ɫsun kud͡ʒäk kud͡ʒäk}} |Goodbye goodbye to you all |- |Dostlar beni hatırlasın |{{IPA|d̪o̞st̪ɫäɾ be̞ni hätɯɾɫäsɯn}} |May friends remember me |- |
|- |Açar solar türlü çiçek |{{IPA|ät͡ʃäɾ so̞läɾ t̪yɾly t͡ʃit͡ʃe̞c}} |Various flowers bloom and fade |- |Kimler gülmüş kim gülecek |{{IPA|cimlæɾ ɟylmyʃ cim ɟyle̞d͡ʒe̞c}} |Someone laughed, someone will laugh |- |Murat yalan ölüm gerçek |{{IPA|muɾät jäɫän ø̞lym ɟæɾt͡ʃe̞c}} |Wishes are lies, death is real |- |Dostlar beni hatırlasın |{{IPA|d̪o̞st̪ɫäɾ be̞ni hätɯɾɫäsɯn}} |May friends remember me |- |
|- |Gün ikindi akşam olur |{{IPA|ɟyn icindi äkʃäm o̞ɫuɾ}} |Morning and afternoon turn to night |- |Gör ki başa neler gelir |{{IPA|ɟø̞ɾ ci bäʃä ne̞læɾ ɟe̞liɾ}} |And many things happen to a person anyway |- |Veysel gider adı kalır |{{IPA|ʋe̞jsæl ɟidæɾ äd̪ɯ käɫɯɾ}} |Veysel departs, his name remains |- |Dostlar beni hatırlasın |{{IPA|d̪o̞st̪ɫäɾ be̞ni hätɯɾɫäsɯn}} |May friends remember me |} == See also == {{div col|colwidth=30em}} * [[List of English words of Turkic origin]] * [[Turkish Language Olympiads]] * [[Turkish name]] * [[Turkish Sign Language]] {{div col end}} == Citations == Details of the sources cited only by the author's name are given in full in the ''References'' section. {{Reflist|30em}} == External links == {{InterWiki|code=tr}} {{Wikibooks|Turkish}} {{Wikiquote|Turkish proverbs}} {{commons category-inline|Turkish language}} * [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Turkish_Swadesh_list Swadesh list of Turkish basic vocabulary words] (from Wiktionary's [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Swadesh_lists Swadesh-list appendix]) * [http://www.umich.edu/~turkish/langres_tr.html Turkish Language: Resources - University of Michigan] * [http://sites.google.com/site/learningturkishsite/ LT: LearningTurkish (non-commercial)] * [http://sites.google.com/site/learningturkishsite/automaticverbdeclinations LT: Automatic Turkish Verb Declinations (non-commercial)] * [http://www.fsi-language-courses.org/Content.php?page=Turkish USA Foreign Service Institute Turkish basic course] {{Turkic languages}} {{Turkey topics}} {{featured article}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Turkish Language}}