Dortmund

Dortmund

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Dortmund ˈdɔːdmʊnt is a city in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It is located in the Bundesland
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

, in the Ruhr area
Ruhr
The Ruhr is a medium-size river in western Germany , a right tributary of the Rhine.-Description:The source of the Ruhr is near the town of Winterberg in the mountainous Sauerland region, at an elevation of approximately 2,200 feet...

. Its population of 585,045 (in December 2006) makes it the 7th largest city in Germany and the 34th largest in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

.

The river Ruhr flows south of the city, and the small river Emscher
Emscher
The Emscher is a relatively small river and tributary of the Rhine, flowing through the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia in western Germany. Its total length is 84km with an average discharge near the mouth into the lower Rhine of 16 m³/s .The Emscher has its source in Holzwickede, east of the...

 flows through the municipal area. The Dortmund-Ems Canal
Dortmund-Ems Canal
The Dortmund–Ems Canal is a 269 km long canal in Germany between the inland port of the city of Dortmund and the sea port of Emden. The artificial southern part of the canal ends after 215 km at the lock of Herbrum near Meppen. From there, the route goes over a length of 45 km over...

 also terminates in the Dortmund Port
Dortmund Port
Construction on Dortmund's port which terminates the Dortmund-Ems Canal connecting Dortmund to the North Sea started in 1895. It was opened 1899 by Kaiser Wilhelm. At the beginning of the 20th century it was mainly used for the import and export of wheat, coal and ore...

, which is the largest European canal port, and links Dortmund to the North Sea
North Sea
In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean. In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively...

.

Dortmund is known as Westphalia's "green
Environmentalism
Environmentalism is a broad philosophy, ideology and social movement regarding concerns for environmental conservation and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the concerns of non-human elements...

 metropolis." Nearly half the municipal territory consists of waterways, woodland, agriculture and green spaces with spacious parks such as Westfalenpark and the Rombergpark. This contrasts with nearly a hundred years of extensive coal mining and steel milling within the city limits.

History



A small village at the location of Dortmund was mentioned in official documents from 880 to 885 as Throtmanni. After it was destroyed by a fire, the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 Frederick I (Barbarossa) had the town rebuilt in 1152 and resided there for two years. It became an Imperial Free City in 1220. During that century, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, Westphalia, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
The Hanseatic League was an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe...

.

After 1320, the city appeared in writing as "Dorpmunde", and the 1661 earthquake collapsed the Reinoldikirche
Reinoldikirche
The Protestant St. Reinoldi-church is, according to its foundation date, the oldest extant church in Dortmund, Germany; it is dedicated to Saint Reinoldus, the patron of the city. The church was built as a palatinate church in the Ottonian era. The present building is a late Romanesque church with ...

. Within the Prussian
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

 Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia
The Province of Westphalia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946.-History:Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Kingdom of Westphalia, which was a client state of the First French Empire from 1807 to 1813...

, Dortmund was a district seat within Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg until 1875, after which it was an urban district within the region. During the industrialization of Prussia, Dortmund became a major centre for coal
Coal
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure...

 and steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

.

Under Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

, the synagogue was destroyed in 1938. Also, the Aplerbeck Hospital in Dortmund transferred mentally and/or physically disabled patients for euthanasia at the Hadamar mental hospital
Hadamar Clinic
The Hadamar Euthanasia Centre was a psychiatric hospital in the German town of Hadamar, used by the Nazis as the site of their T-4 Euthanasia Programme, which performed mass sterilizations and mass murder of "undesirable" members of Nazi society, specifically those with physical and mental...

 as part of the Action T4
Action T4
Action T4 was the name used after World War II for Nazi Germany's eugenics-based "euthanasia" program during which physicians killed thousands of people who were "judged incurably sick, by critical medical examination"...

 (an additional 229 children were killed in the "Children's Specialist Department", which was transferred from Marburg in 1941). Dortmund bombing targets of the Oil Campaign of World War II
Oil Campaign of World War II
The Allied Oil Campaign of World War II was directed at facilities supplying Nazi Germany with petroleum, oil, and lubrication products...

 included Hoesch-Westfalenhütte AG
Walter Behrendt
Walter Behrendt was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party and president of the European parliament ....

, the "Hoesch
Hoesch
Hoesch may refer to*Erica Hardwick-Hoesch, neo-Nazi activist*Hoesch AG, a former German manufacturer with steel and benzol-oil plants*Leopold Hoesch , founder of the 1871 Hoesch AG iron and steel plant in Dortmund....

-Benzin GmBH" synthetic oil plant, and the Zeche Hansa coking plant
Coker unit
A coker or coker unit is an oil refinery processing unit that converts the residual oil from the vacuum distillation column or the atmospheric distillation column into low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases, naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and petroleum coke...

; and bombing destroyed about 66 % of the Dortmund homes and about 98 % of the inner city area. The code word
Code word
In communication, a code word is an element of a standardized code or protocol. Each code word is assembled in accordance with the specific rules of the code and assigned a unique meaning...

 Dortmund was radioed to initiate the 1941 Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II that began on 22 June 1941. Over 4.5 million troops of the Axis powers invaded the USSR along a front., the largest invasion in the history of warfare...

 campaign against the Soviet Union.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Dortmund in April 1945. The US 95th Infantry Division, attacked the city on 12 April 1945 against a spirited German defense. The division, assisted by close air support, advanced through the ruins in urban combat and completed its capture on 13 April 1945.

Post-war
Post-war
A post-war period or postwar period is the interval immediately following the ending of a war and enduring as long as war does not resume. A post-war period can become an interwar period or interbellum when a war between the same parties resumes at a later date...

, buildings such as the Reinoldikirche
Reinoldikirche
The Protestant St. Reinoldi-church is, according to its foundation date, the oldest extant church in Dortmund, Germany; it is dedicated to Saint Reinoldus, the patron of the city. The church was built as a palatinate church in the Ottonian era. The present building is a late Romanesque church with ...

 and Marienkirche (churches) were restored/rebuilt, and extensive parks and gardens were laid out. The LWL-Industriemuseum
European Route of Industrial Heritage
The European Route of Industrial Heritage is a network of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe. The aim of the project is to create interest for the common European Heritage of the Industrialisation and its remains...

 began in 1969, and the city subsequently became a centre for hi-tech industry.

Main sights


Cultural history tones are set by the churches in the city centre whose towers characterise the skyline of Dortmund. The Reinoldikirche
Reinoldikirche
The Protestant St. Reinoldi-church is, according to its foundation date, the oldest extant church in Dortmund, Germany; it is dedicated to Saint Reinoldus, the patron of the city. The church was built as a palatinate church in the Ottonian era. The present building is a late Romanesque church with ...

 and the Marienkirche are gems of medieval architecture.

The city centre of Dortmund still retains the outline of the medieval city. A ring road marks the former city wall, and the Westen-/Ostenhellweg
Hellweg
In the Middle Ages the Hellweg was an ancient east-west route through Germany, the main corridor from the Rhine east to the mountains of the Teutoburger Wald, reaching from Duisburg, at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr rivers, to Paderborn, with the slopes of the Sauerland to its south.In the...

, part of a medieval salt trading route, is still the major (pedestrian) street bisecting the city centre.
  • Reinoldikirche, a Protestant church
  • Petrikirche, a Protestant church, the building of which dates from the 14th century. It is famous for the huge carved altar (known as "Golden Miracle of Dortmund"), from 1521. It consists of 633 gilt carved oak figures depicting 30 scenes about Easter.
  • Marienkirche, a Protestant church originally built in 1170-1200 but rebuilt after World War II. The altar is from 1420.
  • U-Tower
    Dortmund U-Tower
    The U-Tower or Dortmunder U is a former brewery building in the city of Dortmund, Germany. Since 2010 it serves as a center for the arts and creativity, housing among other facilities the Museum Ostwall.- History :...

    , former Dortmund Union brewery, now a museum
  • Florianturm
    Florianturm
    The Florianturm is a telecommunications tower and landmark of Dortmund . It is named after St. Florian, the patron saint of gardeners....

    , (television tower Florian)
  • Westfalenstadion
    Westfalenstadion
    Westfalenstadion is an association football stadium in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the home stadium of the Borussia Dortmund football team playing in the German Bundesliga....

    : Football ground of Borussia Dortmund
    Borussia Dortmund
    Ballspielverein Borussia Dortmund, commonly BVB, are a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia. Dortmund are one of the most successful clubs in German football history. Borussia Dortmund play in the Bundesliga, the top league of German football...

    , licensed until 2016 under the name Signal Iduna Park. Close to it are the Westfalenhallen, a large convention centre, the site of several major conventions, trade fairs, ice-skating competitions, concerts and other major events since the 1950s.
  • Westphalian Industrial Museum Zollern Colliery, an Anchor Point of ERIH, the European Route of Industrial Heritage
    European Route of Industrial Heritage
    The European Route of Industrial Heritage is a network of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe. The aim of the project is to create interest for the common European Heritage of the Industrialisation and its remains...

  • Hansa Coking Plant
  • Haus Bodelschwingh (13th century), a moated castle
  • Haus Dellwig (13th century), a moated castle partly rebuilt in the 17th century. The façade and the steep tower, and two half-timbered buildings, are original.
  • Haus Rodenberg (13th century), a moated castle.
  • Altes Stadthaus, built in 1899 by Friedrich Kullrich
  • Wasserschloss Bodelschwingh
  • Romberg Park Gatehouse (17th century), once a gatehouse to a moated castle. Now it houses an art gallery.
  • RWE Tower (120 metres high skyscraper — the tallest in Dortmund)
  • Opernhaus Dortmund
    Opernhaus Dortmund
    Opernhaus Dortmund is the opera house of Dortmund, Germany, opened in 1966 and formally operated by the Theater Dortmund.-Architecture:...

    , opera house built in 1966 on the site of the old synagogue which had been destroyed by the Nazis in 1938.
  • The major art museums include the Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte
    Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte
    The Museum für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte or MKK is a municipal museum in Dortmund, Germany. It is currently located in an Art Deco building which was formerly the Dortmund Savings Bank....

     and the more recent Museum Ostwall.

Sports



Dortmund is home of the sport club Borussia Dortmund
Borussia Dortmund
Ballspielverein Borussia Dortmund, commonly BVB, are a German sports club based in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia. Dortmund are one of the most successful clubs in German football history. Borussia Dortmund play in the Bundesliga, the top league of German football...

 which won the UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
The UEFA Champions League, known simply the Champions League and originally known as the European Champion Clubs' Cup or European Cup, is an annual international club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations since 1955 for the top football clubs in Europe. It...

 and the Intercontinental Cup
Intercontinental Cup (football)
The European/South American Cup, commonly referred to as the World Club Championship, Intercontinental Cup or Toyota Cup, was a football competition endorsed by UEFA and CONMEBOL, contested between the winners of the European Cup and the South American Copa Libertadores...

 in 1997, as well as the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup against Liverpool in 1966. This made it the first European Cup Winner in Germany. They play at Westfalenstadion
Westfalenstadion
Westfalenstadion is an association football stadium in Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the home stadium of the Borussia Dortmund football team playing in the German Bundesliga....

, currently known as Signal Iduna Park. It was built for the 1974 FIFA Football World Cup and also hosted some matches of 2006 FIFA World Cup, including Italy's 2-0 defeat of Germany in the semi-finals. It is Germany's largest football stadium with a maximum capacity of 80,720 spectators.

Borussia Dortmund also has a women's handball team playing in the first Bundesliga
Bundesliga (handball)
The Handball-Bundesliga is the top German professional handball league. The league has been sponsored by Toyota since 2007 and therefore the league is called the Toyota Handball-Bundesliga...

, while the table tennis
Table tennis
Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net...

 team and the basketball team SVD 49 Dortmund play their respective second national divisions.

Dortmund is the Olympiastützpunkt for Westphalia
Westphalia
Westphalia is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Arnsberg, Bielefeld, Dortmund, Minden and Münster.Westphalia is roughly the region between the rivers Rhine and Weser, located north and south of the Ruhr River. No exact definition of borders can be given, because the name "Westphalia"...

.

The Sparkassen Chess-Meeting
Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting
The Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting is an elite chess tournament held every summer in Dortmund, Germany.Dortmund is an invite-only event, and only the strongest grandmasters are invited...

 has been hosted in Dortmund since 1982.

Transportation


Dortmund Airport
Dortmund Airport
Dortmund Airport , is the international airport located east of Dortmund, Germany. Its slogan is Näher als man denkt . Since 2006 it has been carrying the name "Dortmund Airport 21", in reference to the fact that Dortmund's utility company, DSW21, is its major shareholder...

 is a medium-sized, but fast growing airport 13 km (8.1 mi) east of the city centre at the city limit to Holzwickede
Holzwickede
Holzwickede is a municipality in the district of Unna in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.It is twinned with Weymouth, England and Louviers.- References :...

. The closest intercontinental airport is Düsseldorf International Airport
Düsseldorf International Airport
Düsseldorf International Airport is the largest airport in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and the third largest airport in Germany, handling 18.99 million passengers in 2010....

.

The central train station (Dortmund Hauptbahnhof
Dortmund Hauptbahnhof
is the central station for the city of Dortmund in Germany.The station's origins lie in a joint station of the Köln-Mindener Eisenbahn and Bergisch-Märkische Eisenbahn which was built north of the city centre in 1847. That station was replaced by a new station, erected in 1910 at the current site....

) is the third largest long distance traffic junction in Germany.

Dortmund Harbour (Hafen) is the largest canal harbour in Europe and the 11th fluvial harbour in Germany.

Dortmund also serves as a major European and German crossroads for the Autobahnsystem. The Ruhrschnellweg
Bundesautobahn 40
, is one of the most frequented Autobahns in Germany. It crosses the Dutch-German border as a continuation of the Dutch A67, crossing the Rhine, leading through the Ruhr valley toward Bochum, then becomes B 1 at the Kreuz Dortmund-West and eventually merges into the A 44 near...

 follows old Hanseatic trade routes to connect the city with the other metropolises of the Ruhr Area
Ruhr Area
The Ruhr, by German-speaking geographers and historians more accurately called Ruhr district or Ruhr region , is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With 4435 km² and a population of some 5.2 million , it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany...

. Connections to the more distant parts of Germany are maintained by the A1 and the A2 which pass closely to the north and east of the city and cross each other at the Kamener Kreuz
Kamener Kreuz
The Kamener Kreuz was formerly a full cloverleaf interchange near Dortmund in North Rhine-Westphalia Germany where the Autobahnen A1 and A2 meet. It lies between the towns of Kamen and Bergkamen in the west and the city of Hamm and the municipality Bönen in the east...

 interchange northeast of Dortmund.
Together with the A45
Bundesautobahn 45
is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Dortmund in the west with Aschaffenburg in the southwest. It is colloquially known by its byname Sauerlandlinie, which derives from the Sauerland, the landscape which said autobahn is running through between the cities of Hagen and Siegen. Many people think of...

 in the west they built the Dortmund Beltway (Dortmunder Autobahnring).

For public transportation, the city has an extensive Stadtbahn
Dortmund Stadtbahn
The Stadtbahn Dortmund is a light rail system in the German city of Dortmund and is integrated in the Rhine-Ruhr Stadtbahn network. Its network consists of eight lines which pass the city centre in underground tunnels and belongs to the VRR transport union. Opened 1984, it consecutively replaced...

 and bus system. In April 2008, the newly constructed east-west underground light rail line was opened, completing the underground service in the city centre and replacing the last tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

s on the surface.

The H-Bahn
H-Bahn
The H-Bahn in Dortmund and Düsseldorf is a suspended, driverless passenger monorail system. The system has been developed by Siemens, who call the project SIPEM ....

 at Dortmund University of Technology is a hanging monorail built specifically to shuttle passengers between the university's two campuses, which are now also flanked by research laboratories and other high-tech corporations and startups. A nearly identical monorail system transfers passengers at Düsseldorf Airport.

Demographics


As of 2010, Dortmund had a population of 581.300 of whom about 180.000 (~30%) were of non-German origin.

Number of minorities (1st and 2nd generation) in Dortmund by country of origin per 31. December 2009
Rank Ancestry Number
1  Turkey 50,000
2  Poland 10,000
3  Greece 7,000
4  Ukraine 6,000
5  Italy 6,000
6  Morocco 5,500
7  Kingdom of Yugoslavia 4,000
8  Iraq 3,000


Economy


Dortmund has historically been an industrial area. Dortmund is now home to a number of medium-sized information technology companies, many linked to the local university TechnologieZentrumDortmund program. The city works closely with research institutes, private universities, and companies to collaborate on the commercialization of science initiatives.

In 2009, Dortmund was classified as a Node city in the Innovation Cities Index published by 2thinknow.

Politics


The politics of Dortmund are dominated by the social-democratic SPD. Since World War II, the SPD has been the biggest party on the town council (German: Stadtrat). Since the 2004 local election, there have been 9 parties and electors' groups on the town council (88 seats; 1999: 82 seats):
Party Party List votes Vote percentage Total Seats Seat percentage
Social Democratic Party
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

 (SPD)
92,509 41.3% (-0.3) 36 (+2) 40.9%
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 73,282 32.7% (-9.0) 29 (-5) 33.0%
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. Its leaders are Claudia Roth and Cem Özdemir...

 (Grüne)
25,635 11.5% (+2.6) 10 (+2) 11.4%
Free Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party , abbreviated to FDP, is a centre-right classical liberal political party in Germany. It is led by Philipp Rösler and currently serves as the junior coalition partner to the Union in the German federal government...

 (FDP)
8,591 3.8% (+2.0) 3 (+2) 3.4%
German People's Union
German People's Union
The German People's Union is a nationalist political party in Germany. It was founded by publisher Gerhard Frey as an informal association in 1971 and established as a party in 1987. Financially, it is largely dependent on Frey....

 (DVU)
6,880 3.1% (+1.1) 3 (+1) 3.4%
Citizens' List (Bürgerliste) 6,874 3.1% (+0.5) 3 (+1) 3.4%
Party of Democratic Socialism-Open List (PDS-OL) 6,346 2.8% (+2.8) 2 (+2) 2.3%
Left Alliance Dortmund (Linkes Bündnis Dortmund) 1,751 0.8% (-0.2) 1 (=) 1.1%
Law and Order Offensive Party
Law and Order Offensive Party
The Law and Order Offensive Party , short form Offensive D was a minor political party in Germany. It was founded in July 2000 by Hamburg judge Ronald Schill. It wished to call itself PRO but was forbidden from doing so after a judicial complaint by the Pro Deutsche Mitte party...

 (Offensive D)
1,669 0.7% (+0.7) 1 (+1) 1.1%
Town-Greens (Stadtgrüne) 265 0.1% (+0.1) 0 (=) 0.0%
Totals 223,802 100.0% 88 (+6) 100.0%


Since May 2010, the lord mayor of Dortmund is Ullrich Sierau (SPD). He leads a coalition made up of SPD and Grüne.

Culture



The city has a long tradition of music and theatre. The orchestra was founded in 1887 and is now called Dortmunder Philharmoniker
Dortmunder Philharmoniker
The Dortmunder Philharmoniker are a German symphony orchestra based in Dortmund. The orchestra of the Theater Dortmund performs both opera in the Opernhaus Dortmund and concert in the Konzerthaus Dortmund...

. The first opera house was built in 1904, destroyed in World War II and opened again in 1966 as Opernhaus Dortmund
Opernhaus Dortmund
Opernhaus Dortmund is the opera house of Dortmund, Germany, opened in 1966 and formally operated by the Theater Dortmund.-Architecture:...

. It is operated by Theater Dortmund
Theater Dortmund
Theater Dortmund is a theatrical organization that produces operas, musicals, ballets, plays, and concerts in Dortmund, Germany. It was founded as the Stadttheater Dortmund in 1904...

 together with other locations, including (since 2002) the Konzerthaus Dortmund. The city is namesake for the Dortmunder style beer and is home to the Dortmunder Actien Brauerei
Dortmunder Actien Brauerei
Dortmunder Actien Brauerei is a German brewery in the city of Dortmund, founded in 1868 by the businessmen Laurenz Fischer and Heinrich and Friedrich Mauritz together with master brewer Heinrich Herberz...

.

Twin towns — sister cities


Dortmund is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Rostov-on-Don
Rostov-on-Don
-History:The mouth of the Don River has been of great commercial and cultural importance since the ancient times. It was the site of the Greek colony Tanais, of the Genoese fort Tana, and of the Turkish fortress Azak...

, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 Amiens
Amiens
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille. It is the capital of the Somme department in Picardy...

, France, since 1960 Leeds
Leeds
Leeds is a city and metropolitan borough in West Yorkshire, England. In 2001 Leeds' main urban subdivision had a population of 443,247, while the entire city has a population of 798,800 , making it the 30th-most populous city in the European Union.Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial...

, United Kingdom, since 1969 Buffalo
Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. Located in Western New York on the eastern shores of Lake Erie and at the head of the Niagara River across from Fort Erie, Ontario, Buffalo is the seat of Erie County and the principal city of the...

, United States, since 1977 Netanya
Netanya
Netanya is a city in the Northern Centre District of Israel, and is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain. It is located north of Tel Aviv, and south of Haifa between the 'Poleg' stream and Wingate Institute in the south and the 'Avichail' stream in the north.Its of beaches have made the...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, since 1981 Novi Sad
Novi Sad
Novi Sad is the capital of the northern Serbian province of Vojvodina, and the administrative centre of the South Bačka District. The city is located in the southern part of Pannonian Plain on the Danube river....

, Serbia
Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

, since 1982 Xi'an
Xi'an
Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

, People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

, since 1992 Kathmandu, Nepal
Nepal
Nepal , officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked sovereign state located in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People's Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India...


External links