Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
1928 Summer Olympics

1928 Summer Olympics

Discussion
Ask a question about '1928 Summer Olympics'
Start a new discussion about '1928 Summer Olympics'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international
International
----International mostly means something that involves more than one country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries...

 multi-sport event
Multi-sport event
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games.Many...

 which was celebrated in 1928 in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

. Amsterdam had bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

, but had to give way to war-victim Antwerp, Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, and Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educationalist and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, and is considered the father of the modern Olympic Games...

's Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, respectively. The only other candidate city for the 1928 Games was Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

, which would host the Olympics four years later.

The United States Olympic Committee
United States Olympic Committee
The United States Olympic Committee is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various...

 measured the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games in preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a major world wide multi-athletic event which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. No other cities made a bid to host these Olympics. Held during the worldwide Great Depression, many nations...

. The committee reported a total cost of US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million for a loss of US$18,000 - much less than that of the previous Games.

Highlights

  • For the first time, the Olympic Flame
    Olympic Flame
    The Olympic Flame or Olympic Torch is a symbol of the Olympic Games. Commemorating the theft of fire from the Greek god Zeus by Prometheus, its origins lie in ancient Greece, where a fire was kept burning throughout the celebration of the ancient Olympics. The fire was reintroduced at the 1928...

     was lit during the Olympics. The torch relay, however, would not occur until the 1936 Summer Olympics
    1936 Summer Olympics
    The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

    .
  • For the first time, the parade of nations started with Greece
    Greece
    Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

    , which holds the origins of the Olympics, and ended with the host country, a tradition which continues today.
  • The Games were officially opened by Prince Hendrik, consort of Queen Wilhelmina
    Wilhelmina of the Netherlands
    Wilhelmina was Queen regnant of the Kingdom of the Netherlands from 1890 to 1948. She ruled the Netherlands for fifty-eight years, longer than any other Dutch monarch. Her reign saw World War I and World War II, the economic crisis of 1933, and the decline of the Netherlands as a major colonial...

    , who had authorised him to deputise for her. This was the first time a head of state had not personally officiated at an Olympic opening ceremony. She refused to return early from her holiday in Norway to open the Games herself, because she was furious at the organizing committee for not consulting with her about the opening date.
  • Athletics events were held on a 400 meter track and would become the standard for athletics tracks.
  • These games were the first to feature a standard schedule of 16 days, which is still followed. Previously, competition was stretched out over several months.
  • Johnny Weissmuller
    Johnny Weissmuller
    Johnny Weissmuller was an Austro-Hungarian-born American swimmer and actor best known for playing Tarzan in movies. Weissmuller was one of the world's best swimmers in the 1920s, winning five Olympic gold medals and one bronze medal. He won fifty-two US National Championships and set sixty-seven...

    , who later appeared in several Tarzan
    Tarzan
    Tarzan is a fictional character, an archetypal feral child raised in the African jungles by the Mangani "great apes"; he later experiences civilization only to largely reject it and return to the wild as a heroic adventurer...

     movies, won two gold medals in swimming
    Swimming (sport)
    Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

    .
  • Paavo Nurmi
    Paavo Nurmi
    Paavo Johannes Nurmi was a Finnish runner. Born in Turku, he was known as one of the "Flying Finns," a term given to him, Hannes Kolehmainen, Ville Ritola, and others for their distinction in running...

     of Finland
    Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

     won his ninth and final gold medal, in the 10,000 m race.
  • Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

    's Percy Williams
    Percy Williams
    Percy Alfred Williams, OC was a Canadian athlete, winner of the 100 m and 200 m races at the 1928 Summer Olympics.- Biography :Williams was born in Vancouver and he died in Vancouver....

     surprised everyone by winning both the 100 m and 200 m sprint events.
  • South America
    South America
    South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

    n football
    Football (soccer)
    Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

     made a definite breakthrough, as Uruguay
    Uruguay
    Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

     retained its title by defeating Argentina
    Argentina
    Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

    .
  • India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

     took its first ever gold in the sport of field hockey
    Field hockey
    Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

    , beginning a streak of six consecutive gold medals in the sport.
  • The first appearance of the sponsor Coca-Cola
    Coca-Cola
    Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in more than 200 countries. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke...

     at the Olympic Games.
  • These games were the first to bear the name "Summer Olympic Games".
  • Germany returned to the Olympic Games for the first time since 1912, after being banned from the 1920 and 1924 Games. The German team finished second in the 1928 medal count.
  • Helena Nordheim
    Helena Nordheim
    Helena "Lea" Nordheim was a Jewish Dutch gymnast. She won the gold medal as member of the Dutch gymnastics team at the 1928 Summer Olympics in her native Amsterdam....

     won the gold medal as a member of the Dutch gymnastics team. She was later killed in 1943 at the Sobibor extermination camp
    Sobibór extermination camp
    Sobibor was a Nazi German extermination camp located on the outskirts of the town of Sobibór, Lublin Voivodeship of occupied Poland as part of Operation Reinhard; the official German name was SS-Sonderkommando Sobibor...

     in Poland as part of the Holocaust.

Host city selection


Frederik van Tuyll van Serooskerken first proposed Amsterdam as host city for the Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by the International Olympic Committee. Medals are awarded in each event, with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, a tradition that...

 in 1912, even before the Netherlands Olympic Committee was established. In 1916, the Olympic Games were cancelled due to World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. In 1919, the Netherlands Olympic Committee abandoned the proposal of Amsterdam in favour of their support of the nomination of Antwerp as host city for the 1920 Summer Olympics
1920 Summer Olympics
The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium....

. In 1921, the city of Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 was selected for the 1924 Summer Olympics
1924 Summer Olympics
The 1924 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VIII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1924 in Paris, France...

 on the condition that the 1928 Summer Olympics would be organized in Amsterdam. This decision, supported by the Netherlands Olympic Committee, was announced by the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

 on June 2, 1921. The decision was disputed by the Americans, but their request to allocate the 1928 Summer Olympics to Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

 was without success in 1922 and again in 1923. Los Angeles was eventually selected as host city for the 1932 Summer Olympics
1932 Summer Olympics
The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a major world wide multi-athletic event which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. No other cities made a bid to host these Olympics. Held during the worldwide Great Depression, many nations...

.

Sports


During the Summer Olympics, there were 15 sports and 109 events in the tournament. In parentheses is the number of events per sport.
  • Athletics
    Athletics at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, 27 athletics events were contested. The competition was held on a 400 meter track and would become the standard for athletics tracks in the future. For the first time, women's events in athletics were included in the Olympic Games program...

     (27)
  • Boxing
    Boxing at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    These are the results of the boxing competition at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. Medals were awarded in 8 weight classes. The competitions were held from August 7, 1928 to August 12, 1928.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:...

     (8)
  • Cycling
    Cycling at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    The cycling competition at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam consisted of two road cycling events and four track cycling events, all for men only...

     (6)
  • Diving
    Diving at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, four diving events were contested. The men's plain high diving event was dropped from the Olympic program...

     (4)
  • Equestrian
    Equestrian at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    The Equestrian Events at the 1928 Summer Olympics included Dressage, Eventing, and Show Jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The competitions were held from August 8, 1928 to August 12, 1928.-Medal summary:...

     (6)
  • Fencing
    Fencing at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, seven fencing events were contested, six for men and one for women.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:A total of 259 fencers from 27 nations competed at the Amsterdam Games:...

     (7)
  • Football
    Football at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    Football at the 1928 Summer Olympics tournament, won by Uruguay against Argentina, would be the precursor to the first FIFA World Cup held in 1930 in Uruguay.-Medalists:-Background:...

     (1)
  • Gymnastics
    Gymnastics at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, eight events in gymnastics were contested. For the first time at the Olympic Games, women competed in gymnastics. The rope climbing and sidehorse vault events were dropped from the program.-Medal summary:...

     (8)
  • Field hockey
    Field hockey at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    The 1928 Summer Olympics saw the third Field Hockey tournament at Olympics. All games took place either in the new Olympisch Stadion or in the nearby Old Stadion. The field hockey tournament was held in the first part of this Olympic games...

     (1)
  • Modern pentathlon
    Modern pentathlon at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, a single modern pentathlon event was contested.-Medalists:...

     (1)
  • Rowing
    Rowing at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    Rowing at the 1928 Summer Olympics featured 7 events, for men only. The competitions were held from August 2, 1928 to August 10, 1928.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:A total of 245 rowers from 19 nations competed at the Amsterdam Games:...

     (7)
  • Sailing
    Sailing at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    Sailing/Yachting is a Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad . With the exception of 1904 and possible 1916 sailing was always a part of the Olympic program....

     (3)
  • Swimming
    Swimming at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, eleven swimming events were contested, six for men and five for women. The competitions were held from Saturday August 4, 1928 to Saturday August 11, 1928.There were 182 participants from 28 countries competing...

     (11)
  • Water polo
    Water polo at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    -Medal summary:-Results:For the team rosters see: Water polo at the 1928 Summer Olympics - Men's team squads.-Participating nations:Each country was allowed to enter a team of 11 players and they all were eligible for participation....

     (1)
  • Weightlifting
    Weightlifting at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    The weightlifting competition at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam consisted of five weight classes, all for men only. The competitions were held on Saturday, July 28, 1928 and on Sunday, July 29, 1928.-Medal summary:-Participating nations:...

     (5)
  • Wrestling
    Wrestling at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    At the 1928 Summer Olympics, thirteen wrestling events were contested, for all men. There were six weight classes in Greco-Roman wrestling and seven classes in freestyle wrestling...

     (13)


Women's athletics and gymnastics
Gymnastics
Gymnastics is a sport involving performance of exercises requiring physical strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and balance. Internationally, all of the gymnastic sports are governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique with each country having its own national governing body...

 debuted at these Olympics, in spite of criticism. Halina Konopacka
Halina Konopacka
Halina Konopacka , famous athlete, first Polish Olympic Champion . She took part in the Olympic Games in Amsterdam, where she won a gold medal in discus throw breaking her own world record...

 of Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 became the first female Olympic track and field champion. The 800 meter run ended with several of the competitors being completely exhausted, so running events for women longer than 200 meters were not included in the Olympics until the 1960s.

Tennis
Tennis
Tennis is a sport usually played between two players or between two teams of two players each . Each player uses a racket that is strung to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponent's court. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society at all...

 disappeared from the program, only to reappear in 1968 as a demonstration sport
Tennis at the 1968 Summer Olympics
Tennis returned to the Summer Olympic program as a demonstration event in 1968. Men's and women's singles and doubles and mixed doubles were held in both a Demonstration tournament and an Exhibition tournament. Both tournaments were held in Guadalajara, Mexico.-Demonstration:-Exhibition:-External...

.

Demonstration sports

  • Kaatsen (unofficial demonstration)
  • Korfball
  • Lacrosse
    Lacrosse at the 1928 Summer Olympics
    Lacrosse was a demonstration sport at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam. Teams from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States played matches on August 5, 6 & 7. Each team ended the tournament with a record of 1 win and 1 loss...



These Games also included art competitions
Art competitions at the 1928 Summer Olympics
Art competitions were held as part of the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Medals were awarded in five categories , for works inspired by sport-related themes....

, which the IOC no longer considers as official medal events.

Venues


  • Amersfoort
    Amersfoort
    Amersfoort is a municipality and the second largest city of the province of Utrecht in central Netherlands. The city is growing quickly but has a well-preserved and protected medieval centre. Amersfoort is one of the largest railway junctions in the country, because of its location on two of the...

     - Modern pentathlon (riding)
  • Amsterdam
    Amsterdam
    Amsterdam is the largest city and the capital of the Netherlands. The current position of Amsterdam as capital city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands is governed by the constitution of August 24, 1815 and its successors. Amsterdam has a population of 783,364 within city limits, an urban population...

     - Cycling (road)
  • Buiten Y
    IJ (bay)
    The IJ is a river, formerly a bay, in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is known for being Amsterdam's waterfront. The name derives from the generic Germanic term for "water" and is similar to other Aa/Ee names for bodies of water. In Dutch, the name consists of the digraph ij, which is...

     - Sailing
  • Hilversum
    Hilversum
    is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Located in the region called "'t Gooi", it is the largest town in that area. It is surrounded by heathland, woods, meadows, lakes, and smaller villages...

     - Equestrian (non-jumping events), Modern pentathlon (running)
  • Krachtsportgebouw
    Krachtsportgebouw
    Krachtsportgebouw is a multi-purpose sports arena located in Amsterdam, Netherlands. Known during the 1928 Summer Olympics as the Wrestling Pavilion, it hosted the wrestling, boxing, and weightlifting events....

     - Boxing, Weightlifting, Wrestling
  • Monnikenhuize
    Monnikenhuize
    Monnikenhuize was a multi-use stadium in Arnhem, Netherlands. It was used mostly for football matches and hosted the home matches of Vitesse Arnhem. The stadium was able to hold 7,500 people. The stadium was opened in 1915...

     - Football
  • Old Stadion
    Old Stadion (Amsterdam)
    Old Stadion , sometimes referred to as the Harry Elte Stadium , was a multi-purpose sports stadium located in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Prior to the construction of the Olympic Stadium used for the 1928 Summer Olympics, it was the primary stadium used for the city until the 1928 Games...

     - Field hockey
  • Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium
    Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium
    The Olympic Sports Park Swim Stadium was a venue used for the diving, swimming, water polo, and the swimming portion of the modern pentathlon events for the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam....

     - Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
  • Olympic Stadium - Athletics, Cycling (track), Equestrian (jumping), Field hockey, Football, Gymnastics
  • Schermzaal - Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)
  • Sloten - Rowing
  • Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel
    Sparta Stadion Het Kasteel
    Sparta-Stadion Het Kasteel is a football stadium in Rotterdam, Netherlands. It is the home ground of Sparta Rotterdam. It has a capacity of 11,026.-History and layout:...

     - Football
  • Zeeburg Shooting Grounds
    Zeeburg
    Zeeburg is one of the boroughs of Amsterdam. It has 52,701 residents and is 19.31 km². The construction of new islands to the east called IJburg makes it the most rapidly growing borough of Amsterdam.-History:...

     - Modern pentathlon (shooting).
  • Zuiderzee - Sailing

Participating nations



A total of 46 nations were represented at the Amsterdam Games. Malta
Malta
Malta , officially known as the Republic of Malta , is a Southern European country consisting of an archipelago situated in the centre of the Mediterranean, south of Sicily, east of Tunisia and north of Libya, with Gibraltar to the west and Alexandria to the east.Malta covers just over in...

, Panama
Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

, and Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia was the name of the British colony situated north of the Limpopo River and the Union of South Africa. From its independence in 1965 until its extinction in 1980, it was known as Rhodesia...

 (now Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe is a landlocked country located in the southern part of the African continent, between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. It is bordered by South Africa to the south, Botswana to the southwest, Zambia and a tip of Namibia to the northwest and Mozambique to the east. Zimbabwe has three...

) competed at the Olympic Games for the first time. Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 returned after having been banned in 1920 and 1924.
(Host nation)

Medal count



These are the top ten nations that won medals at these Games.
1 22 18 16 56
2 10 7 14 31
3 8 8 9 25
4 7 6 12 25
5 7 5 7 19
6 7 4 4 15
7 6 10 5 21
8 (host nation) 6 9 4 19
9 4 5 0 9
10 4 4 7 15

Poster



The official poster for the Games was designed by Jos Rovers, and 10,000 copies were made. The poster displays a running man in a white shirt, with in the background the Olympic stadium and the Olympic flag (shown above). The IOC never succeeded in getting the copyright of the image. Therefore, out of practical considerations, the IOC has used a different poster, with the German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

text Olympische Spiele, and an athlete partly covered in the Dutch national flag, holding a peace leaf in his hand. This poster was made for a German book about the Amsterdam Olympics.

External links