1936 Summer Olympics

1936 Summer Olympics

Overview
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international
International
----International mostly means something that involves more than one country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries...

 multi-sport event
Multi-sport event
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games.Many...

 which was held in 1936 in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the Nazis came to power). It marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

 would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games.
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Encyclopedia
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international
International
----International mostly means something that involves more than one country. The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries...

 multi-sport event
Multi-sport event
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states. The first major, modern, multi-sport event of international significance was the modern Olympic Games.Many...

 which was held in 1936 in Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona (two years before the Nazis came to power). It marked the second and final time that the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

 would gather to vote in a city which was bidding to host those Games. The only other time this occurred was at the inaugural IOC Session in Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

, France, on April 24, 1894. Then, Athens, Greece and Paris, France were chosen to host the 1896
1896 Summer Olympics
The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, was a multi-sport event celebrated in Athens, Greece, from April 6 to April 15, 1896. It was the first international Olympic Games held in the Modern era...

 and 1900 Games
1900 Summer Olympics
The 1900 Summer Olympics, today officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1900 in Paris, France. No opening or closing ceremonies were held; competitions began on May 14 and ended on October 28. The Games were held as part of...

, respectively.

To outdo the Los Angeles games in 1932, the Nazis built a brand new 100,000-seat track and field stadium, 6 gymnasiums, and many other smaller arenas. They also installed a closed-circuit television system, radio network that reached 41 countries, and many other forms of expensive high-tech electronic equipment. Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl
Leni Riefenstahl
Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl was a German film director, actress and dancer widely noted for her aesthetics and innovations as a filmmaker. Her most famous film was Triumph des Willens , a propaganda film made at the 1934 Nuremberg congress of the Nazi Party...

, a favorite of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

, was commissioned for $7 million by the German Olympic Committee to film the Games. Her film, entitled Olympia
Olympia (1938 film)
Olympia is a 1938 Nazi propaganda film by Leni Riefenstahl documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, Germany. The film was released in two parts: Olympia 1. Teil — Fest der Völker and Olympia 2. Teil — Fest der Schönheit . It was the first documentary feature...

, introduced many of the techniques now common to the filming of sports.

By allowing only members of the "Aryan race
Aryan race
The Aryan race is a concept historically influential in Western culture in the period of the late 19th century and early 20th century. It derives from the idea that the original speakers of the Indo-European languages and their descendants up to the present day constitute a distinctive race or...

" to compete for Germany, Hitler further promoted his ideological belief of racial supremacy. At the same time, the party removed signs stating "Jews not wanted" and similar slogans from the city's main tourist attractions. In an attempt to "clean up" Berlin, the German Ministry of the Interior
Federal Ministry of the Interior (Germany)
The Federal Ministry of the Interior is a ministry of the German federal government. Its main office is in Berlin, with a secondary seat in Bonn. The current minister of the interior is Dr...

 authorized the chief of police to arrest all Romani (Gypsies) and keep them in a special camp
Berlin-Marzahn concentration camp
Berlin-Marzahn Rastplatz was a camp set up for Romani people in the Berlin suburb of Marzahn by Nazi authorities.At 4 a.m. on 16 July 1936, prior to the opening of the 1936 Berlin Olympics, police began arresting all Romani people in Greater Berlin and forcibly relocated them to Marzahn, an open...

.
Total ticket revenues were 7.5 million Reichsmark
German reichsmark
The Reichsmark was the currency in Germany from 1924 until June 20, 1948. The Reichsmark was subdivided into 100 Reichspfennig.-History:...

, generating a profit of over one million marks. The official budget did not include outlays by the city of Berlin (which issued an itemized report detailing its costs of 16.5 million marks) or that of the German national government (which did not make its costs public, but is estimated to have spent US$
United States dollar
The United States dollar , also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies....

30 million, chiefly in capital outlays).

Host city selection



The bidding for these Olympic Games was the first to be contested by IOC members casting their votes for their favorite host city. The vote occurred in 1931 during the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

 era, before Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 rose to power in 1933. There were many other cities around the world that wanted to host this Summer Olympics, but they never received a single IOC vote. They were of the following: Alexandria
Alexandria
Alexandria is the second-largest city of Egypt, with a population of 4.1 million, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country; it is also the largest city lying directly on the Mediterranean coast. It is Egypt's largest seaport, serving...

, Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

, Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

, Dublin, Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

, Helsinki
Helsinki
Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is , making it by far the most populous municipality in Finland. Helsinki is...

, Lausanne
Lausanne
Lausanne is a city in Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and is the capital of the canton of Vaud. The seat of the district of Lausanne, the city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva . It faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura mountains to its north-west...

, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

, Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, and Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

. Many commentators have noted the IOC's fascist leanings, which even the most generous historians characterize as "bizarre".
1936 Summer Olympics bidding result
City Country Round 1
Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

 
43
Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

 
 Spain 16

Events


  • Athletics
    Athletics at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, 29 athletics events were contested, 23 for men and 6 for women. The program of events was unchanged from the previous Games. There was a total of 776 participants from 43 countries competing.-Medal table:...

  • Basketball
    Basketball at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    -Fifth-place classification:-First round:Winners advanced to the second round. Losers competed in the first consolation round for another chance to move on.* Estonia def. France, 34-29* Chile def. Turkey, 30-16* Switzerland def. Germany, 25-18...

  • Boxing
    Boxing at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    These are the results of the boxing competition at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Medals were awarded in 8 weight classes. The competitions were held from August 10, 1936 to August 15, 1936....

  • Canoeing
    Canoeing at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    Canoeing was an official Olympic sport for the first time at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. It had been a demonstration sport twelve years earlier at the 1924 Summer Olympics in Paris. A total of nine events were contested at the 1936 Games, all in canoe sprint for men.The competitions were...

  • Cycling
    Cycling at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    The cycling competition at the 1936 Summer Olympics consisted of two road cycling events and four track cycling events, all for men only.-Medal summary:-Medal table:-References:*...

  • Diving
    Diving at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, four diving events were contested, two for men, and two for women. The competitions were held from Monday August 10, 1936 to Saturday August 15, 1936.-Medal summary:...

  • Equestrian
    Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    The Equestrian Events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included Dressage, Eventing, and Show Jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The host country, Germany, had a stellar year, winning both individual and team gold in every equestrian event, as well as...

  • Fencing
    Fencing at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics, seven fencing events were contested, six for men and one for women.-Medal Summary:-Medal table:-Participating nations:A total of 311 fencers from 29 nations competed at the Berlin Games:...

  • Field hockey
    Field hockey at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    The 1936 Summer Olympics saw the fifth field hockey tournament at Olympics. All games took place either in the Hockey Stadion or on the Hockey Stadion Field No.2. Both of the field hockey grounds were near the Olympic Stadium located on the Reichssportfeld. The competition was held from Tuesday,...

  • Football (Soccer)
    Football at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    The 1936 Olympic football tournament, won by Italy, has come to share an affinity with the political backdrop against which it was being played; in terms of the history of football, however, the tournament suffered as a reaction to the development of the FIFA World Cup.The introduction of the first...

  • Gymnastics
    Gymnastics at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, nine events in gymnastics were contested. The competitions were held from August 10, 1936 to August 12, 1936.-Medal summary:-Medal table:...

  • Handball
    Handball at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    Field handball at the 1936 Summer Olympics was the first appearance of the sport at the Olympics. It was contested by six teams.The six teams were split into two groups of three. Each team played the other two teams in its group once...

  • Modern pentathlon
    Modern pentathlon at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, a single modern pentathlon event was contested.-Medalists:-Results:The method of scoring was point-for-place. First place received one point, second place received two, and so on. The athlete with the fewest points won the event.-Riding:-Fencing:Each athlete...

  • Polo
    Polo at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    Polo returned to the Olympic program at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, after not being contested at the 1928 Games or 1932 Games. The 1936 tournament was the last time that the sport was contested at the Olympic Games.-Medalists:...

  • Rowing
    Rowing at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    Rowing at the 1936 Summer Olympics featured 7 events, for men only.The competitions were held from August 11, 1936 to August 14, 1936. They were held on a regatta course at Grünau on the Langer See.-Medal summary:-Medal table:-References:*...

  • Sailing
    Sailing at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad . With the exception of the 1904 and possibly the 1916 sailing was always a part of the Olympic program....

  • Shooting
    Shooting at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    Shooting at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin saw the reintroduction of 50 metre pistol but still only had three events. The competitions were held from August 6, 1936 to August 8, 1936 at the shooting ranges at Wannsee...

  • Swimming
    Swimming at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, eleven swimming events were contested, six for men and five for women. The competitions were held from Saturday August 8, 1936 to Saturday August 15, 1936. There was a total of 248 participants from 29 countries competing.-Medal table:-Men's events:-Women's...

  • Water polo
    Water polo at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    -Medal summary:-Elimination Rounds:In the first round each team in a group played each other team in the same group. The placings were determined on points. If the points were equal, then the better goal average decided...

  • Weightlifting
    Weightlifting at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    The weightlifting competition at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin consisted of five weight classes, all for men only.-Medal summary:-Medal table:-References:...

  • Wrestling
    Wrestling at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    At the 1936 Summer Olympics, 14 wrestling events were contested, for all men. There were seven weight classes in Greco-Roman wrestling and seven classes in freestyle wrestling.-Freestyle:- Greco-Roman:-See also:...

    >


  • Basketball
    Basketball
    Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

     and handball
    Team handball
    Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

     made their debut at the Olympics, both as outdoor sports. Handball would not appear again on the program until 1972
    1972 Summer Olympics
    The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972....

    .

    Demonstration sports


    • Art
      Art competitions at the 1936 Summer Olympics
      Art competitions were held as part of the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Medals were awarded in five categories , for works inspired by sport-related themes....

    • Baseball
      Baseball at the 1936 Summer Olympics
      Baseball was again a demonstration sport at the 1936 Summer Olympics after a 24 year absence. Both of the teams that played in Berlin were from the United States....

    • Gliding
      Gliding at the 1936 Summer Olympics
      Gliding at the 1936 Summer Olympics was a demonstration sport. The sport of gliding had been developed in Germany in the 1920s but had spread widely by 1936, allowing an international demonstration to the International Olympic Committee ....


    Venues


    • Avus Motor Road
      AVUS
      The Automobil-Verkehrs- und Übungs-Straße, better known as AVUS, is a public road that was also used as a motor racing circuit. It is located in the south-western districts of Berlin, Germany, between Charlottenburg and Nikolassee, and is nowadays an important part of the public highway system, as...

       – Athletics (Marathon, 50 km walk), Cycling (road)
    • BSV 92 Field & Stadium – Cycling (track), Handball
    • Dietrich Eckert Open-Air Theatre
      Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
      The Olympiastadion is a sports stadium in Berlin, Germany. There have been two stadiums on the site: the present facility, and one that is called the Deutsches Stadion which was built for the aborted 1916 Summer Olympics. Both were designed by members of the same family, the first by Otto March...

       – Gymnastics
    • Döberitz
      Dallgow-Döberitz
      Dallgow-Döberitz is a municipality in the Havelland district, in Brandenburg, Germany.-Geography:It consists of the villages Dallgow-Döberitz, Rohrbeck and Seeburg. To the east it shares border with the Spandau borough of Berlin. Neighbouring Brandenburg municipalities are Falkensee in the north...

       – Equestrian (eventing), Modern pentathlon (riding)
    • Deutschlandhalle
      Deutschlandhalle
      Deutschlandhalle is an arena in the Westend neighbourhood of Berlin, Germany. It was inaugurated on 29 November 1935 by Adolf Hitler. The building has been granted landmark status in 1995....

       – Boxing, Weightlifting, Wrestling
    • Grünau Regatta Course
      Grünau (Berlin)
      Grünau is a German locality within the Berlin borough of Treptow-Köpenick. Until 2001 it was part of the former borough of Köpenick.-History:...

       – Canoeing, Rowing
    • Haus des Deutschen Sports
      Haus des Deutschen Sports
      The Haus des Deutschen Sports , part of the larger Deutsches Sportforum, is a sporting venue constructed for the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Located northeast of the Olympic Stadium, it hosted the fencing events and the fencing part of the modern pentathlon event.- References :* ...

       – Fencing, Modern pentathlon (fencing)
    • Hertha-BSC Field
      Stadion am Gesundbrunnen
      Stadion am Gesundbrunnen was a multi-use stadium in Berlin, Germany. It was initially used as the stadium of Hertha BSC matches. During the 1936 Summer Olympics, it hosted some of the football matches. It was replaced by the current Olympic Stadium when Hertha joined the Bundesliga in 1963. In...

       – Football
    • Hockey Stadion
      Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
      The Olympiastadion is a sports stadium in Berlin, Germany. There have been two stadiums on the site: the present facility, and one that is called the Deutsches Stadion which was built for the aborted 1916 Summer Olympics. Both were designed by members of the same family, the first by Otto March...

       – Field hockey
    • Hockey Stadion #2
      Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
      The Olympiastadion is a sports stadium in Berlin, Germany. There have been two stadiums on the site: the present facility, and one that is called the Deutsches Stadion which was built for the aborted 1916 Summer Olympics. Both were designed by members of the same family, the first by Otto March...

       – Field hockey
    • Kiel Bay
      Bay of Kiel
      The Bay of Kiel is a bay in the southwestern Baltic Sea, off the shores of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and the islands of Denmark. It is connected with the Bay of Mecklenburg in the east, the Little Belt in the northwest, and the Great Belt in the North....

       – Sailing
    • Mayfield
      Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
      The Olympiastadion is a sports stadium in Berlin, Germany. There have been two stadiums on the site: the present facility, and one that is called the Deutsches Stadion which was built for the aborted 1916 Summer Olympics. Both were designed by members of the same family, the first by Otto March...

       – Equestrian (dressage), polo
    • Mommsenstadion
      Mommsenstadion
      The Mommsenstadion is a multi-purpose stadium in Berlin, Germany, named after the historian Theodor Mommsen. It is currently used mostly for football and hosts the home matches of Tennis Borussia Berlin and SCC Berlin...

       – Football
    • Olympic Stadium
      Olympic Stadium (Berlin)
      The Olympiastadion is a sports stadium in Berlin, Germany. There have been two stadiums on the site: the present facility, and one that is called the Deutsches Stadion which was built for the aborted 1916 Summer Olympics. Both were designed by members of the same family, the first by Otto March...

       – Athletics, Equestrian (jumping), Football (final), Handball (final)
    • Olympic Swimming Stadium
      Olympiapark Schwimmstadion Berlin
      Olympiapark Schwimmstadion Berlin is an aquatics venue located in Berlin, Germany constructed for the 1936 Summer Olympics. Located north of the Olympic Stadium it hosted the diving, swimming, water polo, and the swimming part of the modern pentathlon events...

       – Diving, Modern pentathlon (swimming), Swimming, Water polo
    • Police Stadium
      Police Stadium (Berlin)
      The Police Stadium was a sports venue located in Berlin, Germany. It hosted several games of the handball tournament for the 1936 Summer Olympics.-Reference:* Volume 2. pp. 1067–73....

       – Handball
    • Poststadion
      Poststadion
      The Poststadion is a multi-use stadium in the Moabit district of Berlin, Germany, built in 1929 for the sports club of the German Reichspost at the site of a former Prussian Uhlan parade ground. A designated landmark since 1990, its stands and terrace are currently under reconstruction...

       – Football
    • Ruhleben – Modern pentathlon (shooting)
    • Tennis Courts
      Tennis Courts (Berlin)
      The Tennis Courts are courts located in Berlin, Germany. Located southwest of the Olympic Stadium, they hosted the basketball and the Épée fencing event for the 1936 Summer Olympics.-Reference:* Volume 1. pp. 162–3....

       – Basketball, Fencing (épée)
    • Tennis Stadium
      Tennis Stadium (Berlin)
      The Tennis Stadium is a a stadium located in Berlin, Germany. Located southwest of the Olympic Stadium, it hosted the basketball competition for the 1936 Summer Olympics.-Reference:* Volume 1. pp. 162–3....

       – Basketball
    • Wannsee Golf Course
      Wannsee
      Wannsee is a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Germany. It is the westernmost locality of Berlin. In the quarter there are two lakes, the larger Großer Wannsee and the Kleiner Wannsee , are located on the river Havel and are separated only by the Wannsee bridge...

       – Modern pentathlon (running)
    • Wannsee Shooting Range
      Wannsee
      Wannsee is a locality in the southwestern Berlin borough of Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Germany. It is the westernmost locality of Berlin. In the quarter there are two lakes, the larger Großer Wannsee and the Kleiner Wannsee , are located on the river Havel and are separated only by the Wannsee bridge...

       – Shooting

    Organization


    Hans von Tschammer und Osten
    Hans von Tschammer und Osten
    Hans von Tschammer und Osten was a German sport official, SA leader and a member of the Reichstag...

    , as Reichssportführer, i.e. head of the Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
    Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen
    The Nationalsozialistischer Reichsbund für Leibesübungen , more rarely "NSRBL", , known as Deutscher Reichsbund für Leibesübungen until 1938, was the umbrella organization for sports during the Third Reich.The NSRL was led by the Reichssportführer, who after 1934 was...

     (DRL), the Reich Sports Office, played a major role in the structure and organization of the Olympics. He promoted the idea that the use of sports would harden the German spirit and instill unity among German youth. At the same time he also believed that sports was a "way to weed out the weak, Jewish, and other undesirables." Many Jews and Gypsies were banned from participating in sporting events, including Jewish four-time world record holder and 10-time German national champion Lilli Henoch
    Lilli Henoch
    Lilli Henoch was a German track and field athlete who set four world records and won 10 German national championships, in four different disciplines....

    .

    Von Tschammer trusted the details of the organization of the games to Theodor Lewald and Carl Diem
    Carl Diem
    Carl Diem was a German sports administrator, and as Secretary General of the Organizing Committee of the Berlin Olympic Games, the chief organizer of the 1936 Olympic Summer Games .He created the tradition of the Olympic torch relay, and was an influential historian of...

    , the former president and secretary of the Deutscher Reichsausschuss für Leibesübungen, the forerunner of the Reich Sports Office. Diem revealed himself as highly competent and made original innovations, like the Olympic torch
    Olympic Flame
    The Olympic Flame or Olympic Torch is a symbol of the Olympic Games. Commemorating the theft of fire from the Greek god Zeus by Prometheus, its origins lie in ancient Greece, where a fire was kept burning throughout the celebration of the ancient Olympics. The fire was reintroduced at the 1928...

     relay from Athens
    Athens
    Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

    , that are still valued.

    Boycott debate


    Prior to and during the Games, there was considerable debate outside Germany over whether the competition should be allowed or discontinued.

    Boycott debate in the United States


    Those who voiced their opinions on the debate included Americans Ernest Lee Jahncke, Judge Jeremiah Mahoney, and future IOC President Avery Brundage
    Avery Brundage
    Avery Brundage was an American amateur athlete, sports official, art collector, and philanthropist. Brundage competed in the 1912 Olympics and was the US national all-around athlete in 1914, 1916 and 1918...

    . The United States considered boycotting the Games, as to participate in the festivity might be considered a sign of support for the Nazi regime and its anti-Semitic policies. However, others argued that the Olympic Games should not reflect political views, but rather be strictly a contest of the greatest athletes.

    Avery Brundage, then of the United States Olympic Committee
    United States Olympic Committee
    The United States Olympic Committee is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various...

    , opposed the boycott, stating that Jewish athletes were being treated fairly and that the Games should continue. Brundage asserted that politics played no role in sports, and that they should never be entwined. He stated, “The very foundation of the modern Olympic revival will be undermined if individual countries are allowed to restrict participation by reason of class, creed, or race.” Brundage also believed that there was a “Jewish-Communist conspiracy” that existed to keep the United States out of competing in the Olympic Games.

    Unlike Brundage, Jeremiah Mahoney supported a boycott of the Games. Mahoney, the president of the Amateur Athletic Union
    Amateur Athletic Union
    The Amateur Athletic Union is one of the largest non-profit volunteer sports organizations in the United States. A multi-sport organization, the AAU is dedicated exclusively to the promotion and development of amateur sports and physical fitness programs.-History:The AAU was founded in 1888 to...

    , led newspaper editors and anti-Nazi groups to protest against American participation in the Berlin Olympics. He contested that racial discrimination was a violation of Olympic rules and that participation in the Games was tantamount to support for the Third Reich.

    Most African-American newspapers supported participation in the Olympics. The Philadelphia Tribune and the Chicago Defender both agreed that black victories would undermine Nazi views of Aryan supremacy and spark renewed African-American pride. American Jewish organizations, meanwhile, largely opposed the Olympics. The American Jewish Congress
    American Jewish Congress
    The American Jewish Congress describes itself as an association of Jewish Americans organized to defend Jewish interests at home and abroad through public policy advocacy, using diplomacy, legislation, and the courts....

     and the Jewish Labor Committee
    Jewish Labor Committee
    The Jewish Labor Committee is an American secular Jewish organization dedicated to promoting labor union interests in Jewish communities, and Jewish interests within unions. The organization is headquartered in New York City, with local/regional offices in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago...

     staged rallies and supported the boycott of German goods to show their disdain for American participation.

    Eventually, Brundage won the debate, convincing the Amateur Athletic Union to close a vote in favor of sending an American team to the Berlin Olympics, winning by two and a half votes. Mahoney’s efforts to incite a boycott of the Olympic games in the United States failed. President Roosevelt
    Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Franklin Delano Roosevelt , also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war...

     demanded the participation of U.S.A. in the Olympics, intending to keep the tradition of America being void of outside influence intact.

    The 1936 Summer Olympics ultimately boasted the largest number of participating nations of any Olympics to that point. However, some individual athletes, including Jewish Americans Milton Green
    Milton Green
    This article is about the American sportsperson. For other uses, see Milton Green Milton Green was a world record holder in high hurdles during the 1930s....

     and Norman Cahners
    Norman Cahners
    Norman Lee Cahners was a major American publisher and philanthropist. The Cahners Publishing Company, which he founded in 1960, had grown into the largest U.S. publisher of trade or business magazines at the time of Cahner's death, three weeks before he was scheduled to retire...

    , chose to boycott the Games.

    Spanish boycott


    The Spanish government
    Second Spanish Republic
    The Second Spanish Republic was the government of Spain between April 14 1931, and its destruction by a military rebellion, led by General Francisco Franco....

     led by the newly elected left-wing Popular Front
    Popular Front (Spain)
    The Popular Front in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election....

     boycotted the Games and organized the People's Olympiad
    People's Olympiad
    The People's Olympiad was a planned international multi-sport event that was intended to take place in Barcelona, the capital of the autonomous region of Catalonia within the Spanish Republic...

     as a parallel event in Barcelona
    Barcelona
    Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

    . Some 6,000 athletes from 22 countries registered for the games. However, the People's Olympiad was aborted because of the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War
    Spanish Civil War
    The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

     just one day before the event was due to start. Like Spain, the Soviet Union
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

     did not participate in the 1936 summer Olympics.

    Highlights







    The games were the first to have live television
    Live television
    Live television refers to a television production broadcast in real-time, as events happen, in the present. From the early days of television until about 1958, live television was used heavily, except for filmed shows such as I Love Lucy and Gunsmoke. Video tape did not exist until 1957...

     coverage. The German Post Office, using equipment from Telefunken
    Telefunken
    Telefunken is a German radio and television apparatus company, founded in Berlin in 1903, as a joint venture of Siemens & Halske and the Allgemeine Elektricitäts-Gesellschaft...

    , broadcast over seventy hours of coverage to special viewing rooms throughout Berlin and Potsdam and a few private TV sets, transmitting from the Paul Nipkow TV Station
    Fernsehsender Paul Nipkow
    The Fernsehsender "Paul Nipkow" Berlin was a television station in Germany. It was on the air from March 22, 1935 until it was shut down in 1944. Its headquarters were in Berlin, Germany. It was named after Paul Nipkow, the inventor of the Nipkow disk...

    . The Olympic Flame
    Olympic Flame
    The Olympic Flame or Olympic Torch is a symbol of the Olympic Games. Commemorating the theft of fire from the Greek god Zeus by Prometheus, its origins lie in ancient Greece, where a fire was kept burning throughout the celebration of the ancient Olympics. The fire was reintroduced at the 1928...

     was used for the second time at these games, but this marked the first time it was brought to the Olympic Village
    Olympic Village
    An Olympic Village is an accommodation centre built for an Olympic Games, usually within an Olympic Park or elsewhere in a host city. Olympic Villages are built to house all participating athletes, as well as officials, athletic trainers, and other staff. Since the Munich Massacre at the 1972...

     by a torch relay
    Torch relay
    Torch relay may refer to:*The carrying of the Olympic Torch**Any of the Olympic torch relays*Pan American Torch, a torch relay associated with the Panamerican Games*Asian Games Torch, a torch relay associated with the Asian Games...

    , with the starting point in Olympia, Greece
    Olympia, Greece
    Olympia , a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. Both games were held every Olympiad , the Olympic Games dating back possibly further than 776 BC...

    .
    The Republic of China's Three Principles of the People was chosen as the best national anthem
    National anthem
    A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.- History :Anthems rose to prominence...

     of the games.

    The official book of the 1936 Olympics is present in many libraries containing all the signatures of Golden medals winners

    United States Olympic Committee
    United States Olympic Committee
    The United States Olympic Committee is a non-profit organization that serves as the National Olympic Committee and National Paralympic Committee for the United States and coordinates the relationship between the United States Anti-Doping Agency and the World Anti-Doping Agency and various...

     president Avery Brundage
    Avery Brundage
    Avery Brundage was an American amateur athlete, sports official, art collector, and philanthropist. Brundage competed in the 1912 Olympics and was the US national all-around athlete in 1914, 1916 and 1918...

     became a main supporter of the Games being held in Germany, arguing that "politics has no place in sport", despite having initial doubts. Brundage requested that a system be established to examine female athletes for what Time
    Time (magazine)
    Time is an American news magazine. A European edition is published from London. Time Europe covers the Middle East, Africa and, since 2003, Latin America. An Asian edition is based in Hong Kong...

    magazine called "sex ambiguities" after observing the performance of Czechoslovak runner and jumper Zdenka Koubkova and English shotputter and javelin thrower Mary Edith Louise Weston. (Both individuals had sex change surgery and legally changed their names, to Zdenek Koubek and Mark Weston, respectively.). Gender verification in sports was not in place in 1936.

    Politics and controversy


    Despite not coming from fascist countries, French and Canadian Olympians gave what appeared to be the Hitler salute at the opening ceremony, although some have later claimed that they were just performing the Olympic salute, which was in fact a very similar action.

    Gretel Bergmann
    Gretel Bergmann
    Gretel Bergmann, also known as Margaret Bergmann-Lambert is a German-born athlete who competed as a high jumper during the 1930s.-Biography:Bergmann was born in Laupheim, Germany, where she later began her career in athletics...

    , despite equaling a national record in the high jump a month before the games, was excluded from the German team because she was Jewish.

    American sprinters Sam Stoller
    Sam Stoller
    Sam Stoller was an American sprinter and long jumper who tied the world record in the 60-yard dash in 1936. He is best known for his exclusion from the American 4 × 100 relay team at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, triggering widespread speculation that he and Marty Glickman,...

     and Marty Glickman
    Marty Glickman
    Martin "Marty" Glickman was a Jewish American track and field athlete and sports announcer, born in The Bronx, New York. His parents, Harry and Molly Glickmann, immigrated to the United States from Jassy, Romania....

    , the only two Jews on the U.S. Olympic team, were pulled from the 4 × 100 relay team on the day of the competition, leading to speculation that U.S. Olympic committee leader Avery Brundage
    Avery Brundage
    Avery Brundage was an American amateur athlete, sports official, art collector, and philanthropist. Brundage competed in the 1912 Olympics and was the US national all-around athlete in 1914, 1916 and 1918...

     did not want to add to the embarrassment of Hitler by having two Jews win gold medals.

    Italy's football team
    Italy national football team
    The Italy National Football Team , represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation , the governing body for football in Italy. Italy is the second most successful national team in the history of the World Cup having won four titles , just one fewer than...

     continued their dominance, winning the gold medal in these Olympics between their two consecutive World Cup
    FIFA World Cup
    The FIFA World Cup, often simply the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association , the sport's global governing body...

     victories (1934
    1934 FIFA World Cup
    The 1934 FIFA World Cup was the second FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in Italy from 27 May to 10 June 1934....

     and 1938
    1938 FIFA World Cup
    The 1938 FIFA World Cup was the third staging of the World Cup, and was held in France from 4 June to 19 June. Italy retained the championship, beating Hungary 4–2 in the final.-Host selection:...

    ). Much like the successes of German athletes, this triumph was claimed by supporters of Benito Mussolini
    Benito Mussolini
    Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism....

    's regime as a vindication of the superiority of the fascist system. Austria won the silver; a controversial win after Hitler called for a rematch of the quarterfinals match to discount Peru
    Peru
    Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

    's 4–2 win over Austria
    Austria
    Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

    . The Peruvian national Olympic team refused to play the match again and withdrew from the games. In the quarter-finals of the football tournament, Peru beat Austria 4–2 in extra-time. Peru rallied from a two-goal deficit in the final 15 minutes of normal time. During extra-time, Peruvian fans allegedly ran onto the field and attacked an Austrian player. In the chaos, Peru scored twice and won, 4–2. However, Austria protested and the International Olympic Committee ordered a replay without any spectators. The Peruvian government refused and their entire Olympic squad left in protest as did Colombia.

    The Nazis demoted Captain Wolfgang Fürstner
    Wolfgang Fürstner
    Wolfgang Fürstner was a German Wehrmacht captain. In 1936 Fürstner was the first commander, then vice-commander, of the Olympic village during the Berlin Olympic Games, summer 1936.-Family:...

    , the half-Jewish commandant of the Olympic Village, during the games, and replaced him with Werner von Gilsa
    Werner von Gilsa
    Werner Albrecht Freiherr von und zu Gilsa was a German officer and General of Infantry, whose last assignment was as Wehrmacht commandant of Dresden...

    . After the games' conclusion, Fürstner, a career officer, committed suicide when he learned that the Nuremberg Laws classified him as a Jew, and, as such, he was to be expelled from the Wehrmacht.

    In the film Charlie Chan at the Olympics
    Charlie Chan at the Olympics
    Charlie Chan at the Olympics is possibly the most topical Charlie Chan film, as it features actual footage from the 1936 Berlin Olympics. There is also a scene where Charlie crosses the Atlantic in the Hindenburg...

    (1937) the filmmakers removed all Nazi symbols which appeared during the actual games, although actors playing members of the Berlin police force help Charlie apprehend the spies (of unnamed nationality) trying to steal a new aerial guidance system.

    Sporting innovations


    Basketball
    Basketball
    Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

     was added to the Olympic program. In the final game, the United States beat Canada 19–8. The contest was played outdoors on a dirt court in driving rain. Because of the quagmire, the teams could not dribble, thus the score was held to a minimum. Joe Fortenberry was the high scorer for the U.S. with seven points. Spectators did not have seats, and the approximately 1,000 in attendance had to stand in the rain.

    In the freestyle event, swimmers originally dived from the pool walls, but diving blocks were incorporated at the 1936 Olympics.

    Notable wins


    Germany had a prosperous year in the equestrian events
    Equestrian at the 1936 Summer Olympics
    The Equestrian Events at the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics included Dressage, Eventing, and Show Jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions. The host country, Germany, had a stellar year, winning both individual and team gold in every equestrian event, as well as...

    , winning individual and team gold in all three disciplines, as well as individual silver in dressage. In the cycling match sprint finals, the German Toni Merkens
    Toni Merkens
    Toni Merkens was a racing cyclist from Germany and Olympic champion. He represented his native country at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where he received the gold medal in the men's 1000 meter match sprint event.-Racing career:Merkens trained as a bicycle mechanic with Fritz Köthke...

     fouled Arie van Vliet
    Arie van Vliet
    Arie van Vliet was a Dutch racing cyclist, olympic champion in track cycling.He received a gold medal in 1000 m time trial and a silver medal in individual sprint at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin.-References:...

     of the Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

    . Instead of being disqualified, he was fined 100 marks and kept his gold. German gymnasts Konrad Frey
    Konrad Frey
    Konrad Frey was a German gymnast.With 3 Gold and 6 medals in total at the 1936 Summer Olympics, he had beaten team-mate Alfred Schwarzmann by one Silver for the honours of becoming the most successful competitor in term of total medals won, and the most successful competitor of host nation Germany...

     and Alfred Schwarzmann
    Alfred Schwarzmann
    Karl Alfred Schwarzmann was a German Olympic Gymnast and Fallschirmjäger during World War II.He won three Gold medals and two Bronze medals in the Gymnastics at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin and another Silver medal in the Gymnastics at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki...

     both won three gold medals.

    Jesse Owens
    Jesse Owens
    James Cleveland "Jesse" Owens was an American track and field athlete who specialized in the sprints and the long jump. He participated in the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany, where he achieved international fame by winning four gold medals: one each in the 100 meters, the 200 meters, the...

     won four gold medals in the sprint and long jump
    Long jump
    The long jump is a track and field event in which athletes combine speed, strength, and agility in an attempt to leap as far as possible from a take off point...

     events. His German competitor Luz Long
    Luz Long
    Carl Ludwig "Luz" Long was a German Olympic athlete, notable for winning Silver at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin and for giving advice to his competitor, Jesse Owens, who went on to win the gold medal for the broad jump as a result of Long's advice.Long was killed in...

     offered Owens advice after he almost failed to qualify in the long jump and was posthumously awarded the Pierre de Coubertin medal
    Pierre de Coubertin medal
    The Pierre de Coubertin medal is a special medal given by the International Olympic Committee to those athletes who demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in Olympic events.The medal was inaugurated in 1964 and named in honour of Pierre de Coubertin, founder of the International Olympic...

     for sportsmanship. Mack Robinson, brother to Jackie Robinson
    Jackie Robinson
    Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson was the first black Major League Baseball player of the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball color line when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947...

     won the 100 meter sprint silver medal behind Owens by .04 seconds. In one of the most dramatic 800 meter
    800 metres
    The 800 meter race is a common track running event. It is the shortest common middle distance track event. The 800 meter is run over two laps of the track and has always been an Olympic event. During indoor track season the event is usually run on a 200 meter track, therefore requiring four laps...

     races in history, American John Woodruff
    John Woodruff
    John Youie Woodruff was an American athlete and winner of the 800 metres at the 1936 Summer Olympics....

     won gold after slowing to jogging speed in the middle of the final in order to free himself from being boxed in. Glenn Edgar Morris, a farm boy from Colorado, won Gold in the Decathlon. Rower
    Sport rowing
    Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each other on rivers, on lakes or on the ocean, depending upon the type of race and the discipline. The boats are propelled by the reaction forces on the oar blades as they are pushed against the water...

     Jack Beresford
    Jack Beresford
    Jack Beresford, CBE, was a British rower who won medals at five Olympic Games in succession, an Olympic record in rowing, which has since been tied by Steven Redgrave.-Early life:...

     won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal. The U.S. eight-man rowing team from the University of Washington
    University of Washington
    University of Washington is a public research university, founded in 1861 in Seattle, Washington, United States. The UW is the largest university in the Northwest and the oldest public university on the West Coast. The university has three campuses, with its largest campus in the University...

     won the gold medal, coming from behind to defeat the Germans and Italians with Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

     in attendance.

    In the marathon two Korea
    Korea
    Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

    n athletes won medals — Sohn Kee-chung
    Sohn Kee-chung
    Sohn Kee-Chung became the first medal-winning Korean Olympian, when he won the gold medal in the marathon at the 1936 Berlin Olympics as a member of the Japanese delegation....

     (gold) and Nam Sung-yong
    Nam Sung-yong
    Nam Sung-Yong was the bronze winner of the Marathon of the 1936 Summer Olympics, completing the run in 2 hours, 31 minutes, and 42 seconds. He is also the first Korean bronze Olympian....

     (bronze) — running for Japan and under Japanese names; Japan had annexed Korea
    Korea under Japanese rule
    Korea was under Japanese rule as part of Japan's 35-year imperialist expansion . Japanese rule ended in 1945 shortly after the Japanese defeat in World War II....

     in 1910. British India won the gold medal in the field hockey
    Field hockey
    Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

     event once again (they won the gold in all Olympics from 1928 to 1956), defeating Germany 8–1 in the final. However, India
    India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

    ns were considered Indo-Aryans
    Indo-Aryans
    Indo-Aryan is an ethno-linguistic term referring to the wide collection of peoples united as native speakers of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages...

     by the Germans and there was no controversy regarding their victory. Rie Mastenbroek
    Rie Mastenbroek
    Hendrika "Rie" Wilhelmina Mastenbroek was a Dutch swimmer and a triple Olympic champion.-Biography:...

     of the Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

     won three gold medals and a silver in swimming
    Swimming (sport)
    Swimming is a sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation .-History: Competitive swimming in Europe began around 1800 BCE, mostly in the form of the freestyle. In 1873 Steve Bowyer introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native...

    . Estonia
    Estonia
    Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

    's Kristjan Palusalu
    Kristjan Palusalu
    Kristjan Palusalu was an Estonian heavyweight wrestler and Olympic winner....

     won two gold medals in Men's Wrestling
    Wrestling
    Wrestling is a form of grappling type techniques such as clinch fighting, throws and takedowns, joint locks, pins and other grappling holds. A wrestling bout is a physical competition, between two competitors or sparring partners, who attempt to gain and maintain a superior position...

    , marking the last time Estonia competed as an independent nation in the Olympics until 1992.

    After winning the middleweight class, the Egypt
    Egypt
    Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

    ian weightlifter Khadr El Touni
    Khadr El Touni
    Khadr Sayed El Touni was an Egyptian weightlifter. Until recently he was ranked #1 on the list of history's 50 greatest weightlifters issued by the International Weightlifting Federation...

     continued to compete for another 45 minutes, finally exceeding the total of the German silver medalist by 35 kg. The 20-year-old El Touni lifted a total of 387.5 kg crushing two German world champions, El Touni broke the then Olympic and world records, while the German lifted 352.5 kg. Furthermore, El Touni had lifted 15 kg more than the heavyweight gold medalist, a feat only El Touni has accomplished. El Touni's new world records stood for 13 years. Fascinated by El Touni's performance, Adolf Hitler rushed down to greet this human miracle. Prior to the competition, Hitler was said to have been sure that Rudolf Ismayr
    Rudolf Ismayr
    Rudolf Ismayr was a German weightlifter and Olympic champion. He won a gold medal at the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles...

     and Adolf Wagner would embarrass all other opponents. Hitler was so impressed by El Touni's domination in the middleweight class that he ordered a street named after him in Berlin olympic village. The Egyptian held the No. 1 position on the IWF
    International Weightlifting Federation
    The International Weightlifting Federation , headquartered in Budapest, is the international governing body for the sport of Olympic weightlifting.The IWF was founded in 1905, and has 187 member nations. The IWF president is Dr...

     list of history's 50 greatest weightlifters for 60 years, until the 1996 Games
    1996 Summer Olympics
    The 1996 Summer Olympics of Atlanta, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States....

     in Atlanta where Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    's Naim Süleymanoğlu
    Naim Süleymanoglu
    Naim Süleymanoğlu , formerly known as Naim Suleimanov , is a Turkish World and Olympic Champion in weightlifting...

     surpassed him to top the list.

    Participating nations




    A total of 49 nations attended the Berlin Olympics, up from 37 in 1932
    1932 Summer Olympics
    The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, was a major world wide multi-athletic event which was celebrated in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. No other cities made a bid to host these Olympics. Held during the worldwide Great Depression, many nations...

    . Six nations made their first official Olympic appearance at these Games: Afghanistan
    Afghanistan
    Afghanistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in the centre of Asia, forming South Asia, Central Asia and the Middle East. With a population of about 29 million, it has an area of , making it the 42nd most populous and 41st largest nation in the world...

    , Bermuda
    Bermuda
    Bermuda is a British overseas territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. Located off the east coast of the United States, its nearest landmass is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, about to the west-northwest. It is about south of Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, and northeast of Miami, Florida...

    , Bolivia
    Bolivia
    Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

    , Costa Rica
    Costa Rica
    Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

    , Liechtenstein
    Liechtenstein
    The Principality of Liechtenstein is a doubly landlocked alpine country in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and by Austria to the east. Its area is just over , and it has an estimated population of 35,000. Its capital is Vaduz. The biggest town is Schaan...

     and Peru
    Peru
    Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

    .

    Medal count



    These are the top ten nations that won medals at these Games.
    1 (host nation) 33 26 30 89
    2 24 20 12 56
    3 10 1 5 16
    4 8 9 5 22
    5 7 6 6 19
    7 6 6 19
    7 6 5 9 20
    8 6 4 8 18
    9 6 4 7 17
    10 4 7 3 14

    Quotations


    See also


    • Olympic Games Decoration
      Olympic Games Decoration
      The German Olympic Games Decoration was a civil decoration of Nazi Germany awarded to administrators of the 1936 Olympics...

    • Berlin 36
      Berlin 36
      Berlin 36 is a 2009 German film telling the fate of Jewish athlete Gretel Bergmann in the 1936 Summer Olympics. She was replaced by the Nazi regime by an athlete later discovered to be a man...

       (film)
    • Olympia (1938 film)
      Olympia (1938 film)
      Olympia is a 1938 Nazi propaganda film by Leni Riefenstahl documenting the 1936 Summer Olympics, held in the Olympic Stadium in Berlin, Germany. The film was released in two parts: Olympia 1. Teil — Fest der Völker and Olympia 2. Teil — Fest der Schönheit . It was the first documentary feature...

    • Parley Parker Christensen, Los Angeles City Council member who blocked payment for sending 1932 Olympic flag to Berlin for the 1936 games.

    Further reading

    • A famous novel in French written by Alexandre Najjar, "Berlin 36", Plon publisher, Paris, 2009, tells the story of Berlin Olympic games. ISBN : 978-2-259-21082-9.
    • Berlin Games – How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream, by Guy Walters
      Guy Walters
      Guy Walters is a British author and journalist.-Life and career:Guy Walters was born in Kensington, London. A descendant of Richard Harris Barham and Edward Augustus Bond, he was educated at Cheam School, Eton College, Westfield College, University of London , and is studying for a PhD in history...

       ISBN 978-0-7195-6783-4 (UK) 0060874120 (USA)
    • All That Glitters is Not Gold, by William O. Johnson, Jr. ISBN 978-0-399-11008-5 (USA)
    • Hitler's Games: The 1936 Olympics, by Duff Hart-Davis
      Duff Hart-Davis
      Peter Duff Hart-Davis , generally known as Duff Hart-Davis, is a British biographer, naturalist and journalist, who writes for The Independent newspaper. He is married to Phyllida Barstow and has one son and one daughter, the journalist Alice Hart-Davis...

      , ISBN 978-0-06-015554-4 ISBN 978-0-06-015554-4
    • Hitler's Olympics: The 1936 Berlin Olympic Games, by Christopher Hilton
    • The Nazi Olympics: Berlin 1936 United States Holocaust Museum, by Susan D. Bachrach
    • The Nazi Olympics (Sport and Society), by Richard D. Mandell
    • Olympische Spiele Berlin / Olympic Games 1936: Erinnergunsalbum / Album-Souvenir unter dem Patronat des schweizerischen Olympischen Komitees, by Julius, ed., publ. Wagner
    • The Nazi Olympics: Sport, Politics, and Appeasement in the 1930s by Arnd Kruger and W. J. Murray
    • The Berlin Olympics (World Focus Books), by James P. Barry

    External links