situated in the Fennoscandia
n region of Northern Europe
. It is bordered by Sweden
in the west, Norway
in the north and Russia
in the east, while Estonia
lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland
Around 5.4 million people reside in Finland, with the majority concentrated in the southern region. It is the eighth largest country in Europe in terms of area
and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union
1605 The city of Oulu, Finland, is founded by Charles IX of Sweden.
1771 The Dutch merchant ship ''Vrouw Maria'' sinks near the coast of Finland.
1809 King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden abdicates after a coup d'état. At the Diet of Porvoo, Finland's four Estates pledge allegiance to Alexander I of Russia, commencing the secession of the Grand Duchy of Finland from Sweden.
1809 Peace between Sweden and Russia in the Finnish War. The territory to become Finland is ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn.
1848 First performance of Finland's national anthem.
1882 Oulu, Finland was decimated by the Great Oulu Fire of 1882
1917 Finland declares independence from Russia.
1918 Finland's "Mosaic Confessors" law went into effect, making Finnish Jews full citizens.
1918 Germany, Austria and Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk ending Russia's involvement in World War I, and leading to the independence of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.
1920 Part of Petsamo Province is ceded by the Soviet Union to Finland.