Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)

Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)'
Start a new discussion about 'Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore)'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia

The Mass Rapid Transit or MRT is a rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system that forms the backbone of the railway system
Rail transport in Singapore
Rail transport in Singapore exists in three main types, namely an international rail connection operated by Malaysian company Keretapi Tanah Melayu , a rapid transit system collectively known as the Mass Rapid Transit system operated by the two biggest public transport operators SMRT Corporation...

 in Singapore
Singapore
Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

, spanning the entire city-state
City-state
A city-state is an independent or autonomous entity whose territory consists of a city which is not administered as a part of another local government.-Historical city-states:...

. The initial section of the MRT, between Yio Chu Kang Station
Yio Chu Kang MRT Station
Yio Chu Kang MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the North South Line in Singapore.The station's architecture design theme is similar to Ang Mo Kio station, with brown granite walls and floors, except for the middle platform in Ang Mo Kio station, which this station does...

 and Toa Payoh Station
Toa Payoh MRT Station
Toa Payoh MRT Station is an underground station of the Mass Rapid Transit's North South Line in Singapore. It serves the Toa Payoh area...

, opened in 1987 establishing itself as the second-oldest metro system in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia, South-East Asia, South East Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic...

, after Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

's LRT System
Manila Light Rail Transit System
The Manila Light Rail Transit System, popularly known as the LRT, is a metropolitan rail system serving the Metro Manila area in the Philippines. Although referred to as a light rail system because it originally used light rail vehicles, it has many characteristics of a rapid transit system, such...

. The network has since grown rapidly as a result of Singapore's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the main backbone of the public transport system in Singapore
Transport in Singapore
Transport within Singapore is mainly land-based. Many parts of Singapore are accessible by road, including islands such as Sentosa and Jurong Island. The other major form of transportation within Singapore is rail: the Mass Rapid Transit which runs the length and width of Singapore, and the Light...

 with an average daily ridership of 2.069 million in 2010, nearly 65% of the bus network's
Bus transport in Singapore
Bus transport in Singapore is the most comprehensive and affordable means of public transport for the masses, with over two million rides taken per day on average on the buses of the two main public transport providers SBS Transit and SMRT Corporation...

 3.199 million in the same period.

The MRT has 89 operational stations with 146.5 kilometres of lines and operates on standard gauge
Standard gauge
The standard gauge is a widely-used track gauge . Approximately 60% of the world's existing railway lines are built to this gauge...

. The rail lines have been constructed by the Land Transport Authority
Land Transport Authority
The Land Transport Authority is a statutory board under the Ministry of Transport of the Singapore Government.-History:...

, a statutory board of the Government of Singapore
Government of Singapore
The Government of Singapore is defined by the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore to mean the Executive branch of government, which is made up of the President and the Cabinet of Singapore. Although the President acts in his personal discretion in the exercise of certain functions as a check...

, which allocates operating concessions to the profit-based corporations SMRT Corporation
SMRT Corporation
SMRT Corporation is a public transport operator incorporated on March 6, 2000, as a result of an industry overhaul to form multi-modal public-transport operators in Singapore. It is the second-largest public-transport company in Singapore after ComfortDelGro...

 and SBS Transit
SBS Transit
SBS Transit Limited is a public transport operator in Singapore. Its major competitor in Singapore's duopoly transport system is SMRT Corporation, which also operates bus, rail, taxi and other transport services....

. These operators also run bus and taxi services
Taxicabs of Singapore
Taxicabs are a popular form of public transport in the compact city state of Singapore, with fares considered relatively low compared to those in most cities in developed countries...

, thus ensuring that there is a full integration of public transport services
Transport in Singapore
Transport within Singapore is mainly land-based. Many parts of Singapore are accessible by road, including islands such as Sentosa and Jurong Island. The other major form of transportation within Singapore is rail: the Mass Rapid Transit which runs the length and width of Singapore, and the Light...

. The MRT is complemented by the regional Light Rail Transit (LRT) systems that link MRT stations with HDB public
Public housing
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the...

 housing estate
Housing estate
A housing estate is a group of buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country. Accordingly, a housing estate is usually built by a single contractor, with only a few styles of house or building design, so they tend to be uniform in appearance...

s. Services operate from about 5:30 am
12-hour clock
The 12-hour clock is a time conversion convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods called ante meridiem and post meridiem...

 and usually end before 1 a.m. daily with frequencies of approximately three to eight minutes, and services extended during festive periods
Holidays in Singapore
The 11 major public holidays in Singapore reflect the cultural and religious diversity of the country. They include the Chinese New Year, the Buddhist holiday Vesak Day, the Muslim holidays Hari Raya Puasa and Hari Raya Haji, the Hindu holiday Deepavali, and the Christian holidays of Good Friday...

 such as Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year
Chinese New Year – often called Chinese Lunar New Year although it actually is lunisolar – is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. It is an all East and South-East-Asia celebration...

 and Christmas
Christmas
Christmas or Christmas Day is an annual holiday generally celebrated on December 25 by billions of people around the world. It is a Christian feast that commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ, liturgically closing the Advent season and initiating the season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days...

.

History


The origins of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) are derived from a forecast by city planners in 1967 which stated the need for a rail-based urban transport system by 1992. Following a debate on whether a bus-only system would be more cost-effective, the Parliament came to the conclusion that an all-bus system would be inadequate, since it would have to compete for road space in a land-scarce country. The initial S$
Singapore dollar
The Singapore dollar or Dollar is the official currency of Singapore. It is normally abbreviated with the dollar sign $, or alternatively S$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies...

5 billion construction of the Mass Rapid Transit network was Singapore's largest public works project at the time, starting on 22 October 1983 at Shan Road. The network was built in stages, with the North South Line
North South MRT Line
The North South Line was the 1st Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 44 km long with 25 stations, and is operated by SMRT Corporation...

 given priority because it passed through the Central Area
Central Area
In Singapore, the Central Area or Central Business District contains the core financial and commercial districts, including eleven urban planning areas, namely Downtown Core, Marina East, Marina South, Museum, Newton, Orchard, Outram, River Valley, Rochor, Singapore River and Straits View as...

 that has a high demand for public transport. The Mass Rapid Transit Corporation (MRTC), later renamed as SMRT Corporation — was established on 14 October 1983; it took over the roles and responsibilities of the former provisional Mass Rapid Transit Authority. On 7 November 1987, the first section of the North South Line started operations, consisting of five stations over six kilometres. Fifteen more stations were opened later, and the MRT system was officially launched on 12 March 1988 by Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew
Lee Kuan Yew, GCMG, CH is a Singaporean statesman. He was the first Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore, governing for three decades...

, then Prime Minister of Singapore
Prime Minister of Singapore
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore. The President of Singapore appoints as Prime Minister a Member of Parliament who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs.The office of Prime Minister...

. Another 21 stations were subsequently added to the system; the opening of Boon Lay Station
Boon Lay MRT Station
Boon Lay MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the East West Line in Jurong, Singapore.The station currently serves residents living in Boon Lay, Pioneer, Gek Poh, Nanyang and people working in Tuas,Tuas South,Pioneer Sector,Jurong Hill,Jurong Pier,Lok Yang,Benoi and Gul.In...

 on the East West Line
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

 on 6 July 1990 marked the completion of the system two years ahead of schedule.

The MRT has subsequently been expanded. This includes a S$1.2 billion expansion of the North South Line into Woodlands, completing a continuous loop on 10 February 1996. The concept of having rail lines that bring people almost directly to their homes led to the introduction of the Light Rail Transit (LRT) lines connecting with the MRT network. On 6 November 1999, the first LRT trains on the Bukit Panjang LRT
Bukit Panjang LRT Line
Bukit Panjang LRT Line is a 7.8 km light rail line opened on 6 November 1999 and part of Singapore's LRT system. It is fully automated, and the project was contracted to Adtranz, Keppel Corporation and Gammon Construction...

 went into operation. In 2002, the Changi Airport
Changi Airport MRT Station
Changi Airport MRT Station was opened on 8 February 2002 as one of the terminal Mass Rapid Transit stations for the East West Line, and located in between Singapore Changi Airport's Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. This is one of the four MRT stations that have fare gates on the same level as the...

 and Expo
Expo MRT Station
The Expo MRT Station ' was opened on 10 January 2001, and is part of the Singapore MRT Changi Airport Extension to the existing East West Line. It sports a space age architecture designed by world renowned architect Sir Norman Foster...

 stations were added to the MRT network. The North East Line
North East MRT Line
The North East MRT Line is the third Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore and the world's second longest fully underground, automated and driverless, rapid transit line after Singapore's Circle MRT Line. The line is 20 km long with 16 stations and operated by SBS Transit. Travelling from one end...

 (NEL), the first line operated by SBS Transit, opened on 20 June 2003, one of the first fully automated heavy rail lines in the world. On 15 January 2006, after intense lobbying by the public, Buangkok
Buangkok MRT Station
Buangkok MRT Station is an underground station located on the North East Line of the Mass Rapid Transit in Singapore. The station is in Sengkang and near to Hougang and serves residents in the vicinity....

 station was opened. The Boon Lay Extension, consisting of Pioneer
Pioneer MRT Station
Pioneer MRT Station ' is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit station along the East West Line in Jurong.Located at Jurong West Street 63, between Jurong West Street 61 and Pioneer Road North, it serves residents living in Nanyang and Pioneer...

 and Joo Koon
Joo Koon MRT Station
Joo Koon MRT Station ' is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit station along the East West Line in Jurong and also the western terminus for the line....

, began revenue service on 28 February 2009. On 28 May 2009, the first section of the Circle Line from Marymount Station to Bartley Station was opened. The second sections, from Tai Seng Station to Dhoby Ghaut Station, opened on 17 April 2010.The third sections, from Caldecott stations to Harbourfront station, opened on 8 October 2011.

Current network


September 2011 edition MRT System Map here
having all Circle Line stations operational.

Line
(Operator)
First section operational Stations Length
(km)
Terminals Depot along line

(SMRT Trains
SMRT Trains
SMRT Trains Limited is a rail operator in Singapore and a wholly owned subsidiary of SMRT Corporation. Then known as Mass Rapid Transit Corporation when it was incorporated on 6 August 1987, it was renamed as Singapore MRT Limited before taking on its current name, SMRT Trains, in the year...

)
7 November 1987 25 44 Jurong East
Jurong East MRT Station
Jurong East MRT Station is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station that is part of the North South Line and the East West Line in Singapore, and serves as an interchange station between the two lines....

Marina Bay
Marina Bay MRT Station
The Marina Bay MRT Station ' is the southern terminal station of the North South Line in Singapore. This station is located on reclaimed land and there are no developments surrounding it, and hence contrary to what the name implies, there exists a slight distance between the station and the actual...

Bishan
Bishan Depot
Bishan Depot is a depot located on the Mass Rapid Transit in Bishan, Singapore.It comprises a storage yard with a capacity of 53 trains and has an area of 300,000 m². The depot also houses a central maintenance with train overhaul facilities for trains on the North South Line and East West Line...


Ulu Pandan
Ulu Pandan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot is a depot near Jurong East, Singapore and it services the trains on the North South Line and the East West Line. It has a capacity of 40 trains and has an area of 130,000 square metres. Train inspection is carried out at this depot...


(SMRT Trains
SMRT Trains
SMRT Trains Limited is a rail operator in Singapore and a wholly owned subsidiary of SMRT Corporation. Then known as Mass Rapid Transit Corporation when it was incorporated on 6 August 1987, it was renamed as Singapore MRT Limited before taking on its current name, SMRT Trains, in the year...

)
12 December 1987 29 49.2 Pasir Ris
Pasir Ris MRT Station
Pasir Ris MRT Station ' is the terminal and above ground station of the East West MRT Line in Singapore. The station is located at the central part of Pasir Ris New Town.-Platform Screen Doors:...

Joo Koon
Joo Koon MRT Station
Joo Koon MRT Station ' is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit station along the East West Line in Jurong and also the western terminus for the line....

Ulu Pandan
Ulu Pandan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot is a depot near Jurong East, Singapore and it services the trains on the North South Line and the East West Line. It has a capacity of 40 trains and has an area of 130,000 square metres. Train inspection is carried out at this depot...


Changi
Changi Depot
Changi Depot is located on the Mass Rapid Transit near Koh Sek Lim Road, Singapore.Changi Depot comprises a train yard, which can hold a capacity of 35 trains and has an area of 250,000 square metres. The depot is also used for train inspection for trains on the North South Line and East West Line...

10 January 2001 2 Tanah Merah
Tanah Merah MRT Station
Tanah Merah MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station located in the heart of Tanah Merah, Singapore.The station is part of the East West Line and is between Simei and Bedok and is an interchange for trains going to Changi Airport and Expo...

Changi Airport
Changi Airport MRT Station
Changi Airport MRT Station was opened on 8 February 2002 as one of the terminal Mass Rapid Transit stations for the East West Line, and located in between Singapore Changi Airport's Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. This is one of the four MRT stations that have fare gates on the same level as the...


(SBS Transit
SBS Transit
SBS Transit Limited is a public transport operator in Singapore. Its major competitor in Singapore's duopoly transport system is SMRT Corporation, which also operates bus, rail, taxi and other transport services....

)
20 June 2003 16 20 HarbourFront
HarbourFront MRT Station
HarbourFront MRT Station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit interchange of the North East Line and the Circle Line in Singapore. It is located in the south of Singapore next to the HarbourFront Centre, previously known as the Singapore World Trade Centre. It serves as a terminal station of the...

Punggol Sengkang
Sengkang Depot
Sengkang Depot is a depot in Sengkang, Singapore, for the Mass Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit lines operated by SBS Transit...


(SMRT Trains
SMRT Trains
SMRT Trains Limited is a rail operator in Singapore and a wholly owned subsidiary of SMRT Corporation. Then known as Mass Rapid Transit Corporation when it was incorporated on 6 August 1987, it was renamed as Singapore MRT Limited before taking on its current name, SMRT Trains, in the year...

)
28 May 2009 29 (1 not operational) 33.3 Dhoby Ghaut
Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station
Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station ' is a Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, located at the eastern end of Orchard Road. Originally it was only a station on the North South Line but after the opening of the North East Line on 20 June 2003, it became the interchange station for these two lines...

HarbourFront
HarbourFront MRT Station
HarbourFront MRT Station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit interchange of the North East Line and the Circle Line in Singapore. It is located in the south of Singapore next to the HarbourFront Centre, previously known as the Singapore World Trade Centre. It serves as a terminal station of the...

Kim Chuan
Kim Chuan Depot
Kim Chuan Depot is a rail depot for the Mass Rapid Transit system in Singapore. The depot cost S$297 million to construct and houses the trains for the Circle and upcoming Downtown MRT lines. The depot is fully underground, reaching a depth of 24 m at some points. It provides stabling of the...



Facilities and services


Except for the partly at-grade Bishan MRT Station
Bishan MRT Station
Bishan MRT Station is a Singapore Mass Rapid Transit interchange station along the North South Line and the Circle Line that serves the Bishan community, especially that of Bishan East. The station is located in Central Singapore, along Bishan Road, close to the town centre of Bishan...

, the entirety of the MRT is elevated or underground. Most underground stations are deep and hardened enough to withstand conventional aerial bomb attacks
Conventional weapon
The terms conventional weapons or conventional arms generally refer to weapons that are in relatively wide use that are not weapons of mass destruction, such as nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. Conventional weapons include small arms and light weapons, sea and land mines, as well as ...

 and to serve as bomb shelter
Bomb shelter
A bomb shelter is any kind of a civil defense structure designed to provide protection against the effects of a bomb.-Types of shelter:Different kinds of bomb shelters are configured to protect against different kinds of attack and strengths of hostile explosives. For example, an Air-raid shelter...

s. Mobile phone service is available in and between all stations on the entire MRT network. Underground stations and the trains are air-conditioned.

Every station is equipped with General Ticketing Machines (GTMs), a Passenger Service Centre, LED
Light-emitting diode
A light-emitting diode is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting...

 and plasma display
Plasma display
A plasma display panel is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger. They are called "plasma" displays because the technology utilizes small cells containing electrically charged ionized gases, or what are in essence chambers more commonly known as fluorescent...

s that show train service information and announcements. All stations are also equipped with restrooms and payphones, although some restrooms are located at street level. Some stations, especially the major ones, have additional amenities and services, such as retail
Retailing
Retail consists of the sale of physical goods or merchandise from a fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Retailing may include subordinated services, such as delivery. Purchasers may be...

 shops and kiosks, supermarkets, convenience stores such as 7-Eleven
7-Eleven
7-Eleven is part of an international chain of convenience stores, operating under Seven-Eleven Japan Co. Ltd, which in turn is owned by Seven & I Holdings Co...

 or Cheers, automatic teller machines, and self-service automated kiosks for a variety of services. Heavy-duty escalators shuttle passengers up or down stations at a rate of 0.75 m/s, 50% faster than conventional escalators.

The older stations on the North South Line and East West Line were not originally constructed with any accessible
Accessibility
Accessibility is a general term used to describe the degree to which a product, device, service, or environment is available to as many people as possible. Accessibility can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity...

 facilities, such as lifts, ramps, tactile guidance systems (Braille tactiles on the floor surface), wider fare gates and toilets for passengers with disabilities
Disability
A disability may be physical, cognitive, mental, sensory, emotional, developmental or some combination of these.Many people would rather be referred to as a person with a disability instead of handicapped...

; authorities in the past actively discouraged use of their system by the disabled. However, these facilities are progressively installed as part of a program to make all stations accessible to the elderly and to those with disabilities. All stations are now barrier-free, although works are still ongoing to provide stations with additional barrier-free facilities.

Depots


SMRT Corporation has four train depots: The Bishan Depot
Bishan Depot
Bishan Depot is a depot located on the Mass Rapid Transit in Bishan, Singapore.It comprises a storage yard with a capacity of 53 trains and has an area of 300,000 m². The depot also houses a central maintenance with train overhaul facilities for trains on the North South Line and East West Line...

 is the central maintenance depot with train overhaul facilities, while the Changi Depot
Changi Depot
Changi Depot is located on the Mass Rapid Transit near Koh Sek Lim Road, Singapore.Changi Depot comprises a train yard, which can hold a capacity of 35 trains and has an area of 250,000 square metres. The depot is also used for train inspection for trains on the North South Line and East West Line...

 and Ulu Pandan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot
Ulu Pandan Depot is a depot near Jurong East, Singapore and it services the trains on the North South Line and the East West Line. It has a capacity of 40 trains and has an area of 130,000 square metres. Train inspection is carried out at this depot...

 inspect and house trains overnight. The underground Kim Chuan Depot
Kim Chuan Depot
Kim Chuan Depot is a rail depot for the Mass Rapid Transit system in Singapore. The depot cost S$297 million to construct and houses the trains for the Circle and upcoming Downtown MRT lines. The depot is fully underground, reaching a depth of 24 m at some points. It provides stabling of the...

 houses trains for the Circle Line
Circle MRT Line
The Circle Line is Singapore's fourth Mass Rapid Transit line, operated by SMRT Corporation. This underground line is currently long with 28 stations and is fully automatically operated...

. Jurong East Station
Jurong East MRT Station
Jurong East MRT Station is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station that is part of the North South Line and the East West Line in Singapore, and serves as an interchange station between the two lines....

, Tanah Merah Station
Tanah Merah MRT Station
Tanah Merah MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station located in the heart of Tanah Merah, Singapore.The station is part of the East West Line and is between Simei and Bedok and is an interchange for trains going to Changi Airport and Expo...

, Ang Mo Kio Station
Ang Mo Kio MRT Station
The Ang Mo Kio MRT Station ' is located on the North South Line in Singapore, and is adjacent to Ang Mo Kio Town Centre at the junction of Ang Mo Kio Avenue 3 and 8.-Train service:-Other Train Services:...

, and Paya Lebar Station
Paya Lebar MRT Station
Paya Lebar MRT Station is a Mass Rapid Transit interchange station on the East West Line and the Circle Line in Singapore. It is the first station complex in Singapore that serves both an above ground line and an underground line . The livery of the East West Line and the Circle Line portions...

 Circle Line Platforms were built with a third middle track for off-service trains to stop at before they return to their depots, but the first two are now used as terminals for the North South Line and the East West Line Changi Airport Extension respectively, and the last two are now used as terminals for the North South Line special train and the Circle Line special train respectively.

The Sengkang Depot
Sengkang Depot
Sengkang Depot is a depot in Sengkang, Singapore, for the Mass Rapid Transit and Light Rail Transit lines operated by SBS Transit...

 houses trains for the North East Line
North East MRT Line
The North East MRT Line is the third Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore and the world's second longest fully underground, automated and driverless, rapid transit line after Singapore's Circle MRT Line. The line is 20 km long with 16 stations and operated by SBS Transit. Travelling from one end...

, the Sengkang LRT
Sengkang LRT Line
The Sengkang LRT Line is a 10.7 km light rail line which partly opened on 18 January 2003. It is the second LRT system in Singapore and is fully automated and currently operated by SBS Transit. The line uses the Crystal Mover rolling stock supplied by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries...

 and the Punggol LRT
Punggol LRT Line
The Punggol LRT Line is the third line of the LRT system in Singapore. Its first phase comprises a 10.3km line with 15 stations. Similar to the Sengkang LRT Line, its rolling stock and line operator are the Crystal Movers and SBS Transit respectively....

, all operated by SBS Transit. It is the first depot to have structural provisions for an industrial development located above the depot, to minimize the wastage of land in land-scarce Singapore.
.

Architecture and art



Early stages of the MRT's construction paid relatively scant attention to station design, with an emphasis on functionality over aesthetics. This is particularly evident in the first few stages of the North South Line and the East West Line that opened between 1987 and 1988 from Yio Chu Kang Station
Yio Chu Kang MRT Station
Yio Chu Kang MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the North South Line in Singapore.The station's architecture design theme is similar to Ang Mo Kio station, with brown granite walls and floors, except for the middle platform in Ang Mo Kio station, which this station does...

 to Clementi Station
Clementi MRT Station
Clementi MRT Station ' is an above-ground MRT station in the west of Singapore. It is part of the East West Line.One of the older MRT stations in Singapore, Clementi MRT station was opened in 1988. The station is painted light blue, and with recent renovations a lift has been added for the benefit...

. An exception to this was Orchard Station
Orchard MRT Station
Orchard MRT Station is located on the North South Line of the Mass Rapid Transit and is located along Orchard Road, Singapore. Some of its platform livery is maroon in colour, but most of that are black with marbles....

, chosen by its designers to be a "showpiece" of the system and was built initially with a domed roof. Architectural themes became a more important issue only in subsequent stages, and resulted in such designs as the cylindrical station shapes on all stations between Kallang
Kallang MRT Station
Kallang MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the East West MRT Line in Singapore. It is located just next to the Kallang River, which is famous for its water sports, and serves the urban planning area of Kallang...

 and Pasir Ris
Pasir Ris MRT Station
Pasir Ris MRT Station ' is the terminal and above ground station of the East West MRT Line in Singapore. The station is located at the central part of Pasir Ris New Town.-Platform Screen Doors:...

 except Eunos
Eunos MRT Station
Eunos MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the East West Line in Singapore. It is located next to the Eunos Bus Interchange.-Design:...

, and west of Boon Lay
Boon Lay MRT Station
Boon Lay MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the East West Line in Jurong, Singapore.The station currently serves residents living in Boon Lay, Pioneer, Gek Poh, Nanyang and people working in Tuas,Tuas South,Pioneer Sector,Jurong Hill,Jurong Pier,Lok Yang,Benoi and Gul.In...

 and the perched roofs at Boon Lay, Bukit Batok
Bukit Batok MRT Station
Bukit Batok MRT South Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the North South Line in Singapore, and for six years part of the Branch Line until the opening of the Woodlands Extension. The station serves mainly residents of the Bukit Batok neighbourhood...

, Bukit Gombak
Bukit Gombak MRT Station
Bukit Batok North MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the North South Line in Singapore. The station was opened on 10 March 1990. It was part of the Branch Line before the opening of the Woodlands Extension on 10 February 1996...

, Choa Chu Kang
Choa Chu Kang MRT/LRT Station
The Choa Chu Kang MRT/LRT Station is an interchange station serving the Choa Chu Kang area of Singapore. It is part of the North South MRT Line and it is also the terminus of the Bukit Panjang LRT Line...

, Khatib
Khatib MRT Station
Khatib MRT Station is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station on the North South Line in Singapore. It is the southernmost of 2 stations serving Yishun New Town...

 and Yishun
Yishun MRT Station
Yishun MRT Station is a Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, built above ground level. It is the northernmost of 2 stations serving Yishun New Town and is part of the North South Line. This used to be the terminus of the line until the Woodlands extension was completed which connects the...

 stations.

Art pieces, where present, are seldom highlighted; they primarily consist of a few paintings or sculptures representing the recent past of Singapore, mounted in major stations. The opening of the Woodlands Extension introduced bolder pieces of artwork, such as a 4,000 kg sculpture in Woodlands Station
Woodlands MRT Station
Woodlands MRT Station ' is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit train station on the North South Line in Singapore. It is integrated together with the Woodlands Regional Bus Interchange located beneath the station and also Causeway Point Shopping Centre, which serves as a major shopping centre for...

. With the opening of the North East Line, a series of artworks created under a programme called "The Art In Transit" were commissioned by the Land Transport Authority. Created by 19 local artists and integrated into the stations' interior architecture, these artworks aim to promote the appreciation of public art
Public art
The term public art properly refers to works of art in any media that have been planned and executed with the specific intention of being sited or staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all...

 in high-traffic environments. The artwork for each station is designed to suit the station's identity. Only stations on the North East Line come under this programme. Circle Line will also feature the Art in Transit scheme. An art contest was held by the authorities in preparation of a similar scheme to be implemented for the upcoming Circle Line.


Expo Station
Expo MRT Station
The Expo MRT Station ' was opened on 10 January 2001, and is part of the Singapore MRT Changi Airport Extension to the existing East West Line. It sports a space age architecture designed by world renowned architect Sir Norman Foster...

 on the East West Line
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

 Changi Airport Extension is adjacent to the 100,000 square metre Singapore Expo
Singapore Expo
The Singapore EXPO is the largest convention and exhibition venue in Singapore with over 100,000 square metres of column-free, indoor space spread over 10 halls...

 exhibition facility. Designed by Foster and Partners
Foster and Partners
Foster + Partners is an architectural firm based in London. The practice is led by its founder and Chairman, Norman Foster, and has constructed many high-profile glass-and-steel buildings....

 and completed in January 2001, the station features a large pillarless titanium clad roof in an elliptical shape that sheathes the length of the station platform. This complements a smaller 40 metre reflective stainless steel disc overlapping the titanium ellipse and visually floats over a glass elevator shaft and the main entrance. The other station with similar architecture is Dover.

Expansion


The MRT system had relied on its two main lines, namely the North South Line
North South MRT Line
The North South Line was the 1st Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 44 km long with 25 stations, and is operated by SMRT Corporation...

 and East West Line
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

, for more than a decade until the opening of the North East Line
North East MRT Line
The North East MRT Line is the third Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore and the world's second longest fully underground, automated and driverless, rapid transit line after Singapore's Circle MRT Line. The line is 20 km long with 16 stations and operated by SBS Transit. Travelling from one end...

 in 2003. While plans for these lines, as well as those currently under construction, were formulated long before, the Land Transport Authority's (LTA) publication of a white paper titled "A World Class Land Transport System" in 1996 galvanised the government's intentions to greatly expand on the existing system. The plans allow for the long-term replacement of the bus network by rail-based transportation as the primary mode of public transportation. It called for the expansion of the 67 kilometres of track in 1995 to over 160 in 10 to 15 years, and envisaged further expansion in the longer term. It was anticipated that daily ridership in 2020 would have grown to 4.6 million from the current 1.4 million passengers. The addition of the lines currently under construction and those approved for construction will bring the MRT network to 278 km by 2020.

Circle Line


The Circle Line (CCL) is a 35.7 kilometre line passing through 31 stations. The Circle Line connects all existing MRT lines radiating out of the city centre and allows commuters to bypass stations within the downtown area, thereby reducing congestion at the City Hall
City Hall MRT Station
City Hall MRT Station ' is an underground Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, that is part of the North South Line and the East West Line in Singapore, and serves as an interchange station between the two lines....

 and Raffles Place
Raffles Place MRT Station
Raffles Place MRT Station ' is a Mass Rapid Transit interchange station on the North South Line and the East West Line in Singapore. It is directly beneath the centre of the financial district of Raffles Place, located in the Downtown Core area, south of the Singapore River...

 interchange stations. The Circle Line will also connect to Marina South via a spur line branching off Promenade Station
Promenade MRT Station
Promenade MRT Station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, located along Temasek Avenue, near the Millennia Walk shopping mall. It is the fourth station along the counter-clockwise-bound Circle Line track. The station was opened on 17 April 2010 along with the rest of Stage 1...

 and ending at Marina Bay Station
Marina Bay MRT Station
The Marina Bay MRT Station ' is the southern terminal station of the North South Line in Singapore. This station is located on reclaimed land and there are no developments surrounding it, and hence contrary to what the name implies, there exists a slight distance between the station and the actual...

. 3-car trainsets will run on the Circle Line, in contrast to the 6-car trainsets running on the older lines.

Apart from the 28 stations currently in operation, Bayfront Station
Bayfront MRT Station
Bayfront MRT Station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Downtown Line Stage 1 in Singapore that is under construction, formerly known as the Downtown Extension. Operated by SBS Transit and SMRT. It will connect the Marina Bay Sands Casino at Marina Bay to the Circle MRT Line and...

 and Marina Bay Station
Marina Bay MRT Station
The Marina Bay MRT Station ' is the southern terminal station of the North South Line in Singapore. This station is located on reclaimed land and there are no developments surrounding it, and hence contrary to what the name implies, there exists a slight distance between the station and the actual...

 will commence service in 14 January 2012 while Bukit Brown Station
Bukit Brown MRT Station
Bukit Brown MRT Station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Circle Line in Singapore.As the only structure nearby is the Bukit Brown Cemetery, this will be a shell station, which is to be topped off when further development in the area warrants the operation of the station...

 will be constructed at a later date.

Downtown Line



Currently in various stages of planning and construction, the 42 kilometre fully underground Downtown Line (DTL) passing through 34 stations will connect the northwestern and eastern regions of Singapore to the new downtown at Marina Bay in the south and the Central Business District
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

. Similar to the Circle Line, 3-car trainsets will run on the Downtown Line with line capacity for 500,000 commuters daily. It will be completed in three stages with stages 1, 2 and 3 opening by 2013, 2015 and 2017 respectively.

Thomson Line



The forthcoming 30-kilometre Thomson Line (TSL) is tentatively planned to serve 23 stations. The TSL will start from the Marina Bay area and end in the northern part of Singapore. En-route, the line will travel through the Central Business District
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and often geographic heart of a city. In North America this part of a city is commonly referred to as "downtown" or "city center"...

, Ang Mo Kio
Ang Mo Kio
Ang Mo Kio(宏茂桥) is a heartland new town located in north central Singapore, and is generally within the North-East Region. It contains many of the common features of the island nation's neighbourhoods, e.g. hawker centres, wet markets and HDB housing blocks. Singapore's Prime Minister, Lee Hsien...

, Sin Ming, Kebun Baru, Thomson
Thomson, Singapore
Thomson is a relatively narrow area stretching from Novena in the Central Region of Singapore up north till Yishun. The area is mainly located within the central catchment area where some of Singapore's reservoirs are located, including MacRitchie Reservoir, Upper Peirce Reservoir and Lower Peirce...

, Kim Seng and Woodlands
Woodlands, Singapore
Woodlands, or the Woodlands New Town , is a suburban town in northern Singapore, part of the North West Community Development Council district...

 in the north. It will relieve crowding on the North South Line and reduce travel times between Woodlands and the Central Business District. The underground line is expected to be completed by 2018.

Eastern Region Line



The 21-kilometre Eastern Region Line (ERL) is tentatively planned to serve 12 stations. The ERL will start from the Marina Bay station
Marina Bay MRT Station
The Marina Bay MRT Station ' is the southern terminal station of the North South Line in Singapore. This station is located on reclaimed land and there are no developments surrounding it, and hence contrary to what the name implies, there exists a slight distance between the station and the actual...

 and go east to Marina East, Tanjong Rhu
Tanjong Rhu
Tanjong Rhu is a residential neighbourhood in Kallang in the south-eastern part of Singapore.-Etymology:Tanjong Rhu is an old place name in Singapore that appeared in de Erédia's 1604 Map of Singapore, referred as "Tanjon R"....

, Siglap
Siglap
Siglap is a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Singapore established in 1955, consisting primarily of low-rise residential properties. It is part of the Bedok Planning Area, an urban planning zone under the Urban Redevelopment Authority...

, Marine Parade
Marine Parade
Marine Parade is a town and an urban planning area in Singapore directly to the east of the Central Area, Singapore's central business district.-Location:...

 and Bedok
Bedok
Bedok is a neighbourhood in the eastern part of Singapore. Bedok New Town is the fifth Housing and Development Board new town; its development started in April 1973 and continued over some 15 years....

 South before terminating further north at Changi
Changi
Changi is an area at the eastern end of Singapore. It is now the site of Singapore Changi Airport/Changi Air Base, Changi Naval Base and is also home to Changi Prison, site of the former Japanese Prisoner of War Camp during World War II which held Allied prisoners captured in Singapore and Malaysia...

. It will generally be parallel to and south of the East West Line
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

. It will relieve crowding on the East West Line
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

. The underground line is expected to be completed by 2020.

Extensions to existing lines


The East West Line Tuas West Extension
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

 is a fully elevated westward extension from Joo Koon Station
Joo Koon MRT Station
Joo Koon MRT Station ' is an elevated Mass Rapid Transit station along the East West Line in Jurong and also the western terminus for the line....

. The 7.5 kilometre extension includes 4 new stations and a depot located near the Tuas Checkpoint and is expected to be operational by 2016. The easternmost station along the Tuas West Extension will have 2 island platforms serving 4 tracks as it will be serving as an interchange station for the future 6 kilometre Tuas South Extension which will have 2 new stations.

The North South Line Marina South Extension is a fully underground southward extension from Marina Bay Station. The 1 kilometre extension includes 1 new station located near the upcoming International Cruise Centre at Marina South. This extension will commence passenger service by 2014, a year earlier than originally scheduled.

Rolling stock



Four types of rolling stock
Rolling stock
Rolling stock comprises all the vehicles that move on a railway. It usually includes both powered and unpowered vehicles, for example locomotives, railroad cars, coaches and wagons...

 are used on the North South Line
North South MRT Line
The North South Line was the 1st Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 44 km long with 25 stations, and is operated by SMRT Corporation...

 and the East West Line
East West MRT Line
The East West Line was the 2nd Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. The line is currently 49.2 km long with 35 stations , making it the longest MRT line in Singapore. It takes about 63 minutes to travel from one end to the other...

. They are powered by 750-volt DC
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

 third rail
Third rail
A third rail is a method of providing electric power to a railway train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used typically in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors, fully or almost...

, operate in sets of six cars, and use an automatic train operation
Automatic train operation
Automatic train operation ensures partial or complete automatic train piloting and driverless functions.Most systems elect to maintain a driver to mitigate risks associated with failures or emergencies....

 system (ATO) that is similar to London Underground
London Underground
The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex in England...

's Victoria Line
Victoria Line
The Victoria line is a deep-level London Underground line running from the south to the north-east of London. It is coloured light blue on the Tube map...

.

The majority of the fleet comprises 66 six car C151 trains; these were the oldest trains in operation. They were built between 1986 and 1989 by Kawasaki Heavy Industries
Kawasaki Heavy Industries
is an international corporation based in Japan. It has headquarters in both Chūō-ku, Kobe and Minato, Tokyo.The company is named after its founder Shōzō Kawasaki and has no connection with the city of Kawasaki, Kanagawa....

 in consortium with Nippon Sharyo
Nippon Sharyo
, , formed in 1896, is a major rolling stock manufacturer based in Nagoya, Japan. In 1996, it abbreviated its name to "日本車両" Nippon Sharyō. Its shortest abbreviation is Nissha "日車". It was a listed company on Nikkei 225 until 2004. It is listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange and Nagoya Stock Exchange...

, Tokyu Car Corporation
Tokyu Car Corporation
is a manufacturer of heavy rail cars in Japan. The company is based in Kanazawa Ward, Yokohama, Japan, and a member of Tokyu Group. Tokyu Car manufactures rail vehicles not only for Tokyu Corporation but for other Japanese operators, including various Japan Railways Group companies and...

 and Kinki Sharyo
Kinki Sharyo
is an Osaka, Japan-based manufacturer of railroad vehicles. It is an affiliate company of Kintetsu Corporation.In business since 1920 and renamed The Kinki Sharyo Co., Ltd in 1945...

 for S$581.5 million. A S$142.7 million refurbishment of these trains' interior were completed in 2009. 19 more six car C651 trains, manufactured by Siemens
Siemens AG
Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Munich, Germany. It is the largest Europe-based electronics and electrical engineering company....

 in Vienna, were purchased in 1994 when the Woodlands extension opened.


A further 21 six car C751B trains have been running on the East West Line and the North South Line since 2000. Kawasaki Heavy Industries manufactured 66 cars and Nippon Sharyo manufactured 60 cars. The cars have a sleeker design and come with an improved passenger information system, more grab poles, wider seats, more space near the doors and spaces for wheelchairs. As these trains were originally intended to operate on a direct service from Boon Lay to Changi Airport
Changi Airport MRT Station
Changi Airport MRT Station was opened on 8 February 2002 as one of the terminal Mass Rapid Transit stations for the East West Line, and located in between Singapore Changi Airport's Terminal 2 and Terminal 3. This is one of the four MRT stations that have fare gates on the same level as the...

, luggage racks were installed for air travellers. However, in April 2002, faulty gearboxes
Transmission (mechanics)
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a...

 forced all 21 train-sets to be off-service, and the service was temporarily suspended. The direct service was scrapped in July 2003, and the luggage racks were removed.

Soon to join the C151, C651 and C751B on the North South and East West Lines are 22 six car trainsets
Kawasaki Heavy Industries C151A
The Kawasaki Heavy Industries & CSR Qingdao Sifang C151A is the fourth generation of rolling stock to be used on the North South and East West MRT Lines....

 by a consortium comprising Kawasaki Heavy Industries and CSR
China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry (Group) Corporation
China South Locomotive & Rolling Stock Corporation Limited is a state-owned enterprise supervised by the State Council of the People's Republic of China...

 Qingdao Sifang Locomotive and Rolling Stock. The first 5 trainsets will begin revenue service in May 2011 in tandem with the opening of the new platform at Jurong East. A further 17 will be deployed by December 2011 to bolster capacity along the two lines by 15 percent.. An additional 30 hybrid trains will arrive in batches stretching from 2015 to 2017 when the Tuas West Depot
Tuas West Depot
Tuas Depot is a future train depot located off Tuas West Drive in Singapore. It will be constructed by Jurong Primewide Pte Ltd at a contract sum of S$237.1 million. The depot will provide maintenance services for the East West MRT Line of the Mass Rapid Transit system, and is directly linked to...

 is operational.

25 six car fully automatic and driverless C751A "Metropolis" trains
Alstom Metropolis C751A
The Alstom Metropolis C751A are the first generation of communication-based train control rolling stock that has been in use in Singapore’s Mass Rapid Transit lines since 2003...

 have been running on the North East Line
North East MRT Line
The North East MRT Line is the third Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore and the world's second longest fully underground, automated and driverless, rapid transit line after Singapore's Circle MRT Line. The line is 20 km long with 16 stations and operated by SBS Transit. Travelling from one end...

 since 2003. These trains are running on 1500 volts direct current supplied via overhead lines
Overhead lines
Overhead lines or overhead wires are used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses or trains at a distance from the energy supply point...

 and are the first MRT trains in Singapore to incorporate CCTV
Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors....

. Alstom Transportation
Alstom
Alstom is a large multinational conglomerate which holds interests in the power generation and transport markets. According to the company website, in the years 2010-2011 Alstom had annual sales of over €20.9 billion, and employed more than 85,000 people in 70 countries. Alstom's headquarters are...

 of France was contracted by the Land Transport Authority in 1997 and 1998 to supply these cars. A further 40 three car fully automatic and driverless C830 "Metropolis" trains
Alstom Metropolis C830
The Alstom Metropolis C830 are the second generation of communication-based train control rolling stock to be used in Singapore’s Mass Rapid Transit lines...

 began operation on the Circle Line
Circle MRT Line
The Circle Line is Singapore's fourth Mass Rapid Transit line, operated by SMRT Corporation. This underground line is currently long with 28 stations and is fully automatically operated...

 on 28 May 2009. Unlike their C751A counterparts, these trains are run on 750-volt DC supplied via third rail.. Both the C751A and C830 will bring in new trainsets from 2015.

73 three car fully automatic and driverless C951 "Movia" trains
Bombardier MOVIA C951
The Bombardier MOVIA C951 is a type of train built by Bombardier Transportation for use on the Downtown Line, Singapore, which is presently being built....

 will run on the Downtown Line
Downtown MRT Line
The Downtown Line will be the fifth Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore. When completed, the line will be about 42-km long with 34 stations and serve about half a million commuters daily, making it the longest underground and driverless MRT line in Singapore. Travelling from one end to the other...

 in 2013, with initial deliveries scheduled for the last quarter of 2012 and the final deliveries for 2016. These trains will run on 750-volt DC supplied by third rail.

Fares and ticketing



Stations are divided into two areas, paid and unpaid, which allow the rail operators to collect fares by restricting entry only through the fare gates, also known as access control gates. These gates, connected to a computer network, are capable of reading and updating electronic tickets capable of storing data, and can store information such as the initial and destination stations and the duration for each trip. General Ticketing Machines
Ticket machine
A ticket machine, also known as a ticket vending machine , is a vending machine that produces tickets. For instance, ticket machines dispense train tickets at railway stations and tram tickets at some tram stops and in some trams...

 sell tickets for single trips or allow the customer to purchase additional value for stored-value tickets. Tickets for single trips, coloured in green, are valid only on the day of purchase, and have a time allowance of 30 minutes beyond the estimated travelling time. Tickets that can be used repeatedly until their expiry date require a minimum amount of stored credit.

As the fare system has been integrated by TransitLink, commuters need to pay only one fare and pass through two fare gates (once on entry, once on exit) for an entire journey, even when transferring between lines operated by different companies. Commuters can choose to extend a trip mid-journey, and pay the difference as they exit their destination station.

Fares


Because the rail operators are government-assisted, profit-based corporations, fares on the MRT system are pitched to at least break-even level. The operators collect these fares by selling electronic data-storing tickets, the prices of which are calculated based on the distance between the start and destination stations. These prices increase in fixed stages for standard non-discounted travel. Fares are calculated in increments based on approximate distances between stations, in contrast to the use of fare zones in other subway systems, such as the London Underground
London Underground
The London Underground is a rapid transit system serving a large part of Greater London and some parts of Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Essex in England...

.

Although operated by private companies, the system's fare structure is regulated by the Public Transport Council
Public Transport Council
The Public Transport Council is an independent regulatory statutory board under the Ministry of Transport of Singapore, established on 14 August 1987 by the Public Transport Council Act of 1987...

 (PTC), to which the operators submit requests for changes in fares. Fares are kept affordable by pegging them approximately to distance-related bus fares, thus encouraging commuters to use the network and reduce its heavy reliance on the bus system. Fare increases over the past few years have caused public concern, the latest one taken effect from 1 October 2008. There were similar expressions of disapproval over the slightly higher fares charged on SBS Transit's North East Line
North East MRT Line
The North East MRT Line is the third Mass Rapid Transit line in Singapore and the world's second longest fully underground, automated and driverless, rapid transit line after Singapore's Circle MRT Line. The line is 20 km long with 16 stations and operated by SBS Transit. Travelling from one end...

, a disparity that SBS Transit justified by citing higher costs of operation and maintenance on a completely underground line, as well as lower patronage.

Ticketing

Main articles: CEPAS
CEPAS
CEPAS, or Contactless e-Purse Application, is a Singaporean specification for an electronic money smart card. CEPAS has been deployed islandwide, replacing the previous original EZ-Link card effective 1 October 2009.- Function :...

, EZ-Link
EZ-Link
The EZ-Link card is a contactless smart card based on the Sony FeliCa smartcard technology and used for the payment of public transportation fares in Singapore, with limited use in the small payments retail sector...

, NETS
Network for Electronic Transfers
The Network for Electronic Transfers Pte Ltd was founded in 1985 to operate and manage an online debit payment system pioneering Singapore's shift to a cashless society. It has since grown to a multi-service organisation, providing a comprehensive range of electronic payment services...


The ticketing system uses the EZ-Link and NETS FlashPay contactless
Contactless
Contactless may refer to:* Contactless smart card* Proximity card, a contactless integrated circuit device used for security access or payment systems* Contactless payment, systems which use RFID for making secure payments...

 smart card
Smart card
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card , is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. A smart card or microprocessor cards contain volatile memory and microprocessor components. The card is made of plastic, generally polyvinyl chloride, but sometimes acrylonitrile...

s based upon the Symphony for e-Payment (SeP) system for public transit built on the Singapore Standard for Contactless ePurse Application (CEPAS) system. This system allows for up to 4 card issuers in the market. The EZ-Link card was introduced on 13 April 2002 as a replacement to the original TransitLink farecard while its competitor the NETS FlashPay card entered the smart card market on 9 October 2009.

An adult EZ-Link card may be purchased for S$12 (inclusive of a S$5 non-refundable card cost and a S$7 credit) for payment of public transportation fares in Singapore. The card may be purchased at any TransitLink Ticket Office or Passenger Service Centre. The card may also be used for payment of goods and services at merchants displaying the "EZ-Link" logo, Electronic Road Pricing
Electronic Road Pricing
The Electronic Road Pricing scheme is an electronic toll collection scheme adopted in Singapore to manage traffic by road pricing, and as a usage-based taxation mechanism to complement the purchase-based Certificate of Entitlement system...

 tolls and Electronic Parking System carparks. Additional credit may be purchased at any General Ticketing Machine (GTM), Add Value Machine (AVM), TransitLink Ticket Office, Passenger Service Centre, AXS Station, DBS/POSB Automatic Teller Machine (ATM), online via a card reader purchased separately or selected merchants. Additional credit of a predetermined value may also be automatically purchased whenever the card value is low via an automatic recharge service provided by Interbank GIRO or through a manual application at the TransitLink Ticket Office or credit card online. A option for EZ-Link Season Pass for unlimited travel on buses and trains is available for purchase and is non-transferable. Its main competitor, the NETS FlashPay card may be purchased for at least S$12 for the payment of public transportation fares in Singapore and at merchants displaying the "NETS FlashPay" logo.

A Standard Ticket contactless smart card
Contactless smart card
A contactless smart card is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits that can process and store data, and communicate with a terminal via radio waves. There are two broad categories of contactless smart cards. Memory cards contain non-volatile memory storage components, and perhaps...

 for single trips may also be purchased between S$2 and S$4 (inclusive of a S$1 refundable card deposit)for the payment of MRT and LRT fares. The card may be only purchased at the GTM. The deposit may also be retrieved by returning the card to the GTM within 30 days from the date of issue or donated to charity by depositing it in a collection box at any station. This card cannot be recharged with additional credit.

Alternatively for tourists, a Singapore Tourist Pass contactless smart card may be purchased from S$18 (inclusive of a S$10 refundable card deposit and a 1 day pass) for the payment of public transportation fares. The card may be purchased at selected TransitLink Ticket Offices and Singapore Visitors Centres. The deposit may be retrieved by returning the card to selected TransitLink Ticket Offices and Singapore Visitors Centres within 5 days from the date of issue.

Safety




Assurance has been given by both operators and authorities, that numerous measures have been taken in an effort to ensure the safety of passengers, with SBS Transit having to make greater efforts in actively publicising its safety considerations on the driver-less North East Line before and after its opening. Safety campaign posters are highly visible in trains and stations, and the operators frequently broadcast safety announcements
Public service announcement
A public service announcement or public service ad is a type of advertisement featured on television, radio, print or other media...

 to passengers and to commuters waiting for trains. Fire safety
Fire safety
Fire safety refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death, injury, or property damage, alert those in a structure to the presence of a fire in the event one occurs, better enable those threatened by a fire to survive, or to reduce the...

 standards are consistent with the strict guidelines of the US National Fire Protection Association
National Fire Protection Association
The National Fire Protection Association is a United States trade association that creates and maintains private, copywrited, standards and codes for usage and adoption by local governments...

. Platform screen doors
Platform screen doors
Platform screen doors and platform edge doors at train or subway stations screen the platform from the train. They are a relatively new addition to many metro systems around the world, with some platform doors retrofitted rather than installed with the metro system itself. They are widely used in...

 are installed at all underground stations, with half-height platform screen doors currently being built at all aboveground stations. These doors prevent suicides, enable climate control in stations and prevent unauthorised access to restricted areas. Above-ground stations have open platforms, with a wide yellow line drawn 70 cm from each platform edge requiring passengers to stand at a safe distance from arriving trains (or face a fine). Under the Rapid Transit Systems Act, acts such as smoking, the consumption of food and drink within stations and trains, the misuse of emergency equipment and trespassing on the railway tracks are illegal, with penalties ranging from fines to imprisonment.

Safety concerns were raised among the public after several accidents on the system during the 1980s and 1990s, but most problems have been rectified. On 5 August 1993, two trains collided at Clementi station
Clementi MRT Station
Clementi MRT Station ' is an above-ground MRT station in the west of Singapore. It is part of the East West Line.One of the older MRT stations in Singapore, Clementi MRT station was opened in 1988. The station is painted light blue, and with recent renovations a lift has been added for the benefit...

 because of an oil spill
Oil spill
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially marine areas, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. The term is mostly used to describe marine oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters...

age on the track, which resulted in 132 injuries. There were calls for platform screen doors to be installed at above-ground stations after several incidents in which passengers were killed by oncoming trains when they fell onto the railway tracks at above-ground stations. The authorities initially rejected the proposal by casting doubts over functionality and concerns about the high installation costs, but made an about-turn when the government announced plans to install half-height platform screen doors in a speech on 25 January 2008, citing lower costs due to it becoming a more common feature worldwide. The HHPSD were first installed on the platforms of Jurong East Station
Jurong East MRT Station
Jurong East MRT Station is an above-ground Mass Rapid Transit station that is part of the North South Line and the East West Line in Singapore, and serves as an interchange station between the two lines....

 original platforms, Pasir Ris Station
Pasir Ris MRT Station
Pasir Ris MRT Station ' is the terminal and above ground station of the East West MRT Line in Singapore. The station is located at the central part of Pasir Ris New Town.-Platform Screen Doors:...

 and Yishun Station
Yishun MRT Station
Yishun MRT Station is a Mass Rapid Transit station in Singapore, built above ground level. It is the northernmost of 2 stations serving Yishun New Town and is part of the North South Line. This used to be the terminus of the line until the Woodlands extension was completed which connects the...

 in 2009 as trials and all other elevated stations will have platform screen doors installed eventually.

Security




Security concerns related to crime and terrorism were not high on the agenda of the system's planners at its original inception. However, in the wake of heightened security concerns after the Madrid train bombings in 2004
11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings
The Madrid train bombings consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the Cercanías system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 , killing 191 people and wounding 1,800...

 and the foiled plot to bomb the Yishun MRT Station
Singapore embassies attack plot
The Singapore embassies attack plot was a plan in 2001 by Jemaah Islamiyah to bomb the diplomatic missions and attack personnel of the United States, Australia, the United Kingdom, and Israel based in Singapore. There were also several other targets. The plot was uncovered in December 2001 and as...

, the operators deployed private, unarmed guards to patrol station platforms and check the belongings of commuters.

Recorded announcements are frequently made to remind passengers to report suspicious activity and not to leave their belongings unattended. Digital closed-circuit cameras
Closed-circuit television
Closed-circuit television is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors....

 (CCTVs) have been upgraded with recording-capability at all stations and trains operated by SMRT Corporation. Trash bins and mail boxes have been removed from station platforms and concourse levels to station entrances. This is to eliminate the risk that bombs
Improvised explosive device
An improvised explosive device , also known as a roadside bomb, is a homemade bomb constructed and deployed in ways other than in conventional military action...

 will be placed in them. Photography without prior permission was also banned in all MRT stations since the Madrid bombings
11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings
The Madrid train bombings consisted of a series of coordinated bombings against the Cercanías system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004 , killing 191 people and wounding 1,800...

, but it was not in the official statement in any public transport security reviews.

On 14 April 2005, the Singapore Police Force
Singapore Police Force
The Singapore Police Force is the main agency tasked with maintaining law and order in the city-state. Formerly known as the Republic of Singapore Police , it has grown from an 11-man organisation to a 38,587 strong force...

 announced plans to step up rail security by establishing a specialised Police MRT Unit
Police MRT Unit
The Public Transport Security Command ) is a specialised transit police unit of the Singapore Police Force. It was first established as a unit of the Special Operations Command under the name Police MRT Unit in 2005 in response to the need for greater security concerns in public transport...

. These armed officers began overt patrols on the MRT and LRT systems on 15 August 2005, conducting random patrols in pairs in and around rail stations and within trains. They are trained and authorised to use their firearms at their discretion, including deadly force if deemed necessary. On 8 January 2006, a major civil exercise involving over 2,000 personnel from 22 government agencies, codenamed Exercise Northstar V, simulating bombing and chemical attacks at Dhoby Ghaut, Toa Payoh, Raffles Place and Marina Bay MRT stations was conducted. Thirteen stations were closed and about 3,400 commuters were affected during the three-hour duration of the exercise.

Security concerns were brought up by the public when two incidents of vandalism
Vandalism
Vandalism is the behaviour attributed originally to the Vandals, by the Romans, in respect of culture: ruthless destruction or spoiling of anything beautiful or venerable...

 at train depots occurred within two years. In both incidents, graffiti
Graffiti
Graffiti is the name for images or lettering scratched, scrawled, painted or marked in any manner on property....

 on the incident trains were discovered after they entered revenue service. The first incident on 17 May 2010 involved a breach in the perimeter fence of Changi Depot and resulted in the imprisonment and caning of a Swiss foreigner and an Interpol arrest warrant for another accomplice. SMRT Corporation received a S$50,000 fine by the Land Transport Authority for the first security breach. Measures were put in place by the Public Transport Security Committee to enhance depot security in light of the first incident, however works were yet to be completed by SMRT Corporation when the second incident on 17 August 2011 occurred at Bishan Depot.

See also

  • Light Rail Transit
  • List of metro systems
  • List of Singapore MRT stations
  • Murals in Singapore
  • Transport in Singapore
    Transport in Singapore
    Transport within Singapore is mainly land-based. Many parts of Singapore are accessible by road, including islands such as Sentosa and Jurong Island. The other major form of transportation within Singapore is rail: the Mass Rapid Transit which runs the length and width of Singapore, and the Light...


External links