Marquess of Salisbury

Marquess of Salisbury

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Marquess of Salisbury is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain
Peerage of Great Britain
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Act of Union 1707 but before the Act of Union 1800...

. It was created in 1789 for the 7th Earl of Salisbury
James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury
James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury, KG, PC , styled Viscount Cranborne until 1780 and known as 7th Earl of Salisbury between 1780 and 1789, was a British politician.-Background:...

. Most of the holders of the title have been prominent in British political life over the last two centuries, particularly the 3rd Marquess
Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC , styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British Conservative statesman and thrice Prime Minister, serving for a total of over 13 years...

, who served three times as Prime Minister
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

 in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Background


This branch of the Cecil family descends from Sir Robert Cecil
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC was an English administrator and politician.-Life:He was the son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and Mildred Cooke...

, the son of the prominent statesman the 1st Baron Burghley
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley
William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley , KG was an English statesman, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign, twice Secretary of State and Lord High Treasurer from 1572...

, from his second marriage, to Mildred Cooke. His elder half-brother the 2nd Baron Burghley
Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter
Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, KG , known as Lord Burghley from 1598 to 1605, was an English politician and soldier.-Life:...

, was created Earl of Exeter
Marquess of Exeter
Marquess of Exeter is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1525 for Henry Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon...

 in 1605 and is the ancestor of the Marquesses of Exeter
Marquess of Exeter
Marquess of Exeter is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1525 for Henry Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon...

. Cecil notably served under Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I was queen regnant of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana, or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty...

 and later King James I
James I of England
James VI and I was King of Scots as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603...

 as Secretary of State
Secretary of State (United Kingdom)
In the United Kingdom, a Secretary of State is a Cabinet Minister in charge of a Government Department ....

, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster is, in modern times, a ministerial office in the government of the United Kingdom that includes as part of its duties, the administration of the estates and rents of the Duchy of Lancaster...

, Lord Privy Seal
Lord Privy Seal
The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. The office is one of the traditional sinecure offices of state...

 and Lord High Treasurer
Lord High Treasurer
The post of Lord High Treasurer or Lord Treasurer was an English government position and has been a British government position since the Act of Union of 1707. A holder of the post would be the third highest ranked Great Officer of State, below the Lord High Chancellor and above the Lord President...

. In 1603 he was raised to the Peerage of England
Peerage of England
The Peerage of England comprises all peerages created in the Kingdom of England before the Act of Union in 1707. In that year, the Peerages of England and Scotland were replaced by one Peerage of Great Britain....

 as Baron Cecil, of Essendon
Essendine
Essendine is a village at the eastern end of the county of Rutland in the East Midlands of England. It lies on the West Glen, close by the earthworks of a small castle.-Geology:...

 in the County of Rutland
Rutland
Rutland is a landlocked county in central England, bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire and southeast by Peterborough and Northamptonshire....

, and the following year he was created Viscount Cranborne. In 1605 he was further created Earl of Salisbury. The last two titles were also in the Peerage of England.

The Earl of Salisbury was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He represented Weymouth in the House of Commons
British House of Commons
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords . Both Commons and Lords meet in the Palace of Westminster. The Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 650 members , who are known as Members...

 and also served as Captain of the Honourable Band of Gentlemen Pensioners and as Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire
Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire
This is an incomplete list of people who have served as Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire.*Sir Ralph Sadleir 1570–?*Henry Carey, 1st Baron Hunsdon 1583–1585*Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester 3 July 1585 – 4 September 1588...

 and Dorsetshire. His great-grandson, the fourth Earl, converted to Roman Catholicism and in 1689 the House of Commons
House of Commons of England
The House of Commons of England was the lower house of the Parliament of England from its development in the 14th century to the union of England and Scotland in 1707, when it was replaced by the House of Commons of Great Britain...

 decided to impeach him for high treason
High treason
High treason is criminal disloyalty to one's government. Participating in a war against one's native country, attempting to overthrow its government, spying on its military, its diplomats, or its secret services for a hostile and foreign power, or attempting to kill its head of state are perhaps...

. However, the charges were not brought any further and he was succeeded by his son, the fifth Earl, Lord Lieutenant of Hertfordshire.

History



The seventh Earl was a politician and served as Lord Chamberlain of the Household for many years. In 1789, he was created Marquess of Salisbury in the Peerage of Great Britain
Peerage of Great Britain
The Peerage of Great Britain comprises all extant peerages created in the Kingdom of Great Britain after the Act of Union 1707 but before the Act of Union 1800...

.

He was succeeded by his eldest son, the second Marquess. He was a Conservative
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party, formally the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom that adheres to the philosophies of conservatism and British unionism. It is the largest political party in the UK, and is currently the largest single party in the House...

 politician and held office as Lord Privy Seal
Lord Privy Seal
The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. The office is one of the traditional sinecure offices of state...

 and Lord President of the Council
Lord President of the Council
The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Treasurer and above the Lord Privy Seal. The Lord President usually attends each meeting of the Privy Council, presenting business for the monarch's approval...

. Lord Salisbury married as his first wife Frances Mary Gascoyne, daughter of Bamber Gascoyne, in 1821. The same year he assumed by Royal license the additional surname of Gascoyne.

He was succeeded by his third but eldest surviving son, the third Marquess. He was three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the Head of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister and Cabinet are collectively accountable for their policies and actions to the Sovereign, to Parliament, to their political party and...

, from 1885 to 1886, 1886 to 1892 and 1895 and 1902 and also served four times as Foreign Secretary
Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, commonly referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior member of Her Majesty's Government heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and regarded as one of the Great Offices of State...

. His time as Prime Minister coincided with a great expansion of the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

. Lord Salisbury is also remembered as an adherent of the policy of "splendid isolation", the desire to keep Great Britain out of European affairs and alliances. He was also the last British Prime Minister to serve from the Lords

He was succeeded by his eldest son, the fourth Marquess. He was also an influential Conservative politician and served as Lord Privy Seal, as President of the Board of Trade, as Lord President of the Council, as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and as Leader of the House of Lords
Leader of the House of Lords
The Leader of the House of Lords is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Lords. The role is always held in combination with a formal Cabinet position, usually one of the sinecure offices of Lord President of the Council,...

. Like his father he was regarded as a staunch Conservative and bitterly opposed the Parliament Act 1911
Parliament Act 1911
The Parliament Act 1911 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It is constitutionally important and partly governs the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords which make up the Houses of Parliament. This Act must be construed as one with the Parliament Act 1949...

, which sought to curtail the powers of the House of Lords.

His eldest son, the fifth Marquess, was also a Conservative politician. In 1941 he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration
Writ of acceleration
A writ in acceleration, commonly called a writ of acceleration, was a type of writ of summons to the British House of Lords that enabled the eldest son and heir apparent of a peer with multiple peerage titles to attend the British House of Lords or Irish House of Lords, using one of his father's...

 in his father's junior title of Baron Cecil. During his career Lord Salisbury notably held office as Paymaster-General
Paymaster-General
HM Paymaster General is a ministerial position in the United Kingdom. The Paymaster General is in charge of the Office of HM Paymaster General , which held accounts at the Bank of England on behalf of Government departments and selected other public bodies...

, Secretary of State for the Dominions, Secretary of State for the Colonies
Secretary of State for the Colonies
The Secretary of State for the Colonies or Colonial Secretary was the British Cabinet minister in charge of managing the United Kingdom's various colonial dependencies....

, Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. He was an opponent of attempts to reform the House of Lords but was forced to see the Parliament Act 1949
Parliament Act 1949
The Parliament Act 1949 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.This Act must be construed as one with the Parliament Act 1911...

 even further limit the power of the House of Lords. However, Lord Salisbury was also behind the Salisbury Convention
Salisbury Convention
The Salisbury Convention is a constitutional convention in the United Kingdom which puts forward that the House of Lords will not oppose the second or third reading of any government legislation promised in its election manifesto.Following a landslide Labour general election victory in...

 of 1945, which states that the House of Lords shall not oppose the second reading of any government legislation promised in its election manifesto.

He was succeeded by his eldest son, the sixth Marquess. Although he briefly represented Bournemouth West in Parliament he did not take such an active role in national politics as his predecessors.

As of 2007 the titles are held by his eldest son, the seventh Marquess, who succeeded in 2003. He is also a Conservative politician. After representing South Dorset in the House of Commons, he was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Cecil in 1992 (the last time a writ of acceleration was issued). Lord Salisbury then served under his close political ally John Major
John Major
Sir John Major, is a British Conservative politician, who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990–1997...

 as Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords from 1994 to 1997. As Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords after 1997 he played a leading role in negotiating the terms of the House of Lords Act 1999
House of Lords Act 1999
The House of Lords Act 1999 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. The Act reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats;...

, in which the automatic right of hereditary peer
Hereditary peer
Hereditary peers form part of the Peerage in the United Kingdom. There are over seven hundred peers who hold titles that may be inherited. Formerly, most of them were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 only ninety-two are permitted to do so...

s to sit in the upper chamber of Parliament was abolished. Salisbury managed to obtain a compromise with the Labour
Labour Party (UK)
The Labour Party is a centre-left democratic socialist party in the United Kingdom. It surpassed the Liberal Party in general elections during the early 1920s, forming minority governments under Ramsay MacDonald in 1924 and 1929-1931. The party was in a wartime coalition from 1940 to 1945, after...

 government of Tony Blair
Tony Blair
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair is a former British Labour Party politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to 27 June 2007. He was the Member of Parliament for Sedgefield from 1983 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007...

, whereby 92 selected hereditary peers were allowed to remain on an interim basis. However, the compromise was agreed without the knowledge of Conservative leader William Hague
William Hague
William Jefferson Hague is the British Foreign Secretary and First Secretary of State. He served as Leader of the Conservative Party from June 1997 to September 2001...

 and Salisbury was dismissed as Conservative Leader in the House of Lords. The same year, along with all former Leaders of the House of Lords, he was given a life peerage as Baron Gascoyne-Cecil, of Essendon in the County of Rutland, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom
Peerage of the United Kingdom
The Peerage of the United Kingdom comprises most peerages created in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the Act of Union in 1801, when it replaced the Peerage of Great Britain...

, so that he could remain a member of the House of Lords. As a descendant of the first Baron Burghley Lord Salisbury is also in remainder to this peerage, a title held by his kinsman Michael Cecil, 8th Marquess of Exeter.

Several other members of the Cecil family have gained distinction. Lord Eustace Cecil
Lord Eustace Cecil
Lord Eustace Brownlow Henry Cecil was a British, Conservative Party politician.Cecil was the youngest son of the 2nd Marquess of Salisbury and was educated at Harrow and Sandhurst. He served with the Coldstream Guards in the Crimean War from 1855–56, rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in 1861...

, fourth son of the second Marquess, was a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army and Member of Parliament. His son Evelyn Cecil
Evelyn Cecil, 1st Baron Rockley
Evelyn Cecil, 1st Baron Rockley, GBE, PC was a British, Conservative Party politician.Born in the parish of St George's, Hanover Square in the heart of London's Mayfair, Cecil was the eldest son of Lord Eustace Cecil and was educated at Eton and New College, Oxford...

 was a Conservative politician and was created Baron Rockley
Baron Rockley
Baron Rockley, of Lytchett Heath in the County of Dorset, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1934 for the Conservative politician Sir Evelyn Cecil, who had earlier represented Hertfordshire East, Aston Manor and Birmingham Aston in the House of Commons. He was the...

 in 1934. The Right Reverend Lord William Gascoyne-Cecil
Lord William Gascoyne-Cecil
Lord Rupert Ernest William Gascoyne-Cecil was Bishop of Exeter from 1916 to 1936. He was the second son of Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. Educated at Eton and Oxford, he was rector of Hatfield for 28 years before being appointed bishop. Married in 1887, he had three daughters and four sons, three...

, Bishop of Exeter
Bishop of Exeter
The Bishop of Exeter is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Exeter in the Province of Canterbury. The incumbent usually signs his name as Exon or incorporates this in his signature....

, Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood CH, PC, QC , known as Lord Robert Cecil from 1868 to 1923, was a lawyer, politician and diplomat in the United Kingdom...

, Lord Edward Cecil and Hugh Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood
Hugh Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood
Hugh Richard Heathcote Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Baron Quickswood PC , styled Lord Hugh Cecil until 1941, was a British Conservative Party politician.-Background and education:...

, were all younger sons of the third Marquess. Lord David Cecil
Lord David Cecil
Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil, CH , was a British biographer, historian and academic. He held the style of 'Lord' by courtesy, as a younger son of a marquess.-Early life and studies:...

, Professor of English Literature at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a university located in Oxford, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking world. Although its exact date of foundation is unclear, there is evidence of teaching as far back as 1096...

, was the second son of the fourth Marquess, while the journalist Lord Richard Cecil
Lord Richard Cecil
Lord Richard Valentine Gascoyne-Cecil was the son of Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury. Lord Richard's mother was Marjorie Olein Wyndham-Quin, who had married his father in 1945....

 was the second son of the sixth Marquess. Also, Lady Blanche Gascoyne-Cecil, daughter of the second Marquess, was the mother of Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour.

The family seats are Hatfield House
Hatfield House
Hatfield House is a country house set in a large park, the Great Park, on the eastern side of the town of Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England. The present Jacobean house was built in 1611 by Robert Cecil, First Earl of Salisbury and Chief Minister to King James I and has been the home of the Cecil...

 and Cranborne
Cranborne
Cranborne is a village in East Dorset, England. In 2001 the village had a population of 779 people. The town is situated on chalk downland called Cranborne Chase, part of a large expanse of chalk in southern England which includes the nearby Salisbury Plain and Dorset Downs.-History:The village...

.

Earls of Salisbury (1605)

  • Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
    Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury
    Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC was an English administrator and politician.-Life:He was the son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and Mildred Cooke...

     (c. 1565–1612)
  • William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury
    William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Salisbury, KG , known as Viscount Cranborne from 1605 to 1612, was an English peer and politician.-Early years, 1591-1612:...

     (1591–1668)
  • James Cecil, 3rd Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 3rd Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 3rd Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC , known as Viscount Cranborne from 1660 to 1668, was an English nobleman....

     (1648–1683)
  • James Cecil, 4th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 4th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 4th Earl of Salisbury , until 1683 known by the courtesy title of Viscount Cranborne, was an English peer....

     (1666–1694)
  • James Cecil, 5th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 5th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 5th Earl of Salisbury , known as Viscount Cranborne from 1691 to 1694, was a British peer.Salisbury was the son of James Cecil, 4th Earl of Salisbury, and Frances Bennett, and succeeded his father in the earldom in 1694...

     (1691–1728)
  • James Cecil, 6th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 6th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 6th Earl of Salisbury was a British peer, son of James Cecil, 5th Earl of Salisbury and a member of one of England's greatest political dynasties. He was known for his irregular life as "the Wicked Earl"....

     (1713–1780)
  • James Cecil, 7th Earl of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury, KG, PC , styled Viscount Cranborne until 1780 and known as 7th Earl of Salisbury between 1780 and 1789, was a British politician.-Background:...

     (1748–1823) (created Marquess of Salisbury in 1789)

Marquesses of Salisbury (1789)

  • James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury
    James Cecil, 1st Marquess of Salisbury, KG, PC , styled Viscount Cranborne until 1780 and known as 7th Earl of Salisbury between 1780 and 1789, was a British politician.-Background:...

     (1748–1823)
  • James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury
    James Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury
    James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, PC , styled Viscount Cranborne until 1823, was a British Conservative politician. He held office under the Earl of Derby as Lord Privy Seal in 1852 and Lord President of the Council between 1858 and 1859...

     (1791–1868)
    • James Emilius William Evelyn Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne (1821–1865)
  • Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, PC , styled Lord Robert Cecil before 1865 and Viscount Cranborne from June 1865 until April 1868, was a British Conservative statesman and thrice Prime Minister, serving for a total of over 13 years...

     (1830–1903)
  • James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury
    James Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury
    James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil, 4th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, GCVO, CB, PC , known as Viscount Cranborne from 1868 to 1903, was a British statesman.-Background and education:...

     (1861–1947)
  • Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil, 5th Marquess of Salisbury, KG, PC , known as Viscount Cranborne from 1903 to 1947, was a British Conservative politician.-Background:...

     (1893–1972)
  • Robert Edward Peter Cecil Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil, 6th Marquess of Salisbury , styled Viscount Cranborne from 1947 to 1972, was a British landowner and Conservative politician....

     (1916–2003)
  • Robert Michael James Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury
    Robert Michael James Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury, PC, DL , is a British Conservative politician. During the 1990s, he was Leader of the House of Lords under his courtesy title of Viscount Cranborne...

     (b. 1946)


The heir apparent
Heir apparent
An heir apparent or heiress apparent is a person who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting, except by a change in the rules of succession....

 is the present holder's eldest son (Robert) Edward William Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne (b. 1970)

The heir apparent's heir presumptive is his brother Lord James Richard Gascoyne-Cecil (b. 1973) married with a son.

See also

  • Marquess of Exeter
    Marquess of Exeter
    Marquess of Exeter is a title that has been created twice, once in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The first creation came in the Peerage of England in 1525 for Henry Courtenay, 2nd Earl of Devon...

  • Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
  • Baron Quickswood
  • Baron Rockley
    Baron Rockley
    Baron Rockley, of Lytchett Heath in the County of Dorset, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1934 for the Conservative politician Sir Evelyn Cecil, who had earlier represented Hertfordshire East, Aston Manor and Birmingham Aston in the House of Commons. He was the...

  • Viscount Wimbledon

External links


Further reading

  • Cecil, David
    Lord David Cecil
    Edward Christian David Gascoyne-Cecil, CH , was a British biographer, historian and academic. He held the style of 'Lord' by courtesy, as a younger son of a marquess.-Early life and studies:...

    . The Cecils of Hatfield House: An English Ruling Family. Houghton Mifflin, 1973.