List of Iranian scientists and scholars

List of Iranian scientists and scholars


Pre-modern Era

The following is a non-comprehensive list of Persian scientists and engineers that lived from antiquity up until the beginning of the modern age.


  • Abdol-Hamid
    Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa
    Abū-Muhammad Abd-Allāh Rūzbeh ibn Dādūya/Dādōē , known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ , Ibn Muqaffa/Ebn-e Moghaffa , or Rūzbeh pūr-e Dādūya , was a Persian thinker and a Zoroastrian convert to Islam.-Biography:...

    , founder of Arabic prose along with the fellow Persian Ibn Muqaffa
    Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa
    Abū-Muhammad Abd-Allāh Rūzbeh ibn Dādūya/Dādōē , known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ , Ibn Muqaffa/Ebn-e Moghaffa , or Rūzbeh pūr-e Dādūya , was a Persian thinker and a Zoroastrian convert to Islam.-Biography:...

  • Abhari
    Athīr al‐Dīn al‐Mufaḍḍal ibn ʿUmar ibn al‐Mufaḍḍal al‐Samarqandī al‐Abharī, also known as Athīr al‐Dīn al‐Munajjim was a Persian philosopher, astronomer, astrologer and mathematician...

    , mathematician.
  • Abu Dawood, Islamic scholar.
  • Abū Ḥanīfa, Islamic scholar.
  • Abu Nasr e Mansur
    Abu Nasr Mansur
    Abu Nasr Mansur ibn Ali ibn Iraq was a Persian Muslim mathematician. He is well known for his work with the spherical sine law....

    , mathematician.
  • Abu Sa'id al-Darir al-Jurajani
  • Abu Wafa Buzjani
    Abul Wáfa
    Abū al-Wafāʾ, Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Yaḥyā ibn Ismāʿīl ibn al-ʿAbbās al-Būzjānī was a Persian mathematician and astronomer who worked in Baghdad...

    , mathematician.
  • Azod al-Dowleh
    'Adud al-Daula
    Aḍud al-Dawla or Azod od-Dowleh Panah Khusraw was an emir of the Buyid dynasty in Iran and Iraq...

    , prominent scientific patron
  • Ahmad ibn Farrokh
    Ahmad ibn Farrokh
    Ahmad ibn Farrukh, also written Ahmad-i Farrokh, was a 12th century Persian physician from Herat.He was one of the teachers of Zayn al-Din al-Jurjani....

    , physician.
  • Ahmad Ibn Imad ul-din
    Ahmad Ibn Imad ul-din
    Aḥmad ibn ‘Imād al-Dīn, Ahmad ibn Imad ad-Din was a Persian physician and alchemist. He was probably from Nishapur in the 11th century.He was the author of an alchemical treatise titled On the Art of the Elixir which is preserved in the National Library of Medicine.No other copy has been...

    , physician and chemist.
  • Ala'eddin
    Aladdin (disambiguation)
    Aladdin is a story of medieval Arabian origin, interpolated into One Thousand and One Nights by its European translators and editors, and widely known as part of that collection.Aladdin may also refer to:-Modern culture:...

    , constructed the Counterweight Trebuchet for Kubilai. He was thus honoured in the official history of China's Yuan Dynasty
    Yuan Dynasty
    The Yuan Dynasty , or Great Yuan Empire was a ruling dynasty founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan, who ruled most of present-day China, all of modern Mongolia and its surrounding areas, lasting officially from 1271 to 1368. It is considered both as a division of the Mongol Empire and as an...

    . (p119)
  • Alavi Shirazi
    Alavi Shirazi
    Hakim Muhammad Hashim Muslim ibn Hakim Muhammad Hadi Qalandar ibn Muzaffar al-Din ‘Alavi Shirazi , with the royal title Alavi Khan Nawwab Mu‘tamad al-Muluk, was a royal Persian physician of the 18th century....

    , royal physician to India
    India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

  • Alhazen, or Ebne Heisam in Persian.
  • Amuli, Muhammad ibn Mahmud
    Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli
    Muhammad ibn Mahmud al-Amuli was a medieval Persian physician from Amol, Iran.He wrote an Arabic commentary on the epitome of Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine that had been made by Yusuf al-Ilaqi....

    , physician.
  • Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
  • Ansari, Khwaja Abdullah, Islamic scholar.
  • An Shihkao
  • Aqa-Kermani
    Muhammad Aqa-Kermani
    Muhammad Aqa-Kermani also written Aqkirmani was an 18th century Persian physician from Kerman, Iran.Little is known of Muhammad Aqkirmani's life except that he was active around the year 1747....

    , physician.
  • Aqsara'i
    Jamal al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad Aqsara'i, also written al-Aqsara'i, was a 14th century Persian physician.He is known for his commentary on the Mujiz, which was an epitome made in the 13th century by Ibn al-Nafis of The Canon of Medicine of Avicenna.Al-Aqsara'i studied medicine with his father,...

    , physician.
  • Arzani, Muqim
    Muqim Arzani
    Muhammad Akbar ibn Mir Hajji Muhammad Muqim Arzani was a physician from Persia.Arzani was a celebrated Sufi physician of the late 17th and early 18th century. He composed many medical treatises, including the Qarabadin-i Qadiri, a pharmacopoeia written as a tribute to Sayyid Abd al-Qadir of Gilan...

    , physician.
  • Astarabadi
    Astarabadi is an Iranian surname, derived from the city of Astarabad, an important town in northern Iran. It may refer to:* Mirza Mehdi Khan Astarabadi , Iranian Chief Minister...

    , physician.
  • Aufi, Muhammad
    Zahiriddin Nasr Muhammad Aufi
    Sadiduddin Muhammad Aufi was a Persian historian, scientist, and author.-Biography:Born in Bukhara, Aufi grew up during the apex of the Islamic Golden Age, and spent many years traveling, exploring, and lecturing to the common folk and the royalty alike in Delhi, Khorasan, Khwarizm, Samarkand,...

    , scientist and historian
  • Avicenna
    Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

     (Ibn Sina), physician, philosopher
  • Azophi, a.k.a. Abdorrahman Sufi, astronomer from Ray
    Ray, Iran
    Rey or Ray , also known as Rhages and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County, Tehran Province, Iran, and is the oldest existing city in the province....

     that invented the meridian ring.
  • Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd ibn Masʾūd al-Kāshī,astronomer and mathematician.
  • Abdollah Javadi-Amoli
    Abdollah Javadi-Amoli
    Grand Ayatollah Abdollah Javadi-Amoli is an Iranian Twelver Shi'a Marja. He is a conservative Iranian politician and one of the prominent Islamic scholars of the Hawza in Qom.-Early life:He was born in 1933 in Amol, north of Iran...

     Philosoph shia


  • Baghawi, Islamic scholar
  • Bahai, Sheikh
    Shaykh Bahai
    Muhammad ibn Thalib ibn Abd Allah ibn Ni`mat Allah ibn Sadr ad-Din ibn Shaykh Baha' ad-Din ash-Shirazi was a 15th century Persian physician from Shiraz, Iran....

    poet, mathematician, and astronomer,engineer,designer,faghih(religious scientist),Architect
  • Baladhuri, historian, d.892
  • Bal'ami, historian
  • Balkhi
    Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
    Abū Maʿshar, Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī , was a Persian astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad...

    , a.k.a. Albumasar, mathematician
  • Balkhi, Ibn Sahl
    Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi
    Abu Zayd Ahmed ibn Sahl Balkhi was a Persian Muslim polymath: a geographer, mathematician, physician, psychologist and scientist. Born in 850 CE in Shamistiyan, in the Persian province of Balkh, Khorasan , he was a disciple of al-Kindi...

    , geographer and mathematician
  • Balkhi, Ibn
    Ibn Balkhi
    Ibn Balkhi was a 12th century historian of Persia, in the city of Balkh, in present day Afghanistan.He is known for his work the Fars Nama . Dehkhoda dictionary mentions him to be a contemporary of Muhammad I of Great Seljuk....

  • Banū Mūsā
    Banu Musa
    The Banū Mūsā brothers , namely Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir , Abū al‐Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir , were three 9th-century Persian scholars of Baghdad who are known for their Book of Ingenious Devices on automata and mechanical devices...

  • Barmak, Khaled, Bhuddist from Khorasan in the court of al-Mansur
    Al-Mansur, Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur was the second Abbasid Caliph from 136 AH to 158 AH .-Biography:...

    , initiated the Greek translation movement of the Abbasid
    The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region....

     House of Wisdom
    House of Wisdom
    The House of Wisdom was a library and translation institute established in Abbassid-era Baghdad, Iraq. It was a key institution in the Translation Movement and considered to have been a major intellectual centre during the Islamic Golden Age...

  • Bayhaqi, historian
  • Behbahani, Vahid
    Muhammad Baqir Behbahani
    Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Akmal al-Wahid Bihbahani, also Vahid Behbahani , was a Twelver Shia Islamic scholar. He is widely regarded as the founder or restorer of the Usuli school of Twelver Shi'a Islam and as playing a vital role in narrowing the field of orthodoxy in Twelver Shi'a Islam by...

    , theologian
  • Ibn Bibi
    Ibn Bibi
    Ibn Bibi is author of the primary source for the history of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rum during the 13th century. He served as head of the chancellery of the Sultanate in Konya and reported on contemporary events....

    , historian of the Seljuks of Rum
  • Biruni, astronomer and mathematician
  • Bukhari
    Muhammad al-Bukhari
    Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari , popularly known as Bukhari or Imam Bukhari, , was a Sunni Islamic scholar of Persia...

    , prominent Islamic scholar
  • Bukhtishu
    Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori were Persian Nestorian Christian physicians from the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries, spanning 6 generations and 250 years. Some of them served as the personal physicians of Caliphs. Jurjis son of Bukht-Yishu was awarded 10,000 dinars by al-Mansur after attending to his malady...

    , Persian Christian physician of Academy of Gundishapur
    Academy of Gundishapur
    The Academy of Gondishapur , also Jondishapur , was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. It offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty were versed in the Zoroastrian and...

  • Bukhtishu, Abdollah ibn
    Abdollah ibn Bukhtishu
    Abu Sa'id Ubaid Allah ibn Bakhtyashu , also spelled Bukhtishu, Bukhtyashu, and Bakhtshooa in many texts, was an 11th century syriac physician, descendant of Bakhtshooa Gondishapoori. He spoke the Syriac language....

    , Christian physician in Persia
  • Bukhtishu, Gabriel ibn
    Jabril ibn Bukhtishu
    Jabril ibn Bukhtishu, also written as Bakhtyshu, was an 8-9th century physician from the Bukhtishu family of Persian Nestorian physicians from the Academy of Gundishapur...

    , Christian physician
  • Bukhtishu, Yuhanna
    Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu
    Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu was a 9th century Persian physician from Khuzestan, Persia..Yuhanna ibn Bukhtishu‘ was a member of a prominent family of Nestorian Christian physicians originally from Jundishapur in Khuzastan who worked in Baghdad from the 8th through the 10th centuries...

    , Christian physician
  • Burzoe
    Borzūya was a Persian physician in the late Sassanid era, at the time of Khosrow I.He translated the Indian Panchatantra from Sanskrit into the Middle Persian language of Pahlavi. But both his translation and the original Sanskrit version he worked from are lost...

    , a.k.a. Borzouyeh-i Tabib, physician of Academy of Gundishapur
    Academy of Gundishapur
    The Academy of Gondishapur , also Jondishapur , was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. It offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty were versed in the Zoroastrian and...

  • Birjandi
    Abd Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Husayn Birjandi was a prominent 16th century Persian astronomer, mathematician and physicist who lived in Birjand, Iran.- His works :...

     astronomer and mathematician 16th century


  • Dīnawarī, Abū Ḥanīfa, d.896, polymath
  • Dinawaree, ibn Qutaybah
    Ibn Qutaybah
    Ibn Qutaybah was a renowned Islamic scholar of Persian origin.-Biography:His full name is Abu Muhammad ‘Abdullaah bin Muslim Ibn Qutaybah Ad-Dinawaree. He was born in Kufa in what is now modern day Iraq. He was of Iranian descent; his father was from Merv...

    , d.885, historian


  • Farghani
    ' also known as Alfraganus in the West was a Persian astronomer and one of the famous astronomers in 9th century. The crater Alfraganus on the Moon is named after him.-Life:...

    , d.880, a.k.a. Alfraganus, astronomer
  • Farabi, d.950, (Al-Farabi, Pharabius), philosopher
  • Kamal al-Din Farisi, d.1318, mathematician
  • Fazari, Ibrahim, d.777, mathematician and astronomer
  • Fazari, Mohammad, d.796, mathematician and astronomer
  • Ferdowsi
    Ferdowsi was a highly revered Persian poet. He was the author of the Shahnameh, the national epic of Iran and related societies.The Shahnameh was originally composed by Ferdowsi for the princes of the Samanid dynasty, who were responsible for a revival of Persian cultural traditions after the...

    , d.1020, the famous poet
  • Feyz Kashani, Mohsen
    Muhsen Feyz Kashani
    Muhsen Feyz Kashani was an Iranian Muslim poet, philosopher and muhaddith .-Life:Mohsen Fayz Kashani was born in Kashan to a scholarly family renowned for its learning, Fayz started his education his father, Shah Morteza. His father owned a rich library which benefited Fayz. When he reached the...

    , d.1680, theologian


  • Geber; Jaber ibn Hayan, d.815, chemist. Known as Geber in English.
  • Gardezi, Abu Said, d.1061, geographer and historian
  • Ghazali
    Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-Ghazzālī , known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia was a Persian Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic....

     (Algazel), d.1111, philosopher
  • Gilani, Hakim
    Hakim Ali ibn Kamal al-Din Muhammad Gilani was a 16th century Persian royal physician from Gilan, Iran.He came from Persia to the Mughal court of Akbar and served under several Mughal rulers in northwest India...

    , d.1069, royal physician
  • Gorgani, Zayn al-Din Isma‘il ibn, d.1136, royal physician
  • Gorgani, Abu Saeed, , astronomer and mathematician
  • Gorgani, Rostam
    Rustam Gorgani
    Rostam Gorgani was a mid-16th century Persian physician who lived in India.Rostam Gorgani was the court physician of two of the rulers of the Deccan sultanates, Malik Ahmad Shah I and Burhan Shah I , in the city of Ahmadnagar in the Deccan Plateau, India...

    , physician
  • Gorgani e Masihi, see Masihi Gorgani, d.999, Avicenn'a master


  • Hakim Ghulam Imam
    Hakim Ghulam Imam
    Hakim Ghulam Imam was a Persian physician, whose dates are uncertain.He composed a Persian-language treatise on therapeutics titled Ilaj al-ghuraba , which is preserved today in only one recorded manuscript, now in India, but which was also printed in India many times in the 19th century.Nothing is...

    , physician
  • Hakim Muhammad Mehdi Naqi
    Muhammad Mehdi ibn Ali Naqi
    Muhammad Mehdi ibn Ali Naqi was an early 18th century Persian physician from Isfahan.He composed a Persian treatise on hygiene and preservation of health addressed to travelers, titled Zad al-musafirin, which he wrote in Isfahan, during the Afghan invasion. He completed it on 15 September 1728...

    , physician
  • Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan
    Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan
    Hakim Muhammad Sharif Khan was a Shi'a physician of some importance at end of 18th century from Persia.He was physician to the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II and possibly to his son Akbar II...

    , physician
  • Hakim Nishaburi
    Hakim al-Nishaburi
    Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi , and also known as Ibn Al-Baiyi.) was a Sunni scholar and the leading traditionist of his age, frequently referred to as the "Imam of the Muhaddithin" or the "Muhaddith of Khorasan."-Biography:Al-Hakim, who hailed from Nishapur, had vast...

    , Islamic scholar
  • Hallaj, Mystic-philosopher
  • Haly Abbas, prominent physician
  • Hamadani, Ali, physician
  • Hamadani, Mir Sayyid Ali
    Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
    Mir Syed Ali bin Shahab-ud-Din Hamadani was a Persian Sūfī of the Kubrāwī order, a poet and a prominent Muslim scholar. He was born on Monday, 12th Rajab 714 AH in Hamadan and died in 786 AH in Kunar and was buried in Khatlan...

    , poet and philosopher
  • Hanbal, Ahmad Ibn
    Ahmad ibn Hanbal
    Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal Abu `Abd Allah al-Shaybani was an important Muslim scholar and theologian. He is considered the founder of the Hanbali school of fiqh...

    , Islamic scholar
  • Harawi, Abolfadl, astronomer of Buyid dynasty
  • Harawi, Muwaffak: See Al-Muwaffak
    Abu Mansur Muvaffak Harawi was a 10th century Persian physician.He flourished in Herat of Persia, under the Samanid prince Mansur I ibn Nuh, who ruled from 961 to 976....

    , pharmacologist
  • Harawi, Muhammad ibn Yusuf, physician
  • Harawi, Ali
    Ali ibn abi bakr al-Harawi
    Ali ibn Abi Bakr al-Harawi was an early thirteenth century Persian traveller originally from Herat, located in Afghanistan. Born in Mosul, Iraq he travelled far and wide and died in Aleppo, Syria in a fort built for him....

    , traveller
  • Majid Hassanizadeh
    Majid Hassanizadeh
    Seyed Majid Hassanizadeh is a professor of hydrogeology at Utrecht University, where he heads the hydrogeology group at the Faculty of Geosciences. He also is a senior advisor with the Soil and Groundwater Department of TNO-Deltares. His research focuses on various flow and transport in porous...

    , Professor of Hydrogeolgoy, Expertise: theories of porous media (Utrecht University, The Netherlands).
  • Hasani, Qavameddin
    Qiwam al-Din Muhammad al-Hasani
    Qiwam al-Din Muhammad al-Hasani was a Persian physician of the late 17th century. Hasani was a scholar who is known to have been working in the city of Qazvin in Persia in the year 1694 CE. The National Library of Medicine has in its collections a rare copy of a collection of five Arabic poems...

    , physician
  • Hedayat, Habibollah
    Habibollah Hedayat
    Dr. Habibollah Hedayat , known as the father of modern nutrition sciences of Iran, is the founder of the Institute of Nutrition and Food Science of Iran...

    , Nutritionist and Obstetrician Gynecologist
  • Hessaby, Mahmoud
    Mahmoud Hessaby
    Sayyed Mahmoud Hessaby was a prominent Iranian scientist, researcher and distinguished professor of University of Tehran...

    , physician


  • Ibn Abi Sadiq
    Ibn Abi Sadiq
    Ibn Abi Sadiq Alnaishabouri, Abu al-Qasim ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn ‘Ali was an 11th century Persian physician from Nishapur in Khorasan.He was a pupil of Avicenna. As he composed a popular commentary on the Aphorisms of Hippocrates, he was known in some circles as "the second Hippocrates"...

    , "The Second Hippocrates", Avicenna's disciple
  • Ibn Haytham, physicist
  • Ibn Khaseb, physician
  • Ibn Khordadbeh
    Ibn Khordadbeh
    Abu'l Qasim Ubaid'Allah ibn Khordadbeh , author of the earliest surviving Arabic book of administrative geography, was a Persian geographer and bureaucrat of the 9th century...

    , geographer
  • Ibn Rustah
    Ahmad ibn Rustah
    Ibn Rustah was a 10th century Persian explorer and geographer born in Rosta district, Isfahan, Persia....

  • Ilaqi, Yusef
    Yusuf al-Ilaqi
    Muḥammad ibn 'Alī al-Ilāqī was an eleventh century Persian physician from Khorasan.Contrary to Carl Brockelmann's information , Sharaf al-Zamān Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Īlāqī of Bākharz , who was most probably active in Balkh , was not a figure of the 6th/12th century...

    , Avicenna
    Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...

    's pupil
  • Ilyas, Yusef ibn
    Yusuf ibn Ilyas
    Manṣūr ibn Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad ibn Yūsuf Ibn Ilyās was a late 14th century physician from Shiraz, Timurid Persia.Mansur was from a family of scholars and physicians active for several generations in the city of Shiraz...

    , physician
  • Isfahani Abol-fath
    Abu al-Fath Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Qasim ibn Fadl al-Isfahani was a 10th century Persian mathematician. He flourished probably around 982AD in Isfahan....

    , mathematician
  • Ibn Sina, (Avicenna), Philosopher and Physician
  • Isfahani, Jalaleddin
    Jalal al-Din Muhammad al-Isfahani
    Jalal al-Din Muhammad al-Isfahani, was a 19th century Persian physician from Isfahan.Jalal al-Din Muhammad al-Isfahani, who refers to himself as al-tabib al-Isfahani , composed an Arabic general treatise on therapeutics, arranged in order from head to foot. It was completed on 9 December 1828...

    , physician
  • Isfahani, Husayn
    Husayni al-Isfahani
    Ghiyath al-Din Ali ibn Amirin Husayni Isfahani was a 15th-century Persian physician and scientist from Isfahan, Iran. He is best known for a Persian encyclopedia of the natural sciences entitled Danish'namah-i Jahaan, which he completed in either 1474 or 1466. The encyclopedia was concerned with...

    , physician
  • Istakhri, geographer, gives the earliest known account of windmill
    A windmill is a machine which converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Originally windmills were developed for milling grain for food production. In the course of history the windmill was adapted to many other industrial uses. An important...

  • Iranshahri
    Abu al-Abbas Iranshahri was a 9th-century Persian philosopher, mathematician, natural scientist, historian of religion, astronomer and author. According to traditional sources, he is the first figure in the wider Muslim world to be associated with philosophy after the advent of Islam.-Life:He...

    ,philosopher,the teacher of Muhammad Zakaria Razi.


  • Jābir ibn Hayyān, a polymath
    A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas. In less formal terms, a polymath may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable...

     who is considered the father of chemistry
    Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

    . He emphasized systematic experiment
    An experiment is a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Experiments vary greatly in their goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results...

    ation, and did much to free alchemy from superstition and turn it into a science.
  • Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
    Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi
    Abū Maʿshar, Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī , was a Persian astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad...

  • Jaghmini
    Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Umar Jaghmini, or al-Jaghmini was a 14th century Persian physician. He was born at Jaghmin, a village in Khwarezm , current day Uzbekistan....

    , physician
  • Jaldaki
    Izz al-Din Aydamir al-Jaldaki , also written al-Jildaki . Persian Alchemist from Khorasan, he fled his native country due to the Mongol invasion....

    , physician
  • Juvayni
    Ata al-Mulk Juvayni
    Atâ-Malek Jovayni was a Persian historian who wrote an account of the Mongol Empire entitled Ta' rīkh-i jahān-gushā .He was born in Juvain, a city in Khorasan in northeastern Iran...

    , historian
  • Juwayni
    Imam al-Haramayn Dhia' ul-Din Abd al-Malik ibn Yusuf al-Juwayni al-Shafi'i was a Sunni Shafi'i hadith and Kalam scholar...

    , philosopher
  • Juzjani, Abu Ubaid
    Juzjani, Abu Ubaid
    Abū 'Ubayd al-Jūzjānī was a Persian physician from Juzjan in modern Afghanistan.He was the famous pupil of Avicenna, whom he first met in Gorgan.He spent many years with his master in Isfahan, becoming his lifetime companion....

    , physician
  • Jamasb, philosopher


  • Karaji
    ' was a 10th century Persian Muslim mathematician and engineer. His three major works are Al-Badi' fi'l-hisab , Al-Fakhri fi'l-jabr wa'l-muqabala , and Al-Kafi fi'l-hisab .Because al-Karaji's original works in Arabic are lost, it is not...

    , mathematician
  • Kashani (Kashi), mathematician
  • Kashfi, Jafar
    Ja'far Kashfi
    Ja'far Kashfi, Iranian Muslim philosopher, was born at Darabgard in Fars in 1775 or 1776, lived all his life at Borujerd and died in 1850-1851. His work comprises about twelve titles, and is written in both Persian and Arabic...

    , theologian
  • Kazerouni, Masoud, physician
  • Kermani, Iwad
    Burhan al-Din Nafis ibn ‘Iwad al-Kirmani
    Burha-ud-Din Kermani or Burhān al-Din Nafīs ibn ‘Iwad al-Kirmanī was a 15th century Persian physician from Kerman.Nafis ibn ‘Iwad al-Kirmani was court physician to Ulugh Beg, the grandson of Tamerlane and the governor of Samarqand from 1409 to 1449 CE....

    , physician
  • Kermani, Shams-ud-Din
    Shams-ud-Din Kermani
    Shaykh Shamsud-Din al-Kermani or Kirmani was a Sunni Muslim scholar. He wrote a commentary on Sahih Bukhari ....

    , Islamic scholar
  • Khademhosseini, Alireza
    Ali Khademhosseini
    Ali Khademhosseini is an Iranian-Canadian academic and an Associate Professor at Harvard Medical School, Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering. He is internationally known for his research in the area of biomedical...

    , Pioneer in Biomedical and Bioengineering
  • Khazeni, Abu Jafar, mathematician
  • Khazeni, Abolfath, physicist
  • Khayyám, Omar
    Omar Khayyám
    Omar Khayyám was aPersian polymath: philosopher, mathematician, astronomer and poet. He also wrote treatises on mechanics, geography, mineralogy, music, climatology and theology....

    , poet, mathematician, and astronomer
  • Khorasani, Sultan Ali, physician
  • Khujandi
    Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn Khidr Khojandi was a Persian astronomer and mathematician who lived in the late 10th century and helped build an observatory near the city of Ray in Iran...

    , mathematician and astronomer
  • Khwarizmi (aka Al-Khwarazmi) creator of algorithm
    In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning...

     and algebra
    Algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures...

    , mathematician and astronomer
  • Kushyar ibn Labban
    Kushyar ibn Labban
    Abul-Hasan Kūshyār ibn Labbān ibn Bashahri Gilani , also known as Kūshyār Gīlānī , was a Persian mathematician, geographer, and astronomer from Gilan, south of the Caspian Sea, Iran....

    , mathematician, Nasavi's master
  • Kuhi, Rostam
    ' was a Persian mathematician, physicist and astronomer. Quhi was from Kuh , an area in Tabaristan, and flourished in Baghdad in the 10th century. He is considered one of the greatest Muslim geometers....

    , mathematician
  • Kubra, Najmeddin
    Najmeddin Kubra
    Najmuddīn-e Kubrā or Najm al-Din Kubra, was a 13th-century Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia, the founder of the Kubrawiyya or Kubraviyah Sufi order, influential in the Ilkhanid and Timurid. His method, exemplary of a "golden age" of sufi metaphysics, was related to the Illuminism of Shahab al-Din...


  • Mahani
    Abu-Abdullah Muhammad ibn Īsa Māhānī was a Persian mathematician and astronomer from Mahan, Kermān, Persia.A series of observations of lunar and solar eclipses and planetary conjunctions, made by him from 853 to 866, was in fact used by Ibn Yunus....

    , mathematician
  • Muhammad al-Fazari
    Muhammad al-Fazari
    Abu abdallah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim al-Fazari was a Muslim philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. He is not to be confused with his father Ibrāhīm al-Fazārī, also an astronomer and mathematician....

  • Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
    Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
    Muhammad Baqir Yazdi was an Iranian mathematician who lived in the 16th century. He gave the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 many years before Euler's contribution to amicable numbers....

     In the 17th century, He gave the pair of amicable numbers 9,363,584 and 9,437,056.
  • Majusi, Ibn Abbas, physician
  • Marvazi
    Ahmad ibn 'Abdallah Habash Hasib Marwazi was an astronomer, geographer, and mathematician from Merv in Khorasan.He flourished in Baghdad, and died a centenarian after 869...

    , astronomer and mathematician
  • Marvazi, Abu Taher
    Abu Tahir Marwazi
    Qotb al-Zaman Muhammad Abu Tahir Marwazi was a 12th century prominent Persian philosopher from Khwarezmia.He died in Sarakhs in Iran in 1144CE....

    , philosopher
  • Masawaiyh
    Yuhanna ibn Masawaih, also written Ibn Masawaih, Masawaiyh, and in Latin Mesue, Masuya, Mesue Major, Msuya, and Mesue the Elder was an Assyrian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur...

     or Masuya
  • Mashallah ibn Athari, of Jewish origins, from Khorasan
    Greater Khorasan
    Greater Khorasan or Ancient Khorasan is a historical region of Greater Iran mentioned in sources from Sassanid and Islamic eras which "frequently" had a denotation wider than current three provinces of Khorasan in Iran...

     who designed the city of Baghdad
    Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

     based on Firouzabad
    Firuzabad is a city in and the capital of Firuzabad County, Fars Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 58,210, in 12,888 families.Firuzabad is located south of Shiraz. The town is surrounded by a mud wall and ditch....

  • Masihi Gorgani
    Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-Masihi al-Jurjani was a Persian Christian physician, from Gorgan, east of the Caspian Sea, in Iran.He was the teacher of Avicenna...

    , Avicenna's master
  • Mirza Ali Hakim
    Mirza Ali
    For the Persian miniature painter, see Abd al-SamadMirza Ali was a Persian physician that lived in the seventeenth century.Nothing is known about Mirza Ali other than what can be gleaned from the unique copy of his therapeutic treatise that is preserved in the National Library of Medicine...

    , physician
  • Miskawayh
    Ibn Miskawayh
    Abu 'Ali Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ya'qub Ibn Miskawayh, also known as Ibn Miskawayh or Ebn Meskavayh was a Persian chancery official of the Buwayhid era, and philosopher and historian from Rey, Iran...

    , philosopher
  • Mostowfi Qazvini
    Hamdollah Mostowfi
    Hamdollah Mostowfi was a Persian historian, geographer and epic poet.Mostowfi is the author of Nozhat ol-Gholub , Zafar-Nameh , and the Tarikh e Gozideh . His tomb is a structure with a blue turquoise conical dome, at Qazvin.-References and notes:...

    , geographer
  • Mullasadra, philosopher
  • Muqaffa, Ibn
    Abdullah Ibn al-Muqaffa
    Abū-Muhammad Abd-Allāh Rūzbeh ibn Dādūya/Dādōē , known as Ibn al-Muqaffaʿ , Ibn Muqaffa/Ebn-e Moghaffa , or Rūzbeh pūr-e Dādūya , was a Persian thinker and a Zoroastrian convert to Islam.-Biography:...

    , founder of Arabic prose along with Abdol-Hamid.
  • bin Musa, Hasan, astronomer
  • bin Musa, Ahmad, astronomer
  • bin Musa, Muhammad, astronomer
  • Muwaffaq, Abu mansur
    Abu Mansur Muvaffak Harawi was a 10th century Persian physician.He flourished in Herat of Persia, under the Samanid prince Mansur I ibn Nuh, who ruled from 961 to 976....

    , pharmacologist
  • Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi
    Muhammad ibn Muhammad Tabrizi
    Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ibn Muhammad Tabrizi was a thirteenth century Persian Muslim, known for his Arabic commentary on the twenty five propositions at the beginning of Book II of the Jewish philosopher Maimonides's Guide for the Perplexed, on which Maimonides then based his proof of...



  • Nagawri
    Shahab al-Din ibn ‘Abd al-Karim Qivam al-Nagawri was a 14th century Persian physician.Shihab al-Din al-Nagawri composed several medical treatises, including a general handbook composed in 1392 and a short dictionary of drugs...

    , physician
  • Nahavandi, Benjamin
    Benjamin Nahawandi
    Benjamin Nahawandi or Benjamin ben Moses or Benyamin ben Moshe al-Nahawendi was one of the greatest of the Karaite scholars of the early Middle Ages. His influence was so far-reaching that some regard him as the proper originator of Karaism as it has come down through the ages. The Karaite...

    , Jewish scholar
  • Nahavandi, Ahmad, astronomer
  • Nakhshabi
    Ziya' al-Din Nakhshabi was an 14th-century Persian physician and Sufi living in India. He died in 1350.According to a statement in a manuscript now at The National Library of Medicine, Nakhshabi himself transcribed and illustrated a Persian translation made of a Hindi version of a Sanskrit treatise...

    , physician
  • Nasir Gebelli
    Nasir Gebelli
    Nasir Gebelli is an Iranian-American programmer and video game developer. Gebelli co-founded Sirius Software, created his own company Gebelli Software, and worked for Square .-Sirius Software:...

    , computer scientist and video game developer
  • Nasavi
    Ali Ahmad Nasawi
    ' was a Persian mathematician from Khurasan, Iran. He flourished under the Buwayhid sultan Majd al-dowleh, who died in 1029-30AD, and under his successor. He wrote a book on arithmetic in Persian, and then Arabic, entitled the "Satisfying on Hindu Calculation"...

    , mathematician
  • Natili Tabari
    Al Husain ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Hasan ibn Khurshid al-Tabari al-Natili Amoli, was a Persian physician from Tabaristan.He flourished in the 10th century, and was a translator of Greek into Arabic. He dedicated, in 990-991AD, an improved translation of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica to the Prince Abu...

    , physician
  • Naubakht
    Nobakht Ahvazi also transliterated 'Naubakht') and his sons were astrologers from Ahvaz .Nobakht was particularly famous for having led a group of astrologers who picked an auspicious electional chart for the founding of Baghdad. His family also helped design the city...

    , Designer of the city of Baghdad
    Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

  • Naubakht, Fadhl ibn
    Al-fadl ibn Naubakht
    Al-Fadl ibn Naubakht, , was an 8th century Persian scholar at the court of the Caliph Harun al-Rashid. He was son of the famous Naubakht, a former Zoroastrian, who had designed Baghdad....

  • Nawbakhty
    Al-Nawbakhty Abi Mohammed Al-Hasan Ibm Mousa Al-Nawbakhty. was a Shia Muslim scholar, lived in the 3rd Hijri century....

    , Islamic scholar, philosopher
  • Nawbakhti, Ruh
    Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti
    Abul Qasim Husayn ibn Ruh al-Nawbakhti In Twelver Shia Islam, was the third of The Four Deputies appointed by twelfth and final Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, while he was in the Minor Occultation....

    , Islamic scholar
  • Nayrizi
    Abū’l-‘Abbās al-Faḍl ibn Ḥātim al-Nairīzī was a 9th-10th century Persian mathematician and astronomer from Nayriz, Fars, Iran.He flourished under al-Mu'tadid, Caliph from 892 to 902, and compiled astronomical tables, writing a book for al-Mu'tadid on atmospheric phenomena.Nayrizi wrote...

    , mathematician
  • Naqshband, Baha ud-Din
    Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
    Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari was the founder of what would become the Naqshbandi. He was born in Bukhara which is located in Uzbekistan...

    , philosopher
  • Neishaburi
    Abu al-Qasim al-Habib Neishaburi was a Persian physician from Khorasan who lived before 1750CE. His name indicates he was from Nishapur.He is known to have written two Arabic treatises on Prophetic medicine...

    , physician
  • Neishaburi, prominent Islamic scholar
  • Nizami Ganjavi, romantic poet
  • Nurbakhshi
    Baha' al-Dawlah ibn Siraj al-Din Shah Qasim ibn Muhammad al-Husayni Nurbakhshi , was a 15-16th century Persian physician.He obtained court favor in both Persia and Baghdad...

    , physician


  • Qazi Zadeh, prominent mathematician
  • Qazwini, Zakariya
    Zakariya al-Qazwini
    Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini , was a Persian physician, astronomer, geographer and proto-science fiction writer....

    , physician
  • Qumi, Qazi Sa’id
    Qazi Sa’id Qumi
    Qazi Sa’id Qumi was an Iranian Muslim philosopher .In Isfahan he was the pupil of Rajab Ali Tabrizi, Muhsen Feyz and Abd al-Razzaq Lahiji...

    , theologian
  • Qumri, physician
  • Qushayri, Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin, d.1074, philosopher


  • Razi, Amin
    Amin Razi
    ' was a 16th century Persian geographer and author of an encyclopedia called Haft iqlīm . It provided information about the seven different regions known to the Islamic world at the time.-References:...

    , geographer
  • Razi Amoli, Fakhreddin
    Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
    Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Umar ibn al-Husayn al-Taymi al-Bakri al-Tabaristani Fakhr al-Din al-Razi , most commonly known as Fakhruddin Razi was a well-known Persian Sunni Muslim theologian and philosopher....

    , philosopher
  • Razi, Zakariya (Rhazes), chemist and physicist
  • Razi, Najmeddin
    Najmeddin Razi
    Abū Bakr 'Abdollāh b. Moḥammad b. Šahāvar b. Anūšervān al-Rāzī commonly know by the laqab, or sobriquet, of Najm al-Dīn Dāya, meaning "wetnurse"...

  • Rumi, Jalal ad-Din Muhammad
    Jalal ad-Din Muhammad Rumi
    Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Balkhī , also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muḥammad Rūmī and popularly known as Mevlānā in Turkey and Mawlānā in Iran and Afghanistan but known to the English-speaking world simply as Rumi was a 13th-century Persian Muslim poet, jurist, theologian, and Sufi mystic...

  • Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, historian, physician and politician
  • Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi, Physician


  • Sabzevari, Mulla Hadi
    Mulla Hadi Sabzevari
    Molla Hadi Sabzavari or Hajj Molla Hadi Sabzavari was a famous Iranian Shi'ite Muslim philosopher, mystic, theologian and poet.-Life:...

    , poet and philosopher
  • Saghani Ostorlabi
    Abu Hamid Ahmed ibn Mohammed al-Saghani al-Asturlabi was a Persian astronomer and historian of science. He flourished in Baghdad, where he died in 990 AD....

    , astronomer
  • Sahl, Fadl ibn
    Fadl ibn Sahl
    Fadl ibn Sahl Dhul-riyasatein Sarakhsi was a famous Persian vizier of the Abbasid era in Khorasan, who served under Al-Ma'mun....

  • Sahl, Shapur ibn
    Shapur ibn Sahl
    Sābūr ibn Sahl was a 9th-century Persian Christian physician from the Academy of Gundishapur.Among other medical works, he wrote one of the first medical books on antidotes called Aqrabadhin, which was divided into 22 volumes, and which was possibly the earliest of its kind to influence Muslim...

    , physician
  • Salman the Persian
    Salman the Persian
    Salman the Persian or Salman al Farisi was one of Muhammad's companions.During some of his later meetings with the other Sahaba, he was referred to as Abu Abdullah .-Birth place:...

    , religion commentator, companion of Prophet Muhammad
  • Samarqandi, Najibeddin
    Najib al-Din al-Samarqandi
    Najib ad-Din Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Umar Samarqandi was a 13th century Persian physician from Samarqand.Samarqandi died during the Mongol attack on Herat, in Persia, in 1222CE...

    , physician
  • Samarqandi, Ashraf, mathematician, astronomer.
  • Sarakhsi, Muhammad ibn Ahmad
    Muhammad b. Ahmad b. Abi Sahl Abu Bakr al-Sarakhsi was an important jurist, or Islamic scholar of the Hanafi school. He was traditionally known as Shams al-A'imma .-Background Information:...

    , Islamic scholar
  • Seifzadeh, Hossein,S.
    Hossein Seifzadeh
    Hossein Seifzadeh is an Iranian political scientist and author. Seifzadeh had been a Professor of Political Science at University of Tehran,before he was forced to retire, due to his opposition to fundamentalism and belief in pro-democracy and cosmopolitan perspectives. He has written 22 books...

     Political Scientist, Iranian Studies,
  • Shahrastani
    Tāj al-Dīn Abū al-Fath Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Karīm ash-Shahrastānī was an influential Persian historian of religions and a historiographer. His book, Kitab al–Milal wa al-Nihal was one of the pioneers in developing a scientific approach to the study of religions...

     historian of religions
  • Shahrazuri
    Shams al-Din Muhammad ibn Mahmud Shahrazuri was a 13th century Persian physician and philosopher of the Ilkhanate and late Abbasid era of Iran....

    , philosopher and physician
  • Shahrazuri,Ibn al-Salah
    Ibn al-Salah
    Abū `Amr `Uthmān ibn `Abd al-Raḥmān Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn al-Kurdī al-Shahrazūrī , commonly known as Ibn al-Ṣalāḥ, was a Shafi'i hadith specialist and the author of the seminal Introduction to the Science of Hadith...

    , Islamic scholar
  • Shaykh Tusi
    Shaykh Tusi
    Shaykh Tusi , full name: Abu Jafar Muhammad Ibn Hassan Tusi , known as Shaykh al-Taʾifah was a prominent Persian scholar of the Shi'a Twelver Islamic belief.-Birth:...

    , famous Islamic scholar
  • Shaykh Saduq, theologian
  • Shirazi, Imad al-Din Mas'ud
    Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi
    Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas‘ud Shirazi was a mid 16th century Persian physician from Shiraz, Iran.He studied medicine with his father in Shiraz and taught a number of students himself...

    , physician
  • Shirazi, Muhammad Hadi Khorasani
    Al-Khurasani al-Shirazi
    Muhammad Hussayn ibn Muhammad Hadi al-‘Aqili al-‘Alavi al-Khurasani al-Shirazi was a Persian physician from the 18th century from Shiraz.Muhammad Husayn ibn Muhammad Hadi, known as Hakim Muhammad Hadikhan, is mostly known for two Persian compendia on simple and compound remedies: Majma‘ al-javami‘...

    , physician
  • Shirazi, Qutbeddin
    Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
    Qotb al-Din Shirazi or Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi was a 13th century Persian Muslim polymath and Persian poet who made contributions astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.- Biography :...

    , astronomer
  • Shirazi, Mahmud ibn Ilyas
    Mahmud ibn Ilyas Shirazi
    Mahmud ibn Ilyas Shirazi was an authoritative Persian physician who lived before the 18th century and was from Shiraz.All that is known of this figure is that he is cited as an authority by ‘Ali ibn Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman who composed a versified Persian medical compendium titled...

    , physician
  • Shirazi, Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas
    Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas al-Shirazi
    Najm al-Din Mahmud ibn Ilyas al-Shirazi was a Persian physician from Shiraz in Persia.His major composition was a large Arabic medical compendium, Kitab al-Hawi fi ‘ilm al-tadawi , whose title often caused confusion with the better-known Kitab al-Hawi written four centuries earlier by Rhazes...

    , physician
  • Shirazi, Qurayshi
    Qurayshi al-Shirazi
    Nur al-Din Muhammad Abd-Allah ibn Hakim ‘Ayn al-Mulk Qurayshi Shirazi was a mid 17th century Persian physician from Shiraz, Fars, Iran.He is best known for his large synopsis of 'Yunani' and Hindu medicine that was entitled Zakhira-i Dara-Shukuhi and dedicated to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan's...

    , physician
  • Shirazi, Sultan Waezin
    Sultanu'l-Wa'izin Shirazi
    Sultanu l-Wa'izin Shirazi is the Shi'a scholar portrayed in the book Peshawar Nights .Sultanu l-Wa'izin Shirazi was born in Tehran on 12 May 1894...

    , theologian
  • Sijzi
    Abu Sa'id Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd Jalil Sijzi was a Persian astronomer and mathematician from Sistan, a region lying in the south-west of Afghanistan and south-east of Iran....

    , mathematician
  • Sijzi, Mas'ud
    Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi
    Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad Sijzi was a Persian physician who lived before 1334CE in eastern Iran.Little is known of the life of Mas‘ud ibn Muhammad al-Sijzi, only that he must have been working sometime before 1334CE...

    , physician
  • Soleiman ibn Hasan
    Soleiman ibn Hasan
    Sulayman ibn Muhammad Karim ibn Muhammad Wali ibn Himmat ibn Isa ibn Hasan was a Persian physician who lived before 1709CE.Virtually nothing is known of this author except that he composed a Persian treatise on simple and compound remedies that was written sometime before 1709 when one copy...

    , physician
  • Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi: see Azophi
  • Suhrawardi, Shahab al-Din
    Shahab al-Din Suhrawardi
    Other important Muslim mystics carry the name Suhrawardi, particularly Abu 'l-Najib al-Suhrawardi and his paternal nephew Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi."Shahāb ad-Dīn" Yahya ibn Habash as-Suhrawardī was a Persian...

    , philosopher


  • Tabarani, Abu al-Qasim
    Abu al-Qasim Sulaiman ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Tabarani was born sometime in 260 AH and lived until 360 AH . He narrated numerous aḥadīth.-Students:...

    , Islamic scholar
  • Tabari Amoli
    Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari
    Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari was a prominent and influential Sunni scholar and exegete of the Qur'an from Persia...

    , prominent historian
  • Tabari, Natili Amoli: See Al-Natili
    Al Husain ibn Ibrahim ibn al-Hasan ibn Khurshid al-Tabari al-Natili Amoli, was a Persian physician from Tabaristan.He flourished in the 10th century, and was a translator of Greek into Arabic. He dedicated, in 990-991AD, an improved translation of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica to the Prince Abu...

  • Tabari, ibn Farrukhan
    Omar Tiberiades
    Omar Tiberiades or Abû Hafs 'Umar ibn Farrukhân Tabarî , was a Persian astrologer and architect.Around the year 800 he translated the Middle Persian version of Dorotheus's Pentateuch into Arabic. A Latin translation of his book was often quoted by Western astrologers.-External links:...

    , astrologer and architect
  • Tabari, Abul Hasan
    Abul Hasan al-Tabari
    Abu-l-Hasan Ahmad ibn Mohammad al-Tabari, born in Amol, was a 10th century Persian physician from Tabaristan.He was a physician of Rukn al-dawlah, a Buwayhid ruler....

    , physician.
  • Tabari, Ibn Sahl
    Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari
    Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari also given as 810-855 and 783-858 was a Persian Muslim hakim, Islamic scholar, physician and psychologist of Zoroastrian descent, who produced one of the first encyclopedia of medicine. He was a pioneer of pediatrics and the field of child development...

    , Jewish convert physician. Master of Rhazes
  • Tabrizi, Maqsud Ali
    Maqsud Ali Tabrizi
    Maqsud Ali Tabrizi was a 17th century Iranian physician from Tabriz.Maqsud Ali Tabrizi was a translator who worked at the request of the Mughal emperor Jahangir ....

    , physician.
  • Taftazani
    Sa'ad al-Din Masud ibn Umar ibn Abd Allah al-Taftazani also known as Al-Taftazani and Taftazani was a Muslim Persian polymath...

    , theologian, linguist
  • Tayfur, Ibn Abi Tahir
    Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur
    Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur was an Iranian linguist and poet of Arabic language. He was born in Baghdad. Tayfur was his father's name who was from Khorasan, Persia. He played an important role in Arabic literature revolution. Ibn Abi Tahir Tayfur was the first writer who devoted a book to writers...

    , d.893, linguist
  • Tāriq, Yaqub ibn
    Yaqub ibn Tariq
    Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq was an 8th-century Persian astronomer and mathematician who lived in Baghdad.- Works :Works ascribed to Yaʿqūb ibn Ṭāriq include:...

  • Tirmidhi, Islamic scholar
  • Tunakabuni
    Muhammad Mu'min ibn Mir Muhammad Zaman Tunakabuni was a Persian physician from the second half of the 17th century from Mazandaran.Tunakabuni was an author on various medical and religious topics. He based his large Persian compendium of simple and compound remedies, which according to the text was...

    , physician
  • Tughra'i
    Mu'ayyad al-Din Abu Isma‘il al-Husayn ibn Ali al-Tughra'i was an 11th–12th century Persian physician.Mu'ayyad al-Din al-Tughra'i, was born in Isfahan in 1061CE, and was an important alchemist, poet, and administrative secretary...

    , physician
  • Tusi, Nizam ol-Molk
    Nizam al-Mulk
    Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk, better known as Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk Tusi ; born in 1018 – 14 October 1092) was a Persian scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire...

    , the great vizier
  • Tusi, Nasireddin
    Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
    Khawaja Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan Ṭūsī , better known as Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī , was a Persian polymath and prolific writer: an astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed...

    , mathematician, philosopher
  • Tusi, Sharafeddin
    Sharafeddin Tusi
    ' was a Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age .- Biography :...

    , mathematician


  • Zamakhshari, scholar and geographer.
  • Zarrin dast
    Zarrin Dast
    Abu Ruh Muhammad ibn Mansur ibn abi Abdallah ibn Mansur Jamani , nicknamed Zarrin-Dast was an eleventh century Persian oculist.Zarrin Dast means the Golden Hand in Persian, a reputable name for an eye surgeon....

    , oculist.
  • Zayn-e-Attar, physician

See also

  • List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers
  • Nizamiyyah
    The Nezamiyehs , are a group of the medieval institutions of higher education established by Khwaja Nizam al-Mulk in the eleventh century in Iran. The name nizamiyyah derives from his name...

  • Academy of Gundishapur
    Academy of Gundishapur
    The Academy of Gondishapur , also Jondishapur , was a renowned academy of learning in the city of Gundeshapur during late antiquity, the intellectual center of the Sassanid empire. It offered training in medicine, philosophy, theology and science. The faculty were versed in the Zoroastrian and...

  • International rankings of Iran in science and technology