Firouzabad

Firouzabad

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Firuzabad is a city in and the capital of Firuzabad County
Firuzabad County
Firuzabad County is a county in Fars Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Firuzabad. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 111,973, in 24,894 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Meymand District. The county has two cities:...

, Fars Province, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. At the 2006 census, its population was 58,210, in 12,888 families.

Firuzabad is located south of Shiraz
Shiraz, Iran
Shiraz is the sixth most populous city in Iran and is the capital of Fars Province, the city's 2009 population was 1,455,073. Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Roodkhaneye Khoshk seasonal river...

. The town is surrounded by a mud wall and ditch.

Alexander of Macedonia destroyed the original city of Gōr. Centuries later, Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

, founder of the Sassanid Dynasty, revived the city before it was ransacked during the Arab invasion of the seventh century.

Firuzabad is situated in a low-lying area of the region, so Alexander was able to drown the city by directing the flow of a river into the city. The lake he created remained until Ardashir I
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

 built a tunnel to drain it. He founded his new capital city on this site.

Ardeshir
Ardashir I
Ardashir I was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr , subsequently Fars Province , and finally "King of Kings of Sassanid Empire " with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire...

's new city was known as Khor Ardeshīr, Ardeshīr Khurah and Shāhr-ī Gōr. It had a circular plan so precise in measurement that the Persian
Persian people
The Persian people are part of the Iranian peoples who speak the modern Persian language and closely akin Iranian dialects and languages. The origin of the ethnic Iranian/Persian peoples are traced to the Ancient Iranian peoples, who were part of the ancient Indo-Iranians and themselves part of...

 historian Ibn Balkhi
Ibn Balkhi
Ibn Balkhi was a 12th century historian of Persia, in the city of Balkh, in present day Afghanistan.He is known for his work the Fars Nama . Dehkhoda dictionary mentions him to be a contemporary of Muhammad I of Great Seljuk....

 wrote it to be "devised using a compass". It was protected by a trench 50 meters in width, and was 2 kilometers in diameter. The city had four gates; to the north was the Hormoz Gate, to the south the Ardeshir Gate, to the east the Mithra
Mithra
Mithra is the Zoroastrian divinity of covenant and oath. In addition to being the divinity of contracts, Mithra is also a judicial figure, an all-seeing protector of Truth, and the guardian of cattle, the harvest and of The Waters....

 Gate and to the west the Bahram Gate. The royal capital's compounds were constructed at the center of a circle 450 m in radius. At the center point of the city was a Zoroastrian fire temple 30 m high and spiral in design, which is thought to have been the architectural predecessor of the Great Mosque of Samarra
Great Mosque of Samarra
The Great Mosque of Samarra is a 9th century mosque located in Samarra, Iraq. The mosque was commissioned in 848 and completed in 851 by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil who reigned from 847 until 861....

 of Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

. (See satellite photo in the top right hand corner of the article.)

The city's importance was revived again in the reign of Azud al-Dawla
'Izz al-Daula
Izz al-Daula was the Buyid amir of Iraq . He was born Bakhtiyar, and was the son of Mu'izz al-Daula.In the spring of 955, Mu'izz al-Daula became very ill and decided to name his son as his successor. Five years later, the caliph officially recognized this by granting Bakhtiyar the title of "'Izz...

 of the Daylamite dynasty, who used the city as his frequent residence. It is at this time that the old name of the city—Gōr, was abandoned in favor of the new. In New Persian, spoken at the time, Gōr had come to mean "grave." King Azud al-Dawla, as the story goes, found it distasteful to reside in a "grave." Per his instruction, the city's name was changed to Peroz-abad, "City of Victory." Since then, the city has been known by variations of that name, to include Firuzabad (Middle Persian Fīrūzābād).

Among the attractions of the city are the Ghal'eh Dokhtar
Ghal'eh Dokhtar
Ghal'eh Dokhtar or Qala-e-Dokhtar, also known as The Maiden Castle, is a castle made by Ardashir I, in present day Fars, Iran, in 209 AD. It is located on a mountain slope near the Firouzabad-Shiraz road....

, the Palace of Ardeshir, and the fire temple tower among the remains of Gōr.

See also

  • Ghal'eh Dokhtar
    Ghal'eh Dokhtar
    Ghal'eh Dokhtar or Qala-e-Dokhtar, also known as The Maiden Castle, is a castle made by Ardashir I, in present day Fars, Iran, in 209 AD. It is located on a mountain slope near the Firouzabad-Shiraz road....

     in Firuzabad.
  • Palace of Ardeshir in Firuzabad.
  • Bishapur
    Bishapur
    thumb|Irano-Roman floor mosaic detail from the palace of [[Shapur I]] at BishapurBishapur is an ancient city situated south of modern Faliyan, Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. The road linked the Sassanid capitals Istakhr and Ctesiphon...

  • Cities of the Ancient Near East
    Cities of the ancient Near East
    The largest cities in the Bronze Age ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age with some 30,000 inhabitants was the largest city of the time by far...


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