Hedylidae

Hedylidae

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Encyclopedia
Hedylidae, the "American moth-butterflies", is a family of insects in the lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...

n order, representing the superfamily Hedyloidea. They are an extant sister group of the butterfly superfamilies Papilionoidea
Papilionoidea
The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea....

 and Hesperioidea. In 1986, Scoble combined all species into a single genus Macrosoma, comprising 35 currently recognized and entirely Neotropical species, as a novel concept of butterflies.

Taxonomy and systematics


Hedylidae were previously treated as a tribe of Geometridae: Oenochrominae, the "Hedylicae" Prout considered they might even merit treatment as their own family. Scoble first considered them to be a hitherto unrecognised group of butterflies and also suggested Hedylidae might possibly constitute the sister group of the "true" butterflies (Papilionoidea
Papilionoidea
The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea....

, rather than of (Hesperioidea + Papilionoidea). Weintraub and Miller argued against this placement (but see). In 1995, Weller and Pashley found that molecular data did indeed place Hedylidae with the butterflies and a more comprehensive study in 2005 based on 57 exemplar taxa, three genes
Gênes
Gênes is the name of a département of the First French Empire in present Italy, named after the city of Genoa. It was formed in 1805, when Napoleon Bonaparte occupied the Republic of Genoa. Its capital was Genoa, and it was divided in the arrondissements of Genoa, Bobbio, Novi Ligure, Tortona and...

 and 99 morphological
Morphology (biology)
In biology, morphology is a branch of bioscience dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features....

 characters, recovered the genus Macrosoma as sister to the ("true butterflies
Papilionoidea
The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea....

" + "skippers"). Since there are no obvious gaps between supposed species groups, according to basic morphological structure, Scoble (1986) synonymised the five pre-existing genera (33 of which had been described
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages...

 in Phellinodes) into just one genus. However, a phylogenetic analysis of all Macrosoma species is still needed.

Nomenclatural notes


In Zoological nomenclature, there exist numerous junior homonyms
Homonym (zoology)
In biology, a homonym is a name for a taxon that is identical in spelling to another such name, that belongs to a different taxon.The rule in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is that the first such name to be published is the senior homonym and is to be used ; any others are junior...

 of Macrosoma Hübner, 1818, (Macrosoma Leach 1819 (a reptile
Reptile
Reptiles are members of a class of air-breathing, ectothermic vertebrates which are characterized by laying shelled eggs , and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes. They are tetrapods, either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors...

), Macrosoma de Haan 1826 (Odonata
Odonata
Odonata is an order of insects, encompassing dragonflies and damselflies . The word dragonfly is also sometimes used to refer to all Odonata, but the back-formation odonate is a more correct English name for the group as a whole...

), Macrosoma Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Macrosoma multisulcata Berlese 1913 and M. floralis, Diptera: Muscidae
Muscidae
Muscidae are a family of flies found in the superfamily Muscoidea. The apical segment of the antennae of Muscidae are plumose, and the basal portion is smooth....

), Macrosoma Brandt 1835 (Coelenterata
Coelenterata
Coelenterata is an obsolete term encompassing two animal phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria . The name comes from the Greek "koilos" , referring to the hollow body cavity common to these two phyla...

), Macrosoma Hope 1837 (Coleoptera), Macrosoma Lioy 1864 or 1865 (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), Macrosoma Hammer 1979 (M.rugosa; Acarina
Acarina
Acari are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The diversity of the Acari is extraordinary and its fossil history goes back to at least the early Devonian period. As a result, acarologists have proposed a complex set of taxonomic ranks to classify mites...

: Oribatidae). To add to this potential confusion in lists of names, there exist two junior homonyms of Hedyle Guenée, 1857: Hedyle Bergh, 1895 (sea slug
Sea slug
Sea slug is a common name used for several different groups of saltwater snails that either lack a shell or have only an internal shell, in other words this name is used for various lineages of marine gastropod mollusks that are either not conchiferous or appear not to be.The phrase "sea slug" is...

s in the order Opisthobranchia: superfamily "Acochlidioidea", family Hedylopsidae Odhner, 1952 that are currently placed in the genus Hedylopsis Thiele, 1931), and Hedyle Malmgren 1865 (a polychaete
Polychaete
The Polychaeta or polychaetes are a class of annelid worms, generally marine. Each body segment has a pair of fleshy protrusions called parapodia that bear many bristles, called chaetae, which are made of chitin. Indeed, polychaetes are sometimes referred to as bristle worms. More than 10,000...

 worm). The sea slug family name "Hedylidae Bergh, 1895" (type species Hedyle weberi Bergh, 1895) is thus also invalid.

Morphology and identification


The eggs of hedylid moths have an upright configuration and are variable in shape: in Macrosoma inermis they are particularly narrow and spindle-shaped resembling those of some Pieridae
Pieridae
The Pieridae are a large family of butterflies with about 76 genera containing approximately 1,100 species, mostly from tropical Africa and Asia. Most pierid butterflies are white, yellow or orange in coloration, often with black spots...

 and in the case of M. tipulata they are more barrel-shaped, like certain Nymphalidae
Nymphalidae
The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies which are distributed throughout most of the world. These are usually medium sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting. They are also called...

. The larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e resemble probably convergently
Convergent evolution
Convergent evolution describes the acquisition of the same biological trait in unrelated lineages.The wing is a classic example of convergent evolution in action. Although their last common ancestor did not have wings, both birds and bats do, and are capable of powered flight. The wings are...

 those of Apaturinae
Apaturinae
Apaturinae is a subfamily of butterflies that includes many species commonly called "emperors".-External links:* List of North American species with images.* Images.In Japanese but binomial names....

. Adult hedylids resemble geometer moths. They share many characteristics both (morphological and genetic
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

) with the superfamilies Papilionoidea
Papilionoidea
The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea....

 and Hesperioidea. The abdomen is very long and slim, like many Neotropical butterflies of the subfamilies Ithomiinae
Nymphalidae
The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies which are distributed throughout most of the world. These are usually medium sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting. They are also called...

 and Heliconiinae
Heliconiinae
The Heliconiinae, commonly called heliconians or longwings, are a subfamily of the brush-footed butterflies . They can be divided into 45-50 genera and were sometimes treated as a separate family Heliconiidae within the Papilionoidea...

, hence the name of one Macrosoma species "heliconiaria". Unlike other butterflies however, the antennae are un-clubbed, but rather filiform or bipectinate. Unlike the family Geometridae, in which they had been placed by the geometer expert L.B.Prout, hedylids lack tympanic organs
Tympanal organ
A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons...

 at the base of the abdomen, but have them on the wings (see under Behaviour). Unlike other butterflies, however, (except in the unique case of the remarkable Australian skipper butterfly Euschemon rafflesia whose males possess these structures), the single-spined frenulum, and retinaculum is not lost or reduced in males, except in three Macrosoma species where there is no functional wing coupling system; the retinaculum is always lost in females and the frenulum may be vestigial. The family have been fully catalogued and illustrated in an identification guide.

Butterfly-like characteristics of Hedylidae

  1. "Mesoscutum" with "secondary line of weakness" near median "notal" wing process, as in some representatives of Papilionidea and Hesperioidea (potentially unique butterfly character;
  2. Mesothoracic
    Mesothorax
    The mesothorax is the middle of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the second pair of legs. Its principal sclerites are the mesonotum , the mesosternum , and the mesopleuron on each side...

     aorta
    Aorta
    The aorta is the largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries...

     with horizontal chamber, as in other butterflies (not Papilionidae), but as also in Cossidae
    Cossidae
    Cossidae, the cossid millers or carpenter millers, make up a family of mostly large miller moths. Ths family contains over 110 genera with almost 700 known species, and many more species await description...

    ;
  3. Metathoracic
    Metathorax
    The metathorax is the posterior of the three segments in the thorax of an insect, and bears the third pair of legs. Its principal sclerites are the metanotum , the metasternum , and the metapleuron on each side...

     "furca" resembling a blunt arrowhead; this a variable but potentially unique character in butterflies;
  4. Second median plate of forewing base lying partly under the base of vein "1A+2A", unlike the configuration in moths;
  5. "Postspiracular bar" on first abdominal segment;
  6. Female genitalic "anterior apophyses" reduced;
  7. Male genitalia relatively "deep" dorso-ventrally;
  8. Abdomen curved (especially in males), as in papilionoids;
  9. Abdominal first tergal
    Tergum
    A tergum is the dorsal portion of an arthropod segment other than the head. The anterior edge is called the base and posterior edge is called the apex or margin. A given tergum may be divided into hardened plates or sclerites commonly referred to as tergites...

     segment is strongly "pouched" (Scoble 1986; as also in Thyatirinae
    Drepanidae
    The Drepanidae are a family of moths with about 1000 species recorded worldwide. They are generally divided in three subfamilies which share the same type of hearing organ. Thyatirinae, previously often placed in their own family, bear a superficial resemblance to Noctuidae...

     moths;
  10. "Precoxal"
    Arthropod leg
    The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments are of Latin origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa , trochanter , femur, tibia, tarsus, ischium, metatarsus, carpus, dactylus ,...

     sulcus
    Sulcus (anatomy)
    A sulcus is a depression or fissure in the surface of an organ, especially the brain.-Elsewhere:* anterior interventricular sulcus* calcaneal sulcus* coronal sulcus* gingival sulcus* gluteal sulcus* interlabial sulci...

     joining "marginopleural" sulcus;
  11. Male Foreleg
    Arthropod leg
    The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments are of Latin origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa , trochanter , femur, tibia, tarsus, ischium, metatarsus, carpus, dactylus ,...

     pretarsus
    Arthropod leg
    The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking. Many of the terms used for arthropod leg segments are of Latin origin, and may be confused with terms for bones: coxa , trochanter , femur, tibia, tarsus, ischium, metatarsus, carpus, dactylus ,...

     lost, thus fused into two elements as in nymphalid butterflies, with the mid and hindlegs used for perching, but apparently redeveloped in hesperiids;
  12. Egg upright, spindle-shaped and ribbed as in some Pieridae (e.g. the Orange tip butterfly), some other butterflies, and as in some moth groups also;
  13. Larva
    Larva
    A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

     with "anal comb", as in some Hesperioidea (not however Megathyminae) and Pieridae, but not in other Papilionoidea except one species (and also independently in Tortricidae
    Tortricidae
    Tortricidae is a family of moths, commonly known as tortrix moths, in the order Lepidoptera. Tortricidae is a large family with over 9,400 species described, and is the sole member of the superfamily Tortricoidea. Many of these are economically important pests. Olethreutidae is a junior synonym...

    ), that is used for propulsion of frass
    Frass
    Frass is the fine powdery material phytophagous insects pass as waste after digesting plant parts. It causes plants to excrete chitinase due to high chitin levels, it is a natural bloom stimulant, and has high nutrient levels. Frass is known to have abundant amoeba, beneficial bacteria, and fungi...

     away from the caterpillar;
  14. Caterpillar with horn-like processes and a "bifid" tail as in many Nymphalidae;
  15. Caterpillar with "secondary setae", as in Pieridae;
  16. Ventral larva
    Larva
    A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

    l proleg
    Proleg
    A Proleg is the small fleshy, stub structure found on the ventral surface of the abdomen of most larval forms of insects of the order Lepidoptera, though they can also be found on other larval insects such as sawflies and a few types of flies....

     "crochet" hooks not forming a complete circle, unlike configuration in hesperiids and papilionoids;
  17. Pupa
    Pupa
    A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, going through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa and imago...

     affixed to the substrate via a silken girdle around the 1st abdominal segment,Image of 1st abdominal segment like in Pieridae (as also in some Geometridae, especially the subfamily Sterrhinae (in which the girdle is around the abdomen), but lost in many Papilionoidea
    Papilionoidea
    The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea....

    );
  18. Pupa
    Pupa
    A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, going through four life stages; embryo, larva, pupa and imago...

    l cocoon lost, as in papilionoids, and a few other groups of Lepidoptera;
  19. "Temporal cleavage line" lost in the pupa (as in papilionoids).

Distribution


Hedylidae range in Central America
Central America
Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

 south from central Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 and in South America
South America
South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. The continent is also considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east...

 through the Amazon
Amazon Basin
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries that drains an area of about , or roughly 40 percent of South America. The basin is located in the countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela...

 from southern Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 (where there are a full 26 species, up to 12 at a single site: to central Bolivia
Bolivia
Bolivia officially known as Plurinational State of Bolivia , is a landlocked country in central South America. It is the poorest country in South America...

 and southwestern Brazil
Brazil
Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

). In the Caribbean
Caribbean
The Caribbean is a crescent-shaped group of islands more than 2,000 miles long separating the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, to the west and south, from the Atlantic Ocean, to the east and north...

, they also occur in Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, Jamaica
Jamaica
Jamaica is an island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length, up to in width and 10,990 square kilometres in area. It is situated in the Caribbean Sea, about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola, the island harbouring the nation-states Haiti and the Dominican Republic...

 and Trinidad
Trinidad
Trinidad is the larger and more populous of the two major islands and numerous landforms which make up the island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. It is the southernmost island in the Caribbean and lies just off the northeastern coast of Venezuela. With an area of it is also the fifth largest in...

.

Behaviour


Hedylids are attracted to articifial lights, but occasionally some species can be found flying by day. Thus, they may be involved in some mimicry complexes with Ithomiinae
Nymphalidae
The Nymphalidae is a family of about 5,000 species of butterflies which are distributed throughout most of the world. These are usually medium sized to large butterflies. Most species have a reduced pair of forelegs and many hold their colourful wings flat when resting. They are also called...

 (e.g. the female only of Macrosoma lucivittata). A few species are white and resemble pierid butterflies (e.g. Macrosoma napiaria). Based on a study of Macrosoma heliconiaria , it has been found that hedylids have tympanic organ
Tympanal organ
A tympanal organ is a hearing organ in insects, consisting of a membrane stretched across a frame backed by an air sac and associated sensory neurons...

s on their forewings
Glossary of Lepidopteran terms
This glossary describes the terms used in the formal descriptions of insect species, jargon used mostly by professionals or entomologist....

 for hearing apparently homologous
Homology (biology)
Homology forms the basis of organization for comparative biology. In 1843, Richard Owen defined homology as "the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function". Organs as different as a bat's wing, a seal's flipper, a cat's paw and a human hand have a common underlying...

 to the "Vogel's organ" in some Papilionoidea
Papilionoidea
The superfamily Papilionoidea contains all the butterflies except for the skippers, which are classified in superfamily Hesperioidea, and the moth-like Hedyloidea....

 that would help them evade bats at night. They have been shown to exhibit typical moth evasive behaviour towards bats such as erratic spiralling movements and dives. The resting posture is often at a curious angle, with the thorax tilted and the posterior edge of the hindwings nearly touching the substrate (Scoble, 1986). The larvae which lack the prominent horns in the first instar
Instar
An instar is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each molt , until sexual maturity is reached. Arthropods must shed the exoskeleton in order to grow or assume a new form. Differences between instars can often be seen in altered body proportions, colors, patterns, or...

 tend to rest on the midrib of the leaf and often skeletonise leaves or at either side produce an untidy patchwork of holes. The elegant pupa is attached by a cremaster
Cremaster
Cremaster is a term derived from the Greek verb κρεμάννυμι = "I hang ", not from Latin cremare = "to burn". It may refer to:* The cremaster muscle, part of genital anatomy in human males** Cremaster reflex, a reflex in the muscle...

 and silken girdle and sometimes resembles a bird dropping.

List of species


This list of species is largely based on phenetic
Phenetics
In biology, phenetics, also known as taximetrics, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. It is closely related to numerical taxonomy which is concerned with the use of...

 characters.
  • Macrosoma albida
  • Macrosoma albifascia
  • Macrosoma albimacula
  • Macrosoma albipannosa
  • Macrosoma albistria
  • Macrosoma amaculata
  • Macrosoma bahiata
  • Macrosoma cascaria
  • Macrosoma conifera
  • Macrosoma coscoja
  • Macrosoma costilunata
  • Macrosoma hedylaria
  • Macrosoma heliconiaria
  • Macrosoma hyacinthina
  • Macrosoma intermedia
  • Macrosoma klagesi
  • Macrosoma lamellifera
  • Macrosoma leptosiata
  • Macrosoma leucophasiata
  • Macrosoma leucoplethes
  • Macrosoma lucivittata
  • Macrosoma minutipuncta
  • Macrosoma muscerdata
  • Macrosoma napiaria
  • Macrosoma nigrimacula
  • Macrosoma paularia
  • Macrosoma pectinogyna
  • Macrosoma rubedinaria
  • Macrosoma satellitiata
  • Macrosoma semiermis
  • Macrosoma stabilinota
  • Macrosoma subornata
  • Macrosoma tipulata
  • Macrosoma uniformis
  • Macrosoma ustrinaria

  • Biology and hostplants


    The life history of Macrosoma heliconiaria was originally described from plants of Byttneria aculeata in Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

    . This was a historical breakthrough into the biology of hedylids. In this study, Kendall commented notably "I thought the larvae might represent a satyr species, but when the first larva pupated I was sure it was a pierid. The first adult emerged as a complete surprise. The pupa...is secured by girdle and cremaster, not unlike a pierid". Macrosoma cascaria was later also reared on this plant in Panama
    Panama
    Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

    . More life histories are now known. From these data, known hostplants span a wide range of (according to the APG II system
    APG II system
    The APG II system of plant classification is the second, now obsolete, version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy that was published in April 2003 by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. It was a revision of the first APG system, published in 1998, and was superseded in 2009...

    ) rosid dicotyledonous plants, including the rosid order Myrtales
    Myrtales
    The Myrtales are an order of flowering plants placed as a basal group within the rosid group of dicotyledons...

     family Melastomataceae
    Melastomataceae
    right|thumb|200px|Characteristic venation of many melastomesThe family Melastomataceae is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics comprising some 200 genera and 4500 species...

     (genera Miconia
    Miconia
    Miconia is a genus of flowering plants in the glory bush family, Melastomataceae, native to warm temperate to tropical regions of the Americas. The species are mostly shrubs and small to medium-sized trees up to 15 m tall...

    , Conostegia
    Melastomataceae
    right|thumb|200px|Characteristic venation of many melastomesThe family Melastomataceae is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics comprising some 200 genera and 4500 species...

    , and Ossaea
    Melastomataceae
    right|thumb|200px|Characteristic venation of many melastomesThe family Melastomataceae is a taxon of dicotyledonous flowering plants found mostly in the tropics comprising some 200 genera and 4500 species...

    ), the eurosid I
    Rosids
    The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families...

     order Malpighiales
    Malpighiales
    Malpighiales is one of the largest orders of flowering plants, containing about 16000 species, approximately 7.8% of the eudicots. The order is very diverse and hard to recognize except with molecular phylogenetic evidence. It is not part of any of the classification systems that are based only on...

    , families Euphorbiaceae
    Euphorbiaceae
    Euphorbiaceae, the Spurge family are a large family of flowering plants with 300 genera and around 7,500 species. Most are herbs, but some, especially in the tropics, are also shrubs or trees. Some are succulent and resemble cacti....

     (Croton), and Malpighiaceae
    Malpighiaceae
    Malpighiaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales. It comprises approximately 75 genera and 1300 species, all of which are native to the tropics and subtropics...

     (Byrsonima
    Byrsonima
    Byrsonima is one of about 75 genera in the Malpighiaceae, a family of flowering plants in the order Malpighiales. In particular in American English, they are known as locustberries...

    ), the eurosid II
    Rosids
    The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification. These orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families...

     orders Sapindales
    Sapindales
    Sapindales is a botanical name for an order of flowering plants. Well-known members of Sapindales include citrus; maples, horse-chestnuts, lychees and rambutans; mangos and cashews; frankincense and myrrh; mahogany and neem....

    , family Rutaceae
    Rutaceae
    Rutaceae, commonly known as the rue or citrus family, is a family of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales.Species of the family generally have flowers that divide into four or five parts, usually with strong scents...

     (Zanthoxylum
    Zanthoxylum
    Zanthoxylum is a genus of about 250 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs in the citrus or rue family, Rutaceae, native to warm temperate and subtropical areas worldwide. Common names include Prickly-ash and Hercules' Club.The fruit of several species are used to make the spice...

    ) and more commonly Malvales
    Malvales
    Malvales are an order of flowering plants. As circumscribed by APG II-system, it includes about 6000 species within nine families. The order is placed in the eurosids II, which are part of the eudicots....

    , family Malvaceae
    Malvaceae
    Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

    , tribes: Bombacoideae
    Malvaceae
    Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

     (Ochroma), Malvoideae
    Malvaceae
    Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

     (Hampea
    Malvaceae
    Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

    and also Hibiscus
    Hibiscus
    Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world...

    , Byttnerioideae
    Malvaceae
    Malvaceae, or the mallow family, is a family of flowering plants containing over 200 genera with close to 2,300 species. Judd & al. Well known members of this family include okra, jute and cacao...

     (Byttneria aculeata, Theobroma
    Theobroma
    Theobroma is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae, that is sometimes classified as a member of Sterculiaceae. It contains roughly 20 species of small understory trees native to the tropical forests of Central and South America...

    ) and Grewioideae
    Grewioideae
    Grewioideae is a subfamily of the Malvaceae family.The group is named after its type genus, Grewia, which is named for the English scientist Nehemiah Grew .-External links:*http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Grewioideae...

     (Luehea
    Grewioideae
    Grewioideae is a subfamily of the Malvaceae family.The group is named after its type genus, Grewia, which is named for the English scientist Nehemiah Grew .-External links:*http://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Grewioideae...

    ). The "green lizard caterpillar" Macrosoma tipulata attacks an economically important local fruit tree "Cupuaçu" (Theobroma grandiflorum) in Brazil
    Brazil
    Brazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...

     and can defoliate saplings; the biology of this species has been studied and illustrated in some detail. The larva of this species lives about 15 days in 5 instars, the pupal stage lasts about 7 days and the adult lives about 10 days. M. tipulata and many other species can be found as adults through most of the year.

    DNA sequences


    A few species have been sequenced
    DNA sequencing
    DNA sequencing includes several methods and technologies that are used for determining the order of the nucleotide bases—adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine—in a molecule of DNA....

     for the mitochondrial genes "cytochrome oxidase I", and "ND1" and nuclear gene
    Nuclear gene
    A Nuclear gene is a gene located in the cell nucleus of a eukaryote. The term is used to distinguish nuclear genes from the genes in the mitochondrion, and in case of plants, also the chloroplast, which host their own genetic system and can produce proteins from scratch...

    s "Wingless" and "Ef-1?", including Macrosoma semiermis. Some species are currently being barcoded
    DNA barcoding
    DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species. It differs from molecular phylogeny in that the main goal is not to determine classification but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a known...

    .

    Sources

    • Scoble, M.J. (1986). The structure and affinities of the Hedyloidea: a new concept of the butterflies. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology Series, 53: 251-286.

    External links