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Columbia, Missouri

Columbia, Missouri

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Columbia is the fifth-largest city in Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

, and the largest city in Mid-Missouri
Mid-Missouri
Mid-Missouri is a loosely defined region comprising the central area of United States state of Missouri. The region's largest city is Columbia . The Missouri state capital, Jefferson City, and the University of Missouri are also located here. The region also includes parts of the Lake of the...

. With a population of 108,500 as of the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Columbia Metropolitan Area
Columbia, Missouri Metropolitan Area
The Columbia, Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties—Boone and Howard—in central Missouri, anchored by the city of Columbia...

, a region of 164,283 residents. The city serves as the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Boone County
Boone County, Missouri
Boone County is a county centrally located in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is the eighth most populous county in Missouri. In 2010, the population was 162,642. Its county seat, Columbia, is the fifth largest city in Missouri and the anchor city of the Columbia Metropolitan Area.-History:Boone...

 and as the location of the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri System is a state university system providing centralized administration for four universities, a health care system, an extension program, five research and technology parks, and a publishing press. More than 64,000 students are currently enrolled at its four campuses...

. The college town
College town
A college town or university town is a community which is dominated by its university population...

 is politically liberal and is known by the nicknames "The Athens of Missouri," "College Town USA," and "CoMO." Over half of Columbians possess a bachelor's degree and over a quarter hold graduate degrees, making it the thirteenth most highly educated municipality in the United States.

Columbia was settled in Pre-Columbian
Pre-Columbian
The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during...

 times by the mound-building Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 CE to 1500 CE, varying regionally....

 of Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

. In 1818, a group of settlers incorporated under the Smithton Land Company purchased over 2000 acres (8.1 km²) and established the village of Smithton near present-day downtown Columbia. In 1821, the settlers moved and re-named the settlement Columbia
Historical Columbia
Columbia is an historical and poetic name for America – and the early United States of America in particular, for which it is also the name of its female personification...

—a poetic name for the United States. The founding of the University of Missouri in 1839 established the city as a center of education and research. Two other institutions of higher education, Stephens College
Stephens College
Stephens College is a women's college located in Columbia, Missouri. It is the second oldest female educational establishment that is still a women's college in the United States. It was founded on August 24, 1833 as the Columbia Female Academy. In 1856, David H. Hickman turned it into a college,...

 in 1833 and Columbia College in 1851, were also established within the city.

Located among small tributary
Tributary
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean...

 valleys of the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

, Columbia is roughly equidistant from St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

 and Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

. Greater St. Louis is 70 miles (112.7 km) to the East, and the Kansas City Metropolitan Area
Kansas City Metropolitan Area
The Kansas City Metropolitan Area is a fifteen-county metropolitan area that is anchored by Kansas City, Missouri and is bisected by the border between the states of Missouri and Kansas. As of the 2010 Census, the metropolitan area has a population of 2,035,334. The metropolitan area is the...

 is 100 miles (160.9 km) to the West. Today, Columbia has a highly diversified economy, and is often ranked high for its business atmosphere. Never a strong center of industry and manufacturing, the city's economic base relies on the education, medical, technology and insurance industries. Studies consistently rank Columbia as a top city in which to live for educational facilities, health care, technological savvy, economic growth, cultural opportunities and cost of living. The city has been ranked as high as the second-best place to live in the United States by Money Magazine
Money (magazine)
Money is published by Time Inc. Its first issue was published in October 1972. Its articles cover the gamut of personal finance topics ranging from investing, saving, retirement and taxes to family finance issues like paying for college, credit, career and home improvement...

's annual list, but has not been ranked in the top 100 since 2006. Residents of Columbia are usually described as "Columbians."

History



The Columbia area was once part of the Mississippian culture
Mississippian culture
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 CE to 1500 CE, varying regionally....

 and home to the Mound Builders. When European explorers arrived, the area was populated by the Osage
Osage Nation
The Osage Nation is a Native American Siouan-language tribe in the United States that originated in the Ohio River valley in present-day Kentucky. After years of war with invading Iroquois, the Osage migrated west of the Mississippi River to their historic lands in present-day Arkansas, Missouri,...

 and Missouri
Missouri tribe
The Missouria or Missouri are a Native American tribe that originated in the Great Lakes region of United States before European contact. The tribe belongs to the Chiwere division of the Siouan language family, together with the Iowa and Otoe...

 Indians. In 1678, La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle
René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle was a French explorer. He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico...

 claimed all of Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

 for France. The Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark Expedition
The Lewis and Clark Expedition, or ″Corps of Discovery Expedition" was the first transcontinental expedition to the Pacific Coast by the United States. Commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson and led by two Virginia-born veterans of Indian wars in the Ohio Valley, Meriwether Lewis and William...

 passed by the area on the Missouri River in 1803. In 1806, Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits mad']'e him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky, which was then beyond the western borders of...

 and his sons established a salt lick
Salt lick
A mineral lick is a natural mineral deposit where animals in nutrient-poor ecosystems can obtain essential mineral nutrients...

  northwest of Columbia. The Booneslick Trail wound from Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 through St. Charles to the lick. In 1818, a group of settlers, incorporated under the Smithton Land Company, purchased over 2000 acres (8.1 km²) and established the village of Smithton less than a mile from current day downtown Columbia. In 1821, the settlers moved, because of lack of water, across the Flat Branch to the plateau between the Flat Branch and Hinkson creeks in what is now the downtown district. They re-named the settlement Columbia
Historical Columbia
Columbia is an historical and poetic name for America – and the early United States of America in particular, for which it is also the name of its female personification...

—a popular historical name for the United States.

The roots of Columbia's three economic foundations—education, medicine, and insurance—can be traced back to incorporation in 1821. Original plans for the town set aside land for a state university. Columbia College (distinct from today's), later to become The University of Missouri, was founded in 1839. When the state legislature decided to establish a state university, Columbia raised three times as much money as any other competing city and James S. Rollins
James S. Rollins
James Sidney Rollins was a nineteenth century Missouri politician and lawyer. He helped establish the University of Missouri, led the successful effort to get it located in Boone County, and gained funding for the University with the passage of a series of acts in the Missouri Legislature...

 donated the land that is today the Francis Quadrangle. Soon other educational institutions were founded in Columbia such as Christian Female College, the first college for women west of the Mississippi, which later became the current Columbia College. In 1833, Columbia Baptist Female College opened, which later became Stephens College
Stephens College
Stephens College is a women's college located in Columbia, Missouri. It is the second oldest female educational establishment that is still a women's college in the United States. It was founded on August 24, 1833 as the Columbia Female Academy. In 1856, David H. Hickman turned it into a college,...

. The city benefited from being a stagecoach stop of the Santa Fe
Santa Fe Trail
The Santa Fe Trail was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1822 by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial and military highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880...

 and Oregon
Oregon Trail
The Oregon Trail is a historic east-west wagon route that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon and locations in between.After 1840 steam-powered riverboats and steamboats traversing up and down the Ohio, Mississippi and Missouri rivers sped settlement and development in the flat...

 trails, and later from the Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad. In 1822 the first hospital was set up by William Jewell
William Jewell
William Jewell was a politician, physician, and educator from Columbia, Missouri and namesake of William Jewell College in Liberty, Missouri.-Life:...

. In 1830, the first newspaper began; in 1832, the first theater in the state was opened; and in 1835, the state's first agricultural fair was held. By 1839, the population (13,000) and wealth of Boone County was exceeded in Missouri only by that of St. Louis County
St. Louis County, Missouri
St. Louis County is a county located in the U.S. state of Missouri. Its county seat is Clayton. St. Louis County is part of the St. Louis Metro Area wherein the independent City of St. Louis and its suburbs in St. Louis County, as well as the surrounding counties in both Missouri and Illinois all...

, which at that time included the City of St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

.


Columbia's infrastructure was wholly untouched by the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. Missouri, as a slave state, had Southern sympathies, but remained in the union. The majority of the city was pro-union, however, the surrounding agricultural areas of Boone County and the rest of central Missouri were decidedly pro-slavery. Because of this, the University of Missouri became a base from which union troops operated. No battles were fought within the city because the presence of union troop dissuaded the confederate guerrillas from attacking, though several major battles occurred nearby at Boonville
Boonville, Missouri
This page is about the city in Missouri. For other communities of the same name, see Boonville Boonville is a city in Cooper County, Missouri, USA. The population was 8,202 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Cooper County. The city was the site of a skirmish early in the American Civil...

 and Centralia
Centralia, Missouri
Centralia is a city in Audrain and Boone counties in the U.S. state of Missouri. The population was 3,774 at the 2000 census.The Boone County portion of Centralia is part of the Columbia Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the Audrain County portion is part of the Mexico Micropolitan Statistical...

.

In 1963, Columbia become home to the headquarters of both the University of Missouri System, which today serves over 71,000 students, and the Columbia College system, which today serves about 25,000 students. The insurance industry also became important to the local economy as several companies established headquarters in Columbia, including Shelter Insurance
Shelter Insurance
Shelter Insurance Company is a mutual insurance company which focuses on Auto, Life, Home, Business, and Farm coverage. It operates in fourteen U.S. states and the headquarters is in Columbia, Missouri....

, Missouri Employers Mutual
Missouri Employers Mutual
Missouri Employers Mutual Insurance is the number one workers' compensation provider in Missouri. MEM provides coverage in nearly all 600 National Council on Compensation Insurance classes. Headquartered in Columbia, Missouri, MEM has offices in Kansas City, Missouri, Springfield, Missouri, and...

, and Columbia Insurance Group
Columbia Insurance Group
Columbia Mutual Insurance Company is the parent company of a group of five property and casualty insurance companies operating as the Columbia Insurance Group. The group of companies primarily focus on insuring businesses but, also, insure farms, homes and cars. The company is licensed in 30...

. State Farm Insurance
State Farm Insurance
State Farm Insurance is a group of insurance and financial services companies in the United States. The company also has operations in Canada....

 has a regional office in Columbia. In addition, the now defunct Silvey Insurance was once a large local employer. Columbia became a transportation crossroads when U.S. Route 63 and U.S. Route 40 (which became present-day Interstate 70) were routed through the city. Soon after the city opened the Columbia Regional Airport
Columbia Regional Airport
Columbia Regional Airport is a public airport located 10 miles southeast of the central business district of Columbia, a city in Boone County, Missouri, USA. The airport covers and has two runways. The Airport is served by one commercial airline and provides general aviation services as well...

. The latter 20th century saw tremendous growth, and by 2000 the population was nearly 85,000 in the city proper.

In early 2006, Columbia embarked on a plan to manage the continued growth as the city neared 100,000 population. The city is today growing especially towards the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

 in southwest Boone County. The downtown district has maintained its status as a cultural center and is undergoing significant development in both residential and commercial sectors. The University of Missouri, which has tremendous economic impact on the city, experienced record enrollment in 2006 and is undertaking significant construction. The city experienced a violent crime spike in late 2007, and the city's growth is often cited as a contributing factor.

Geography


Columbia, located in the center of Missouri, is 120 miles (193.1 km) away from both St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

 and Kansas City
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City, Missouri is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri and is the anchor city of the Kansas City Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Missouri. It encompasses in parts of Jackson, Clay, Cass, and Platte counties...

, and 29 miles (46.7 km) north of the state capital Jefferson City
Jefferson City, Missouri
Jefferson City is the capital of the U.S. state of Missouri and the county seat of Cole County. Located in Callaway and Cole counties, it is the principal city of the Jefferson City metropolitan area, which encompasses the entirety of both counties. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,079...

. The city is near the Missouri River
Missouri River
The Missouri River flows through the central United States, and is a tributary of the Mississippi River. It is the longest river in North America and drains the third largest area, though only the thirteenth largest by discharge. The Missouri's watershed encompasses most of the American Great...

 between the Ozark Plateau and the Northern Plains. Trees are mainly oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

, maple
Maple
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.Maples are variously classified in a family of their own, the Aceraceae, or together with the Hippocastanaceae included in the family Sapindaceae. Modern classifications, including the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system, favour inclusion in...

, and hickory
Hickory
Trees in the genus Carya are commonly known as hickory, derived from the Powhatan language of Virginia. The genus includes 17–19 species of deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and big nuts...

; common understory trees include Eastern Redbud
Eastern Redbud
Cercis canadensis L. is a large shrub or small tree native to eastern North America from Southern Ontario, Canada south to northern Florida, United States....

, Serviceberry, and Flowering Dogwood
Flowering Dogwood
Cornus florida is a species of dogwood native to eastern North America, from southern Maine west to southern Ontario, Illinois, and eastern Kansas, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas, with a disjunct population in Nuevo León and Veracruz in eastern Mexico.-Classification:The flowering...

. Riparian areas are forested with mainly American sycamore. Much of the residential area of the city is planted with large native shade tree
Shade tree
A shade tree is any tree grown specifically for its shade. This term usually applies to large trees with spreading canopies. Shade trees are effective in reducing the energy used in cooling homes....

s. In Autumn, the changing color of the trees is notable. Most species here are typical of the Eastern Woodland.

Topography



The city generally slopes from the highest point in the Northeast to the lowest point in the Southwest towards the Missouri River. Prominent tributaries of the river are Perche Creek, Hinkson Creek, and Flat Branch Creek. Along these, and other creeks in the area can be found large valleys, cliffs, and cave systems such as that in Rock Bridge State Park just south of the city. These creeks are largely responsible for numerous stream valleys giving Columbia hilly terrain similar to the Ozarks while also having flatland typical of northern Missouri. The city operates several greenbelts with trails and parks throughout the city. According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 60.4 square miles (156.4 km²), of which, 60.1 square miles (155.7 km²) is land and 0.3 square mile (0.776996433 km²) (0.51%) is water.

Animal life


Large mammals found in the city include urbanized coyotes and numerous whitetail deer. Eastern Gray Squirrel
Eastern Gray Squirrel
The eastern gray squirrel is a tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus native to the eastern and midwestern United States, and to the southerly portions of the eastern provinces of Canada...

, and other rodents are abundant, as well as Cottontail rabbit
Cottontail rabbit
The cottontail rabbits are among the 16 lagomorph species in the genus Sylvilagus, found in the Americas.In appearance, most cottontail rabbits closely resemble the wild European Rabbit...

s and the nocturnal Opossum and Raccoon
Raccoon
Procyon is a genus of nocturnal mammals, comprising three species commonly known as raccoons, in the family Procyonidae. The most familiar species, the common raccoon , is often known simply as "the" raccoon, as the two other raccoon species in the genus are native only to the tropics and are...

. Large bird species are abundant in parks and include the Canada goose
Canada Goose
The Canada Goose is a wild goose belonging to the genus Branta, which is native to arctic and temperate regions of North America, having a black head and neck, white patches on the face, and a brownish-gray body....

, Mallard duck, as well as shorebirds, including the Great Egret
Great Egret
The Great Egret , also known as the Great White Egret or Common Egret, White Heron, or Great White Heron, is a large, widely-distributed egret. Distributed across most of the tropical and warmer temperate regions of the world, in southern Europe it is rather localized...

 and Great Blue Heron
Great Blue Heron
The Great Blue Heron is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North and Central America as well as the West Indies and the Galápagos Islands. It is a rare vagrant to Europe, with records from Spain, the Azores and England...

. Turkeys are also common in wooded areas and can occasionally be seen on the MKT recreation trail. Populations of Bald Eagle
Bald Eagle
The Bald Eagle is a bird of prey found in North America. It is the national bird and symbol of the United States of America. This sea eagle has two known sub-species and forms a species pair with the White-tailed Eagle...

s are found by the Missouri River. The city is on the Mississippi Flyway
Mississippi Flyway
The Mississippi Flyway is a bird migration route that generally follows the Mississippi River in the United States and the Mackenzie River in Canada. The main endpoints of the flyway include central Canada and the region surrounding the Gulf of Mexico...

, used by migrating birds, and has a large variety of small bird species, common to the eastern U.S. The Eurasian Tree Sparrow, an introduced species, is limited in North America to the counties surrounding St. Louis. Columbia has large areas of forested and open land and many of these areas are home to wildlife.

Frogs are commonly found in the springtime, especially after extensive wet periods. Common species include the American toad
American toad
The American Toad is a common species of toad found throughout the eastern United States and Canada. It is divided into three subspecies—the Eastern American Toad , the Dwarf American Toad , and the rare Hudson Bay Toad...

 and species of chorus frogs, commonly called "spring peepers" that are found in nearly every pond. Some years have outbreaks of cicadas or ladybugs. Mosquito
Mosquito
Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies: the Culicidae . The word Mosquito is from the Spanish and Portuguese for little fly...

s and houseflies are common insect nuisances; because of this, windows are nearly universally fitted with screens, and "screened-in" porches are common in homes of the area.

Climate




Columbia has a climate marked by sharp seasonal contrasts in temperature, falling between a humid continental and humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Dfa/Cfa, respectively). Monthly daily averages range from 27.8 °F (-2.3 °C) in January to 77.4 °F (25.2 °C) in July, and the annual mean is 54 °F (12.2 °C). The temperature exceeds 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 36 days per year, and every few years exceeds 100 °F (38 °C), while 5 to 6 nights of below 0 °F (-18 °C) conditions can be expected. Precipitation tends to be greatest and most frequent in spring, when severe weather is also most common. Snow averages 26 inches (66 cm) per season, and typically falls in light amounts at a time. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −26 °F in February 1899 to 113 °F (45 °C) in July 1954.

Cityscape



Columbia's most commonly recognizable architectural attributes reside downtown and within the university campuses. Widely used icons of the city are the University of Missouri's Jesse Hall
Jesse Hall
Jesse Hall is the main administration building for the University of Missouri. Built in 1893 after Academic Hall burned to the ground, the building is one of the major symbols of the University. It is located at the south end of the David R...

 and the neo-gothic Memorial Union
Memorial Union (University of Missouri)
Memorial Union serves as a community center for the University of Missouri by providing meeting rooms, technology centers, dining facilities, and playing host to many special events...

. The David R. Francis Quadrangle
David R. Francis Quadrangle
David R. Francis Quadrangle is the historical center of the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. It is named after Missouri governor David R. Francis, and is often simply called "The Quad." Within the quad are two of the most recognizable symbols of the school, Jesse Hall and The Columns...

 is an example of Thomas Jefferson's
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...

 academic village
Jeffersonian architecture
Jeffersonian Architecture is an American form of Neo-Classicism or Neo-Palladianism embodied in American president and polymath Thomas Jefferson's designs for his home , his retreat , his school , and his designs for the homes of friends and political allies...

 concept. There are four historic districts
Historic district (United States)
In the United States, a historic district is a group of buildings, properties, or sites that have been designated by one of several entities on different levels as historically or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures, objects and sites within a historic district are normally divided...

 listed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 within the city: Downtown Columbia
Downtown Columbia, Missouri
Downtown Columbia is the central business, government and social core of Columbia, Missouri and the Columbia Metropolitan Area. The area is bordered by three colleges the University of Missouri, Stephens College, and Columbia College....

, East Campus Neighborhood
East Campus Neighborhood
East Campus is a neighborhood of Columbia, Missouri directly east of the University of Missouri and downtown Columbia. The area contains historic residential property as well many Greek student organizations houses...

, Francis Quadrangle, and North Ninth Street Historic District
North Ninth Street Historic District
The North Ninth Street Historic District in Downtown Columbia, Missouri was listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. The area has historically been a center of commerce, recreation, and culture. The popular music venue The Blue Note is located within the...

. The downtown skyline is relatively low and is dominated by the 10-story Tiger Hotel
Tiger Hotel
The Tiger Hotel is a former Hotel in Columbia, Missouri. It was a retirement home and currently serves as a banquet center in downtown Columbia. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.-References:...

, and the 15-story Paquin Tower.
Downtown Columbia is an area of approximately one square mile surrounded by the University of Missouri on the south, Columbia College on the north, and Stephens College to the east. The area serves as Columbia's financial and business district and is the topic of a large initiative to draw tourism, which includes plans to capitalize on the area's historic architecture, and bohemian characteristics. The city's historic residential core lies in a ring around downtown, extending especially to the west along Broadway, and south into the East Campus neighborhoods. Columbia can be divided into roughly 36 neighborhoods and subdivisions. The city's most dense commercial areas are primarily located along Interstate 70, U.S. Route 63, Stadium Blvd, Grindstone Pkwy, and the downtown area.

Demographics



In 2000, the city had a day time population of 106,487. As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 84,531 people, 33,689 households, and 17,282 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 1,592.8 people per square mile (615.0/km²). There were 35,916 housing units at an average density of 676.8 per square mile (261.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 81.54% White, 10.85% Black or African American
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, 0.39% Native American, 4.30% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 2.07% from two or more races. 2.05% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 33,689 households out of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the city the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 26.7% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 16.2% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,729, and the median income for a family was $52,288. Males had a median income of $34,710 versus $26,694 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $19,507. About 9.4% of families and 19.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 5.2% of those age 65 or over. However, traditional measures of income and poverty can be misleading when applied to cities with high student populations, such as Columbia.

Economy


The economy of Columbia is historically dominated by education, healthcare, and the insurance industry. Jobs in government are also common, either in Columbia or a half-hour away in Jefferson City
Jefferson City, Missouri
Jefferson City is the capital of the U.S. state of Missouri and the county seat of Cole County. Located in Callaway and Cole counties, it is the principal city of the Jefferson City metropolitan area, which encompasses the entirety of both counties. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,079...

. Commutes into the city are also common and in 2000 the city had a day time population of 106,487. The Columbia Regional Airport
Columbia Regional Airport
Columbia Regional Airport is a public airport located 10 miles southeast of the central business district of Columbia, a city in Boone County, Missouri, USA. The airport covers and has two runways. The Airport is served by one commercial airline and provides general aviation services as well...

 and the Missouri River Port of Rocheport
Rocheport, Missouri
Rocheport is a city in Boone County, Missouri, United States. It is part of the Columbia, Missouri Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 208 at the 2000 census...

 connect the region with trade and transportation. The University of Missouri is by far the city's largest employer.

The economy of the metro area is slightly larger than that of the Bahamas. With a Gross Metropolitan Product of $5.84 billion in 2004, Columbia's economy makes up 2.9% of the Gross State Product of Missouri. Insurance corporations headquartered in Columbia include Shelter Insurance
Shelter Insurance
Shelter Insurance Company is a mutual insurance company which focuses on Auto, Life, Home, Business, and Farm coverage. It operates in fourteen U.S. states and the headquarters is in Columbia, Missouri....

, and Columbia Insurance Group
Columbia Insurance Group
Columbia Mutual Insurance Company is the parent company of a group of five property and casualty insurance companies operating as the Columbia Insurance Group. The group of companies primarily focus on insuring businesses but, also, insure farms, homes and cars. The company is licensed in 30...

. Other organizations include MFA Incorporated
MFA Incorporated
MFA Incorporated is a Midwest-based regional agricultural Cooperative serving more than 45,000 farmer/owners in Missouri and adjacent states.Founded on March 10, 1914, MFA was organized in Brunswick, Missouri at the Newcomer School. William Hirth was MFA's first president, serving until his death...

, Missouri State High School Activities Association
Missouri State High School Activities Association
The Missouri State High School Activities Association is the governing body for high school activities throughout the state of Missouri...

 and MFA Oil
MFA Oil
MFA Oil is an energy cooperative started in 1929 by the Missouri Farmers Association. It produces fuel and lubrication products and manages bulk petroleum and propane plants in the Central US. The company operates 76 Break Time convenience stores in Missouri and Arkansas. The company also...

. Companies such as Socket (Telecommunications Provider)
Socket (Telecommunications Provider)
Socket is a Missouri based telecommunications provider, with its headquarters located in Columbia, Missouri. Socket is a privately held company and offers local and long distance phone service, DSL and dial-up internet, and data solutions to residents and businesses across Missouri.- History...

, Datastorm Technologies, Inc.
Datastorm Technologies, Inc.
Datastorm was a computer software company that existed from 1986 until 1996. The company was founded by Bruce Barkelew and Thomas Smith.Datastorm and their software, ProComm, was prominent in a pre-TCP/IP world where computer-to-computer modem connections were common...

, Slackers CDs and Games
Slackers CDs and Games
Slackers CDs and Games, often shortened to Slackers, is a small chain of entertainment retailers located in the Midwestern United States. The store specializes in both new and used video games and music. It was founded in 1993 in Columbia, Missouri by Kurt Jellinek and Paul Zacharias, originally as...

 and Carfax
Carfax (company)
Carfax, Inc. is a commercial web-based service that supplies vehicle history reports to individuals and businesses on used cars and light trucks for the American and Canadian marketplaces.-History:...

 were founded in Columbia.

MBS Textbook Exchange, regarded as the industry leader in new and used textbooks in the nation was founded in Columbia. It holds the largest inventory of new and used textbooks in the nation. It is also the largest private employer in Columbia.

Culture



The Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts
Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts
The Missouri Theatre Center for the Arts is a concert and entertainment venue in downtown Columbia, Missouri, occupying most of a city block between 9th street between Locust and Elm Streets. It was designed after the Opéra Garnier by the Boller Brothers, built in 1928, and is on the National...

 and Jesse Auditorium
Jesse Hall
Jesse Hall is the main administration building for the University of Missouri. Built in 1893 after Academic Hall burned to the ground, the building is one of the major symbols of the University. It is located at the south end of the David R...

 are Columbia's largest fine arts venues. The Ragtag Cinema
Ragtag Cinema
Ragtag Cinema is a non-profit independent movie theater located in Columbia, Missouri. The theater was founded by Paul Sturtz and David Wilson in May 2000. The theater strives to champion film and other media arts to stimulate and encourage the culture of the community...

 host the well-known True/False Film Festival
True/False Film Festival
The True/False Film Festival is an annual documentary film festival that takes place in Columbia, Missouri. The festival usually happens on a weekend toward the end of February or the beginning of March, with films being shown from Thursday night to Sunday night...

 annually. In 2008, filmmaker Todd Sklar completed Box Elder
Box Elder (film)
Box Elder is an American independent film. It was written and directed by Todd Sklar, his first feature film. The film stars Alex Rennie, Nick Renkoski, Chad Haas, as well as Sklar.- Plot synopsis :...

, which was filmed entirely in and around Columbia and the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri System is a state university system providing centralized administration for four universities, a health care system, an extension program, five research and technology parks, and a publishing press. More than 64,000 students are currently enrolled at its four campuses...

. The University of Missouri's Museum of Art and Archaeology
Museum of Art and Archaeology
The Museum of Art and Archaeology, in Columbia, Missouri, is the art museum of the University of Missouri. It is located in Pickard Hall, which also houses the Department of Art History and Archaeology. The Museum is open to the public six days per week and does not charge an admission...

 displays 14,000 works of art and archaeological objects in five galleries for no charge to the public. Libraries include the Columbia Public Library
Columbia Public Library
The Columbia Public Library is the public library for the city of Columbia, Missouri. It is the headquarters of the Daniel Boone Regional Library system, which also includes Callaway County Public Library, Southern Boone County Library, and two Bookmobiles. Columbia Public Library is the largest...

, the University of Missouri Libraries, with over three million volumes in Ellis Library
Ellis Library
Constructed in 1914, Ellis Library is the main library of the University of Missouri System located on the campus of the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri. It was named for former university president Elmer Ellis...

, and the State Historical Society of Missouri
State Historical Society of Missouri
The State Historical Society of Missouri, a private membership and state funded organization, is a comprehensive research facility located in Columbia, Missouri specializing in the preservation and study of Missouri's cultural heritage...

. The "We Always Swing" Jazz Series and the Roots N Blues N BBQ Festival
Roots N Blues N BBQ Festival
The Roots N Blues N BBQ Festival is a summer music festival that takes place in Columbia, Missouri. It features food, area craftspeople, a sanctioned barbecue contest, and nationally known musicians performing bluegrass, blues, Appalachian folk, gospel and other genres of American-based music. The...

 bring some of the country's finest Jazz and Blues to Columbia and Central Missouri.

Columbia has a flourishing and progressive music scene thanks in large part to many acts that come out of the University. The indie band White Rabbits
White Rabbits (band)
White Rabbits is an American six-piece indie rock band based in Brooklyn, NY, originally from Columbia, Missouri. The band released its debut studio album, Fort Nightly, on May 22, 2007. They currently record for TBD Records.-History:...

 was formed while the members were students at the University of Missouri before moving to Brooklyn to record and gain a higher profile. Musical artists from Columbia have been compiled by Painfully Midwestern Records
Painfully Midwestern Records
Painfully Midwestern Records is a non-profit record label from Columbia, Missouri founded in 2005 by Jason Cafer, a DJ on KCOU, the college radio station at University of Missouri The label has released three compilations of bands from Mid-Missouri spanning over 80 artists almost all from...

 with the ComoMusic Anthology series, and the "Das Kompilation" release. Although the hip
Hipster (contemporary subculture)
Hipsters are a subculture of young, recently settled urban middle class adults and older teenagers with musical interests mainly in alternative rock that appeared in the 1990s...

 genre continues to give Columbia some music recognition, it is their progressive psychedelic-heavy metal music scene that has garnered some attention lately. There are also local punk and hip-hop scenes that are gaining momentum locally. Country music singer-songwriter Brett James
Brett James
Brett James Cornelius is an American singer, songwriter and record producer. Signed to Career Records as a solo artist in 1995, James charted three singles and released a self-titled debut album that year...

 is also a native of Columbia. The song "Whiskey Bottle," by Uncle Tupelo
Uncle Tupelo
Uncle Tupelo was an alternative country music group from Belleville, Illinois, active between 1987 and 1994. Jay Farrar, Jeff Tweedy, and Mike Heidorn formed the band after the lead singer of their previous band, The Primitives, left to attend college. The trio recorded three albums for Rockville...

, is rumored to be about the city of Columbia as it makes specific reference to a sign which used be displayed on a Columbia tackle shop sign which read, "Liquor, Guns, and Ammo." The sign is now displayed at the downtown location of Shakespeare's pizzeria
Shakespeare's Pizza
Shakespeare's Pizza, founded in 1973, is a Columbia, Missouri landmark known for its popular pizza and unconventional decor. Located at the intersection of 9th and Elm in downtown Columbia, it is across the street from the campus of the University of Missouri...

.

Sports



The University of Missouri's sports teams, the Missouri Tigers
Missouri Tigers
The Missouri Tigers athletics programs include the extramural and intramural sports teams of the University of Missouri, located in Columbia, Missouri, United States...

, play a significant role in the sports culture of Columbia. Faurot Field
Faurot Field
Faurot Field at Memorial Stadium is the home field of the University of Missouri Tigers in Columbia, Missouri. It is primarily used for football. In 1972, Memorial Stadium's playing surface was named Faurot Field in honor of longtime coach Don Faurot. During the offseason, soccer goals are set up...

, capacity 71,004, is host to both home football games and concerts. The Hearnes Center
Hearnes Center
Hearnes Center is a 13,611-seat multi-purpose arena in Columbia, Missouri. The arena opened in 1972. It is currently home to the Tigers' nationally ranked wrestling and volleyball teams as well as the school's gymnastics and indoor track & field teams...

 and Mizzou Arena
Mizzou Arena
Mizzou Arena is an indoor arena on the campus of the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri, USA. The facility, home to the school's men's and women's basketball teams, opened in November 2004 and replaced the Hearnes Center as the school's main indoor sports facility. The arched-roof...

 are two other large sport and event venues, the latter being the home arena for Mizzou's basketball team. Taylor Stadium
Taylor Stadium
Ralph and Debbie Taylor Stadium at Simmons Field is a baseball stadium in Columbia, Missouri. It is the home field of the University of Missouri baseball team. It was also the home of the defunct Mid-Missouri Mavericks minor league baseball team of the Frontier League.It originally opened in...

 is host to the University's baseball team and was the regional host for the 2007 NCAA Baseball Championship. Columbia College has several men and women collegiate sports teams as well. In 2007 Columbia hosted the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics
The National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics is an athletic association that organizes college and university-level athletic programs. Membership in the NAIA consists of smaller colleges and universities across the United States. The NAIA allows colleges and universities outside the USA...

 volleyball national championship which the Lady Cougars participated in.

Columbia also hosts the Show-Me State Games
Show-Me State Games
The Show-Me STATE GAMES is an Olympic-style competition for amateur athletes in the U.S. state of Missouri, held in the city of Columbia....

, a non-profit program of the Missouri Governor’s Council on Physical Fitness and Health. They are the largest state games
National Congress of State Games
The National Congress of State Games is a nonprofit organization consisting of 31 Summer State Games and 10 Winter State Games. It is part of the United States Olympic Committee and organizes the State Games of America, an Olympic-style multi-sport event in which athletes who have won a medal in...

 in the United States. The games consist of 26,000–28,000 Missouri amateur athletes (35,000 total athletes) of all ages and ability levels who compete in the Olympic-style
Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...

 sports festival every year during July and August. It recently made ESPN's
ESPN
Entertainment and Sports Programming Network, commonly known as ESPN, is an American global cable television network focusing on sports-related programming including live and pre-taped event telecasts, sports talk shows, and other original programming....

 list of "101 Things All Sports Fans Must Experience Before They Die".

Situated halfway between St. Louis and Kansas City, Columbians will often have allegiances to the professional sports teams housed there such as: the St. Louis Cardinals
St. Louis Cardinals
The St. Louis Cardinals are a professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri. They are members of the Central Division in the National League of Major League Baseball. The Cardinals have won eleven World Series championships, the most of any National League team, and second overall only to...

, Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Royals
The Kansas City Royals are a Major League Baseball team based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Royals are a member of the Central Division of Major League Baseball's American League. From 1973 to the present, the Royals have played in Kauffman Stadium...

. St. Louis Rams
St. Louis Rams
The St. Louis Rams are a professional American football team based in St. Louis, Missouri. They are currently members of the West Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League . The Rams have won three NFL Championships .The Rams began playing in 1936 in Cleveland,...

, Kansas City Chiefs
Kansas City Chiefs
The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team based in Kansas City, Missouri. They are a member of the Western Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League . Originally named the Dallas Texans, the club was founded by Lamar Hunt in 1960 as a...

, and St. Louis Blues.

The NRA Bianchi Cup is held every year in Columbia. It is among the most lucrative of all the shooting sports championships.

Starting in 2011, the Columbia Enforcers
Columbia Enforcers
The Columbia Enforcers are a team in the Women's Spring Football League based in Columbia, Missouri set to begin play for 2011.-External links:*...

 women's football
Women's American football
Women have begun playing full-contact American football. Most leagues play by the same rules as their male counterparts, with one exception: women's leagues use a slightly smaller football. Women primarily play on a semi-professional or amateur level in the United States...

 team will begin play as a member of the Women's Spring Football League
Women's Spring Football League
The Women's Spring Football League is a full contact Women's American football league which began play in 2010. Five teams played the WSFL's 2010 exhibition schedule, with twelve more joining for their first full season in 2011, and five more for 2012. Three of the league's original 5 have since...

.

Media


The city has two daily newspapers, the Columbia Missourian
Columbia Missourian
The Columbia Missourian, or the Missourian, is a daily morning newspaper published in Columbia, Missouri. It is one of two daily newspapers in Columbia...

in the morning and the Columbia Daily Tribune
Columbia Daily Tribune
The Columbia Daily Tribune, commonly referred to as the "Columbia Tribune" or the "Tribune," is one of two daily newspapers in Columbia, Missouri. It is also the only daily newspaper in Columbia, Missouri that has circulation verified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations, and has been a member of...

in the afternoon. The Missourian is directed by professional editors and staffed by Missouri School of Journalism
Missouri School of Journalism
The Missouri School of Journalism at University of Missouri in Columbia, claims to be the oldest formal journalism school in the world. Founded in 1908, only the Ecole Supérieure de Journalisme de Paris established in 1899 may be older...

 students who do the reporting, design, copy editing, information graphics, photography and multimedia. The Missourian is associated with the Spanish-English bilingual publication Adelante! and Vox magazine. With a daily circulation of nearly 20,000, the Tribune is the most widely read newspaper in central Missouri. The University of Missouri has the independent but official student newspaper, The Maneater
The Maneater
The Maneater student newspaper is the official, but independent, student-run newspaper of the University of Missouri. The Maneater editorial and advertising staffs are composed entirely of students with the exception of a professional business adviser and a receptionist. The newspaper has no...

, which is printed bi-weekly. The now-defunct Prysms Weekly
The Prysms Weekly
The Prysms Weekly was a news magazine created with the intent of providing Columbia, Missouri a forum for community discussion and a wide and uncensored spectrum of outlooks on a broad array of topics. Publisher, Tim Rappleano, created the paper in May 2007 from the remains of defunct MU Student...

 was also published in Columbia. In Fall of 2009, KCOU News officially launched full operations out of KCOU 88.1FM
KCOU
KCOU is a radio station broadcasting the College radio format. Licensed to Columbia, Missouri, USA, the station is currently owned by the Missouri Students Association at the University of Missouri.-History:...

 on the MU Campus. The entirely student run news organization airs a daily newscast "The Pulse" weekdays from 4:30 to 5:30 p.m.

The city has 14 radio stations and four television channels.

Government and politics



The City of Columbia's current government was established by a home rule charter adopted by voters on November 11, 1974, which established a Council-manager government
Council-manager government
The council–manager government form is one of two predominant forms of municipal government in the United States; the other common form of local government is the mayor-council government form, which characteristically occurs in large cities...

 that invested power in the City Council
City council
A city council or town council is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality or local government area.-Australia & NZ:Because of the differences in legislation between the States, the exact definition of a City Council varies...

. The City Council is made up of seven members - six elected by each of Columbia's six wards, plus an at-large
At-Large
At-large is a designation for representative members of a governing body who are elected or appointed to represent the whole membership of the body , rather than a subset of that membership...

 council member, the Mayor, who is elected by all city voters. All members of the council, none of whom receive a salary for their work, are elected to staggered three-year terms. The Mayor, in addition to being a voting member of the City Council, is recognized as the head of city government for ceremonial purposes. Chief executive authority is invested in a city manager
City manager
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council-manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities...

, who oversees the day-to-day operations of government.

Columbia is the county seat of Boone County, and the county court and government center are located there. The City is located in the ninth U.S. Congressional district
Congressional district
A congressional district is “a geographical division of a state from which one member of the House of Representatives is elected.”Congressional Districts are made up of three main components, a representative, constituents, and the specific land area that both the representative and the...

. The 19th Missouri State Senate district covers all of Boone County. There are five Missouri House of Representatives
Missouri House of Representatives
The Missouri House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the Missouri General Assembly. It has 163 members, representing districts with an average size of 31,000 residents. House members are elected for two-year terms during general elections held in even-numbered years.In 1992 Missouri...

 districts (9, 21, 23, 24, 25) in the city. Columbia is home to a plethora of attorneys and serves as a legal hub and testing grounds for many new laws and grassroot efforts. The principle law enforcement agency is the Columbia Police Department
Columbia Police Department
The Columbia Police Department, also known as the CPD, is the principal law enforcement agency of the City of Columbia, Missouri, in the United States...

, with the Columbia Fire Department
Columbia Fire Department
The Columbia Fire Department is the agency that provides fire suppression, emergency medical care, hazardous material and other catastrophic occurrence mitigation, fire investigation, and fire inspection and code enforcement to Columbia, Missouri...

 providing fire protection. The Public Service Joint Communications Center
The Public Service Joint Communications Center
The Columbia/Boone County Public Safety Joint Communications Center is the agency that provides enhanced 911 call-taking and dispatch services for Boone County, Missouri...

 coordinates efforts between the two organizations as well as the Boone County Fire Protection District
Boone County Fire Protection District
The Boone County Fire Protection District provides fire protection and emergency medical services for a large portion of Boone County, Missouri...

 which operates Urban Search and Rescue Missouri Task Force 1
Urban Search and Rescue Missouri Task Force 1
is a Federal Emergency Management Agency based in Boone County, Missouri. MO-TF1 is sponsored by the Boone County Fire Protection District and is designated as the Weapons of Mass Destruction Response Team for the state of Missouri.-Overview:...

.


The population generally supports progressive
Progressivism
Progressivism is an umbrella term for a political ideology advocating or favoring social, political, and economic reform or changes. Progressivism is often viewed by some conservatives, constitutionalists, and libertarians to be in opposition to conservative or reactionary ideologies.The...

 causes such as the extensive city recycling programs and the decriminalization of the drug cannabis both for medical and recreational use at the municipal level (though the scope of latter of the two cannabis ordinances has since been restricted). The city is also one of only four in the state to offer medical benefits to same-sex partners of city employees. The new health plan also extends health benefits to unmarried heterosexual domestic partners of city employees. On October 10, 2006, the City Council approved an ordinance to prohibit smoking in restaurants and bars. The ordinance was passed with protest, and several amendments to the ordinance reflect this.

Sister cities


In accordance with the Columbia Sister Cities Program, which operates in conjunction with Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International
Sister Cities International is a nonprofit citizen diplomacy network that creates and strengthens partnerships between United States and international communities. More than 2,000 cities, states and counties are partnered in 136 countries around the world...

, an organization that began under President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956, Columbia has been given five international sister cities in an attempt to foster cross-cultural understanding:
K'ut'aisi
Kutaisi
Kutaisi is Georgia's second largest city and the capital of the western region of Imereti. It is 221 km to the west of Tbilisi.-Geography:...

, Georgia
Georgia (country)
Georgia is a sovereign state in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the southwest by Turkey, to the south by Armenia, and to the southeast by Azerbaijan. The capital of...

 Mattō
Matto, Ishikawa
was a city located in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan.In 2003, the city had an estimated population of 66,520 and a population density of 1,109.96 persons per km²...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...


Sibiu
Sibiu
Sibiu is a city in Transylvania, Romania with a population of 154,548. Located some 282 km north-west of Bucharest, the city straddles the Cibin River, a tributary of the river Olt...

, Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 Suncheon
Suncheon, South Korea
Suncheon is a city in Jeollanam-do, South Korea. Located in the province of Jeollanam-do,It is a scenic agricultural and industrial city of around 250,000 people near Suncheon Bay. It is located in the southeastern corner of Jeollanam-do, just over an hour south-east of Gwangju...

, South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...


Laoshan District
Laoshan District
-Laoshan District:Laoshan District is an administrative division of Qingdao. Its area is 389 km².-Geography:Laoshan District is located in the south of Shandong Peninsula, facing the Yellow Sea in the east and south. It covers 389.34square kilometer with 103.7km coastline.The district belongs to...

, Qingdao
Qingdao
' also known in the West by its postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a major city with a population of over 8.715 million in eastern Shandong province, Eastern China. Its built up area, made of 7 urban districts plus Jimo city, is home to about 4,346,000 inhabitants in 2010.It borders Yantai to the...

, PRC

Education



Columbia and much of the surrounding area lies within The Columbia Public School District
Columbia Public Schools
The Columbia Public School District is centered in Columbia, Missouri and serves much of Boone County, Missouri. The district is Accredited with Distinction by the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. It serves 18,070 students as of 2011 making it the tenth-largest district...

. The district enrolls over 17,000 students and has a revenue of nearly $200 million for the 2007–2008 school year. It is above the state average in attendance percentage and in graduation rate. The city operates three public high schools which cover grades 10–12: David H. Hickman High School, Rock Bridge High School
Rock Bridge High School
Rock Bridge High School is a public high school located in southern Columbia, Missouri. The school serves grades 10 through 12, and is a part of the Columbia Public Schools...

, and Frederick Douglass High School
Frederick Douglass High School (Missouri)
Frederick Douglass High School is an alternative public high school located in Columbia, Missouri. Douglass enrolls students 9-12 from throughout the Columbia Public Schools District. The school competes in MSHSAA 4A. Their sports include: Cross Country, Football, Basketball and Track and Field...

. Rock Bridge High is one of two Missouri high schools to receive a silver medal by U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

, putting it in the top 3% of all high schools in the nation. Hickman High has been on Newsweek
Newsweek
Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

 magazine’s list of top 1,300 schools in the country for the past three years, and has more named presidential scholars than any other public high school in the nation. There are also several private high schools including: Christian Fellowship School
Christian Fellowship School
Christian Fellowship School is located at 4600 Christian Fellowship Road in Columbia, Missouri. The school is one of three private schools in the Columbia area. Christian Fellowship School educates from preschool through twelfth grade.-History:...

, Columbia Independent School
Columbia Independent School
Columbia Independent School is a private school in Columbia, Missouri that serves 314 students in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. The school's curriculum puts a unique emphasis upon "global studies".-History:...

, Heritage Academy
Heritage Academy (Columbia, Missouri)
Heritage Academy is a co-ed private Christian school in Columbia, Missouri which employs the University-Model approach to education and is certified by the National Association of University-Model Schools ....

, Christian Chapel Academy, the newly constructed Father Augustine Tolton Regional Catholic High School
Father Augustine Tolton Regional Catholic High School
Father Augustine Tolton Regional Catholic High School is the first private, Roman Catholic high school in Columbia, Missouri, built in 2010. It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of Jefferson City...

.


The city has three institutions of higher education: the University of Missouri
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri System is a state university system providing centralized administration for four universities, a health care system, an extension program, five research and technology parks, and a publishing press. More than 64,000 students are currently enrolled at its four campuses...

, Columbia College, and Stephens College
Stephens College
Stephens College is a women's college located in Columbia, Missouri. It is the second oldest female educational establishment that is still a women's college in the United States. It was founded on August 24, 1833 as the Columbia Female Academy. In 1856, David H. Hickman turned it into a college,...

. The city is the headquarters of the University of Missouri System, which operates campuses in St. Louis
University of Missouri–St. Louis
The University of Missouri–St. Louis is one of four universities in the University of Missouri System. Established in 1963, it is the newest university in the UM System. , it is the largest university by enrollment in the St. Louis area with 16,548 students...

, Kansas City
University of Missouri–Kansas City
The University of Missouri–Kansas City is a public university located in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. It is a branch of the University of Missouri System. Its main campus is in Kansas City's Rockhill neighborhood east of the Country Club Plaza...

, and Rolla
Rolla, Missouri
Rolla is a city in Phelps County, Missouri, United States, midway between the larger cities of St. Louis and Springfield along I-44. The population in the 2010 United States Census was 19,559.It is the county seat of Phelps County...

.

Transportation


Columbia Transit
Columbia Transit
Columbia Transit is a city-owned public bus system that serves the city of Columbia, Missouri. The system operates Monday through Saturday, except on major holidays...

 provides public bus and para-transit service, and is owned and operated by the city. In 2008, 1,414,400 passengers boarded along the system's six fixed routes and nine University of Missouri
University of Missouri
The University of Missouri System is a state university system providing centralized administration for four universities, a health care system, an extension program, five research and technology parks, and a publishing press. More than 64,000 students are currently enrolled at its four campuses...

 shuttle routes, and 27,000 boarded the Para-transit service. The system is constantly experiencing growth in service and technology. A $3.5 million project to renovate and expand the Wabash Station, a rail depot built in 1910 and converted into the city's transit center in the mid-1980s, was completed in summer of 2007. In 2007, a Transit Master Plan was created to address the future transit needs of the city and county with a comprehensive plan to add infrastructure in three key phases. The five to 15-year plan intends to add service along the southwest, southeast and northeast sections of Columbia and develop alternative transportation models for Boone County.
Fares are $1.50 for adults, and $.75 for children 5-11, for students with valid I.D, for handicapped/Medicare recipients, and for senior citizens age 65 and up. Columbia Transit offers FASTPass electronic fare cards and issues electronic transfers for accuracy and convenience. Para-transit fares are $2.00 for a one-way trip, and the service area includes all of Columbia. Buses operate Monday through Saturday, from 6:25am to 6:25pm Monday-Wednesday, 6:25am to 10:25pm Thursday and Friday, and from 1:00am to 7:30pm on Saturday. Buses do not operate on Sunday.

The city's former mayor, Darwin Hindman
Darwin Hindman
Darwin Hindman is the most recent former mayor of Columbia, Missouri. He was elected mayor in 1995 and finished his fifth elected term in April, 2010 after announcing he would not be running for re-election at the end of that term...

, is largely in favor of a non-motorized transportation system, and can often be seen riding his bicycle around the city. Columbia is also known for its M.K.T.
M.K.T. Trail
The M.K.T. Trail is a recreational rail trail in Columbia, Missouri, that runs nine miles in the right-of-way of the former Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad. Developed from 1982 onward, it is a spur of the longest rail-trail in the United States, the Katy Trail...

 Spur of the Katy Trail State Park
Katy Trail State Park
The Katy Trail State Park is a recreation rail trail that runs in the right-of-way of the former Missouri-Kansas-Texas Railroad. The nickname "Katy" comes from the phonetic pronunciation of 'KT' in the railroad's abbreviated name, MKT. The trail, widely known as the Katy Trail, is a Missouri...

, which allows foot and bike traffic across the city, and, conceivably, the state. It consists of a soft gravel surface, excellent for running and biking. Columbia also is preparing to embark on construction of several new bike paths and street bike lanes thanks to a $25 million grant from the federal government. The city is also served by Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

 at Columbia Regional Airport
Columbia Regional Airport
Columbia Regional Airport is a public airport located 10 miles southeast of the central business district of Columbia, a city in Boone County, Missouri, USA. The airport covers and has two runways. The Airport is served by one commercial airline and provides general aviation services as well...

, the only commercial airport in mid-Missouri.

I-70, US 63, and US 40 are the main freeways used for travel to and from Columbia. Within the city, there are three state highways: Route 763, Route 163, and Route 740.

Rail service is provided by the city-owned Columbia Terminal (COLT) Railroad, which runs from the north side of Columbia to Centralia and a connection to the Norfolk Southern Railway.

Health systems



Health care is a large sector of Columbia's economy, with nearly one in six people working in a health-care related profession and a physician density that is about three times the United States average. Columbia's hospitals and supporting facilities are a large referral center for the state, and medical related trips to Columbia are common. There are three hospital systems within the city and six hospitals with a total of 1,105 beds. University of Missouri Health Care
University of Missouri Health Care
University of Missouri Health Care is an academic health system located in Columbia, Missouri. It is owned by the University of Missouri System...

 operates four hospitals: Columbia Regional Hospital
Columbia Regional Hospital
University of Missouri Women's and Children's Hospital is the only hospital in Missouri exclusively dedicated to the health of women and children. It is located in the former Columbia Regional Hospital. The hospital is home to MU Children's Hospital, MU Women's Center and the Family Birth Center....

, University of Missouri Hospital
University of Missouri Hospital
University Hospital is located in Columbia, Missouri. It has the only Level I trauma center and helicopter service in mid-Missouri, and the only burn intensive care unit in Mid-Missouri. It also has an accredited chest pain center cardiology program and a multidisciplinary digestive disease program...

, Ellis Fischel Cancer Center
Ellis Fischel Cancer Center
Ellis Fischel Cancer Center is a member of University of Missouri Health Care in Columbia, Missouri. It was the first free-standing cancer center west of the Mississippi River and the second such institution of its kind in the United States...

 and University of Missouri Children's Hospital
University of Missouri Children's Hospital
University of Missouri Children's Hospital is mid-Missouri's largest and most comprehensive pediatric health-care facility dedicated exclusively to meeting the health-care needs of children...

. Boone Hospital Center
Boone Hospital Center
Boone Hospital Center is a county-owned not-for-profit hospital in Columbia, Missouri. The hospital is administered by BJC HealthCare, based out of St. Louis, Missouri. The hospital is a regional referral center, providing services to twenty-five Mid-Missouri counties...

 is administered by BJC Healthcare
Barnes-Jewish Hospital
Barnes-Jewish Hospital is the largest hospital in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is the adult teaching hospital for Washington University School of Medicine, and is located in St. Louis, Missouri. It is consistently rated one of the top hospitals in the United States by U.S. News & World Report...

 and operates several clinics and outpatient locations. Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital
Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital
The Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital is a VA hospital located in Columbia, Missouri. Located on the University of Missouri campus, the Truman Memorial VA Hospital has a coverage area of 45 counties in Missouri and Illinois and serves more than 32,000 veterans inpatient and 314,000...

 is administered by the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
United States Department of Veterans Affairs
The United States Department of Veterans Affairs is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. It is the United States government’s second largest department, after the United States Department of Defense...

.

There is also a large amount of medically-related industry in Columbia. The University of Missouri School of Medicine
University of Missouri School of Medicine
The University of Missouri School of Medicine is located in the southern part of the University of Missouri campus in Columbia, Missouri. It was the first publicly supported medical school west of the Mississippi River. The school offers a program that emphasizes a medical education founded on...

 uses university owned facilities as teaching hospitals. The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center
University of Missouri Research Reactor Center
The University of Missouri Research Reactor Center is home to a tank-type nuclear research reactor that serves the University of Missouri's . The MURR is currently the highest power university research reactor in the U.S. at 10 megawatt thermal output...

 is the largest research reactor in the U.S. and produces radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine. The center serves as the sole supplier of the active ingredients in two U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved radiopharmaceuticals and produces Fluorine-18
Fluorine-18
Fluorine-18 is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons. It has a mass of 18.0009380 u and its half-life is 109.771 minutes....

 used in PET imaging with its cyclotron
Cyclotron
In technology, a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. In physics, the cyclotron frequency or gyrofrequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field, i.e. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction...

.

See also

  • History of the University of Missouri
    History of the University of Missouri
    This article is about the history of the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri and the state-wide University of Missouri System.-Founding and early years:...

  • List of people from Columbia, Missouri
  • Micro-urban
    Micro-urban
    Micro-urban is an informal term for smaller cities of 250,000 or less with certain urban characteristics normally found in large metropolitan centers...

  • Columbia Public Library
    Columbia Public Library
    The Columbia Public Library is the public library for the city of Columbia, Missouri. It is the headquarters of the Daniel Boone Regional Library system, which also includes Callaway County Public Library, Southern Boone County Library, and two Bookmobiles. Columbia Public Library is the largest...


External links