Hermosillo

Hermosillo

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Hermosillo is a city and municipality
Municipalities of Mexico
Municipalities are the second-level administrative division in Mexico . There are 2,438 municipalities in Mexico, making the average municipality population 45,616...

 located centrally in the northwestern Mexican state of Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

. It is the capital and main economic center for the state and region. It contains almost all of the state's manufacturing and has thirty percent of its population. The major manufacturing sector is automobiles, which was begun in the 1980s, when Ford
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

 built the Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly Plant
Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly
Hermosillo Stamping and Assembly is an automotive factory owned by Ford Motor Company, located in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico — and currently producing Ford Fusion and Lincoln MKZ models for the North American market...

. The municipality is large, encompassing over 3,800 other communities and reaching to the shores of the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
The Gulf of California is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland...

. Here, Bahía Kino
Bahía Kino
Bahía Kino is a town in the Mexican state of Sonora, on the Sea of Cortez Gulf of California; it was named after Eusebio Kino. The name also applies to the adjacent bay between Tiburón Island and Punta San Nicolás, Sonora...

 (Kino Bay) is a major tourism draw for the municipality with plans to expand its tourism infrastructure.

History



Evidence of the area's first inhabitants date back 35,000 years, much of which are from a site called the San Dieguito Complex, located in the El Pinacate Zone. Evidence of agriculture dates back 2,500 years. In the pre-Hispanic era, this area was inhabited by the Seri, Tepoca, and Pima
Pima
The Pima are a group of American Indians living in an area consisting of what is now central and southern Arizona. The long name, "Akimel O'odham", means "river people". They are closely related to the Tohono O'odham and the Hia C-ed O'odham...

 peoples.

The first encounter between the Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 and natives occurred in the middle of 16th century, when explorers were sent here in search of gold, which did not exist. The first missionaries arrived in the state of Sonora around 1614, and Eusebio Francisco Kino
Eusebio Kino
Eusebio Francisco Kino S.J. was an Italian Roman Catholic priest who became famous in what is now northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States in the region then known as the Pimaria Alta...

 arrived in 1687, founding a mission in nearby Cucurpe
Cucurpe
Cucurpe is a municipality, and the town that serves as its municipal seat, of the same name in the Mexican state of Sonora.-History:Originally the territory was occupied by the Opatas and the Pimas Altas...

. What is now the states of Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

 and Sinaloa
Sinaloa
Sinaloa officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales....

 was loosely organized as the provinces of Sonora
Sonora
Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

, Ostimura and Sinaloa
Sinaloa
Sinaloa officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sinaloa is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 18 municipalities and its capital city is Culiacán Rosales....

.

In 1700, three small Spanish villages were founded in what is now the municipality of Hermosillo, Nuestra Señora del Pópulo, Nuestra Señora de Los Angeles and la Santísima Trinidad del Pitic. The native peoples here soon became hostile to the Spanish and managed to drive them out several times in the early 18th century. In 1716, the Spanish offered irrigated lands for farmers to natives who agreed to abide by Spanish law. Around 1726, a fort named the Presidio of Pitic was constructed to stop the domination of this area by the natives, especially the Seri. However, the situation did not settle soon so that the first church was not built until 1787 and the first formal parish was not established until 1822.

During the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

, Sonora and the town of Pitic stayed loyal to the Spanish Crown. In fact, a general from this area, Alejo García Conde, defeated insurgent José María González Hermosillo, who had been sent here by Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. In 1825, the village of Pitic was made the seat of the department of the same name. In 1828, the settlement changed its name to Hermosillo to honor José María González de Hermosillo.
A battle between imperial and republican forces occurred here in 1866 during the French Intervention in Mexico
French intervention in Mexico
The French intervention in Mexico , also known as The Maximilian Affair, War of the French Intervention, and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by an expeditionary force sent by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain...

. In 1879, the capital of the state of Sonora was moved from Arizpe
Arizpe
Arizpe is a small town in Arizpe Municipality in the north of the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located at 30°20'"N 110°09'"W. The area of the municipality is 2,806.78 sq.km. The population in 2005 was 2,959 of which 1,743 lived in the municipal seat as of the 2000 census.-History and origin...

 to Hermosillo. In 1881 the railroad linking Hermosillo with Guaymas
Guaymas
Guaymas is a city and municipality located in the southwest part of the state of Sonora in northwestern Mexico. The city is located 117 km south of the state capital of Hermosillo, and 242 miles from the U.S. border, and is the principal port for the state. The municipality is located in the...

 and Nogales
Nogales, Sonora
Heroica Nogales , more commonly known as Nogales, is a city and its surrounding municipality on the northern border of the Mexican State of Sonora. The municipality covers an area of 1,675 km², and borders to the north the city of Nogales, Arizona, United States, across the U.S.-Mexico border...

 was finished, allowing for economic expansion in the area by bringing in mining equipment and modern agricultural equipment. Since then, the city has been an economic center for northwest Mexico.
During the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

, forces loyal to Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa
José Doroteo Arango Arámbula – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or its hypocorism Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals....

 were repulsed by General Manuel M. Diéguez. After the assassination of Francisco I. Madero
Francisco I. Madero
Francisco Ignacio Madero González was a politician, writer and revolutionary who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913. As a respectable upper-class politician, he supplied a center around which opposition to the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz could coalesce...

 in 1913, Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza de la Garza, was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914 and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted...

, then governor of Coahuila
Coahuila
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico...

, sought refuge in Hermosillo. Here Carranza began the Constitutionalist Movement, and because of this, Hermosillo has the nickname of the "revolutionary capital of the country."

From the late 19th century and through the first two decades of the 20th, Chinese immigrants came into Sonora state. One of the places in which a significant number settled was the city of Hermosillo. Some of these immigrants had capital and used it to establish businesses, especially shoe manufacturing and clothing. Some of the most successful Chinese-owned businesses in Sonora were based in Hermosillo and sold their merchandise to other parts of the country. However, by the 1920s anti-Chinese sentiment had become strong in Sonora state, with many Chinese leaving for Mexico City or the United States.

In the 1980s, Ford built a plant here, which had a great impact on the city's and state's economy.

Hermosillo is the site of the tragic fire at the ABC child care center. According to the Procuraduría General de Justicia en el Estado (State Attorney General Office) of Sonora, 49 deaths attributed to the fire at the ABC child care center. The fire apparently started at a car and tire depot then spread to the child care center. Most of the children died of asphyxiation. There were about 100 children inside the building and firefighters had to knock down walls to rescue the children, which ranged in age from six months to five years.

City


The city is located on a plain in the Sonoran Desert, surrounded by flat areas with grass, behind which are greener hills that are then framed by serrated peaks in the background. The city is a common stopover for North Americans traveling by car toward the coast, and the only city in Mexico that purifies all drinking water before it goes to homes. The city is the major economic center for the state, with about thirty percent of the state's population living in the city.

The center of the city is Plaza Zaragoza, built in 1865, in which there is a Moorish style kiosk, which was brought from Florence, Italy, in the early 20th century. The plaza also has a flower garden and statues of General Ignacio Pesqueira and General García Morales.

The plaza is framed by the State Government Palace and the Cathedral. The State Government Palace has a white Neoclassical facade, with a central body that extends slightly more in front than the rest. This central body is flanked by Ionic
Ionic order
The Ionic order forms one of the three orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian...

 columns and is topped by a semicircular pediment
Pediment
A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of the triangular section found above the horizontal structure , typically supported by columns. The gable end of the pediment is surrounded by the cornice moulding...

 and a clock tower. The side wings have an aligned series of windows on the first level and balconies on the second, which the corners having thick pilasters. The interior has one patio with a main staircase, decorated with murals done between 1982 and 1984 by Teresa Moran, Enrique Estrada and Héctor Martínez Arteche
Héctor Martínez Arteche
Héctor Martínez Arteche was a painter and muralist who was born in Mexico City in 1934, but has spent most of his life in the state of Sonora. Most of mural work can be seen in Hermosillo, Ciudad Obregón and Navojoa, totalling more than 4,000 meters squared...

, depicting scenes from Sonora's history. The building was officially inaugurated in 1906 and reflects elements of French style, which was popular at the time.
The cathedral, named the Catedral de la Asunción, is located next to Plaza Zaragoza. It was begun in the 18th century but was not finished until the beginning of the 20th. However, the first chapels associated with the cathedral were begun in the 18th century. Construction of the cathedral began in 1861 and is a mix of predominantly Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture was an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing...

 with Neogothic
Gothic Revival architecture
The Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the 1740s in England...

 decorative elements. The main entrance is flanked by paired columns on pedestals and the smaller side doors are topped with semicircular pediments. Above the main doors are two ogival
Ogive
An ogive is the roundly tapered end of a two-dimensional or three-dimensional object.-Applied physical science and engineering:In ballistics or aerodynamics, an ogive is a pointed, curved surface mainly used to form the approximately streamlined nose of a bullet or other projectile.The traditional...

 or pointed windows, over which is a crest with a balustrade. The church's towers have three levels with a dome-like top and are decorated with crosses from Caravaca de la Cruz
Caravaca de la Cruz
Caravaca de la Cruz is a town and municipality of southeastern Spain in the province of Murcia, near the left bank of the River Argos, a tributary of the Segura. This city is the capital of the northwest Region of Murcia. It has a population of 26,449 as of 2010...

. The interior of the church is of very austere Neoclassical design.

The Government Palace was constructed in 1881, using stone from the nearby Cerro de la Campana mountain. The exterior is Neoclassical, with two levels that contain Ionic columns and pilasters made with stone that alternates rings of gray and white. The main entrance is topped by a simple semicircular pediment and over this there is a clock tower that was inaugurated in 1906. At night, the building is lit with multicolored lights in red, green, orange and gold. The interior walls have murals about Sonoran history done by various artists such as Héctor Martínez Arteche
Héctor Martínez Arteche
Héctor Martínez Arteche was a painter and muralist who was born in Mexico City in 1934, but has spent most of his life in the state of Sonora. Most of mural work can be seen in Hermosillo, Ciudad Obregón and Navojoa, totalling more than 4,000 meters squared...

, Teresa Morán and Enrique Estrada
Enrique Estrada
Enrique Estrada Reynoso was a Mexican General, politician, and Secretary of National Defense.Born in Moyahua, Zac. In the year 1890. His parents were Camilo Estrada Reynoso and Micaela...

. On display is the first Sonoran state constitution.

The Regional Museum was opened in 1960 with only one small hall, which exhibited archeological finds from the region. Today, there are two large halls, one dedicated to anthropology and the other to history. The anthropology hall display archeological finds such as tools, utensils, textiles, stone objects and more from both the pre-Hispanic and colonial periods. The second focuses on the colonial period and contains items such as documents, maps, tools, coins and more.

The Museo de Sonora (Museum of Sonora) is housed in a building that originally functioned as a prison. It was completed in 1907 and built by the mostly indigenous prisoners themselves. The prison closed in 1979. In the 1980s, the building was reconditioned to open as the current museum in 1985. This museum has eighteen rooms covering various aspects of the state including its palentology, history, archeology and ethnography. It has also conserved some of the cells of the original prison. Some of its more important items in the collection include a serpent's head from the Teotihuacan period, a collection of coins from the 16th century and various antique weapons.

The Museo de Culturas Populares e Indígenas (Museum of Popular and Indigenous Cultures) was the former residence of Dr. Alberto Hoeffer. It was constructed in 1904 and restored in 1997, conserving it original French-inspired style. Today, it houses a museum mostly dedicated to the indigenous cultures of the state, including crafts, clothing, customs and ways of life.

The Plaza Hidalgo area of the city was a very fashionable area during the first half of the 20th century when a number of the wealthy and influential of the city built homes here. Today, many of these constructions now house institutions such as the Instituto Sonorense de Cultura, the Colegio de Sonora, Radio Sonora, the Colegio Library and the Colegio de Notarios. Each weekend, the plaza becomes a cultural center, hosting various activities and events such as concerts, exhibitions, theatrical works and more.
The Cerro de la Campana mountain is one of the symbols of Hermosillo. It summit is 350 meters above the valley floor and contains a lookout called El Caracol, which was inaugurated in 1909. There are two theories as to the origin of the mountain's name. One states that it is from a peculiar metallic sound that is made whem the mountain's rock fall against each other. The other is based on the bell-like shape of the elevation.

Just outside of the city proper on the highway to Guaymas is the Centro Ecológico de Sonora (Ecological Center of Sonora). The Center has more than 300 species of plants and 200 species of animals from both Sonora and other parts of the world. All of the animals live in recreated natural habitats. The Sonoran collection is part of one of CES's main functions, which is to preserve the flora and fauna of the state. The collection contains representations of animals and plants from the four main habitats of the state: mountains, grassland, desert and sea. Some of the species are in danger of extinction such as the bighorn sheep
Bighorn Sheep
The bighorn sheep is a species of sheep in North America named for its large horns. These horns can weigh up to , while the sheep themselves weigh up to . Recent genetic testing indicates that there are three distinct subspecies of Ovis canadensis, one of which is endangered: Ovis canadensis sierrae...

, the white-tailed deer
White-tailed Deer
The white-tailed deer , also known as the Virginia deer or simply as the whitetail, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States , Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru...

 as well as a number of bird and reptile species.

The Dr. Alfonso Ortiz Tirado
Alfonso Ortiz Tirado
Alfonso Ortiz Tirado was an opera singer and doctor born in Álamos, Sonora, Mexico in 1893. His musical talent was apparent early in life, but he studied at the Escuela Nacional Preparatoria and university to become a doctor. He specialized in gynecology as well as general medicine, and eventually...

 Festival
has been an annual event since 1985 and is the most important cultural event in northwest Mexico. It takes place in Hermosillo and a number of other municipalities in the state. Representatives from various Mexican states and countries such as Spain, the United States, Brazil, Germany and others send artists to perform and exhibit their work. The event is organized by the Sonoran state government and the Instituto Sonorense de Cultura.

In the Coloso neighborhood of Hermosillo, and other locations in Sonora, the Yaqui people are known for their celebrations of Holy Week
Holy Week
Holy Week in Christianity is the last week of Lent and the week before Easter...

, which mix Catholic and indigenous religious practices. In Hermosillo, the main brotherhood that sponsors this event is called the Fariseos. Rites performed during this week are intended to combat evil and sickness, calling upon both saints and "temastians" or medicine men to use magic to expel evil spirits. During this time participants dress in traditional Yaqui clothing and perform native dances such as El Coyote (The Coyote), Matachines, Los Pascolas and especially the Danza del Venado (Deer Dance)
Yaqui music
Yaqui music is the music of the Yaqui tribe and people of Arizona and Sonora. Their most famous music are the deer songs which accompany the deer dance. They are often noted for their mixture of American Indian and Catholic religious thought....

, animal sacred to the Yaqui as a symbol of good.

Two other major festivals here include the Fiesta de la Vendimia (Grape Harvest Festival) in July and the Feria Exposición Ganadera e Industrial (Livestock and Industry Exposition and Fair) in May.

Economy


Most of the municipality's population lives in the city proper, with most jobs located in the manufacturing and commerce sectors here. About 250,000 hectares are under cultivation in the municipality, most of which is near the coast. Crops include wheat, grapes, flowers, chickpea
Chickpea
The chickpea is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae...

s, alfalfa
Alfalfa
Alfalfa is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in the US, Canada, Argentina, France, Australia, the Middle East, South Africa, and many other countries. It is known as lucerne in the UK, France, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand, and known as...

 and walnut
Walnut
Juglans is a plant genus of the family Juglandaceae, the seeds of which are known as walnuts. They are deciduous trees, 10–40 meters tall , with pinnate leaves 200–900 millimetres long , with 5–25 leaflets; the shoots have chambered pith, a character shared with the wingnuts , but not the hickories...

s. Livestock has been traditionally important here, especially beef cattle. Pigs, sheep, goats, horses, domestic fowl and bees are also raised here as well. Fishing is practiced along with coast with shrimp being the most important catch.

Industry and manufacturing has been the most dynamic sector of the economy. Much of this began in the 1980s with the establishment of the automobile industry, specifically the Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly
Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly
Hermosillo Stamping and Assembly is an automotive factory owned by Ford Motor Company, located in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico — and currently producing Ford Fusion and Lincoln MKZ models for the North American market...

 plant owned and operated by Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker based in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. The automaker was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903. In addition to the Ford and Lincoln brands, Ford also owns a small stake in Mazda in Japan and Aston Martin in the UK...

. Electronics and IT are the largest employers by both revenue and number of employees. Today, there are twenty-six major manufacturers, which generate about 68,300 jobs, employing about thirty percent of the population. Other than cars, products manufactured here include televisions, computers, food processing, textiles, wood products, printing, cellular phones, chemicals, petroleum products and plastics. The municipality has twelve industrial parks, which house over one hundred smaller manufacturing enterprises. There has been slowing of this sector especially the automobile industry because of the global economic downturn that began in 2008.

Commerce employs more than half of the population. While locally owned business still predominate this sector, international brands such as Costco
Costco
Costco Wholesale Corporation is the largest membership warehouse club chain in the United States. it is the third largest retailer in the United States, where it originated, and the ninth largest in the world...

, Wal Mart, Sams Club, Cinemark, McDonald's, BlockBuster Video, Domino's Pizza, Pizza Hut, Jack in the Box, Subway, Carl's Junior and others figure prominently at Northeastern Hermosillo and Southern Hermosillo. Tourism is mostly limited to the coastal communities of Bahia de Kino, Kino Nuevo and Punta Chueca
Punta Chueca
Punta Chueca is a Seri town located on the Gulf of California in the Mexican state of Sonora. It is located 16 miles north of the fishing and tourist town of Bahía de Kino...

, where there are cave paintings and a recreational park named La Sauceda.
In 2009, Standard and Poor's rated the municipality of Hermosillo as (mxA/Estable/-) based on its administrative practices, financial flexibility and limited financial risks. Financial management of the municipality has been prudent, with adequate documentation of practices. Debt levels have also been prudent at about 33% of gross income, which might decline in 2010. However, the municipality has limited liquid capital.

Higher education

  • Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM), Campus Sonora Norte
  • Universidad de Sonora
    Universidad de Sonora
    The University of Sonora is located in the state of Sonora, Mexico. It was founded in 1942 after a committee to create a state university was formed on August 10, 1938.- Overview :...

  • Universidad de Hermosillo
  • Instituto Tecnológico de Hermosillo
  • Universidad Tecnológica de Hermosillo (UTH)
  • Instituto de Ciencias y Educación Superior
  • Universidad del Valle de México
    Universidad del Valle de México
    The Universidad del Valle de México or UVM is a private Mexican university founded in Mexico City in the year 1960. UVM enrolls students at several campuses throughout Mexico, and it holds accreditations from the Mexican Department of Education, COPAES accrediting board, and FIMPES...

     (formerly Universidad del Noroeste)
  • Universidad Kino
  • Centro de Estudios Superiores del Estado de Sonora (CESUES)
  • Universidad del Noroeste
  • El Colegio de Sonora
  • Universidad TecMilenio, Campus Hermosillo
  • Centro de Investigación en Alimentos y Desarrollo (CIAD)
  • Instituto de Capacitación para el Trabajo de Sonora (ICATSON)
  • Colegio Nacional de Capacitación Intensiva (CNCI)
  • Universidad del Desarrollo Profesional (UNIDEP)
  • Escuela Normal del Estado "Profr. Jesús Manuel Bustamante Mungarro"
  • Colegio Nacional de Educación Profesional Técnica (CONALEP)

Sports


The city has a professional baseball team called Naranjeros de Hermosillo (Orange Growers) that plays in the Estadio Héctor Espino
Estadio De Beisbol Héctor Espino
The Héctor Espino Baseball Stadium is a baseball stadium located in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The field is located in the north side of the city...

. Baseball had always been popular in this city since the late 19th century. The club has its beginnings in the 1950s, when the Liga Invernal de Sonora (Sonora Winter League) was founded as a complement to the already existing Liga de la Costa del Pacifico (Pacific Coast League). The Naranjeros were officially organized in 1958. Since then, the team has won 15 championships in the Pacific Coast League and one championship in the Serie del Caribe.

Transportation



The main highway serving Hermosillo is Mexican Federal Highway 15
Mexican Federal Highway 15
Federal Highway 15 is a primary north-south highway in Mexico. The highway begins in the north at the United States-Mexico border at the Mariposa Port of Entry in Nogales, Sonora, and terminates to the south in Mexico City...

. Another important route is Sonora State Highway 100
Sonora State Highway 100
Sonora State Highway 100 is a highway in the center of the Mexican state of Sonora.It runs from Hermosillo to El Desemboque, connecting also the beach town of Bahía de Kino....

.
General Ignacio Pesqueira Garcia International Airport
General Ignacio Pesqueira Garcia International Airport
General Ignacio Pesqueira García International Airport , also known as General Ignacio L. Pesqueira International Airport , is an international airport located in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The airport is named after Ignacio Pesqueira, a general who helped the Mexican army resist the French during...

 provides domestic and international service to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

.

Geography & Climate



As municipal seat, the city of Hermosillo is the local government of over 3,800 other localities, with a combined territory of 14,880.2 km2. Most important communities outside the city include Miguel Alemán, San Pedro el Saucito, Bahía Kino, Kino Nuevo, La Victoria and La Manga. The municipality borders the municipalities of Carbó
Carbó
Carbó is a municipality and the municipal seat of the same in the Mexican state of Sonora.-Area and Population:It has an area of 1962.66 square kilometers, which is 0.91 percent of the area of the state, and 0.09 percent of the national area of Mexico. The municipality's population was 4,966...

, San Miguel de Horcasitas
San Miguel de Horcasitas
San Miguel de Horcasitas is a town, and the surrounding municipality of the same name, in the Mexican state of Sonora. San Miguel is located in the center of the state at an elevation of 518 meters. The municipal area is 1,768.45 km2. and the population was 5,626 in 2000.The settlement was...

, Ures
Ures
Ures is a small city and a municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora.-Area:It has an area of 2,618.56 square kilometers. This is 1.41% of the total area of the state, and 0.13 percent of the national area of Mexico...

, Mazatán
Mazatán, Sonora
Mazatán is a municipality and a municipal seat in the center of the Mexican state of Sonora.-Area and Population:The municipal area is 649.27 km² with a population of 4,187 registered in 2000. The municipal seat had a population of 1,499 in 2000...

, La Colorada
La Colorada
La Colorada is a small town and municipality in the Mexican state of Sonora. In 2005, the population of the municipality was 1,754, with 288 living in the municipal seat. Formerly known as Minas Prietas, La Colorada became a municipality on June 28, 1934. As an important mining camp in Mexico,...

, Guaymas and Pitiquito
Pitiquito
Pitiquito is both a small town and its surrounding municipal area in the northwest of the Mexican state of Sonora.-Area and population:The municipal area is 11,979.96 km² which makes up 6.46% of the state total. The municipal population counted in 2000 was 9,160. The population of the main...

, with the Gulf of California
Gulf of California
The Gulf of California is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland...

 to the southwest.

The municipality is mostly flat with sloping towards the sea. There are isolated mountain peaks that reach to only 300 meters above sea level and include Tepoaca, Bacoachito, Lopez, Tonuco, Seri, Batamote, Goguz, Bronces, SantaTeresa, La Palma, Siete Cerros and la Campana. These are located mostly in the eastern section of the municipality. The two most important rivers are the Sonora and the San Miguel. Both of these are used for irrigation purposes with the Abelardo L. Rodriguez dam located on the San Miguel River. The population increase of the municipality, currently at 2.5% annually puts pressure on the infrastructure of the city, especially its water supply. Decades of overpumping of ground water has led to the aquifer levels being lower than sea levels, and sea water creeping in as an "artificial recharge."

The municipality is with two arid climate regions. The first is that next to the sea, which is desert with fairly cold winters and hot summers. The rest of the municipality is very dry desert with larger temperature variations than the coastal area. Temperatures can range from as low as freezing in January and February to 48C in July and August. Rains for both climates falls mostly between June and September, with annual precipitation between 75 and 300 millimeters, depending on location. Most of the vegetation here consists of mesquite
Mesquite
Mesquite is a leguminous plant of the Prosopis genus found in northern Mexico through the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Deserts, and up into the Southwestern United States as far north as southern Kansas, west to the Colorado Desert in California,and east to the eastern fifth of Texas, where...

 trees as well as trees such as the desert ironwood, palo verde
Parkinsonia aculeata
Parkinsonia aculeata is a species of perennial flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae. Common names include palo verde, Mexican palo verde, Parkinsonia, Jerusalem thorn, and jelly bean tree.-Etymology:...

 and the huisache. Dune vegetation exists at Bahia de Kino. Desert animals such as the desert tortoise
Desert Tortoise
The desert tortoise is a species of tortoise native to the Mojave desert and Sonoran desert of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. They can be located in western Arizona, southeastern California, southern Nevada, and southwestern Utah. The species name agassizii is in honor of...

, rattlesnakes, bighorn sheep and lynx
Lynx
A lynx is any of the four Lynx genus species of medium-sized wildcats. The name "lynx" originated in Middle English via Latin from Greek word "λύγξ", derived from the Indo-European root "*leuk-", meaning "light, brightness", in reference to the luminescence of its reflective eyes...

 are the most notable species.

Hermosillo's all-time weather records for high temperature is 48°C, which was achieved in 1998, and since then, few other times throughout the 2000s and back again in the 2010s
2010s
The 2010s, pronounced "twenty-tens" or "two thousand tens", is the current decade which began on January 1, 2010 and will end on December 31, 2019...

. When in minimal temperatures, Hermosillo felt -16°C in 1949, but it is highly doubt that this temperature ever reached Hermosillo because the current weather station was built in the mid 70s in the city's airport
General Ignacio Pesqueira Garcia International Airport
General Ignacio Pesqueira García International Airport , also known as General Ignacio L. Pesqueira International Airport , is an international airport located in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. The airport is named after Ignacio Pesqueira, a general who helped the Mexican army resist the French during...

, and the previous weather station showed very low temperatures. Aside from that, in the recent years, the lowest temperature was -3°C, in January.

Cityscape



Nearby attractions


Bahia de Kino or Kino Bay is on the coast of the municipality and named after Father Eusebio Kino
Eusebio Kino
Eusebio Francisco Kino S.J. was an Italian Roman Catholic priest who became famous in what is now northwestern Mexico and the southwestern United States in the region then known as the Pimaria Alta...

. The waters of the bay have little wave action or undertow and are warm year-round. Activities practiced here include swimming, scuba diving, snorkeling
Snorkeling
Snorkeling is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins. In cooler waters, a wetsuit may also be worn...

, fishing a variety of species, boating and sailing. In summer it is possible to catch marlin
Marlin
Marlin, family Istiophoridae, are fish with an elongated body, a spear-like snout or bill, and a long rigid dorsal fin, which extends forward to form a crest. Its common name is thought to derive from its resemblance to a sailor's marlinspike...

, sailfish
Sailfish
'Sailfish' are two species of fish in the genus Istiophorus, living in warmer sections of all the oceans of the world. They are predominately blue to gray in color and have a characteristic erectile dorsal fin known as a sail, which often stretches the entire length of the back...

, dorado (mahi-mahi
Mahi-mahi
The mahi-mahi or common dolphinfish is a surface-dwelling ray-finned fish found in off-shore temperate, tropical and subtropical waters worldwide. It is one of only two members of the Coryphaenidae family, the other being the pompano dolphinfish...

) and tuna. In front of the shoreline is Isla Tiburón, which is a declared ecological zone and is inhabited by wild sheep and deer. Kino Bay is the home of the Seri Museum, which was founded to preserve the Seri language and culture. State and federal officials are looking to develop Kino Bay into a major tourist resort, called a Zona turística prioritaria (Priority Tourism Zone). This would include government investment and the attraction of private investment through tax breaks.

La Pintada is an archeological zone located 60 km south of the city and was a refuge area for the Seri and Pima Indians. The site is important because of its caves, which were used as dwellings, burial spaces and religious centers. The caves shelter paintings that contain numerous animals such as deer, birds and lizards as well as human figures. The human figures are stylized and some appear to be adorned with skins and/or horns, other are throwing spears and some appear to be dancing, wearing body paint. In addition there are geometric figures such as squares, triangles, circles, straight and wavy lines, all of which combine in one way or another to form complicated designs. In some areas of the caves, there is evidence of paintings on top of paintings, testifying to the length of time the area was inhabited. The paintings have been attributed to the Comca'ac or Seri culture.

See also


  • Sonora
    Sonora
    Sonora officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Sonora is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 72 municipalities; the capital city is Hermosillo....

  • Mexico
    Mexico
    The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

  • Sonoran Desert
    Sonoran Desert
    The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which straddles part of the United States-Mexico border and covers large parts of the U.S. states of Arizona and California and the northwest Mexican states of Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur. It is one of the largest and hottest...

  • Northeast Hermosillo
    Northeast Hermosillo
    Northeast Hermosillo, also called El Noreste, Morelos and Gringorelos, is an unincorporated area in the Sonoran capital of Hermosillo. Its borders can be defined where the roads Reforma and Kino join, and so included some recognized neighborhoods such as Misión del Sol, Balderrama, Modelo, Pitic...

  • Torre Hermosillo
  • List of radio stations in Hermosillo

External links