Geoffrey Keynes

Geoffrey Keynes

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Sir Geoffrey Langdon Keynes (25 March 1887 in Cambridge
Cambridge
The city of Cambridge is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies in East Anglia about north of London. Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen – a play on Silicon Valley and the fens surrounding the...

 – 5 July 1982, in Cambridge
Cambridge
The city of Cambridge is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies in East Anglia about north of London. Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen – a play on Silicon Valley and the fens surrounding the...

) was an English biographer, surgeon
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

, physician
Internal medicine
Internal medicine is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases. Physicians specializing in internal medicine are called internists. They are especially skilled in the management of patients who have undifferentiated or multi-system disease processes...

, scholar
Scholarly method
Scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.-Methods:...

 and bibliophile. He was the younger brother of the economist
Economics
Economics is the social science that analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. The term economics comes from the Ancient Greek from + , hence "rules of the house"...

 John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, Baron Keynes of Tilton, CB FBA , was a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments...

.

Life


Geoffrey Keynes was the son of John Neville Keynes
John Neville Keynes
John Neville Keynes was a British economist and father of John Maynard Keynes.-Biography:Born in Salisbury, he was the son of Dr John Keynes and his wife Anna Maynard Neville . He was educated at Amersham Hall School, University College London and Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he became a...

 , an economics lecturer at the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

 and Florence Ada Brown, a successful author and a social reformer
Reform movement
A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes...

. His older brother was the economist John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes
John Maynard Keynes, Baron Keynes of Tilton, CB FBA , was a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments...

 and his sister Margaret married the Nobel-prize winning physiologist Archibald Hill
Archibald Hill
Archibald Vivian Hill CH OBE FRS was an English physiologist, one of the founders of the diverse disciplines of biophysics and operations research...

.

He was educated at Rugby School
Rugby School
Rugby School is a co-educational day and boarding school located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, England. It is one of the oldest independent schools in Britain.-History:...

, where he became friends with Rupert Brooke
Rupert Brooke
Rupert Chawner Brooke was an English poet known for his idealistic war sonnets written during the First World War, especially The Soldier...

 and was appointed literary executor
Literary executor
A literary executor is a person with decision-making power in respect of a literary estate. According to Wills, Administration and Taxation: a practical guide "A will may appoint different executors to deal with different parts of the estate...

 for the estate of Brooke's death in 1915.

On 12 May 1917 he married Margaret Elizabeth Darwin, the daughter of Sir George Howard Darwin and granddaughter of Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin FRS was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.He published his theory...

. They had four sons:
  • Richard Darwin Keynes
    Richard Keynes
    Richard Darwin Keynes, CBE, FRS was a British physiologist. He was a great-grandson of Charles Darwin, and edited accounts and illustrations of Darwin's famous voyage aboard the HMS Beagle into The Beagle Record: Selections From the Original Pictorial Records and Written Accounts of the Voyage of...

     (1919-2010)
  • Quentin George Keynes
    Quentin Keynes
    Quentin George Keynes was a bibliophile.Keynes was born in London, the second son of Geoffrey Keynes and his wife Margaret, the daughter of George Howard Darwin who in turn was the son of Charles Darwin, making him the great-grandson of Charles Darwin . He was also the nephew of the renowned...

     (1921–2003)
  • William Milo Keynes
    Milo Keynes
    William Milo Keynes, MD, FRCS was a British doctor and author.Keynes was the third son of Sir Geoffrey Keynes, and his wife Margaret Darwin, daughter of Sir George Darwin. He was a great-grandson of the naturalist Charles Darwin, and a nephew of the economist John Maynard Keynes...

     (1924–2009)
  • Stephen John Keynes
    Stephen Keynes
    Stephen John Keynes OBE FLS a great-grandson of Charles Darwin, is chairman of the Charles Darwin Trust.Keynes is the fourth and only surviving son of Geoffrey Keynes and his wife Margaret Darwin, daughter of Sir George Darwin; he is also a nephew of the economist John Maynard Keynes. His...

     (born 1927)


He graduated from Pembroke College, Cambridge
Pembroke College, Cambridge
Pembroke College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England.The college has over seven hundred students and fellows, and is the third oldest college of the university. Physically, it is one of the university's larger colleges, with buildings from almost every century since its...

, and then qualified as a surgeon with the Royal College of Surgeons
Royal College of Surgeons of England
The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body and registered charity committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients, regulating surgery, including dentistry, in England and Wales...

 in London. He served as a Lieutenant
Lieutenant
A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

 in the Royal Army Medical Corps
Royal Army Medical Corps
The Royal Army Medical Corps is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all British Army personnel and their families in war and in peace...

 during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 and then worked as a consultant surgeon, becoming an expert in blood transfusion
Blood transfusion
Blood transfusion is the process of receiving blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used in a variety of medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood...

. His work to create a portable blood transfusion device was recognized as saving thousands of lives during World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

. His pioneering work on blood transfusion was the primary reason for his eventual knighthood.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, Keynes was a consulting surgeon to the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

. In 1944 he was promoted to the rank of acting air vice-marshal
Air Vice-Marshal
Air vice-marshal is a two-star air-officer rank which originated in and continues to be used by the Royal Air Force. The rank is also used by the air forces of many countries which have historical British influence and it is sometimes used as the English translation of an equivalent rank in...

.

He maintained a passionate interest in English literature
English literature
English literature is the literature written in the English language, including literature composed in English by writers not necessarily from England; for example, Robert Burns was Scottish, James Joyce was Irish, Joseph Conrad was Polish, Dylan Thomas was Welsh, Edgar Allan Poe was American, J....

 all his life and devoted a large amount of his time to literary scholarship and the science of bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography , as a practice, is the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology...

. He was a leading authority on the literary and artistic work of William Blake
William Blake
William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age...

 and "was instrumental in establishing Blake as a central figure in the history of English art and literature." He also produced biographies
Biography
A biography is a detailed description or account of someone's life. More than a list of basic facts , biography also portrays the subject's experience of those events...

 and bibliographies of English writers such as Sir Thomas Browne
Thomas Browne
Sir Thomas Browne was an English author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric....

, John Evelyn
John Evelyn
John Evelyn was an English writer, gardener and diarist.Evelyn's diaries or Memoirs are largely contemporaneous with those of the other noted diarist of the time, Samuel Pepys, and cast considerable light on the art, culture and politics of the time John Evelyn (31 October 1620 – 27 February...

, Siegfried Sassoon
Siegfried Sassoon
Siegfried Loraine Sassoon CBE MC was an English poet, author and soldier. Decorated for bravery on the Western Front, he became one of the leading poets of the First World War. His poetry both described the horrors of the trenches, and satirised the patriotic pretensions of those who, in Sassoon's...

, John Donne
John Donne
John Donne 31 March 1631), English poet, satirist, lawyer, and priest, is now considered the preeminent representative of the metaphysical poets. His works are notable for their strong and sensual style and include sonnets, love poetry, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs,...

 and Jane Austen
Jane Austen
Jane Austen was an English novelist whose works of romantic fiction, set among the landed gentry, earned her a place as one of the most widely read writers in English literature, her realism and biting social commentary cementing her historical importance among scholars and critics.Austen lived...

. He was also a pioneer in the history of science
History of science
The history of science is the study of the historical development of human understandings of the natural world and the domains of the social sciences....

, with studies of John Ray
John Ray
John Ray was an English naturalist, sometimes referred to as the father of English natural history. Until 1670, he wrote his name as John Wray. From then on, he used 'Ray', after "having ascertained that such had been the practice of his family before him".He published important works on botany,...

, William Harvey
William Harvey
William Harvey was an English physician who was the first person to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart...

 and Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke FRS was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.His adult life comprised three distinct periods: as a scientific inquirer lacking money; achieving great wealth and standing through his reputation for hard work and scrupulous honesty following the great fire of 1666, but...

. His biography The Life of William Harvey was awarded the 1966 James Tait Black Memorial Prize
James Tait Black Memorial Prize
Founded in 1919, the James Tait Black Memorial Prizes are among the oldest and most prestigious book prizes awarded for literature written in the English language and are Britain's oldest literary awards...

.
Keynes was President of the Bibliographical Society
Bibliographical Society
Founded in 1892, the Bibliographical Society is the senior learned society dealing with the study of the book and its history, based in London, England....

 (1952–1954) and was awarded the Society's Gold Medal in 1982.

His autobiography
Autobiography
An autobiography is a book about the life of a person, written by that person.-Origin of the term:...

 The Gates of Memory was published in 1981.

Works

  • A Bibliography of Dr. John Donne (1914, 1932, 1958, 1973)
  • Jane Austen: a Bibliography (Nonesuch Press
    Nonesuch Press
    Nonesuch Press was a private press founded in 1922 in London by Francis Meynell, his wife Vera Mendel, and David Garnett.-History:Nonesuch Press's first book, a volume of John Donne's Love Poems was issued in May 1923. In total, the press produced more than 140 books. The press was at its peak in...

    , 1929)
  • Selected Essays of William Hazlitt 1778 : 1830 (Nonesuch Press
    Nonesuch Press
    Nonesuch Press was a private press founded in 1922 in London by Francis Meynell, his wife Vera Mendel, and David Garnett.-History:Nonesuch Press's first book, a volume of John Donne's Love Poems was issued in May 1923. In total, the press produced more than 140 books. The press was at its peak in...

    , 1930)
  • The Works of Sir Thomas Browne: Miscellany Tracts, Repertorium, Miscellaneous Writings (Faber & Gwyer 1931)
  • The Works of Thomas Browne: Letters (Faber & Faber, 1931)
  • The Faber Gallery Series: Blake. (Faber and Faber 1945)
  • The Poetical Works of Rupert Brooke (Faber & Faber, 1946)
  • Poetry and Prose of William Blake (Nonesuch 1948)
  • Portraiture of William Harvey London 1949. With a Catalogue and Reproductions of the Pictures. The Thomas Vicary
    Thomas Vicary
    Thomas Vicary was an early English physician, surgeon and anatomist.Vicary was born in Kent, in about 1490. He was, "but a meane practiser in Maidstone … that had gayned his knowledge by experience, until the King advanced him for curing his sore legge” Henry VIII advanced him to the position of...

     Lecture 1948.
  • The Personality of William Harvey Cambridge University Press: 1949
  • William Blake's Engravings, edited with an introduction (Faber and Faber, (1950)
  • William Blake, 1757-1827 (1949) 1946 ? Blake (1953)
  • The Tempera Paintings of William Blake (1951)
  • The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Containing the Voyages Made Into Divers Places with Many of His Writings Upon Surgery (1951)
  • Samuel Butler's Note-Books, selections (1951) with Brian Hill
  • Poems of Rupert Brooke (1954)
  • A Bibliography of Rupert Brooke (1954) Hart-Davis, The Soho Bibliographies, No.4)
  • Harvey Though John Aubrey's Eyes (1958)
  • Essays in Biography 1961 by J. M. Keynes, editor
  • Dr. Timothie Bright 1550 — 1615. A Survey of his Life with a Bibliography of his Writings (1962)
  • A Study of the Illuminated Books of William Blake
    William Blake
    William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age...

     Poet, Printer, Prophet (1964)
  • An Exhibition of the Illuminated Books of William Blake: Poet — Printer — Prophet (1964) with Lessing J. Rosenwald
  • On Editing Blake (1964)
  • Blake. The Masters 6 (1965)
  • Blake: Complete Writings with Variant Readings (1966)
  • William Blake
    William Blake
    William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age...

    . Songs of Innocence and of Experience. Ed., Introduction & Commentary by Sir Geoffrey Keynes. London: Oxford University Press (1967)
  • Henry James in Cambridge (1967)
  • Sir Thomas Browne Selected Writings (1968)
  • The Letters of Rupert Brooke (1968)
  • William Blake
    William Blake
    William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age...

     Engraver (1969)
  • Drawings of William Blake
    William Blake
    William Blake was an English poet, painter, and printmaker. Largely unrecognised during his lifetime, Blake is now considered a seminal figure in the history of both the poetry and visual arts of the Romantic Age...

     (1970)
  • William Blake's Water-Colours Illustrating the Poems of Thomas Gray
    Thomas Gray
    Thomas Gray was a poet, letter-writer, classical scholar and professor at Cambridge University.-Early life and education:...

     (1972)
  • Deaths Duell by John Donne
    John Donne
    John Donne 31 March 1631), English poet, satirist, lawyer, and priest, is now considered the preeminent representative of the metaphysical poets. His works are notable for their strong and sensual style and include sonnets, love poetry, religious poems, Latin translations, epigrams, elegies, songs,...

    (1973)
  • The Marriage of Heaven and Hell (1975)
  • The Gates of Memory (1981) Keynes, Geoffrey and Davidson, Peter (Eds.)
  • A Watch of Nightingales (Stourton Press, 1981)