United States Department of State

United States Department of State

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The United States Department of State (often referred to as the State Department or DoS), is the United States federal executive department
United States Federal Executive Departments
The United States federal executive departments are among the oldest primary units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States—the Departments of State, War, and the Treasury all being established within a few weeks of each other in 1789.Federal executive...

 responsible for international relations
International relations
International relations is the study of relationships between countries, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations , international nongovernmental organizations , non-governmental organizations and multinational corporations...

 of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries. The Department was created in 1789 and was the first executive department established.

The Department is headquartered in the Harry S. Truman Building located at 2201 C Street, NW, a few blocks from the White House
White House
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

 in the Foggy Bottom neighborhood of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

 The Department operates the diplomatic missions of the United States abroad and is responsible for implementing the foreign policy of the United States and U.S. diplomacy
Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of groups or states...

 efforts.

The Department is led by the Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence...

, who is nominated by the President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 and confirmed
Advice and consent
Advice and consent is an English phrase frequently used in enacting formulae of bills and in other legal or constitutional contexts, describing a situation in which the executive branch of a government enacts something previously approved of by the legislative branch.-General:The expression is...

 by the Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 and is a member of the Cabinet
United States Cabinet
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, which are generally the heads of the federal executive departments...

. The current Secretary of State is Hillary Clinton
Hillary Rodham Clinton
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is the 67th United States Secretary of State, serving in the administration of President Barack Obama. She was a United States Senator for New York from 2001 to 2009. As the wife of the 42nd President of the United States, Bill Clinton, she was the First Lady of the...

. The Secretary of State is the first Cabinet official in the order of precedence
United States order of precedence
The United States order of precedence lists the ceremonial order for domestic and foreign government officials, military and civic leaders at diplomatic, ceremonial, and social events within the United States and abroad. Former Presidents, Vice Presidents, First Ladies, Secretaries of State and...

 and in the presidential line of succession
United States presidential line of succession
The United States presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity, death, resignation, or removal from office of a sitting president or a president-elect.- Current order :This is a list of the current presidential line of...

.

History



The U.S. Constitution
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

, drafted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

 in 1787 and ratified by the states the following year, gave the President
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 the responsibility for the conduct of the nation's foreign relations. It soon became clear, however, that an executive department was necessary to support the President in the conduct of the affairs of the new federal government.

The House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 and Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 approved legislation to establish a Department of Foreign Affairs on July 21, 1789, and President Washington signed it into law on July 27, making the Department of Foreign Affairs the first Federal agency to be created under the new Constitution. This legislation remains the basic law of the Department of State. In September 1789, additional legislation changed the name of the agency to the Department of State and assigned to it a variety of domestic duties.

These responsibilities grew to include management of the United States Mint
United States Mint
The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. The Mint was created by Congress with the Coinage Act of 1792, and placed within the Department of State...

, keeper of the Great Seal of the United States
Great Seal of the United States
The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States federal government. The phrase is used both for the physical seal itself , and more generally for the design impressed upon it...

, and the taking of the census
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

. President George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

 signed the new legislation on September 15. Most of these domestic duties of the Department of State were eventually turned over to various new Federal departments and agencies that were established during the 19th century. However, the Secretary of State still retains a few domestic responsibilities, such as being the keeper of the Great Seal and being the officer to whom a President or Vice-President of the United States wishing to resign must deliver an instrument in writing declaring the decision to resign.

On September 29, 1789, President Washington appointed Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson was the principal author of the United States Declaration of Independence and the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom , the third President of the United States and founder of the University of Virginia...

 of Virginia
Virginia
The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

, then Minister to France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, to be the first United States Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence...

. John Jay
John Jay
John Jay was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, and the first Chief Justice of the United States ....

 had been serving in as Secretary of Foreign Affairs as a holdover from the Confederation since before Washington had taken office and would continue in that capacity until Jefferson would return from Europe many months later.

Duties and responsibilities



The Executive Branch and the U.S. Congress have constitutional
United States Constitution
The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. It is the framework for the organization of the United States government and for the relationship of the federal government with the states, citizens, and all people within the United States.The first three...

 responsibilities for U.S. foreign policy. Within the Executive Branch, the Department of State is the lead U.S. foreign affairs agency, and its head, the Secretary of State, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor, though other officials or individuals may have more influence on their foreign policy decisions. The Department advances U.S. objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. The Department also supports the foreign affairs activities of other U.S. Government entities including the Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

, the Department of Commerce
United States Department of Commerce
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. It was originally created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903...

, the Department of Homeland Security
United States Department of Homeland Security
The United States Department of Homeland Security is a cabinet department of the United States federal government, created in response to the September 11 attacks, and with the primary responsibilities of protecting the territory of the United States and protectorates from and responding to...

, the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian intelligence agency of the United States government. It is an executive agency and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence, responsible for providing national security intelligence assessment to senior United States policymakers...

 (specifically, the Special Activities Division
Special Activities Division
The Special Activities Division is a division in the United States Central Intelligence Agency's National Clandestine Service responsible for covert operations known as "special activities"...

), and the U.S. Agency for International Development. It also provides an array of important services to U.S. citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit or immigrate to the U.S.

All foreign affairs activities—U.S. representation abroad, foreign assistance programs, countering international crime, foreign military training programs, the services the Department provides, and more—are paid for by the foreign affairs budget, which represents little more than 1% of the total federal budget. The total Department of State budget, together with 'Other International Programs' (see below), costs about 45 cents a day ($165.90 a year) for each resident of the United States. As stated by the Department of State, its purpose includes:
  • Protecting and assisting U.S. citizens living or traveling abroad;
  • Assisting U.S. business
    Business
    A business is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit...

    es in the international marketplace;
  • Coordinating and providing support for international activities of other U.S. agencies (local, state, or federal government), official visits overseas and at home, and other diplomatic efforts.
  • Keeping the public informed about U.S. foreign policy and relations with other countries and providing feedback from the public to administration officials.
  • Providing automobile registration for non-diplomatic staff vehicles and the vehicles of diplomats of foreign countries having diplomatic immunity
    Diplomatic immunity
    Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity and a policy held between governments that ensures that diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws...

     in the United States.


The Department of State conducts these activities with a civilian workforce, and normally uses the Foreign Service personnel system for positions that require service abroad. Employees may be assigned to diplomatic missions abroad to represent America, analyze and report on political, economic, and social trends; adjudicate visas; and respond to the needs of American citizens abroad. The U.S. maintains diplomatic relations with about 180 countries and maintains relations with many international organizations, adding up to a total of more than 250 posts around the world. In the United States, about 5,000 professional, technical, and administrative employees work compiling and analyzing reports from overseas, providing logistical support to posts, communicating with the American public, formulating and overseeing the budget, issuing passports and travel warnings, and more. In carrying out these responsibilities, the Department of State works in close coordination with other federal agencies, including the Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

, the Department of the Treasury, and the Department of Commerce. As required by the principle of checks and balances, the Department also consults with Congress about foreign policy initiatives and policies.

Organization



Mission Statement


to: 'Advance freedom for the benefit of the American people and the international community by helping to build and sustain a more democratic, secure, and prosperous world composed of well-governed states that respond to the needs of their people, reduce widespread poverty, and act responsibly within the international system.'

Core activities


The DoS promotes and protects the interests of American citizens by (1) 'Promoting peace and stability in regions of vital interest'; (2) 'Creating jobs at home by opening markets abroad'; (3) 'Helping developing nations establish investment and export opportunities'; and (4) 'Bringing nations together and forging partnerships to address global problems, such as terrorism, the spread of communicable diseases, cross-border pollution, humanitarian crises, nuclear smuggling, and narcotics trafficking'.

Secretary of State


United States Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence...

: Chief executive officer
Chief executive officer
A chief executive officer , managing director , Executive Director for non-profit organizations, or chief executive is the highest-ranking corporate officer or administrator in charge of total management of an organization...

 of the Department of State, member of the United States Cabinet
United States Cabinet
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, which are generally the heads of the federal executive departments...

, answers directly to the President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

. Secretary of State organizes and supervises the entire department and its staff.

Staff

  • United States Deputy Secretary of State
    United States Deputy Secretary of State
    The Deputy Secretary of State of the United States is the chief assistant to the Secretary of State. If the Secretary of State resigns or dies, the Deputy Secretary of State becomes Acting Secretary of State until the President nominates and the Senate confirms a replacement. The position was...

    : The Deputy Secretary (with the Chief of Staff, Executive Secretariat, and the Undersecretary for Management) assists the Secretary in the overall management of the department. Reporting to the Deputy Secretary are the six undersecretaries and the counselor, along with several staff offices:
    • Chief of Staff
    • Executive Secretariat
      Executive Secretariat
      The United States Department of State Executive Secretariat is composed of the Executive Secretary of the Department and four Deputy Executive Secretaries. It is responsible for coordination of the work of the Department of State internally, serving as the liaison between the Department's bureaus...

    • Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
      Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism
      The Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism is an office of the United States Department of State. It coordinates all U.S. Government efforts to improve counter-terrorism cooperation with foreign governments and participates in the development, coordination, and implementation of American...

       (which produces the Country Reports on Terrorism
      Country Reports on Terrorism
      Country Reports on Terrorism is an annual report published by the United States Department of State. In 2005 it replaced the Patterns of Global Terrorism report, which had been released since 1985....

      )
    • Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization
      Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization
      The Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations is a United States Department of State Office that coordinates United States' governmental reconstruction and stabilization efforts in developing countries before, during, and after armed conflict....

    • National Foreign Affairs Training Center
      National Foreign Affairs Training Center
      The George P. Shultz National Foreign Affairs Training Center is one of several locations that house the Foreign Service Institute , the United States government's training school for members of the U.S. foreign affairs community. It is located at Arlington Hall in Arlington, Virginia.-External...

       (which houses the Foreign Service Institute)
    • International Information Programs
    • Office of the Legal Adviser
    • Office of Management Policy
    • Office of Protocol
      Chief of Protocol of the United States
      The Chief of Protocol is an officer of the United States Department of State responsible for advising the President of the United States, the vice president, and the secretary of state on matters of national and international diplomatic protocol...

    • Office of the Science and Technology Adviser
    • Office of War Crimes Issues
      Office of War Crimes Issues
      The Office of War Crimes Issues is an office within the United States Department of State.It is charged with advising the Secretary of State and formulating U.S. policy relating to war crimes and other atrocities. The office reports to the United States Deputy Secretary of State.The Department of...

    • Bureau of Intelligence and Research
      Bureau of Intelligence and Research
      The Bureau of Intelligence and Research is an intelligence bureau in the U.S. State Department tasked with analyzing information. Originally founded as the Research and Analysis Branch of the Office of Strategic Services , it was transferred to the State Department at the end of World War II...

    • Bureau of Legislative Affairs
      Bureau of Legislative Affairs
      The Bureau of Legislative Affairs is the office of the United States Department of State that coordinates legislative activity for the Department of State and communications between the State Department and Congress...

    • Bureau of Resource Management
      Bureau of Resource Management
      Within the United States Department of State, The Bureau of Resource Management assists foreign affairs agency heads with developing policies, plans, and programs to achieve foreign policy goals...


  • Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs: The third-ranking State Department official. Becomes Acting Secretary in the absence of the Secretary of State and Deputy Secretary of State. This position is responsible for bureaus, headed by Assistant Secretaries, coordinating American diplomacy around the world:
    • Bureau of African Affairs
      Bureau of African Affairs
      In the United States Government, the Bureau of African Affairs is part of the U.S. Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State on matters of Sub-Saharan Africa. The bureau was established in 1958...

    • Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
      Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs
      In the United States Government, the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs is part of the United States Department of State and is charged with advising the Secretary of State and Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters of the Asia-Pacific region, as well as dealing with U.S. foreign...

    • Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs
      Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs
      In the United States Government, the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs is part of the U.S. Department of State, charged with implementing U.S. foreign policy and promoting U.S. interests in Europe and Eurasia , as well as advising the Under Secretary for Political Affairs...

    • Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
      Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs
      __FORCETOC__The Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs is a part of the Department of State within the United States government that advises the President, Secretary of State, other bureaux within the Department of State, and other departments and agencies within the U.S...

    • Bureau of International Organization Affairs
      Bureau of International Organization Affairs
      The Bureau of International Organization Affairs is a bureau in the United States Department of State that creates and executes U.S. policy in the United Nations and other international organizations. It is headed by the Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs.The IO...

    • Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs
      Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs
      The Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs is an agency of the Department of State within the United States government that deals with U.S. foreign policy and diplomatic relations with the nations of the Near East.-Duties:The Bureau handles U.S...

    • Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs
      Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs
      -Overview:The Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs is responsible for U.S. foreign policy and U.S. relations with Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Robert O. Blake, Jr. succeeded...

    • Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
      Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs
      In the United States Government, the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs is a part of the U.S. Department of State, charged with implementing U.S. foreign policy and promoting U.S. interests in the Western Hemisphere, as well as advising the Under Secretary for Political Affairs...

  • Under Secretary of State for Management: The principal adviser to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary on matters relating to the allocation and use of Department's budget, physical property, and personnel. This position is responsible for bureaus, headed by Assistant Secretaries, planning the day-to-day administration of the Department and proposing institutional reform and modernization:
    • Bureau of Administration
      Bureau of Administration
      In the United States Government, the Bureau of Administration is part of the U.S. Department of State. The Bureau is responsible for administrative support operations, including procurement; supply and transportation; real property and facilities management; diplomatic pouch and mail services;...

      • Office of Allowances
      • Office of Authentication
      • Language Services
      • Office of Logistics Management
      • Office of Overseas Schools
      • Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization
      • Office of Multi-Media Services
      • Office of Directives Management
      • Office of Commissary and Recreation Affairs
      • Office of the Procurement Executive
    • Bureau of Consular Affairs
      Bureau of Consular Affairs
      The Bureau of Consular Affairs is a bureau of the United States Department of State within that department's management office. The mission of the Bureau is to administer laws, formulate regulations and implement policies relating to the broad range of consular services and immigration. , the...

      • Office of Children's Issues
        Office of Children's Issues
        The Office of Children's Issues is an agency of the Bureau of Consular Affairs, which in turn is part of the US Department of State. The Office of Children’s Issues was created in 1994 under the leadership of Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs Mary Ryan and that of her successor...

    • Bureau of Diplomatic Security
      Bureau of Diplomatic Security
      The Bureau of Diplomatic Security, more commonly known as Diplomatic Security, or DS, is the security and law enforcement arm of the United States Department of State. DS is a world leader in international investigations, threat analysis, cyber security, counterterrorism, security technology, and...

       (DS)
      • U.S. Diplomatic Security Service (DSS)
        Diplomatic Security Service
        The U.S. Diplomatic Security Service is the federal law enforcement arm of the United States Department of State. The majority of its Special Agents are members of the Foreign Service and federal law enforcement agents at the same time, making them unique...

      • Office of Foreign Missions
        Office of Foreign Missions
        Mandated by Congress, the Office of Foreign Missions provides the legal foundation to facilitate secure and efficient operations of U.S. missions abroad, and of foreign missions and international organizations in the United States...

    • Bureau of Human Resources
    • Bureau of Information Resource Management
      Bureau of Information Resource Management
      The Bureau of Information Resource Management is a component of Department of State's management family of bureaus, which provides the information technology and services the Department needs to successfully carry out its foreign policy mission....

    • Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations
      Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations
      The Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations is an agency of the United States Department of State charged with constructing, purchasing, and maintaining buildings and real estate in other countries. It is responsible for building and maintaining U.S...

    • Director of Diplomatic Reception Rooms
    • Foreign Service Institute
      Foreign Service Institute
      The Foreign Service Institute is the United States Federal Government's primary training institution for employees of the U.S. foreign affairs community, preparing American diplomats and other professionals to advance U.S. foreign affairs interests overseas and in Washington...

    • Office of Management Policy, Rightsizing, and Innovation
    • Office of Medical Services
    • Office of White House Liaison
  • Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs: The senior economic advisor for the Secretary and Deputy Secretary on international economic policy. This position is responsible for bureaus, headed by Assistant Secretaries, dealing with trade, agriculture, aviation, and bilateral trade relations with America's economic partners:
    • Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs
      Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs
      The Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs is an agency of the U.S. Department of State charged with promoting economic security and prosperity at home and abroad. It is the single agency of the Under Secretary for Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs. The Bureau's work lies at...

  • Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs: This Undersecretary leads functions that were formerly assigned to the United States Information Agency
    United States Information Agency
    The United States Information Agency , which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to "public diplomacy". In 1999, USIA's broadcasting functions were moved to the newly created Broadcasting Board of Governors, and its exchange and non-broadcasting information functions were...

     but were integrated into the State Department by the 1999 reorganization. This position manages units that handle the department's public communications and seek to burnish the image of the United States around the world:
    • Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
      Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
      The Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the United States Department of State fosters mutual understanding between the people of the United States and the people of other countries around the world...

      • Internet Access and Training Program
        Internet Access and Training Program
        The Internet Access and Training Program funded by USAID since 2007, is a program of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs , US Department of State, funded in the past under the Freedom Support Act . IATP was administered by Project Harmony in Russia and still is administered by the...

    • Bureau of Public Affairs
      Bureau of Public Affairs
      The Bureau of Public Affairs is the part of the United States Department of State that carries out the Secretary of State's mandate to help Americans understand the importance of foreign affairs...

      • Office of The Historian
        Office of The Historian
        The Office of the Historian is an office of the United States Department of State within the Bureau of Public Affairs. The Office is responsible, under law, for the preparation and publication of the official historical documentary record of U.S. foreign policy in the Foreign Relations of the...

    • Bureau of International Information Programs
      Bureau of International Information Programs
      The US Department of State's Bureau of International Information Programs describes itself as follows:Among other things, IIP operates the website to deliver "information about current U.S. foreign policy and about American life and culture."...

  • Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs
    Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs
    The Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security Affairs is a position within the U.S. Department of State that serves as Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament...

    : This Undersecretary coordinates the Department's role in U.S. military assistance. Since the 1996 reorganization, this Undersecretary also oversees the functions of the formerly independent Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
    Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
    The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency was established as an independent agency of the United States government by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act , September 26, 1961, a bill drafted by presidential adviser John J. McCloy. Its predecessor was the U.S. Disarmament Administration, part...

    .
    • Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation
      Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation
      The Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation is a bureau within the United States Department of State responsible for managing a broad range of nonproliferation and counterproliferation functions. The bureau leads U.S...

    • Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
      Bureau of Political-Military Affairs
      The Bureau of Political-Military Affairs is an agency within the United States Department of State that bridges the Department of State with the Department of Defense. It provides policy in the areas of international security, security assistance, military operations, defense strategy and policy,...

    • Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation
      Bureau of Verification, Compliance, and Implementation
      The Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance is a bureau within the United States Department of State. It is responsible for providing oversight of policy and resources of all matters relating to the verification of compliance---or noncompliance---with international arms control,...

  • Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs: The office of Undersecretary of Global Affairs was created by the Clinton Administration to manage diplomatic efforts on emerging worldwide issues, such as the environment, that could not be addressed at the bilateral or regional level. The office was renamed Democracy and Global Affairs in 2005, reflecting an increased focus on democracy promotion in American foreign policy.
    • Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
      Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
      The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs at the United States Department of State is one of three bureaus and two offices that constitute the Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs...

    • Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs
      Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs
      The Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs is a bureau within the United States Department of State. It coordinates a portfolio of issues related to the world's oceans, environment, science and technology, and health....

    • Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
      Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration
      The Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration is a bureau within the United States Department of State.It has primary responsibility for formulating policies on population, refugees, and migration, and for administering U.S. refugee assistance and admissions programs. The Bureau is headed by...

    • Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
      Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons
      The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons is an agency within the United States Department of State charged with investigating and creating programs to prevent human trafficking both within the United States and internationally. The office also presents the Trafficking in Persons...

  • Counselor
    Counselor of the United States Department of State
    The Counselor of the United States Department of State is a position within the United States Department of State that serves the Secretary of State as a special advisor and consultant on major problems of foreign policy and who provides guidance to the appropriate bureaus with respect to such...

    : Ranking with the Under Secretaries, the Counselor is the Secretary's and Deputy Secretary's special advisor and consultant on major problems of foreign policy. The Counselor provides guidance to the appropriate bureaus with respect to such matters, conducts special international negotiations and consultations, and undertakes special assignments from time to time as directed by the Secretary.
  • Office of Global AIDS Coordinator: President's main task force to combat global AIDS
    AIDS
    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus...

     The Global AIDS Coordinator reports directly to the Secretary of State.

Other agencies


Since the 1996 reorganization, the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development
United States Agency for International Development
The United States Agency for International Development is the United States federal government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. President John F. Kennedy created USAID in 1961 by executive order to implement development assistance programs in the areas...

 (USAID), while leading an independent agency, has also reported to the Secretary of State, as does the United States Ambassador to the United Nations
United States Ambassador to the United Nations
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations. The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador...

 (also known as the Permanent Representative).

Expenditures


In FY 2010 the Department of State, together with 'Other International Programs' (for example, USAID
United States Agency for International Development
The United States Agency for International Development is the United States federal government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid. President John F. Kennedy created USAID in 1961 by executive order to implement development assistance programs in the areas...

), had a combined projected discretionary budget of $51.7 billion. The United States Federal Budget for Fiscal Year 2010
2010 United States federal budget
The United States Federal Budget for Fiscal Year 2010, titled A New Era of Responsibility: Renewing America's Promise, is a spending request by President Barack Obama to fund government operations for October 2009–September 2010...

, entitled 'A New Era of Responsibility', specifically 'Imposes Transparency on the Budget' for the Department of State.

The end-of-year FY 2010 DoS Agency Financial Report, approved by Secretary Clinton on 15 November 2010, showed actual total costs for the year of $27.4 billion. Revenues of $6.0 billion, $2.8 billion of which were earned through the provision of consular and management services, reduced total net cost to $21.4 billion.

Total program costs for 'Achieving Peace and Security' were $7.0 billion; 'Governing Justly and Democratically', $0.9 billion; 'Investing in People', $4.6 billion; 'Promoting Economic Growth and Prosperity', $1.5 billion; 'Providing Humanitarian Assistance', $1.8 billion; 'Promoting International Understanding', $2.7 billion; 'Stengthening Consular and Management Capabilities', $4.0 billion; 'Executive Direction and Other Costs Not Assigned', $4.2 billion.

Audit of Expenditures


The Department of State's 'independent auditors
Auditor independence
Auditor independence refers to the independence of the internal auditor or of the external auditor from parties that may have a financial interest in the business being audited.Independence requires integrity and an objective approach to the audit process...

' are Kearney & Company
Kearney & Company
Kearney & Company is a CPA firm established in 1985. It is headquartered in Alexandria, Virginia. It exclusively serves the Federal Government of the United States...

. Since in FY 2009 Kearson qualified its audit opinion, noting material financial reporting weaknesses, the DoS restated its 2009 financial statements
Financial statements
A financial statement is a formal record of the financial activities of a business, person, or other entity. In British English—including United Kingdom company law—a financial statement is often referred to as an account, although the term financial statement is also used, particularly by...

 in 2010. In its FY 2010 audit report, Kearson provided an unqualified audit opinion while noting significant deficiencies, of controls in relation to financial reporting and budgetary accounting, and of compliance with a number of laws and provisions relating to financial management and accounting requirements. In response the DoS Chief Financial Officer observed that 'The Department operates in over 270 locations in 172 countries, while conducting business in 150 currencies and an even large number of languages … Despite these complexities, the Department pursues a commitment to financial integrity, transparency, and accountability that is the equal of any large multi-national corporation.'

Central Foreign Policy File


Since 1973 the primary record keeping system of the Department of State is the Central Foreign Policy File. It consists of copies of official telegrams, airgram
Airgram
An airgram is a U.S. diplomatic term for a message sent by courier via the diplomatic bag instead of by telegram....

s, reports, memorandums, correspondence, diplomatic notes, and other documents related to foreign relations. About 900,000 records spanning the time period from 1973 to 1976 can be accessed online from the National Archives and Records Administration
National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives...

.

Other


In 2009, the Department of State was the fourth most desired employer for undergraduates according to BusinessWeek.

The Department's blog, started in 2007, is known as Dipnote
Dipnote
Dipnote is the official blog of the United States Department of State. It was started on September 25, 2007 with a first post by the US Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs Sean McCormack....

, and a Twitter account is maintained with the same name. The internal wiki
Wiki
A wiki is a website that allows the creation and editing of any number of interlinked web pages via a web browser using a simplified markup language or a WYSIWYG text editor. Wikis are typically powered by wiki software and are often used collaboratively by multiple users. Examples include...

 is Diplopedia
Diplopedia
Diplopedia, billed as the Encyclopedia of the United States Department of State, is a wiki running on a State internal Intranet, called "OpenNet". It houses a unique collection of information pertaining to diplomacy, international relations, and Department of State tradecraft.The wiki may be used...

. The internal suggestion blog within State is called the Sounding Board
State Department Sounding Board
US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton asked for the creation of an online forum for State Department employees to submit ideas directly to the Secretary...

 and their internal professional networking software the Corridor is in beta test.

In November 2010, it was revealed that over a quarter million diplomatic cables between the Department of State and US embassies around the world were leaked to Wikileaks
Wikileaks
WikiLeaks is an international self-described not-for-profit organisation that publishes submissions of private, secret, and classified media from anonymous news sources, news leaks, and whistleblowers. Its website, launched in 2006 under The Sunshine Press organisation, claimed a database of more...

, which has slowly started releasing the cables to the public. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton condemned the leak as harmful to international diplomacy.

See also


  • Diplomatic missions of the United States
  • Diplomatic Reception Rooms, U.S. Department of State
    Diplomatic Reception Rooms, U.S. Department of State
    The Diplomatic Reception Rooms at the U.S. Department of State constitute forty-two principal rooms and offices where the Secretary of State conducts the business of modern diplomacy...

  • State Magazine
    State Magazine
    State Magazine is published by the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Human Resources. Its mission is to acquaint Department of State employees at home and abroad with developments affecting operations and personnel, and to facilitate communication between management and employees.The full-color...

  • United States Foreign Service
    United States Foreign Service
    The United States Foreign Service is a component of the United States federal government under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of approximately 11,500 professionals carrying out the foreign policy of the United States and aiding U.S...

  • Awards of the United States Department of State
    Awards of the United States Department of State
    The United States Department of State, like other agencies of the U.S. federal government, gives civilian decorations for outstanding service, sacrifice, or heroism...


External links