Nepotism

Nepotism

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Nepotism is favoritism granted to relatives regardless of merit. The word nepotism is from the Latin word nepos, nepotis (m. "nephew"), from which modern Romanian nepot and Italian nipote, "nephew" or "grandchild" are also descended
Cognate
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. This learned term derives from the Latin cognatus . Cognates within the same language are called doublets. Strictly speaking, loanwords from another language are usually not meant by the term, e.g...

.

Papal



Nepotism gained its name after the church practice in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, when some Catholic
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

 pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

s and bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

s, who had taken vows of chastity
Chastity
Chastity refers to the sexual behavior of a man or woman acceptable to the moral standards and guidelines of a culture, civilization, or religion....

, and therefore usually had no children of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son.

Several popes elevated nephews and other relatives to the cardinalate
Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

. Often, such appointments were a means of continuing a papal "dynasty."

For instance, Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III , né Alfons de Borja, was Pope from April 8, 1455 to his death in 1458.-Biography:...

, head of the Borgia
Borgia
The Borgias, also known as the Borjas, Borjia, were a European Papal family of Italian and Spanish origin with the name stemming from the familial fief seat of Borja belonging to their Aragonese Lords; they became prominent during the Renaissance. The Borgias were patrons of the arts, and their...

 family, made two of his nephews cardinals; one of them, Rodrigo, later used his position as a cardinal as a stepping stone to the papacy, becoming Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...

. Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III , born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation...

.

Paul also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally ended when Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII , born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 1691 to 1700.-Biography:He was born in Spinazzola to one of the most aristocratic families of the Kingdom of Naples, which included many Viceroys, and ministers to the crown, and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome.In his twentieth...

 issued the bull
Papal bull
A Papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the bulla that was appended to the end in order to authenticate it....

 Romanum decet Pontificem
Romanum decet pontificem
Romanum decet pontificem is a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent XII on June 22, 1692, banning the office of Cardinal Nephew, limiting his successors to elevating only one cardinal relative, eliminating various sinecures traditionally reserved for cardinal-nephews and capping the stipend or...

, in 1692. The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.

Coincidentally, the Church of the East
Church of the East
The Church of the East tāʾ d-Maḏnḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, is a Christian church, part of the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity. Originally the church of the Persian Sassanid Empire, it quickly spread widely through Asia...

 from the 16th to the 19th centuries made the Patriarch a hereditary title, being passed down from Patriarch-uncle to nephew; however, this move was initiated in the face of Timur's destruction of Nestorian Monasteries throughout Asia (monks being the key source of priests and patriarchs for the Church), in an attempt to guarantee the existence of a patriarch. This proved to be a catalyst for the schism that exists today between Chaldean Catholics and Assyrian "Nestorians."

Political


Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English
British English
British English, or English , is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere...

 expression "Bob's your uncle
Bob's your uncle
Bob's your uncle is an expression commonly used mainly in Britain and Commonwealth nations. Typically, someone says it to conclude a set of simple instructions to mean, "And there you have it", or "You're all set". For example, "To make a ham sandwich, just put a piece of ham between two slices of...

" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour
Arthur Balfour
Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour, KG, OM, PC, DL was a British Conservative politician and statesman...

, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland
Chief Secretary for Ireland
The Chief Secretary for Ireland was a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant, from the late 18th century until the end of British rule he was effectively the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland; usually...

 in what was widely seen as an act of nepotism.
Australia
  • Anna Bligh
    Anna Bligh
    Anna Maria Bligh is an Australian politician and the Premier of Queensland since 2007. The 2009 Queensland state election was the first time a female-led political party won or retained state or federal government in Australia...

    , who won the 2009 Queensland State election, has been accused of nepotism by giving her husband Greg Withers a position in the bureaucracy.

Belgium

Over the past decade, criticism has been growing over the creation of political dynasties in Belgium, in which all of the traditional political parties have been involved. This phenomenon has been explained by the fact that prominent party members control the ranking of candidates on party lists for elections and a candidate's place on a list determines whether or not he or she is elected. Another justification for the phenomenon is the importance of name recognition for collecting votes.
  • Tom Dehaene, the son of former prime minister Jean-Luc Dehaene
    Jean-Luc Dehaene
    -Early life and political career:He was born in Montpellier, France, when his parents were fleeing German troops. He got into politics through the Algemeen Christelijk Werknemersverbond , a trade union which was closely linked to the Christelijke Volkspartij .In 1981, he became Minister of Social...

    , at age 26, became a member of the provincial council for the Christian Democrats.
  • Jean-Jacques De Gucht
    Jean-Jacques De Gucht
    Jean-Jacques De Gucht is a Flemish politician and member of Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats. He was elected to the Belgian Senate by the Dutch electoral college in the 2007 Belgian federal election, which took place on 10 June 2007....

    , the son of former minister and current European Commissioner for Trade Policy Karel De Gucht
    Karel De Gucht
    Karel Lodewijk Georgette Emmerence De Gucht is a Belgian politician who has been the European Commissioner for Trade since 2010...

    , was placed at the top of the electoral list for the Flemish Liberals in the 2007 federal elections for the East Flanders region and subsequently appointed to the Senate at age 27.
  • Freya Van den Bossche
    Freya Van den Bossche
    Freya Van den Bossche is a Belgian, Flemish politician and daughter of prominent former Belgian politician Luc Van den Bossche. She is member of the SP.a political party, and she was Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Budget and Consumer Protection in the Belgian federal government...

    , the daughter of former minister Luc Van den Bossche
    Luc Van den Bossche
    Luc Van den Bossche is a Belgian socialist politician and father of Freya Van den Bossche.He graduated as a Doctor in law at the University of Ghent in 1970. Luc Van den Bossche was a Member of Parliament for a number of years and cabinet member in several federal and regional governments in Belgium...

    , a member of the Flemish socialists, was, at age 28, appointed the youngest minister in Belgian history.
  • Melchior Wathelet, Jr., the son of Melchior Wathelet, Sr.
    Melchior Wathelet
    Melchior H.M.J.F.C. Wathelet is a Belgian politician and member of the Humanist Democratic Centre. He has degrees in law and in economics and is a Master of Laws . He's also a professor at the Catholic University of Louvain and the Université de Liège...

     who was minister in several Belgian and Walloon governments and the mayor of Verviers, is currently the junior minister of budget, asylum and immigration, and family policy, and became, at age 26, the leader of the French-speaking Christian Democract fraction in the Belgian parliament.
  • Bruno Tobback
    Bruno Tobback
    Bruno Tobback was the Minister of Environment and Pensions in the Belgian federal government from 2004 until 2007. He is a Flemish socialist and member of the Different Socialist Party , and the son of former minister and current Mayor of Leuven Louis Tobback...

    , the son of former minister and mayor of Leuven Louis Tobback
    Louis Tobback
    Louis Marie Joseph Tobback is a Belgian politician. Tobback is a Flemish social democrat and member of the political party SP.A. He is currently the mayor of Leuven. He graduated in Romance philology at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel....

    , a member of the Flemish socialists, became the Belgian federal government's minister for the environment at 34.
  • Mathias De Clerq is the grandson of former minister Willy De Clercq
    Willy De Clercq
    Willy Clarisse Elvire Hector, Viscount De Clercq was a Belgian liberal politician.De Clercq was born in Ghent...

    .
  • Alexander De Croo
    Alexander De Croo
    Alexander De Croo is a Flemish liberal politician, economist and businessman. He was elected chairman of his political party on 12 December 2009.- Biography :...

    , the son of former speaker of the Belgian parliament Herman De Croo, ran for the leadership of his father's party Open VLD at age 33.
  • Finally there is the example of Maya Detiege, the daughter of former mayor of Antwerp Leona Detiège, who herself is the daughter of the former mayor of Antwerp Frans Detiège.

Canada
  • Many examples of nepotism abound among children of Canadian prime ministers
    Children of the Prime Ministers of Canada
    This is a list of children of the Prime Ministers of Canada. Seventeen out of Canada's twenty-two prime ministers are acknowledged to have fathered children, not including Wilfrid Laurier who was alleged to have fathered two illegitimate children with Émilie Lavergne.Kim Campbell, Canada's only...

    .
  • Many more examples exist of nepotism on First Nations
    First Nations
    First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

     reservations, especially where hereditary chiefs exist.
  • Nepotism is widespread in Canadian business and legal practices especially among new graduates. It is not uncommon for major law elite law firms or major banks and accounting firms to hire sons and daughters of current employees, even if they have poor grades and are less qualified than other graduates.

France

  • In October 2009, Jean Sarkozy
    Jean Sarkozy
    Jean Sarkozy de Nagy-Bocsa is the son of the President of France, Nicolas Sarkozy from his first marriage, to Marie-Dominique Culioli. Jean is a regional councillor in the city of Neuilly-sur-Seine, France and registered as a 1st year Law student at Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne University in 2007...

     was poised to become EPAD's director despite lacking a diploma and professional experience. To his credit, he broke rank from supporting his father's protégé in Neuilly-sur-Seine
    Neuilly-sur-Seine
    Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris.Although Neuilly is technically a suburb of Paris, it is immediately adjacent to the city and directly extends it. The area is composed of mostly wealthy, select residential...

    , the town for which Sarkozy served as mayor, and joined another party's ticket and was voted regional councillor of Neuilly-sur-Seine
    Neuilly-sur-Seine
    Neuilly-sur-Seine is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located from the center of Paris.Although Neuilly is technically a suburb of Paris, it is immediately adjacent to the city and directly extends it. The area is composed of mostly wealthy, select residential...

    .
  • Pierre Sarkozy, first son of President Nicolas Sarkozy
    Nicolas Sarkozy
    Nicolas Sarkozy is the 23rd and current President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra. He assumed the office on 16 May 2007 after defeating the Socialist Party candidate Ségolène Royal 10 days earlier....

    , asked SCPP for a financial help in September 2009 of around €10000 towards an (€80000) artistic project. Because he was not a SCPP member, the request was automatically rejected. Sarkozy then went to the Élysée which lead to an Élysée counsel contacting the SCPP, and SCPP president Marc Guez assuring the issue would soon be favorably resolved. According to Abeille Music president and SCPP member Yves Riesel, however, this would not happen as SCPP's financial help has been restricted to members only for months.

Romania
  • Elena Basescu
    Elena Băsescu
    Elena Băsescu, sometimes referred to as EBA, is a Romanian politician, secretary general of the youth wing of Romania's Democratic Liberal Party, and a Member of the European Parliament. She is the youngest daughter of Traian Băsescu, the current President of Romania. She was formerly a model, and...

    , the 28-year-old daughter of President Traian Băsescu
    Traian Basescu
    Traian Băsescu is the current President of Romania. After serving as the mayor of Bucharest from June 2000 until December 2004, he was elected president in the Romanian Presidential Elections of 2004 and inaugurated on December 20, 2004...

    , was elected in 2009 to the European Parliament
    European Parliament
    The European Parliament is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union . Together with the Council of the European Union and the Commission, it exercises the legislative function of the EU and it has been described as one of the most powerful legislatures in the world...

    , despite the fact the she had no significant professional or political experience. Although an independent candidate, her candidacy was supported by the staff of the Democrat-Liberal Party (PD-L), her father's party. Elena Udrea
    Elena Udrea
    Elena Gabriela Udrea is a Romanian politician. A member of the Democratic Liberal Party , she has been a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Bucharest since 2008...

    , a key member of PD-L, "donated" the campaign headquarters and Monica Iacob Ridzi, the Minister of Sports, openly spent government money to help Elena Basescu
    Elena Băsescu
    Elena Băsescu, sometimes referred to as EBA, is a Romanian politician, secretary general of the youth wing of Romania's Democratic Liberal Party, and a Member of the European Parliament. She is the youngest daughter of Traian Băsescu, the current President of Romania. She was formerly a model, and...

     achieve candidacy.

  • Honorius Prigoana, the oldest son of Romanian mogul
    Business magnate
    A business magnate, sometimes referred to as a capitalist, czar, mogul, tycoon, baron, oligarch, or industrialist, is an informal term used to refer to an entrepreneur who has reached prominence and derived a notable amount of wealth from a particular industry .-Etymology:The word magnate itself...

     Silviu Prigoana
    Silviu Prigoană
    Silviu Vasile Prigoană is a Romanian businessman and politician, member of the Democratic Liberal Party.He owns 60% of Rosal, a waste collection company which services Bucharest's Sector 3, Cluj-Napoca, Suceava and Baia Mare....

    , was the candidate for the deputy post in the elections for the Romanian Parliament, despite the fact the he had no significant professional or political experience. Had he won the elections, Honorius would have been the youngest deputy in parliament in Romanian history.

Greece
  • George Papandreou, the Greek prime minister, was firstly elected MP in 1981 with PASOK, the party led by his father, Andreas, and has since been included in numerous cabinets under either his father or Kostas Simitis. His grandfather, Georgios Papandreou was also a politician and had been elected Prime Minister.

  • Kostas Karamanlis, the former Prime Minister of Greece (2004–09) is the nephew of Konstantinos Karamanlis, founder of the Nea Dimokratia (New Democracy) conservative political party and elected Prime Minister numerous times in his career, as well as served in the position of president of the Democracy party.

  • Dora Bakoyanni, the former Foreign Minister of Greece (2004–2009) is the daughter of the former Prime Minister of Greece Constantine Mitsotakis
    Constantine Mitsotakis
    Constantine Mitsotakis , a Greek politician, was born in Chania, Crete. He came from a political family: his father and grandfathers were members of parliament, and the great liberal leader Eleftherios Venizelos was his uncle...

    ; when she lost the leadership of the New Democracy
    New Democracy (Greece)
    New Democracy is the main centre-right political party and one of the two major parties in Greece. It was founded in 1974 by Konstantinos Karamanlis and formed the first cabinet of the Third Hellenic Republic...

     party to Antonis Samaras
    Antonis Samaras
    Antonis Samaras is a Greek economist and politician who has been leader of New Democracy, Greece's major conservative party and main opposition party, since 2009. A Member of Parliament for Messenia, he was Minister of Finance in 1989, then Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1989 to 1990 and again...

     and expelled from the party, she formed her own. Her brother Kyriakos Mitsotakis
    Kyriakos Mitsotakis
    Kyriakos Mitsotakis Kyriakos Mitsotakis Kyriakos Mitsotakis (born 4 March 1968 is a Greek politician with New Democracy.Born in Athens, he is the son of the former Greek prime minister and honorary president of the New Democracy political party, Konstantinos Mitsotakis, and Marika Giannoukou....

     is a member of the Greek parliament and a Shadow Minister under Samaras.

India
  • The Nehru-Gandhi family
    Nehru-Gandhi family
    The Nehru–Gandhi family or Nehru - Feroze Gandhi family is an Indian political family which has been dominant in the Indian National Congress for most of India's history since independence...

     has shown a strong tendency for nepotism, as manifested through dynastic politics: A recent example is the rise of Rahul Gandhi
    Rahul Gandhi
    Rahul Gandhi is an Indian politician and member of the parliament of India, representing the Amethi constituency. His political party is the Indian National Congress.-Early life and career:...

    , son of former prime minister Rajiv Gandhi
    Rajiv Gandhi
    Rajiv Ratna Gandhi was the sixth Prime Minister of India . He took office after his mother's assassination on 31 October 1984; he himself was assassinated on 21 May 1991. He became the youngest Prime Minister of India when he took office at the age of 40.Rajiv Gandhi was the elder son of Indira...

     and current congressional president Sonia Gandhi
    Sonia Gandhi
    Sonia Gandhi is an Italian-born Indian politician and the President of the Indian National Congress, one of the major political parties of India. She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi...

     and grandson of former prime minister Indira Gandhi
    Indira Gandhi
    Indira Priyadarshini Gandhara was an Indian politician who served as the third Prime Minister of India for three consecutive terms and a fourth term . She was assassinated by Sikh extremists...

    . Jawaharlal Nehru - His daughter Indira Gandhi - Her Son Rajiv Gandhi - His Wife Sonia Gandhi - Her Son Rahul Gandhi.
  • Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia
    Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia
    Maharaja Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia is an Indian politician belonging to the Indian National Congress. He is also a member of the 15th Lok Sabha of India representing the Congress party and a Minister of State, Ministry of Commerce and Industry. Mr...

     was elected to the lower house of Indian parliament by a constituency formerly represented by his father, Madhav Rao Scindia.
  • The Karunanidhi family in Tamil Nadu
    Tamil Nadu
    Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

    : M. Karunanidhi
    M. Karunanidhi
    Muthuvel Karunanidhi is an Indian politician and a former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. He is the head of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam , a Dravidian political party in the state of Tamil Nadu. He has been the leader of the DMK since the death of its founder, C. N...

    's youngest son, M. K. Stalin is deputy chief minister of Tamil Nadu
    Tamil Nadu
    Tamil Nadu is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by the union territory of Pondicherry, and the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh...

     and his sister, M. K. Kanimozhi represents Tamil Nadu in the upper house of Indian parliament. Karunadidhi's Elder Son MK Azhagiri is the Member of Parliament, Union Minister - who rarely speaks in Parliament.

  • The apex court of India made some strong observations about the role of the Speaker and the Chief Minister of Karnataka in the process of disqualification: "Extraneous considerations are writ large on the face of the order of the Speaker and the same has to be set aside. The Speaker, in our view, proceeded in the matter as if he was required to meet the deadline set by the Governor, irrespective of whether, in the process, he was ignoring the constitutional norms set out in the Tenth Schedule and the Disqualification Rules, 1986, and in contravention of the basic principles that go hand in hand with the concept of a fair hearing"

Ireland, Republic of

Many Irish politicians "inherit" seats in the Oireachtas
Oireachtas
The Oireachtas , sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the "national parliament" or legislature of Ireland. The Oireachtas consists of:*The President of Ireland*The two Houses of the Oireachtas :**Dáil Éireann...

 (Parliament) from family members. See Families in the Oireachtas
Families in the Oireachtas
There is a tradition in Irish politics of having family members succeed each other, frequently in the same parliamentary seat. This article lists families where two or more members of that family have been members of either of the houses of the Oireachtas or of the European Parliament...

.
Spain

There is Juan Antonio Samaranch
Juan Antonio Samaranch
Don Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquis of Samaranch, Grandee of Spain , known in Catalan as Joan Antoni Samaranch i Torelló , was a Catalan Spanish sports administrator who served as the seventh President of the International Olympic Committee from 1980 to 2001...

, president of the International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...

 (IOC) from 1980 to 2001: his son, Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs
Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs
Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs is the son of the late Juan Antonio Samaranch and his late wife, Bibi Salisachs. He is married and has four children...

, has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 2001, while his daughter, Maria Teresa Samaranch Salisachs, has been president of the Spanish Federation of Sports on Ice since 2005.
Portugal
  • Many examples of nepotism abound among the son and nephew of Soares (one of the Republic's presidents), Loureiro's family from Gondomar, and so on.

Sri Lanka

Mahinda Rajapaksa has been accused of nepotism, appointing three brothers to run important ministries and other political positions for relatives, regardless of their merit. Rajapaksa holding the offices of he ministries of Defence finance
Ministry of Finance and Planning (Sri Lanka)
The Ministry of Finance & Planning and the Treasury of Sri Lanka is a ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for developing and executing the government's public finance policy, economic policy and long term planning...

, defence
Defence minister
A defence minister is a person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in some sovereign nations...

, ports and aviation, highways and road development public works
Public works
Public works are a broad category of projects, financed and constructed by the government, for recreational, employment, and health and safety uses in the greater community...

. This includes his brother Gotabhaya Rajapaksa
Gotabhaya Rajapaksa
Lieutenant Colonel Nandasena Gotabaya Rajapaksa, RWP, RSP, psc, GR is a retired officer of the Sri Lanka Army and the current Defence Secretary of Sri Lanka. After serving through the early parts of the country's civil war with Tamil Tiger rebels, he retired from the Army in 1992...

, who was given the post of Defence Secetary
Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka)
The Ministry of Defence, Public Security, Law & Order is the Sri Lankan government ministry responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces....

, without holding any elections for the post. He also controls the armed forces, the police and the Coast Guard, he is in charge of immigration and emigration. Rajapaksa appointed his brothers Basil Rajapaksa as minister of Economic Development. His oldest brother Chamal Rajapaksa
Chamal Rajapaksa
Chamal Jayantha Rajapaksa is the current Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka and former Cabinet Minister of Ports, Aviation, Irrigation and Water Management. He hails from a well known political family in Sri Lanka. His father, D. A...

 is also the current Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka
Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka
In Sri Lanka the Speaker of the Parliament is the individual who chairs the country's legislative body, the Parliament of Sri Lanka. The Speaker fulfills a number of important functions in relation to the operation the House, which is based upon the British Westminster Parliamentary system.The...

, and has held many other posts before. Together, the brothers Rajapakse control over 70% of Sri Lanka's budget.

Others includes his nephew, Shashindra Rajapaksa
Shashindra Rajapaksa
Shashindra Rajapaksa is the Chief Minister of Uva Province in Sri Lanka and current Basnayaka Nilame of the Ruhunu Maha Kataragama devalaya. He is the eldest son of Chamal Rajapaksa and nephew of President Mahinda Rajapaksa.-External links:...

, who is the Chief minister of Uva. His cousins the Sri Lanka's ambassador to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Jaliya Wickramasuriya
Jaliya Wickramasuriya
Jaliya Wickramasuriya is a Sri Lankan businessman who currently serves as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka to the United States and Mexico. He has served as Ambassador since July 28, 2008...

 as well as Udayanga Weeratunga
Udayanga Weeratunga
Udayanga Weeratunga is a Sri Lankan businessman who is the current Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka to the Russian Federation...

, whom is the ambassador to Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

. Dozens of nephews, nieces, cousins and in-laws have also been appointed as heads of banks, boards and corporations.
Venezuela

President Hugo Chávez
Hugo Chávez
Hugo Rafael Chávez Frías is the 56th and current President of Venezuela, having held that position since 1999. He was formerly the leader of the Fifth Republic Movement political party from its foundation in 1997 until 2007, when he became the leader of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela...

and Cilia Flores
Cilia Flores
Cilia Flores is a Venezuelan politician. She is a member of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela , and a member of the National Assembly of Venezuela since 2000....

, president of the Venezuela National Assembly, are also known for their hand in getting family members into government positions. Flores managed to place relatives in as many as nine permanent positions at the National Assembly: three siblings, two nephews, a cousin, the mother of that cousin, her mother-in-law, and an aunt.
United Kingdom
  • In February 2010, Sir Christopher Kelly, chairman of the Committee on Standards in Public Life, said that more than 200 MPs used Parliamentary allowances to employ their own relatives in a variety of office roles. He suggested that the practice should be banned.
  • The City of York Council is famous for its Nepotism.
  • The members of the House of Lords
    House of Lords
    The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster....

     traditionally inherited their seats from their fathers. Following the enactment of the House of Lords Act 1999
    House of Lords Act 1999
    The House of Lords Act 1999 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. The Act reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats;...

    , all but 92 of the hereditary peers lost their right to sit in the upper chamber. As the remaining 92 hereditary peers die their seat in he House of Lords will not be passed on to their descendants (although they will still inherit the title).
  • Peter Jay
    Peter Jay
    Peter Jay is a British economist, broadcaster and diplomat.-Background:Peter Jay is the son of Douglas and Peggy Jay, both of whom were Labour Party politicians...

     was appointed UK Ambassador to the United States in 1977 by his father in law James Callaghan
    James Callaghan
    Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC , was a British Labour politician, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1976 to 1980...

    , Prime Minister at the time.
  • North Yorkshire Police's Chief Constable Grahame Maxwell was disciplined by the IPCC
    IPCC
    IPCC may refer to:*Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, of the United Nations*Independent Police Complaints Commission, of England and Wales*Irish Peatland Conservation Council...

     in 2011, but refused to resign, after admitting that he assisted a relative through the first stages of a recruitment process

United States
  • Around 30 family members or relatives of President Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant
    Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods. Under Grant's command, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America...

     prospered financially in some way from either government appointments or employment.
  • Robert F. Kennedy
    Robert F. Kennedy
    Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy , also referred to by his initials RFK, was an American politician, a Democratic senator from New York, and a noted civil rights activist. An icon of modern American liberalism and member of the Kennedy family, he was a younger brother of President John F...

     was selected to be US Attorney General by his brother, President John F. Kennedy
    John F. Kennedy
    John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy , often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963....

     in 1961–63, a position Robert took and held before he was later elected senator.

In entertainment


Outside of national politics, accusations of "nepotism" are made in instances of prima facie favoritism to relatives, in such cases as:
  • The casting of Tori Spelling
    Tori Spelling
    Victoria Davey "Tori" Spelling is an American actress. Spelling became known in the early 1990s for her role as Donna Martin on Beverly Hills, 90210. Spelling then had roles in a string of made-for-television films, such as A Friend to Die For and Mother, May I Sleep with Danger?...

     as Donna Martin in Beverly Hills, 90210
    Beverly Hills, 90210
    Beverly Hills, 90210 is an American drama series that originally aired from October 4, 1990 to May 17, 2000 on Fox and was produced by Spelling Television in the United States, and subsequently on various networks around the world. It is the first series in the Beverly Hills, 90210 franchise...

    received much criticism. Her father Aaron Spelling
    Aaron Spelling
    Aaron Spelling was an American film and television producer. As of 2009, Spelling's eponymous production company Spelling Television holds the record as the most prolific television writer, with 218 producer and executive producer credits...

     was the executive producer.
  • Peaches Geldof
    Peaches Geldof
    Peaches Honeyblossom Geldof is a British journalist, television presenter and model.-Background:Geldof was born in London in 1989, the second daughter of Bob Geldof and Paula Yates. She is the granddaughter of Hughie Green. Her sisters are Fifi Trixibelle Geldof and Pixie Geldof...

    's role as magazine editor in an MTV
    MTV
    MTV, formerly an initialism of Music Television, is an American network based in New York City that launched on August 1, 1981. The original purpose of the channel was to play music videos guided by on-air hosts known as VJs....

     reality show - produced by a company owned by her father Bob Geldof
    Bob Geldof
    Robert Frederick Zenon "Bob" Geldof, KBE is an Irish singer, songwriter, author, occasional actor and political activist. He rose to prominence as the lead singer of the Irish rock band The Boomtown Rats in the late 1970s and early 1980s alongside the punk rock movement. The band had hits with his...

    . In a sketch of The Kevin Bishop Show
    The Kevin Bishop Show
    The Kevin Bishop Show is a sketch comedy written by and starring English comedian Kevin Bishop, part of the Star Stories team. The show was commissioned by Channel 4 for a six part series starting 25 July 2008 at 10pm...

    ,
    which frequently has less-than-flattering fake perfume adverts for celebrities, there was one for Peaches Geldof: "Nepotism, the smell of Peaches Geldof." Before this, a mock voice said "I'm a fashion model, a TV presenter, and I'm a journalist as well .... Did I mention my dad's Bob Geldof?"
  • Hollywood's The Coppola family
    Coppola family tree
    - Academy Awards :Amongst Carmine Coppola's lineal descendants, there have been 23 total Academy Award nominations and 9 wins in categories including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor, Best Original Screenplay, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Original Score....

     includes many distinguished filmmakers and actors. The careers of Sofia Coppola
    Sofia Coppola
    Sofia Carmina Coppola is an American screenwriter, film director, actress, and producer.In 2003 she received the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay for Lost in Translation, and became the third woman to be nominated for an Academy Award for Directing...

    , Nicolas Cage
    Nicolas Cage
    Nicolas Cage is an American actor, producer and director, having appeared in over 60 films including Raising Arizona , The Rock , Face/Off , Gone in 60 Seconds , Adaptation , National Treasure , Ghost Rider , Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans , and...

     and Jason Schwartzman
    Jason Schwartzman
    Jason Francesco Schwartzman is an American actor and musician. He is perhaps best known for his roles in the Hollywood films Rushmore, Spun, I Heart Huckabees, Shopgirl, Marie Antoinette, The Darjeeling Limited, Funny People, and Scott Pilgrim vs. the World...

     have been attributed to aid by director Francis Ford Coppola
    Francis Ford Coppola
    Francis Ford Coppola is an American film director, producer and screenwriter. He is widely acclaimed as one of Hollywood's most innovative and influential film directors...

     who cast his daughter Sofia in The Godfather Part III
    The Godfather Part III
    The Godfather Part III is a 1990 American gangster film written by Mario Puzo and Francis Ford Coppola, and directed by Coppola. It completes the story of Michael Corleone, a Mafia kingpin who tries to legitimize his criminal empire...

    . Cage changed his last name in order to distance himself from such charges.
  • Jaden Smith
    Jaden Smith
    Jaden Christopher Syre Smith is an American child actor, rapper, songwriter, dancer, and the son of Will Smith and Jada Pinkett Smith. He is the elder brother of singer Willow Smith...

     played the lead role in the remake of The Karate Kid
    The Karate Kid (2010 film)
    The Karate Kid is a 2010 American martial arts film and remake of the 1984 film of the same name. Directed by Harald Zwart, produced by Will and Jada Pinkett Smith, the film stars Jaden Smith and Jackie Chan...

    . His parents, movie stars Will Smith
    Will Smith
    Willard Christopher "Will" Smith, Jr. , also known by his stage name The Fresh Prince, is an American actor, producer, and rapper. He has enjoyed success in television, film and music. In April 2007, Newsweek called him the most powerful actor in Hollywood...

     and Jada Pinkett Smith
    Jada Pinkett Smith
    Jada Koren Pinkett Smith is an American actress, producer, director, author, singer-songwriter, and businesswoman. She began her career in 1990, when she made a guest appearance in the short-lived sitcom True Colors. She starred in A Different World, produced by Bill Cosby, and she featured...

     were co-producers of the movie. His breakout role was in 2006's The Pursuit of Happyness
    The Pursuit of Happyness
    Varèse Sarabande released the soundtrack on January 9, 2007, which included sixteen tracks.-Box office:The film debuted first at the North American box office, earning $27 million during its opening weekend and beating out heavily promoted films such as Eragon and Charlotte's Web...

    , where he played the son of Will Smith
    Will Smith
    Willard Christopher "Will" Smith, Jr. , also known by his stage name The Fresh Prince, is an American actor, producer, and rapper. He has enjoyed success in television, film and music. In April 2007, Newsweek called him the most powerful actor in Hollywood...

    's character.His father being one of the producers of the film.
  • In 2010, film student Cody Gifford got a dream summer intern job, reviewing movies for NBC
    NBC
    The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

    's The Today Show
    The Today Show
    Today is an iconic American morning news and talk show airing every morning on NBC. Debuting on January 14, 1952, it was the first of its genre on American television and in the world. The show is also the fourth-longest running American television series...

    ,
    co-hosted by his mother, Kathie Lee Gifford
    Kathie Lee Gifford
    Kathie Lee Gifford is an American television host, singer, songwriter and actress, best known for her 15-year run on the talk show Live with Regis and Kathie Lee, which she co-hosted with Regis Philbin...

    .
  • Many reality television stars became celebrities because of their family connections: Emma Roberts
    Emma Roberts
    Emma Rose Roberts is an American actress, model and singer. She is the daughter of actor Eric Roberts and niece of Julia Roberts. Roberts became known for her role as Addie Singer in the Nickelodeon television series Unfabulous. She released her debut album, which also served as the show's...

    , Paris Hilton
    Paris Hilton
    Paris Whitney Hilton is an American businesswoman, heiress, and socialite. She is a great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton . Hilton is known for her controversial participation in a sex tape in 2003, and appearance on the television series The Simple Life alongside fellow socialite and childhood...

    , Kim Kardashian
    Kim Kardashian
    Kimberly Noel "Kim" Kardashian is an American socialite, television personality, model, actress and businesswoman. She is known for the E! reality series that she shares with her family—Keeping Up with the Kardashians, and its spin-offs including Kourtney and Kim Take New York...

    , Brooke Hogan
    Brooke Hogan
    Brooke Ellen Bollea , better known by her stage name Brooke Hogan, is an American singer, actress, model, socialite, and television personality, and the oldest child of professional wrestler Hulk Hogan . She appeared on the reality-television series Hogan Knows Best, which focused on her family,...

    , Nicole Richie
    Nicole Richie
    Nicole Camille Richie is an American fashion designer, author, actress, singer and television personality. Her father was Peter Michael Escovedo, a musician who played for a brief time with Lionel Richie, and her mother Karen was the executive assistant for Sheila Escovedo...

    , Kelly Osbourne
    Kelly Osbourne
    Kelly Michelle Lee Osbourne is an English media personality, television personality, host, judge, fashion designer, singer, and actress, best known for being the daughter of Ozzy and Sharon Osbourne...

    , and Brody Jenner
    Brody Jenner
    Sam Brody Jenner is an American television personality. He is the son of Olympic decathlete Bruce Jenner and his former wife Linda Thompson.-Reality television:...

     just to name a few.
  • Actress Milla Jovovich
    Milla Jovovich
    Milla Jovovich December 17, 1975)is an American model, actress, musician, and fashion designer. Over her career, she has appeared in a number of science fiction and action-themed films, for which music channel VH1 has referred to her as the "reigning queen of kick-butt".Milla Jovovich began...

     has been affiliated with many films, such as The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc
    The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc
    The Messenger: The Story of Joan of Arc is a French/American historical drama film directed by Luc Besson. The screenplay was written by Besson and Andrew Birkin, and the original music score was composed by Éric Serra....

     and the Resident Evil movies, because of her marriage to the film's directors Luc Besson
    Luc Besson
    Luc Besson is a French film director, writer, and producer. He is the creator of EuropaCorp film company. He has been involved with over 50 films, spanning 26 years, as writer, director, and/or producer.-Early life:...

     and Paul W. S. Anderson
    Paul W. S. Anderson
    Paul William Scott Anderson , also known as Paul W. S. Anderson or Paul Anderson, is an English film director who regularly works in science fiction movies and video game adaptations.-Life and career:...

     respectively.
  • Director Judd Apatow
    Judd Apatow
    Judd Apatow is an American film producer, director, and screenwriter. He is well known for his work in comedy films, especially for films he has been involved with throughout the latter half of the 2000s. He is the founder of Apatow Productions, a film production company that also developed the...

     frequently casts his wife, actress Leslie Mann
    Leslie Mann
    Leslie Mann is an American actress best known for her roles in comedic films, many of which are collaborations with her husband, Judd Apatow.-Early life:...

    , who has appeared in The 40-Year-Old Virgin
    The 40-Year-Old Virgin
    The 40-Year-Old Virgin is a 2005 American buddy comedy film about a middle-aged man's journey to finally have sex. The film was written and directed by Judd Apatow and co-written by its lead star, Steve Carell, though the film itself features a great deal of improvised dialogue...

    , Knocked Up
    Knocked Up
    Knocked Up is a 2007 American romantic comedy drama film co-produced, written, and directed by Judd Apatow. Starring Seth Rogen, Katherine Heigl, Paul Rudd, and Leslie Mann, the film follows the repercussions of a drunken one-night stand between Rogen's slacker character and Heigl's just-promoted...

    , Drillbit Taylor
    Drillbit Taylor
    Drillbit Taylor is a 2008 comedy film starring Owen Wilson as the eponymous character and based on an original idea by John Hughes. It was directed by Steven Brill and the screenplay was written by Kristofor Brown and Seth Rogen. Paramount Pictures released the film on March 21, 2008.Drillbit...

    , and Funny People
    Funny People
    Funny People is a 2009 American comedy-drama film written, co-produced and directed by Judd Apatow, and starring Adam Sandler, Seth Rogen, and Leslie Mann. The film was released on 31 July 2009 in North America, and on 28 August 2009 in the United Kingdom. Funny People uses considerably more...

     (and often their two daughters Maude and Iris, both of whom appeared Knocked Up and Funny People as Leslie Mann's character's daughters
  • Nepotism is rampant in the Indian film industry. The Kapoor Family being the most obvious example. Young actors find it impossible to get an opportunity unless they are related to a prominent figure in the film industry, politics or privileged in some other way.
  • Indian musicians often promote their sons and daughters by giving them an opportunity to share a stage with them.

In business

  • On 13 February 2003, James Murdoch
    James Murdoch (media executive)
    James Rupert Jacob Murdoch is the younger son of media mogul Rupert Murdoch and currently serves as chairman and chief executive of News Corporation, Europe, and Asia, overseeing assets such as News International , SKY Italia , Sky Deutschland, and STAR TV .He sits on the News...

     became a director of BSkyB
    British Sky Broadcasting
    British Sky Broadcasting Group plc is a satellite broadcasting, broadband and telephony services company headquartered in London, United Kingdom, with operations in the United Kingdom and the Ireland....

    . Later that year, he controversially became CEO of BSkyB, in which News Corporation owns a controlling minority stake. His appointment sparked accusations of nepotism, with some commentators and shareholders feeling that the job had not been opened to outsiders and that Murdoch was too young and inexperienced to run a UK news agency.
  • One-time Guardian contributor Max Gogarty has also been accused of taking advantage of family connections to achieve success disproportionate to his ability; his father Paul Gogarty is a frequent travel writer for the newspaper.
  • Successful Indian steel executive O. P. Jindal
    O. P. Jindal
    Om Prakash Jindal , popularly known as O.P. Jindal was born in Hisar,Haryana.He established a successful business enterprise under the flagship of the Jindal Organization. O.P. Jindal was the Chairman of the Jindal Organization...

    's sons Prithviraj Jindal, Sajjan Jindal, Rattan Jindal, and Naveen Jindal, now run his empire.
  • Donald Trump
    Donald Trump
    Donald John Trump, Sr. is an American business magnate, television personality and author. He is the chairman and president of The Trump Organization and the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts. Trump's extravagant lifestyle, outspoken manner and role on the NBC reality show The Apprentice have...

    's children, Donald Trump, Jr.
    Donald Trump, Jr.
    Donald "Don" John Trump, Jr. is an American businessman who is the first child of real estate developer Donald J. Trump and Ivana Trump. He currently works along with his sister Ivanka Trump and brother Eric Trump in the position of Executive Vice President at The Trump Organization...

    , Ivanka Trump
    Ivanka Trump
    Ivanka Marie Trump is an American businesswoman, socialite, heiress, and fashion model. The daughter of Ivana and Donald Trump, she is Executive Vice President of Development & Acquisitions at The Trump Organization...

     and Eric Trump
    Eric Trump
    Eric Fredrick Trump is the third child of Donald J. Trump and Ivana Trump, and is executive vice president, real estate development and mergers and acquisitions, at The Trump Organization, Trump Tower. He is also the founder and chairman of .-Early life and education:Trump was born in New York...

     are Executive Vice Presidents of Development & Acquisition in their father's company.
  • Robert Kraft
    Robert Kraft
    Robert K. Kraft is an American business magnate. He is the Chairman and was the Chief Executive Officer of The Kraft Group, a diversified holding company with assets in paper and packaging, sports and entertainment, real estate development and a private equity portfolio...

    's son, Jonathan Kraft
    Jonathan Kraft
    Jonathan A. Kraft is an American businessman, the president of the New England Patriots, owner/investor of the New England Revolution, and both president and chief operating officer of The Kraft Group...

    , is President of the New England Patriots
    New England Patriots
    The New England Patriots, commonly called the "Pats", are a professional football team based in the Greater Boston area, playing their home games in the town of Foxborough, Massachusetts at Gillette Stadium. The team is part of the East Division of the American Football Conference in the National...

     and a COO of the Kraft Group.
  • Even the largest corporations in India are in some sense "family owned", Reliance being the most interesting example. After the founder's, death the company was inherited by his two sons. A succession war ensued, and the matter was finally settled in court.

In popular culture

  • In the TV series Parenthood
    Parenthood (2010 TV series)
    Parenthood is an American comedy-drama television series developed by Jason Katims and produced by Imagine Television and Universal Media Studios. The first season premiered on March 2, 2010 on NBC...

    ,
    Sarah Braverman mentions nepotism because her brother got her a job at his company.
  • In the TV series SpongeBob SquarePants
    SpongeBob SquarePants
    SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series, created by marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg. Much of the series centers on the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the underwater city of "Bikini Bottom"...

     in the episode 'Culture Shock', the character Squidward states that nepotism is 'alive and well' at the talent show that Mr. Krabs, the owner of The Krusty Krab restaurant, had organised in order to make more money for the restaurant. Squidward makes this statement because the first act that appears at the talent show is Mr. Krabs' own daughter Pearl.
  • In the US version of The Office, there was an episode devoted to nepotism.
  • In the HBO TV series Entourage, the "entourage" of film star Vincent Chase receive many opportunities because of nepotism, whom received an opportunity because of his brother's early success.
  • In the video game Borderlands
    Borderlands (video game)
    Borderlands is a science fiction based first-person shooter with RPG elements that was developed by Gearbox Software for PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. It was first revealed in the September 2007 issue of Game Informer magazine...

    the Atlas corporation's private army, the Crimson Lance, is headed by the five year old Admiral Mikey. This angers General Knoxx and he describes the Crimson Lance promotion system as "Goddamn Nepotism".

Social and economic effects



Nepotism and cronyism can have short- and long-term effects on a society, depending on the extent of the take-up and social acceptability of these practices.

Areas in which, it is believed, nepotism has negative societal effects:
  • the civil service
    Civil service
    The term civil service has two distinct meanings:* A branch of governmental service in which individuals are employed on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations....

  • intergovernmental relations (ambassadors, civil-service attached personnel)


Also, since a politician or movie star-producer can have more than one child, there is also the related situation of a remaining, resentful, "passed over" child. India's Karunanidhi
M. Karunanidhi
Muthuvel Karunanidhi is an Indian politician and a former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. He is the head of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam , a Dravidian political party in the state of Tamil Nadu. He has been the leader of the DMK since the death of its founder, C. N...

 family also illustrates this examples: Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers M.K. Azhagiri, M. Karunanidhi's second son, was passed over in favor of M. K. Stalin for the deputy chief minister role. This caused a political rift between the supporters of Azhagiri and Stalin.

Nepotism often plays a part in social circles (to varying degrees), as people tend to become friends with their friends' friends more quickly than with complete strangers.

See also


  • Cronyism
    Cronyism
    Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle to meritocracy....

  • Collective narcissism
    Collective narcissism
    Collective narcissism is a type of narcissism where an individual has an inflated self-love of his or her own ingroup, where an “ingroup” is a group in which an individual is personally involved...

  • Simony
    Simony
    Simony is the act of paying for sacraments and consequently for holy offices or for positions in the hierarchy of a church, named after Simon Magus , who appears in the Acts of the Apostles 8:9-24...

  • Ingroup bias
    Ingroup bias
    In-group–out-group bias, also called intergroup bias, refers to the phenomenon of in-group favoritism, a preference and affinity for one’s in-group over the out-group, or anyone viewed as outside the in-group. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, linking, allocation of resources and many...


  • Ethnic nepotism
    Ethnic nepotism
    Ethnic nepotism describes a human tendency for in-group bias or in-group favouritism applied by nepotism for people with the same ethnicity.- The theory :...

  • Professional courtesy
    Professional courtesy
    Professional courtesy is the tradition among physicians not to charge for treatment of each other's family. The purpose was to discourage physicians from having members of their own family as patients, as well as to foster bonds among physicians...

  • List of cardinal-nephews
  • Wasta


Further reading


External links