Juan Antonio Samaranch

Juan Antonio Samaranch

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Don
Don (honorific)
Don, from Latin dominus, is an honorific in Spanish , Portuguese , and Italian . The female equivalent is Doña , Dona , and Donna , abbreviated "Dª" or simply "D."-Usage:...

 Juan Antonio Samaranch y Torelló, 1st Marquis of Samaranch, Grandee of Spain
(17 July 1920 – 21 April 2010), known in Catalan as Joan Antoni Samaranch i Torelló (ʒuˈan ənˈtɔni səməˈɾaŋ), was a Catalan
Catalan people
The Catalans or Catalonians are the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia that form a historical nationality in Spain. The inhabitants of the adjacent portion of southern France are sometimes included in this definition...

 Spanish sports administrator who served as the seventh President of the International Olympic Committee
Presidents of the International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on 23 June 1894. Its membership consists of the 205 National Olympic Committees...

 (IOC) from 1980 to 2001. Samaranch served the second longest term as the head of the IOC, the longest being that of Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educationalist and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, and is considered the father of the modern Olympic Games...

 (29 years).

Early life


Samaranch was born into a wealthy family in Barcelona
Barcelona
Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

. As a child, he was a keen roller hockey
Roller hockey (Quad)
Roller Hockey is a team sport that enjoys significant popularity in a number of Latin countries. Depending on territories, it is also known as Hóquei em Patins, International Style Ball hockey, Rink Hockey or Hardball Hockey. Roller Hockey was a demonstration rollersport in the 1992 Summer...

 player. During the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

, he was conscripted into the Republican
Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic was the government of Spain between April 14 1931, and its destruction by a military rebellion, led by General Francisco Franco....

 forces in 1938, at the age of 18, to serve as a medical orderly. However, he was politically opposed to the Republic, and escaped to France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

. He quickly returned to Nationalist Spain
Spanish State
Francoist Spain refers to a period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975 when Spain was under the authoritarian dictatorship of Francisco Franco....

 under Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

 and enrolled in the Spanish fascist movement Falange
Falange
The Spanish Phalanx of the Assemblies of the National Syndicalist Offensive , known simply as the Falange, is the name assigned to several political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, most particularly the original fascist movement in Spain. The word means phalanx formation in Spanish....

.

Business and political career


After the defeat of the Republic in 1939, Samaranch studied commerce at IESE Business School
IESE
IESE Business School is the graduate business school of the University of Navarra. IESE has campuses in Barcelona, Madrid, and New York City and teaching facilities in Munich and Sao Paulo...

 in Barcelona. He had a short career as a sports journalist for La Prensa, which ended in his dismissal in 1943 for criticizing the supporters of Real Madrid C.F.
Real Madrid C.F.
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol , commonly known as Real Madrid, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain. The club have won a record 31 La Liga titles, the Primera División of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional , 18 Copas del Rey, 8 Spanish Super Cups, 1 Copa Eva Duarte and 1 Copa de la...

 after that club's 11–1 defeat of FC Barcelona
FC Barcelona
Futbol Club Barcelona , also known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club, based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain....

, and then joined his family's textile business. He joined the board of La Caixa
La Caixa
La Caixa , formally Caixa d'Estalvis i Pensions de Barcelona , is currently Europe’s leading savings bank and Spain's third largest financial institution, with a network of over 5,500 branches, more than 8,100 ATMs, a workforce in excess of 27,000 and more than 10.7 million...

, Spain's largest savings bank, in 1984, and served as President of the board from 1987 to 1999. He remained as honorary president from his retirement in 1999 to his death.

Samaranch served on the municipal government of Barcelona, with responsibility for sports, from 1955 to 1962. He was a procurador (member of the lower house) of the Cortes Españolas during the last decade of the Franco regime
Spanish State
Francoist Spain refers to a period of Spanish history between 1936 and 1975 when Spain was under the authoritarian dictatorship of Francisco Franco....

, from 1964 until the restoration of democracy
Spanish transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. The transition is usually said to have begun with Franco’s death on 20 November 1975, while its completion has been variously said to be marked by the Spanish...

 in 1977. From 1967 to 1971, he also served as "national delegate" (minister) for sports, and from 1973 to 1977 he was the president of the diputación (governing council) of the Province of Barcelona. He was appointed Spanish ambassador
Ambassador
An ambassador is the highest ranking diplomat who represents a nation and is usually accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization....

 to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 and Mongolia
Mongolia
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Although Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, its western-most point is only from Kazakhstan's eastern tip. Ulan Bator, the capital and largest...

 in 1977, immediately after the restoration of diplomatic relations between the countries: this post helped him to gain the support of the Soviet bloc countries in the election to the presidency of the IOC, held in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 in 1980.

He had been the chef de mission
Head of Mission
In diplomatic usage, Head of Mission or Chief of Mission from the French "Chef de Mission Diplomatique" is the generic term used to refer to the head of a diplomatic representation, such as an Ambassador, High Commissioner, Nuncio, Chargé d'affaires, Permanent Representative, and sometimes to a...

of the Spanish team at a number of Olympic events, before he was appointed Government Secretary for Sports by Spanish Head of State Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

 in 1967. He also became the president of the Spanish National Olympic Committee and a member of the IOC. He was vice-president of the IOC from 1974 to 1978.

IOC Presidency



Samaranch was elected President of the IOC
Presidents of the International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is a corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on 23 June 1894. Its membership consists of the 205 National Olympic Committees...

 at the 83rd IOC Session, held in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 prior to the 1980 Summer Olympics
1980 Summer Olympics
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Moscow in the Soviet Union. In addition, the yachting events were held in Tallinn, and some of the preliminary matches and the quarter-finals of the football tournament...

 – between 15 July and 18 July 1980.

During his term, Samaranch made the Olympic Games financially healthy, with big television deals and sponsorships. Although the 1984 Summer Olympics
1984 Summer Olympics
The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Los Angeles, California, United States in 1984...

 were still boycotted by the Soviet bloc, the number of IOC participating member nations increased at every Games during Samaranch's presidency. Samaranch also wanted the best athletes to compete in the Olympics, which led to the gradual acceptance of professional athletes.

One achievement of Samaranch was the financial rescue of the IOC, which was in financial crisis in the 1970s. The games themselves were such a burden on host cities that it appeared that no host would be found for future Olympiads. Under Samaranch, the IOC revamped its sponsorship arrangements (choosing to go with global sponsors rather than allowing each national federation to take local ones), and new broadcasting deals, commercialising the Olympics and making them more economically viable.

He was awarded the 1990 Seoul Peace Prize
Seoul Peace Prize
The Seoul Peace Prize was established in 1990 as a biennial recognition with monetary award to commemorate the success of the 24th Summer Olympic Games held in Seoul, Korea, an event in which 160 nations from across the world took part, creating harmony and friendship...

.

It became a tradition for Samaranch, when giving the President's address at the close of each Summer Olympics, to praise the organizers at each Olympiad for putting on "the best ever" Games. He withheld this phrase only once, at the 1996 Summer Olympics
1996 Summer Olympics
The 1996 Summer Olympics of Atlanta, officially known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and unofficially known as the Centennial Olympics, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States....

 in Atlanta where the organization had come under heavy criticism.

In the aftermath of a bribery scandal surrounding the 2002 Winter Olympics
2002 Winter Olympics
The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially the XIX Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event that was celebrated in February 2002 in and around Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Approximately 2,400 athletes from 77 nations participated in 78 events in fifteen disciplines, held throughout...

 in Salt Lake City, Utah
Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

, an inquiry held in camera
In camera
In camera is a legal term meaning "in private". It is also sometimes termed in chambers or in curia.In camera describes court cases that the public and press are not admitted to...

expelled several IOC members, but cleared Samaranch of wrongdoing. Samaranch set up a commission to investigate the corruption and introduced reform of the bid process as a result of the scandal.

In 2001, Samaranch did not apply for the presidency again. He was succeeded by Jacques Rogge
Jacques Rogge
Jacques Rogge, Count Rogge , is a Belgian sports bureaucrat. He is the eighth and current President of the International Olympic Committee .-Life and career:...

. He then became Honorary President for Life of the International Olympic Committee. Samaranch served the second longest term as the head of the IOC, 21 years, the longest being that of Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Coubertin
Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin was a French educationalist and historian, founder of the International Olympic Committee, and is considered the father of the modern Olympic Games...

 (29 years). Following his retirement, Samaranch played a major role in Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

's bid for the 2012 and 2016 Olympics, though both were unsuccessful. In 1991 he was raised into the Spanish nobility
Spanish nobility
Spanish nobles are persons who possess the legal status of hereditary nobility according to the laws and traditions of the Spanish monarchy. A system of titles and honours of Spain and of the former kingdoms that constitute it comprise the Spanish nobility...

 by King Juan Carlos of Spain
Juan Carlos I of Spain
Juan Carlos I |Italy]]) is the reigning King of Spain.On 22 November 1975, two days after the death of General Francisco Franco, Juan Carlos was designated king according to the law of succession promulgated by Franco. Spain had no monarch for 38 years in 1969 when Franco named Juan Carlos as the...

 and given the hereditary title of Marqués de Samaranch (Marquis of Samaranch), together with the dignity Grande de España (English: Grandee of Spain), this in recognition of his contribution to the Olympic movement.

Family


Samaranch married Maria Teresa Salisachs Rowe, known as "Bibí" (26 December 193116 September 2000), on 1 December 1955. She died in Spain while he was attending the 2000 Summer Olympics
2000 Summer Olympics
The Sydney 2000 Summer Olympic Games or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...

 in Sydney
Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

. Two children were born of this marriage: his eldest child and daughter, Maria Teresa Samaranch Salisachs (born 1956), has been president of the Spanish Federation of Sports on Ice since 2005, while his youngest child and son, Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs
Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs
Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs is the son of the late Juan Antonio Samaranch and his late wife, Bibi Salisachs. He is married and has four children...

 (born 1959), has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 2001.

Death



Samaranch died of cardio-respiratory failure in the Hospital Quirón in Barcelona on 21 April 2010, having suffered ill health for several years prior to his death.

As a recipient of the Gold Medal of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Samaranch was laid in state in the Palau de la Generalitat. His funeral mass was in the Cathedral of Santa Eulalia
Cathedral of Santa Eulalia
The Cathedral of the Holy Cross and Saint Eulalia , also known as Barcelona Cathedral, is the Gothic cathedral and seat of the Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain. The cathedral was constructed throughout the 13th to 15th centuries, with the principal work done in the 14th century. The cloister, which...

, on 22 April 2010 and was attended by representatives of the Spanish royal family and of the Olympic movement. He was buried at the Montjuïc Cemetery. After his death, in June 2010 the Olympic and Sports Museum Joan Antoni Samaranch
Olympic and Sports Museum Joan Antoni Samaranch
The Joan Antoni Samaranch Olympic and Sports Museum opened in 2007 at the Olympic Ring in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The museum is located in front of the Lluís Companys Olympic Stadium at the Montjuïc hill...

 and the Olympic Hall Zetra in Sarajevo were renamed in his honour.

Honours and awards

  • Commander with Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland (1994)
  • Grand Gold Medal with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria
    Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria
    The Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria is a state decoration of the Republic of Austria...

     (1994)
  • Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III (1980, Spain)
  • Gold Medal of the Generalitat de Catalunya (1985)
  • Order of Friendship of Peoples
    Order of Friendship of Peoples
    The Order of Friendship of Peoples was an order of the Soviet Union, and was awarded to persons , organizations, enterprises, military units, as well as administrative subdivisions of the USSR for accomplishments in strengthening of inter-ethnic and international friendship and cooperation, for...

     (Soviet Union, 1994)
  • Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
    Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
    The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana was instituted in 1995 to honour the independence of the Estonian state. The Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana is bestowed upon the President of the Republic. Presidents of the Republic who have ceased to hold office shall keep the Order of the Cross of...

    , First Class (2003, Estonia)
  • Collar of the Order of Isabella the Catholic (2000)
  • Knight Grand Cross of the Grand Order of King Tomislav
    Grand Order of King Tomislav
    The Grand Order of King Tomislav , or more fully the Grand Order of King Tomislav with Sash and Great Morning Star , is the highest state order of the Republic of Croatia...

     ("Juan Antonio Samaranch, president of the International Olympic Committee, which included the Croatian Olympic sport in the great community of the Olympic movement worldwide, contributing to the international recognition of sovereign and independent Republic of Croatia. Its merit is that it has enabled the Croatian athletes for the first time in history to use their national symbols in the Olympics in Albertville and Barcelona, and are thus permanently incorporated in the global Olympic family. Another exception is the act have included the Republic of Croatia in the International Olympic Committee before it was invited as a member of the United Nations." – 26 August 1993)
  • Order of the Golden Fleece (Georgia) – 2001
  • Grand Cross of the Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas
    Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas
    The Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas is the Lithuanian Presidential Award which was re-instituted to honour the citizens of Lithuania for outstanding performance in civil and public offices. Foreign nationals may also be awarded this Order. The Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke...

     (Lithuania, April 4, 1994)
  • Order of the Republic (Moldova)
    Order of the Republic (Moldova)
    The Order of the Republic is Moldova's highest order. It is awarded by the President of Moldova.- Recipients :* Alexy II of Moscow* Traian Băsescu* Silviu Berejan* Vladimir Beşleagă* Valeriu Boboc* Ivan Bodiul* Petru Bogatu* Lorena Bogza...

     (May 14, 1999)
  • Order of Honour (Russia, June 25, 2001)
  • Order of the White Double Cross
    Order of the White Double Cross
    The Order of the White Double Cross is the highest state decoration of the Republic of Slovakia.The Order was instituted on 1 March 1994 after Slovakia became independent on 1 January 1993...

    , First Class (Slovakia, 2000)
  • Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
    Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise
    The Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise is an award of Ukraine. It is awarded for distinguished services to the state and people of the Ukrainian nation. The Order was instituted on August 23, 1995 by the Ukrainian President, Leonid Kuchma....

     Third class (Ukraine, May 21, 2005)
  • Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
    Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
    The Order of Merit of the Italian Republic was founded as the senior order of knighthood by the second President of the Italian Republic, Luigi Einaudi in 1951...

    , First Class (1981)
  • In 1982 he was awarded the Cup Stadium for the promotion of Spanish sport.
  • In 1985 he received the Gold Medal of the Generalitat of Catalonia
  • In 1988 he was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for Sports and the Peace Prize awarded by South Korea.
  • Member of the Académie Française des Sports
  • In 1986 he was named president of the credit institution La Caixa, which was already a member advisor since 1984.
  • In 1991 he was awarded the noble title of Marquis of Samaranch
  • Doctor Honoris Causa by the University of Alicante
    University of Alicante
    The University of Alicante was established in 1979 on the basis of the Center for University Studies , which was founded in 1968. The University main campus is located in San Vicente del Raspeig/Sant Vicent del Raspeig, bordering the city of Alicante to the north...

     (1992), University of Huelva
    University of Huelva
    The University of Huelva a public university in Huelva, Spain.-Faculties:* Polytechnic School* School of Nursing* School of Social Work* Faculty of Education* Faculty of Labour Sciences* Faculty of Business Sciences* Faculty of Experimental Sciences...

    , Universidad Camilo José Cela
    Universidad Camilo José Cela
    Camilo José Cela University was established in 2000 and it is part of the Educational Institution SEK -Saint Stanislaus Kostka- founded in 1892. UCJC currently offers a wide range of academic qualifications, more than 40 graduate programmes and 50 postgraduate programmes...

     (2002) and Universidad Europea de Madrid
    Universidad Europea de Madrid
    European University of Madrid is a private university in Madrid, Spain.The school is owned by Laureate Education, Inc. and has 12,500 students....

     (2009)
  • Honorary Member of the Club de Santander Palomar

See also

  • Olympic Hall Juan Antonio Samaranch
  • Joan Antoni Samaranch Olympic and Sports Museum
    Olympic and Sports Museum Joan Antoni Samaranch
    The Joan Antoni Samaranch Olympic and Sports Museum opened in 2007 at the Olympic Ring in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The museum is located in front of the Lluís Companys Olympic Stadium at the Montjuïc hill...


External links



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