List of cardinal-nephews

List of cardinal-nephews

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A cardinal-nephew
Cardinal-nephew
A cardinal-nephew is a cardinal elevated by a Pope who is that cardinal's uncle, or, more generally, his relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. The word nepotism originally referred specifically to...

 is a cardinal
Cardinal (Catholicism)
A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually an ordained bishop, and ecclesiastical prince of the Catholic Church. They are collectively known as the College of Cardinals, which as a body elects a new pope. The duties of the cardinals include attending the meetings of the College and...

 elevated by a pope
Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 who was his uncle, or more generally, his relative. The practice of creating cardinal-nephews originated in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, and reached its apex during the 16th and 17th centuries. From the Avignon Papacy
Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1376 during which seven Popes resided in Avignon, in modern-day France. This arose from the conflict between the Papacy and the French crown....

 (1309–1377) until Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII , born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 1691 to 1700.-Biography:He was born in Spinazzola to one of the most aristocratic families of the Kingdom of Naples, which included many Viceroys, and ministers to the crown, and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome.In his twentieth...

's anti-nepotism bull
Papal bull
A Papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a Pope of the Catholic Church. It is named after the bulla that was appended to the end in order to authenticate it....

, Romanum decet pontificem
Romanum decet pontificem
Romanum decet pontificem is a papal bull issued by Pope Innocent XII on June 22, 1692, banning the office of Cardinal Nephew, limiting his successors to elevating only one cardinal relative, eliminating various sinecures traditionally reserved for cardinal-nephews and capping the stipend or...

(1692), nearly every pope who appointed cardinals appointed at least one relative to the College of Cardinals
College of Cardinals
The College of Cardinals is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.A function of the college is to advise the pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory. It also convenes on the death or abdication of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor...

,Until Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII , born Antonio Pignatelli, was Pope from 1691 to 1700.-Biography:He was born in Spinazzola to one of the most aristocratic families of the Kingdom of Naples, which included many Viceroys, and ministers to the crown, and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome.In his twentieth...

, the only exceptions were popes who did not appoint the cardinals at all (Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III , born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, was Pope from September 22 to October 18, 1503.-Career:...

, Pope Marcellus II
Pope Marcellus II
Pope Marcellus II , born Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi, was Pope from 9 April 1555 to 1 May 1555, succeeding Pope Julius III. Before his accession as Pope he had been Cardinal-Priest of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme. He is the most recent Pope to choose to retain his birth name as his regnal name...

, Pope Urban VII
Pope Urban VII
Pope Urban VII , born Giovanni Battista Castagna, was Pope for thirteen days in September 1590. He was of Genoese origin, although born in Rome. He was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Marcello in 1584...

, Pope Leo XI
Pope Leo XI
Pope Leo XI , born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici, was Pope from 1 April 1605 to 27 April of the same year.-Biography:...

) and Pope Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI , born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, served as Pope from 9 January 1522 until his death some 18 months later...

 (who appointed only one cardinal).
including every Renaissance-era pope
Renaissance Papacy
The Renaissance Papacy was a period of papal history between the Western Schism and the Protestant Reformation. From the election of Pope Martin V of the Council of Constance in 1417 to the Reformation, Western Christianity was largely free from schism as well as significant disputed papal claimants...

.

Although nephews were the most common relation to be elevated to the College, other family members include (legitimate, illegitimate, or adopted) sons and grandsons, brothers, grandnephews, cousins and even uncles. At least 15, and possibly as many as 19 cardinal-nephews were later elected pope (Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241.The successor of Pope Honorius III , he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his uncle Pope Innocent III , and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.-Early life:Ugolino was...

, Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV was Pope from 1254 until his death.Born as Rinaldo di Jenne, in Jenne , he was, on his mother's side, a member of the de' Conti di Segni family, the counts of Segni, like Pope Innocent III and Pope Gregory IX...

, Adrian V
Pope Adrian V
Pope Adrian V , born Ottobuono de' Fieschi, was pope in 1276.-Biography:Ottobuono belonged to a feudal family of Liguria, the Fieschi, Counts of Lavagna....

, Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI
Gregory XI was pope from 1370 until his death.-Biography:He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort, in Maumont, in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin around 1336. He succeeded Pope Urban V in 1370, and was pope until 1378...

, Boniface IX
Pope Boniface IX
Pope Boniface IX , born Piero Tomacelli, was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November 2, 1389, until October 1, 1404...

, Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII , born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was briefly Pope at Rome, from 1404 to his death, during the Western Schism while there was a rival Pope, antipope Benedict XIII , at Avignon.Migliorati was born to a simple family of Sulmona in the Abruzzi...

, Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV , born Gabriele Condulmer, was pope from March 3, 1431, to his death.-Biography:He was born in Venice to a rich merchant family, a Correr on his mother's side. Condulmer entered the Order of Saint Augustine at the monastery of St. George in his native city...

, Paul II
Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II , born Pietro Barbo, was pope from 1464 until his death in 1471.- Early life :He was born in Venice, and was a nephew of Pope Eugene IV , through his mother. His adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope...

, Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...

, Pius III
Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III , born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, was Pope from September 22 to October 18, 1503.-Career:...

, Julius II
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II , nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope" , born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513...

, Leo X
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X , born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was the Pope from 1513 to his death in 1521. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. He is known for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's 95 Theses...

, Clement VII
Pope Clement VII
Clement VII , born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534.-Early life:...

, Benedict XIII
Pope Benedict XIII
-Footnotes:...

, and Pius VII
Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII , born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was a monk, theologian and bishop, who reigned as Pope from 14 March 1800 to 20 August 1823.-Early life:...

, perhaps also John XIX
Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX , born Romanus, was Pope from 1024 to 1032.He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII , both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum...

, Benedict IX
Pope Benedict IX
Pope Benedict IX , born Theophylactus of Tusculum, was Pope on three occasions between 1032 and 1048. One of the youngest popes, he was the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.-Biography:Benedict was born in Rome as Theophylactus, the...

, if they were really promoted cardinals, as well as Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni....

 and Benedict XII
Pope Benedict XII
Pope Benedict XII , born Jacques Fournier, the third of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from 1334 to 1342.-Early life:...

, if in fact they were related to their elevators). One became antipope (John XXIII
Antipope John XXIII
Baldassarre Cossa was Pope John XXIII during the Western Schism. The Catholic Church regards him as an antipope.-Biography:...

), and two or three were canonized (Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo was the cardinal archbishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Milan from 1564 to 1584. He was a leading figure during the Counter-Reformation and was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church, including the founding of seminaries for the education of priests...

, Guarinus of Palestrina
Guarinus of Palestrina
Guarinus was an Italian Augustinian canon regular and Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina from December 1144.He is a Catholic saint, with feast day February 6.-External links:...

, and perhaps Anselm of Lucca
Anselm of Lucca
Saint Anselm of Lucca , called the Younger or Anselm II to distinguish him from his uncle, was an Italian bishop, a prominent figure in the Investiture Controversy and in the fighting in Central Italy between the forces of Countess Matilda of Tuscany, the papal champion, and those of Henry IV,...

, if in fact he was really elected cardinal).

Similarly-created cardinals include cardinal-nephews of antipopes and nephews of popes made cardinals by other popes.

11th century


Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Benedict VIII
Pope Benedict VIII
Pope Benedict VIII , born Theophylactus, Pope from 1012 to 1024, of the noble family of the counts of Tusculum , descended from Theophylact, Count of Tusculum like his predecessor Pope Benedict VI .Benedict VIII was opposed by an antipope, Gregory...


(1012–1024)
Lotario (or Loctarius), seniore
circa 1015
Cousin
Giovanni
Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX , born Romanus, was Pope from 1024 to 1032.He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII , both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum...

,Unknown
Brother Future Pope John XIX
Teofilatto
Pope Benedict IX
Pope Benedict IX , born Theophylactus of Tusculum, was Pope on three occasions between 1032 and 1048. One of the youngest popes, he was the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.-Biography:Benedict was born in Rome as Theophylactus, the...

,Unknown
NephewNephew to both Benedict VIII and John XIX
Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX , born Romanus, was Pope from 1024 to 1032.He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII , both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum...

Future Pope Benedict IX
John XIX
Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX , born Romanus, was Pope from 1024 to 1032.He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII , both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum...


(1024–1032)
Pietro 1024 Cousin
Benedict IX
Pope Benedict IX
Pope Benedict IX , born Theophylactus of Tusculum, was Pope on three occasions between 1032 and 1048. One of the youngest popes, he was the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy.-Biography:Benedict was born in Rome as Theophylactus, the...


(1032–1044, 1045, 1047–1048)
Giovanni before April 1044 Nephew
Alexander II
Pope Alexander II
Pope Alexander II , born Anselmo da Baggio, was Pope from 1061 to 1073.He was born in Milan. As bishop of Lucca he had been an energetic coadjutor with Hildebrand of Sovana in endeavouring to suppress simony, and to enforce the celibacy of the clergy...


(1061–1073)
St. Anselm of Lucca
Anselm of Lucca
Saint Anselm of Lucca , called the Younger or Anselm II to distinguish him from his uncle, was an Italian bishop, a prominent figure in the Investiture Controversy and in the fighting in Central Italy between the forces of Countess Matilda of Tuscany, the papal champion, and those of Henry IV,...

Circa 1062
Brother or nephew
Urban II
Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II , born Otho de Lagery , was Pope from 12 March 1088 until his death on July 29 1099...


(1088–1099)
Odon de Châtillon
Odon de Châtillon
Odon de Châtillon was a French cardinal. He probably was a nephew of Pope Urban II .He entered the Order of Benedictines in the monastery of Cluny. His uncle Urban II elevated him to the cardinalate and named him Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia ca. 1095. He participated in the papal election, 1099 and...

Circa 1095 Nephew

12th century



Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Callixtus II
Pope Callixtus II
Pope Calixtus II , born Guy de Vienne, the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy , was elected Pope on February 1, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II . His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms...


(1119–1124)
Etienne de Bar
Etienne de Bar
Etienne de Bar was a French cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Callixtus II, his uncle who elevated him in 1120.-References:...

1120
Nephew
Innocent II
Pope Innocent II
Pope Innocent II , born Gregorio Papareschi, was pope from 1130 to 1143, and was probably one of the clergy in personal attendance on the antipope Clement III .-Early years:...


(1130–1143)
Gregorio Papareschi
Gregorio Papareschi (cardinal)
Gregorio was an Italian cardinal created by Pope Innocent II ca. 1134/37. He is often referred to as nephew of Innocent II but this relationship is not proven. He subscribed the papal bulls between March 23, 1138 and October 27, 1140 and died probably in 1141.-References:**J. M. Brixius, Die...

1134/1137
Nephew
Pietro Papareschi
Pietro Papareschi
Pietro was an Italian cardinal created by Pope Innocent II on 17 September 1143. He is often referred to as brother of Innocent II and member of the Roman family of Papareschi but this is not attested in the contemporary sources. He signed the papal bulls as Cardinal-Bishop of Albano between 9...

17 September 1143
Brother
Lucius II
Pope Lucius II
Pope Lucius II , born Gherardo Caccianemici dal Orso, was pope from March 9, 1144, until his death Feb 15, 1145. His pontificate was notable for the unrest in Rome associated with the Commune of Rome, and its attempts to wrest control of the city from the papacy.-Early life:Gherardo Caccianemici...


(1144–1145)
Ubaldo
Ubaldo Caccianemici
Ubaldo Caccianemici was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius II, his cousin who elevated him in May or June 1144....

19 May 1144
Cousin or nephew
St. Guarinus of Palestrina
Guarinus of Palestrina
Guarinus was an Italian Augustinian canon regular and Cardinal-Bishop of Palestrina from December 1144.He is a Catholic saint, with feast day February 6.-External links:...

22 December 1144 Relative
Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV
Pope Adrian IV , born Nicholas Breakspear or Breakspeare, was Pope from 1154 to 1159.Adrian IV is the only Englishman who has occupied the papal chair...


(1154–1159)
Boso Breakspeare
Boso Breakspeare
-Origins:According to the older historiography Boso was an Englishman from St Albans and nephew of Nicholas Breakspear, future Pope Adrian IV, on his mother's side. He ostensibly joined the Order of Benedictines at St Albans Abbey in the young age, and then entered the Roman Curia when his uncle...

21 December 1156
Nephew
Lucius III
Pope Lucius III
Pope Lucius III , born Ubaldo, was pope from 1 September 1181 to his death.A native of the independent republic of Lucca, he was born ca. 1100 as Ubaldo, son of Orlando. He is commonly referred to as a member of the aristocratic family of Allucingoli, but this is not proven...


(1181–1185)
Uberto Allucingoli
Uberto Allucingoli
Uberto Allucingoli was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, his uncle who ostensibly elevated him with the title of San Lorenzo in Damaso in 1182....

Circa 1182
Nephew
Gerardo
Gerardo Allucingoli
Gerardo Allucingoli was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Lucius III, who elevated him in 1182.He was canon of the cathedral chapter in his native city of Lucca. After the election of his uncle to the papacy he was named Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church , and then cardinal-deacon...

18 December 1182
Nephew
Clement III
Pope Clement III
Pope Clement III , born Paulino Scolari, was elected Pope on December 19, 1187 and reigned until his death.-Cardinal:...


(1187–1191)
Lotario de' Conti
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni....

22 September 1190
Unknown
Future Pope Innocent III
Niccolò Scolari Nephew
Celestine III
Pope Celestine III
Pope Celestine III , born Giacinto Bobone, was elected Pope on March 21, 1191, and reigned until his death. He was born into the noble Orsini family in Rome, though he was only a cardinal deacon before becoming Pope...


(1191–1198)
Bobo
Bobo of S. Teodoro
Bobo of San Teodoro was an Italian Cardinal.He was relative of Pope Celestine III, who named him cardinal-deacon of San Teodoro on 20 February 1193. He subscribed papal bulls between 4 March 1193 and 19 June 1199...

20 February 1193 Relative
Giovanni di San Paolo
Giovanni di San Paolo
Giovanni di San Paolo was a Benedictine monk at San Paolo fuori le Muri in Rome. He was made Cardinal-Deacon on February 20, 1193, then Cardinal Priest of Santa Prisca in May 1193 and finally Cardinal Bishop of Sabina at the end of 1204...

Nephew
Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III was Pope from 8 January 1198 until his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni....


(1198–1216)
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241.The successor of Pope Honorius III , he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his uncle Pope Innocent III , and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.-Early life:Ugolino was...

19 December 1198 Cousin Future Pope Gregory IX
Giovanni dei Conti di Segni
Giovanni dei Conti di Segni
Giovanni dei Conti di Segni was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Innocent III, his cousin, who elevated him in 1200 with the deaconry of Santa Maria in Cosmedin. He was also Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church 1205–1213 and Protodeacon of the Sacred College from 1210 or...

3 June 1200 Cousin
Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni
Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni
Ottaviano dei Conti di Segni was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Innocent III, his cousin who elevated him probably in May 1206...

27 May 1206 Cousin
Stefano Conti 5 March 1216 Unknown

13th century


Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was pope from March 19, 1227 to August 22, 1241.The successor of Pope Honorius III , he fully inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his uncle Pope Innocent III , and zealously continued their policy of Papal supremacy.-Early life:Ugolino was...


(1227–1241)
Rinaldo Conti
Pope Alexander IV
Pope Alexander IV was Pope from 1254 until his death.Born as Rinaldo di Jenne, in Jenne , he was, on his mother's side, a member of the de' Conti di Segni family, the counts of Segni, like Pope Innocent III and Pope Gregory IX...

18 September 1227 Unknown Future Pope Alexander IV
Niccolò dei Conti di Segni
December 1228
Nephew
Riccardo Annibaldeschi di Molaria 1238 Unknown
Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV , born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was pope from June 25, 1243 until his death in 1254.-Early life:...


(1243–1254)
Guglielmo Fieschi
Guglielmo Fieschi
Guglielmo Fieschi was an Italian cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Innocent IV, his uncle, who elevated him on May 28, 1244.He was born between 1210-1220 in Genoa, but nothing is known about his life before his elevation to the cardinalate. As cardinal, he received the title of deacon of...

28 May 1244 Nephew
Ottobono Fieschi
Pope Adrian V
Pope Adrian V , born Ottobuono de' Fieschi, was pope in 1276.-Biography:Ottobuono belonged to a feudal family of Liguria, the Fieschi, Counts of Lavagna....

December 1251 Nephew Future Pope Adrian V
Urban IV
Pope Urban IV
Pope Urban IV , born Jacques Pantaléon, was Pope, from 1261 to 1264. He was not a cardinal, and there have been several Popes since him who have not been Cardinals, including Urban V and Urban VI.-Biography:...


(1261–1264)
Anchero Pantaleone
Anchero Pantaleone
Anchero Pantaleone was a French cardinal and cardinal-nephew of Pope Urban IV, his uncle who elevated him on May 22, 1262. He was cardinal protopriest from 1277 and died on November 1, 1286.-References:...

22 May 1262 Nephew
Gregory X
Pope Gregory X
Pope Blessed Gregory X , born Tebaldo Visconti, was Pope from 1271 to 1276. He was elected by the papal election, 1268–1271, the longest papal election in the history of the Roman Catholic Church....


(1271–1276)
Vicedomino de Vicedominis
Vicedomino de Vicedominis
Vicedomino de Vicedominis was an Italian cardinal.-Biography:Born at Piacenza, he was the cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory X, his cousin who elevated him on June 3, 1273. From 1257 until 1273 he was archbishop of Aix, then cardinal-bishop of Palestrina...

3 June 1273 Unknown Future pope-elect, died before proclamation
Giovanni Visconti
Giovanni Visconti, Bishop of Sabina
Giovanni Visconti — according to Lorenzo Cardella nephew of Pope Gregory X. He was ostensibly created cardinal-bishop of Sabina by his uncle in 1275 and in 1276 was named judge in the case concerning the translation of bishop Giovanni of Potenza to the archbishopric of Monreale, postulated by the...

1275
Unknown
Nicholas III
Pope Nicholas III
Pope Nicholas III , born Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, Pope from November 25, 1277 to his death in 1280, was a Roman nobleman who had served under eight Popes, been made cardinal-deacon of St...


(1277–1280)
Latino Malabranca Orsini
Latino Malabranca Orsini
Latino Malabranca Orsini was an Italian Cardinal-nephew of Pope Nicholas III.He was son of Roman senator Angelo Malabranca and Mabilia Orsini, sister of Pope Nicholas III. He entered the Order of Preachers in his youth and studied law at University of Paris. He obtained the titles of doctor in law...

12 March 1278 Nephew
Giordano Orsini Brother
Honorius IV
Pope Honorius IV
Pope Honorius IV , born Giacomo Savelli, was Pope for two years from 1285 to 1287. During his unremarkable pontificate he largely continued to pursue the pro-French policy of his predecessor, Pope Martin IV...


(1285–1287)
Giovanni Boccamazza
Giovanni Boccamazza
Giovanni Boccamazza was an Italian Cardinal. He was from the Roman nobility, related to the Savelli family and was a nephew of Pope Honorius IV....

22 December 1285 Relative
Nicholas IV
Pope Nicholas IV
Pope Nicholas IV , born Girolamo Masci, was Pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292. A Franciscan friar, he had been legate to the Greeks under Pope Gregory X in 1272, succeeded Bonaventure as Minister General of his religious order in 1274, was made Cardinal Priest of Santa Prassede and...


(1288–1292)
Pietro Colonna 16 May 1288
Relative
Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope Boniface VIII , born Benedetto Gaetani, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. Today, Boniface VIII is probably best remembered for his feuds with Dante, who placed him in the Eighth circle of Hell in his Divina Commedia, among the Simonists.- Biography :Gaetani was born in 1235 in...


(1294–1303)
Benedetto II Caetani
Benedetto II Caetani
Benedetto Caetani was an Italian cardinal.He was born in Anagni and was nephew of Pope Boniface VIII , who elevated him to the cardinalate at the beginning of 1295. He subscribed papal bulls as cardinal-deacon of SS...

between 23 January and 13 May 1295 Nephew
Giacomo Tomasi Caetani (Iacopo Tommasi) 17 December 1295 Unknown
Francesco Caetani Unknown
Leonardo Patrasso
Leonardo Patrasso
Leonardo Patrasso was an Italian Franciscan and Cardinal.He was a canon at Alatri, and from 1290 its bishop. He was bishop of Aversa from 1297 to 1299. His nephew, Pope Boniface VIII, made him a cardinal in 1300. Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals, August 1309 until his death.-Notes:...

2 March 1300 Uncle

14th century




Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Clement V
Pope Clement V
Pope Clement V, born Raymond Bertrand de Got was Pope from 1305 to his death...


(1305–1314)
Berenger Fredoli
Berenger Fredoli
Bérenger Fredoli was a French canon lawyer and Cardinal-Bishop of Frascati.-Celestine V:...

15 December 1305
Nephew, son of Guillaume de Frédol
Arnaud Frangier de Chanteloup Close relative, possible nephew
Arnaud de Pellegrue
Arnaud de Pellegrue
Arnaud de Pellegrue was a cardinal-nephew of Pope Clement V, the first pope of the Avignon Papacy.He was born in Château Lamothe, Ancient Diocese of Bazas to the "ancient and noble" house of de la Mothe Pellegrue, a relative of Clement V...

Relative, possible nephew
Raymond de Got Nephew, son of Arnaud Garcie de Got
Guillaume Arrufat
Guillaume Arrufat
Guillaume Arrufat , also known as Guillaume D'Arrufat, Guillaume Ruffat des Forges, Guillelmus Rufati, Guglielmo Rufati, etc., was a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church....

Relative, possible nephew
Raymond Guillaume des Forges 19 December 1310 Nephew, son of Marquise de Got
Bernard Jarre
Bernard Jarre
Bernard Jarre was a French Cardinal in the period of the Avignon papacy.He was born at Sainte-Livrade in diocese of Agen and was relative of Pope Clement V. From 1307 he is attested as archdeacon of Coutances. On December 19, 1310 Clement V appotined him cardinal-deacon of S...

 (or Garve)
Relative
Arnaud d'Aux
Arnaud d'Aux
Arnaud d'Aux was relative of pope Clement V, who named him bishop of Poitiers , and then cardinal-bishop of Albano . He accompanied cardinal Arnaud Nouvel in England in 1312. He acted also as Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church from 1311 until 1319...

23 December 1312 Relative
Berenguer Fredol
Berenguer Fredol
Berenguer Fredol – nephew of Berenger Fredoli, was Bishop of Béziers in 1309, Cardinal-Priest of SS. Nereo e Achilleo in 1312 and Cardinal-Bishop of Porto in 1317. He succeeded his uncle in the post of the dean of the Sacred College in June 1323 and died in Avignon in November of that same year....

Grandnephew
John XXII
Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII , born Jacques Duèze , was pope from 1316 to 1334. He was the second Pope of the Avignon Papacy , elected by a conclave in Lyon assembled by Philip V of France...


(1316–1334)
Jacques de Via 17 December (or 18), 1316 Nephew, son of Marie Duese
Gauscelin Jean d'Euse Relative
Bertrand du Pouget
Bertrand du Pouget
Bertrand du Pouget was a French papal diplomat and Cardinal.He may have been a nephew of Pope John XXII. As cardinal he was closely involved in dealing with the practical consequences of the migration of the papacy to Avignon, and also in striving to uphold papal prestige in Italy, for example by...

Relative, possible nephew
Arnaud de Via 20 June 1317 Nephew, son of Marie Duese
Raymond Le Roux 19 December (or 20), 1320
Close relative, possible nephew
Jacques Fournier
Pope Benedict XII
Pope Benedict XII , born Jacques Fournier, the third of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from 1334 to 1342.-Early life:...

18 December 1327
Unknown relative
Future Pope Benedict XII)
Imbert Dupuis
Relative, possible nephew
Benedict XII
Pope Benedict XII
Pope Benedict XII , born Jacques Fournier, the third of the Avignon Popes, was Pope from 1334 to 1342.-Early life:...


(1334–1342)
Guillaume Court
Guillaume Court
Guillaume Court was a French Cistercian theologian and Cardinal.He was briefly bishop of Nîmes, and then bishop of Albi, in 1337, but only for a year, as Pope Benedict XII shortly elevated him to the cardinalate...

18 December 1338
Relative, mother's side
Clement VI
Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI , bornPierre Roger, the fourth of the Avignon Popes, was pope from May 1342 until his death in December of 1352...


(1342–1352)
Aymeric de Chalus 20 September 1342 Cousin
Hugues Roger Brother
Adhémar Robert Cousin or nephew
Gérard Lagarde (or Domar) Cousin
Bernard de la Tour Nephew
Guillaume de la Jugée (Guillaume II Roger) Nephew, son of Guillaumette Rogier
Nicolas de Besse 19 May 1344 Nephew, son of Dauphine Roger
Pierre-Roger de Beaufort
Pope Gregory XI
Gregory XI was pope from 1370 until his death.-Biography:He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort, in Maumont, in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin around 1336. He succeeded Pope Urban V in 1370, and was pope until 1378...

28 May (or 29), 1348 Nephew Future Pope Gregory XI
Raymond de Canillac 17 December 1350 Nephew
Guillaume d'Aigrefeuille, seniore Cousin
Pierre du Cros Nephew or cousin
Innocent VI
Pope Innocent VI
Pope Innocent VI , born Étienne Aubert; his father was Adhemar Aubert seigneur de Montel-De-Gelas in Limousin province. His niece was Catherine Aubert, Dame de Boutheon, also the wife of Randon II baron de Joyeuse; she is La Fayette's ancestor...


(1352–1362)
Andouin Aubert
Andouin Aubert
Andouin Aubert was a French jurist, bishop and Cardinal.He was a nephew of Pope Innocent VI. He became apostolic notary, and was made bishop of Paris in 1349. In 1350 he was bishop of Auxerre, and in 1353 bishop of Maguelonne. The next year he resigned as bishop, and took up residence in Avignon,...

15 February 1353 Nephew, son of Guy Aubert
Pierre de Salvete Monteruc 23 December 1356 Nephew of mother's side
Etienne Aubert, iuniore 17 September 1361 Grandnephew
Urban V
Pope Urban V
Pope Urban V , born Guillaume Grimoard, was Pope from 1362 to 1370.-Biography:Grimoard was a native of Grizac in Languedoc . He became a Benedictine and a doctor in Canon Law, teaching at Montpellier and Avignon...


(1362–1370)
Angelic de Grimoard 18 September 1366 Brother
Pierre d'Estaing 7 June 1370 Relative
Gregory XI
Pope Gregory XI
Gregory XI was pope from 1370 until his death.-Biography:He was born Pierre Roger de Beaufort, in Maumont, in the modern commune of Rosiers-d'Égletons, Limousin around 1336. He succeeded Pope Urban V in 1370, and was pope until 1378...


(1370–1378)
Jean du Cros
Jean du Cros
Jean du Cros was a cardinal of the Catholic Church. He was bishop of Limoges in France .He was made cardinal-priest of SS. Nereo e Achilleo on 30 May 1371 by his uncle, Pope Gregory XI. Then, he became grand penitentiary and cardinal-bishop of Palestrina...

30 May 1371 Nephew or cousin
Jean de La Tour Brother-in-law of niece
Pierre de la Jugée (or Jugie) 20 December 1375 Cousin
Gui de Maillesec Nephew on mother's side
Gérard du Puy
Gérard du Puy
Gérard du Puy was a French cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and cardinal-nephew of Pope Gregory XI.-Papal legate:...

Cousin or nephew
Urban VI
Pope Urban VI
Pope Urban VI , born Bartolomeo Prignano, was Pope from 1378 to 1389.-Biography:Born in Itri, he was a devout monk and learned casuist, trained at Avignon. On March 21, 1364, he was consecrated Archbishop of Acerenza in the Kingdom of Naples...


(1378–1389)
Francesco Moricotti Prignani
Francesco Moricotti Prignani
Francesco Moricotti Prignani was an Italian bishop and Cardinal. A cardinal-nephew, he was created Cardinal in 1378 by his uncle Pope Urban VI....

18 September 1378 Nephew
Filippo Carafa della Serra 18 September 1378 Relative
Francesco Renzio 21 December 1381 Distant relative
Pietro Tomacelli
Pope Boniface IX
Pope Boniface IX , born Piero Tomacelli, was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November 2, 1389, until October 1, 1404...

Distant relative Future Pope Boniface IX
Tommaso Orsini ca.1383 Relative
Rinaldo Brancaccio
Rinaldo Brancaccio
Rinaldo Brancaccio was an Italian cardinal from the 14th and 15th century, during the Western Schism. There were other members of his family created cardinals : Landolfo Brancaccio ; Niccolò Brancaccio, pseudocardinal of Antipope Clement VII ; Ludovico Bonito ; Tommaso Brancaccio ; Francesco Maria...

17 December 1384 Relative
Marino Bulcani Distant relative, nephew of cardinal Francesco Renzio
Boniface IX
Pope Boniface IX
Pope Boniface IX , born Piero Tomacelli, was the second Roman Pope of the Western Schism from November 2, 1389, until October 1, 1404...


(1389–1404)
Enrico Minutoli
Enrico Minutoli
Enrico Minutoli was an Italian Cardinal.He was bishop of Bitonto from 1382 to 1389 and then archbishop of Naples. He was also archpriest of the Liberian Basilica and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church ). He is buried in the Cappella Minutolo, Naples, with other members of the Minutolo family...

18 December 1389 Distant relative
Cosimo Migliorati
Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII , born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was briefly Pope at Rome, from 1404 to his death, during the Western Schism while there was a rival Pope, antipope Benedict XIII , at Avignon.Migliorati was born to a simple family of Sulmona in the Abruzzi...

Distant relative Future Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII , born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was briefly Pope at Rome, from 1404 to his death, during the Western Schism while there was a rival Pope, antipope Benedict XIII , at Avignon.Migliorati was born to a simple family of Sulmona in the Abruzzi...

 (1404–1406)
Baldassare Cossa
Antipope John XXIII
Baldassarre Cossa was Pope John XXIII during the Western Schism. The Catholic Church regards him as an antipope.-Biography:...

27 February 1402 Relative Future Antipope John XXIII

15th century




Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII
Pope Innocent VII , born Cosimo de' Migliorati, was briefly Pope at Rome, from 1404 to his death, during the Western Schism while there was a rival Pope, antipope Benedict XIII , at Avignon.Migliorati was born to a simple family of Sulmona in the Abruzzi...


(1404–1406)
Giovanni Migliorati 12 June 1405 Nephew
Gregory XII
Pope Gregory XII
Pope Gregory XII , born Angelo Correr or Corraro, Pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Pope Innocent VII on 30 November 1406....


(1406–1415)
Antonio Correr
Antonio Correr
Antonio Correr was Italian Cardinal-nephew of Gregory XII, Pope of the Roman Obedience in the period of the Great Western Schism. He was also cousin of Pope Eugene IV. His last name is listed also as Corrario and Corraro....

9 May 1408 Nephew, son of Filippo Correr
Gabriele Condulmer
Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV , born Gabriele Condulmer, was pope from March 3, 1431, to his death.-Biography:He was born in Venice to a rich merchant family, a Correr on his mother's side. Condulmer entered the Order of Saint Augustine at the monastery of St. George in his native city...

Nephew, son of Beriola Correr Future Pope Eugene IV
Angelo Barbarigo 19 September 1408 Nephew, son of Caterina Correr
Martin V
Pope Martin V
Pope Martin V , born Odo Colonna, was Pope from 1417 to 1431. His election effectively ended the Western Schism .-Biography:...


(1417–1431)
Prospero Colonna
Prospero Colonna (cardinal)
Prospero Colonna was a cardinal-nephew of Pope Martin V , whose election ended the Western Schism. Colonna was excommunicated for a period due to his rebellion against Martin V's successor, Pope Eugene IV, becoming one of the few excommunicated cardinals...

24 May 1426
published
In pectore
In pectore is a term used in the Catholic Church to refer to appointments to the College of Cardinals by the Pope when the name of the newly appointed cardinal is not publicly revealed...

 8 November 1430
Nephew, son of Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna
Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna
Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna was an Italian nobleman of the Colonna family. He was the 8th Duke and Prince of Paliano and hereditary Grand Constable of the Kingdom of Naples. He was also a Knight of the Golden Fleece.-Biography:...

Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV
Pope Eugene IV , born Gabriele Condulmer, was pope from March 3, 1431, to his death.-Biography:He was born in Venice to a rich merchant family, a Correr on his mother's side. Condulmer entered the Order of Saint Augustine at the monastery of St. George in his native city...


(1431–1447)
Francesco Condulmer
Francesco Condulmer
Francesco Condulmer was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.He was made cardinal on 19 September 1431 by his uncle, Pope Eugenius IV, and accumulated many offices and dignities. He was Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church , administrator of Narbonne and Amiens...

19 September 1431 Nephew
Pietro Barbo
Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II , born Pietro Barbo, was pope from 1464 until his death in 1471.- Early life :He was born in Venice, and was a nephew of Pope Eugene IV , through his mother. His adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope...

1 July 1440 Nephew, son of Polissena Condulmer Future Pope Paul II
Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V
Pope Nicholas V , born Tommaso Parentucelli, was Pope from March 6, 1447 to his death in 1455.-Biography:He was born at Sarzana, Liguria, where his father was a physician...


(1447–1455)
Filippo Calandrini
Filippo Calandrini
Filippo Calandrini was a half-brother of Pope Nicholas V, who named him bishop of Bologna in 1447 and Cardinal Priest in 1448. Grand penitentiary from 1459. He was also bishop of Albano and bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina . He died at Bagnoreggio, at the age of 73.-External links:*...

20 December 1448 Half-brother
Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III
Pope Callixtus III , né Alfons de Borja, was Pope from April 8, 1455 to his death in 1458.-Biography:...


(1455–1458)
Luis Juan del Mila y Borja 20 February 1456
published
In pectore
In pectore is a term used in the Catholic Church to refer to appointments to the College of Cardinals by the Pope when the name of the newly appointed cardinal is not publicly revealed...

 17 September 1456
Nephew
Rodrigo Borja
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...

Nephew Future Pope Alexander VI
Pius II
Pope Pius II
Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini was Pope from August 19, 1458 until his death in 1464. Pius II was born at Corsignano in the Sienese territory of a noble but decayed family...


(1458–1464)
Francesco Piccolomini
Pope Pius III
Pope Pius III , born Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini, was Pope from September 22 to October 18, 1503.-Career:...

5 March 1460 Nephew Future Pope Pius III
Niccolò Fortiguerra
Niccolò Fortiguerra
Niccolò Fortiguerra was an Italian papal legate, military commander, and Cardinal.Born at Pistoia, he was related to Pope Pius II and is counted as a cardinal-nephew. He had a doctorate in utroque iure from the University of Siena.He became bishop of Teano in 1458, and Cardinal in 1460...

Relative on mother's side
Giacomo Ammannati-Piccolomini
Jacopo Piccolomini-Ammannati
Jacopo Piccolomini-Ammannati, or Giacomo Piccolomini was an Italian Renaissance cardinal and humanist.-Biography:...

18 December 1461 Adopted
Paul II
Pope Paul II
Pope Paul II , born Pietro Barbo, was pope from 1464 until his death in 1471.- Early life :He was born in Venice, and was a nephew of Pope Eugene IV , through his mother. His adoption of the spiritual career, after having been trained as a merchant, was prompted by his uncle's election as pope...


(1464–1471)
Marco Barbo
Marco Barbo
Marco Barbo of Venice was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and patriarch of Aquileia who served in the capacity of cardinal-nephew to his third cousin Pietro Barbo, Pope Paul II. In Rome he resided in the Palazzo di San Marco, as did the Venetian pope, who elected not to remove to the...

18 September 1467 Unknown
Giovanni Battista Zeno
Giovanni Battista Zeno
Giovanni Battista Zeno was a cardinal of the Catholic Church.He was made a cardinal by his uncle, Pope Paul II in November 1468. The Zeno Chapel in St Mark's Basilica, Venice, was built as his tomb....

21 November 1468 Unknown
Giovanni Michiel Unknown
Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV
Pope Sixtus IV , born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 1471 to 1484. His accomplishments as Pope included the establishment of the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpiece of the city's new artistic age,...


(1471–1484)
Pietro Riario
Pietro Riario
Pietro Riario was an Italian cardinal and Papal diplomat.-Biography:Born in Savona, he was the son of Paolo Riario and Pope Sixtus IVs' sister, Bianca Della Rovere. Sixtus nominated him in 1471 bishop of Treviso and cardinal, and, in 1473, archbishop of Florence. He was entrusted with Sixtus'...

16 December 1471 Unknown
Giuliano della Rovere
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II , nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope" , born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513...

Unknown Future Pope Julius II
Girolamo Basso della Rovere
Girolamo Basso della Rovere
Girolamo Basso della Rovere was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.Basso della Rovere was the son of Giovanni Basso and his wife Luchina della Rovere of the House of della Rovere and sister of Pope Sixtus IVHe was bishop of Albenga in 1472, and then Bishop of Recanati in 1476...

10 December 1477 Unknown
Raffaele Riario
Raffaele Riario
Raffaele Sansoni Galeoti Riario was an Italian Cardinal of the Renaissance, mainly known as the constructor of the Palazzo della Cancelleria and the one who invited Michelangelo to Rome. He was a patron of the arts...

Unknown
Cristoforo della Rovere Unknown
Domenico della Rovere
Domenico della Rovere
-Biography:He was born at Vinovo, near Turin, and was a relative of Pope Sixtus IV, and took advantage of the latter's extensive nepotism.In 1478 he was appointed as Bishop of Tarantaise succeeding his brother, Cristoforo. In the same year, on 10 February, he was created cardinal of San Vitale by...

10 February 1478 Unknown
Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII
Pope Innocent VIII , born Giovanni Battista Cybo , was Pope from 1484 until his death.-Early years:Giovanni Battista Cybo was born at Genoa of Greek extraction...


(1484–1492)
Lorenzo Cybo de Mari
Lorenzo Cybo de Mari
Lorenzo Cybo de Mari was an Italian Catholic cardinal. He was archbishop of Benevento.Born in Genoa, de Mari was an illegitimate child. According to some sources his paternity was attributed to Domenico de Mari, patrician of Genoa, brother of Teodorina and uncle of Maurizio Cybo. Now it looks...

9 March 1489 Unknown
Giovanni de' Medici
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X , born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was the Pope from 1513 to his death in 1521. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. He is known for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's 95 Theses...

Relative Future Pope Leo X
Pantaleone Cybo 9 March 1489
Never published
In pectore
In pectore is a term used in the Catholic Church to refer to appointments to the College of Cardinals by the Pope when the name of the newly appointed cardinal is not publicly revealed...

Nephew
Niccolò Cybo Nephew
Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI , born Roderic Llançol i Borja was Pope from 1492 until his death on 18 August 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his Italianized surname—Borgia—became a byword for the debased standards of the Papacy of that era, most notoriously the Banquet...


(1492–1503)
Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor
Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor
Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor was the first of ten cardinal-nephews elevated by Pope Alexander VI, the cousin of his father, Galcerán de Borja y Moncada....

31 August 1492 Son of cousin
Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia , Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal. He was the son of Pope Alexander VI and his long-term mistress Vannozza dei Cattanei. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia; Giovanni Borgia , Duke of Gandia; and Gioffre Borgia , Prince of Squillace...

20 September 1493 Son Resigned 18 August 1498
Giuliano Cesarini, iuniore Brother-in-law of daughter, Gerolama Borgia
Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el menor 19 February 1496 Grandnephew
Amanieu d'Albret 20 March 1500 Brother-in-law of Cesare Borgia
Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní
Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní
Pedro Luis de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, O.S.Io.Hieros. was a Roman Catholic cardinal and cardinal-nephew and papal military leader. He received a wide variety of sinecures during the papacy of his great-uncle, Pope Alexander VI, but was exiled to Naples on the election of Borja rival Pope Julius II...

Grandnephew
Francisco de Borja 28 September 1500 Disputed relationship
Juan de Vera Relative
Juan Castellar y de Borja 31 May 1503 Cousin of Juan de Borja Lanzol de Romaní, el mayor
Francisco Lloris y de Borja
Francisco Lloris y de Borja
Francisco Galcerán de Lloris y de Borja , , was an unconsecrated cardinal of the Catholic Church, and a member of the Borgia family....

Grandnephew

16th century






Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Julius II
Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II , nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" and "The Warrior Pope" , born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513...


(1503–1513)
Clemente Grosso della Rovere 29 November 1503 Unknown
Galeotto Franciotti della Rovere Unknown
Marco Vigerio della Rovere 1 December 1505 Distant relative
Leonardo Grosso della Rovere Cousin
Sisto Gara della Rovere 11 September 1507 Unknown
Leo X
Pope Leo X
Pope Leo X , born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was the Pope from 1513 to his death in 1521. He was the last non-priest to be elected Pope. He is known for granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica and his challenging of Martin Luther's 95 Theses...


(1513–1521)
Giulio de' Medici
Pope Clement VII
Clement VII , born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534.-Early life:...

23 September 1513 Cousin Future Pope Clement VII
Innocenzo Cybo
Innocenzo Cybo
Innocenzo Cybo was an Italian cardinal and archbishop.-Family and education:From the Genoese family Cibo or Cybo, in 1488 the Cybo family purchased Florentine citizenship for a considerable sum of money   Innocenzo was born in Florence on 25 August 1491 to Franceschetto Cybo and...

Unknown
Luigi de' Rossi 1 July 1517 Cousin
Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici
Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici
Francesco Armellini Pantalassi de' Medici was a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He was a part of the Roman Curia....

Adopted as son
Franciotto Orsini Son of Orso Orsini di Monteredondo
Giovanni Salviati
Giovanni Salviati
Giovanni Salviati was an Italian Cardinal and diplomat. He was papal legate in France, and conducted negotiations with the Emperor Charles V....

Son of Lucrezia de' Medici
Lucrezia de' Medici (1470–1553)
Lucrezia Maria Romola de' Medici was an Italian noblewoman, the eldest daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici and Clarice Orsini and mother of Maria Salviati and Giovanni Salviati, who was a cardinal from 1517 until his death...

Niccolò Ridolfi
Niccolò Ridolfi
Niccolò Ridolfi was an Italian cardinal.Born in Florence, son of Piero Ridolfi and Contessina de' Medici , he was therefore nephew of Pope Leo X, who granted him a quick ecclesiastical career...

Son of Contessina de' Medici
Clement VII
Pope Clement VII
Clement VII , born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534.-Early life:...


(1523–1534)
Niccolò Gaddi 3 May 1527 Related through Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de' Medici was an Italian noblewoman who was Queen consort of France from 1547 until 1559, as the wife of King Henry II of France....

Ippolito de' Medici
Ippolito de' Medici
Ippolito de' Medici was the illegitimate only son of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici.Ippolito was born in Urbino. His father died when he was only five , and he was subsequently raised by his uncle Pope Leo X and his cousin Giulio.When Giulio de' Medici was elected pope as Clement VII, Ippolito...

10 January 1529 Illegitimate son of Giuliano de' Medici
Paul III
Pope Paul III
Pope Paul III , born Alessandro Farnese, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1534 to his death in 1549. He came to the papal throne in an era following the sack of Rome in 1527 and rife with uncertainties in the Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation...


(1534–1549)
Alessandro Farnese 18 December 1534 Grandson
Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora
Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora
Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora was an Italian cardinal, known also as The cardinal of Santa Fiora....

Grandson
Niccolò Caetani 22 December 1536
published
In pectore
In pectore is a term used in the Catholic Church to refer to appointments to the College of Cardinals by the Pope when the name of the newly appointed cardinal is not publicly revealed...

 13 March 1538
Son of cousin
Tiberio Crispo
Tiberio Crispo
Tiberio Crispo was a cardinal-nephew of Pope Paul III, raised to the cardinalate on December 19, 1544, and the bishop of Sessa Aurunca . He was possibly an illegitimate son of Paul III; Costanza Farnese and Ranuccio Farnese , the two undisputed legitimate children of Paul III, were born before his...

19 December 1544 Brother, on his mother's side, of pope's daughter Costanza Farnese
Costanza Farnese
Costanza Farnese was a daughter of Alessandro Farnese and Silvia Ruffini, born before her father became Pope Paul III. Her siblings were Pier Luigi, Paul and Ranuccio. Costanza's own children included Guido Ascanio and her grandchildren included Costanza Sforza....

, possibly natural son of Paul III
Ranuccio Farnese
Ranuccio Farnese (Cardinal)
Ranuccio Farnese was an Italian prelate, who was Cardinal of Santa Lucia in Messina, Sicily from 1545 to his death in 1565....

16 December 1545 Grandson
Giulio Feltre della Rovere 27 July 1547 Relative
Julius III
Pope Julius III
Pope Julius III , born Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte, was Pope from 7 February 1550 to 1555....


(1550–1555)
Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte
Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte
Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte was a 16th century Cardinal, and the centre of scandal in his time. He was raised to his position at the age of 17 by the newly-elected Del Monte Pope Julius III, with whom he had been living for some years; he proved totally unsuited to hold office, and his continuing...

30 May 1550 Adopted
Cristoforo Guidalotti Ciocchi del Monte 20 November 1551 Cousin
Fulvio della Corgna Nephew on his mother's side
Roberto de Nobili
Roberto de Nobili
Roberto de Nobili was an Italian Jesuit missionary to Southern India. He used a novel method of adaptation to preach Christianity, adopting many local customs of India which were, in his view, not contrary to Christianity.Born in Montepulciano, Tuscany in September 1577, Roberto de Nobili arrived...

22 December 1553 Grandnephew
Girolamo Simoncelli
Girolamo Simoncelli
Girolamo Simoncelli was an Italian cardinal.-Life:He was made a cardinal by his great-uncle pope Julius III in the consistory of 22 December 1553, elected bishop of Orvieto in 1554 and administrator in 1570...

Grandnephew
Paul IV
Pope Paul IV
Pope Paul IV, C.R. , né Giovanni Pietro Carafa, was Pope from 23 May 1555 until his death.-Early life:Giovanni Pietro Carafa was born in Capriglia Irpina, near Avellino, into a prominent noble family of Naples...


(1555–1559)
Carlo Carafa
Carlo Carafa
Carlo Carafa of a distinguished family of Naples, vicious and talented was successively condottiero in the service of France and of Spain, vying for their protectorates in Italy until 1555, when he was made a cardinal, to 1559 the all-powerful favourite and Cardinal Nephew of Pope Paul IV Carafa,...

7 June 1555 Unknown
Diomede Carafa 20 December 1555 Relative
Alfonso Carafa
Alfonso Carafa
Alfonso Carafa was a member of one of the oldest noble families of Naples and a cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. His father was Antonio, Marquis of Montebello, whose uncle, Gian Pietro Carafa, ascended the papal throne in 1555 as Pope Paul IV....

15 March 1557 Grandnephew
Pius IV
Pope Pius IV
Pope Pius IV , born Giovanni Angelo Medici, was Pope from 1559 to 1565. He is notable for presiding over the culmination of the Council of Trent.-Biography:...


(1559–1565)
Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni
Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni
Giovanni Antonio Serbelloni was an Italian Cardinal, created in 1560, and papal legate. He was a cousin of Pope Pius IV, or nephew or uncle.He was bishop of Foligno in 1557 and bishop of Novara in 1560...

31 January 1560 Cousin of Charles Borromeo
St. Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo
Charles Borromeo was the cardinal archbishop of the Catholic Archdiocese of Milan from 1564 to 1584. He was a leading figure during the Counter-Reformation and was responsible for significant reforms in the Catholic Church, including the founding of seminaries for the education of priests...

Nephew
Mark Sittich von Hohenems (or Marco Sittico d'Altemps 26 February 1561 Nephew
Alfonso Gesualdo
Alfonso Gesualdo
Alfonso Gesualdo was an Italian Cardinal, from 1561. He was from Naples.He was archbishop of Conza in 1564, bishop of Albano in 1583, bishop of Frascati in 1587, bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina in 1589, bishop of Ostia in 1591, archbishop of Naples in 1596.He was a patron of Sant'Andrea della...

Brother-in-law of Charles Borromeo
Gianfrancesco Gàmbara Stepbrother of Charles Borromeo
Francesco Alciati
Francesco Alciati
Francesco Alciati was an Italian Cardinal. A native of Milan, he became one of the most important law professors in Milan. His best known student in Pavia was St Charles Borromeo. He excelled in science and literature and was a model of erudition. Under Pius IV he became a bishop, datary,...

12 March 1565 Relative
Guido Luca Ferrero Cousin of Charles Borromeo
Gianfrancesco Commendone Relative
Pius V
Pope Pius V
Pope Saint Pius V , born Antonio Ghislieri , was Pope from 1566 to 1572 and is a saint of the Catholic Church. He is chiefly notable for his role in the Council of Trent, the Counter-Reformation, and the standardization of the Roman liturgy within the Latin Church...


(1566–1572)
Michele Bonelli
Michele Bonelli
Carlo Michele Bonelli, Cardinal Alessandrino was an Italian senior papal diplomat with a distinguished career that spanned two decades from 1571.-Biography:...

6 March 1566 Grandnephew
Girolamo Rusticucci 17 May 1570 Relative
Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII
Pope Gregory XIII , born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. He is best known for commissioning and being the namesake for the Gregorian calendar, which remains the internationally-accepted civil calendar to this date.-Youth:He was born the son of Cristoforo Boncompagni and wife Angela...


(1572–1585)
Filippo Boncompagni
Filippo Boncompagni
Filippo Boncompagni was an Italian Cardinal, created by Pope Gregory XIII on June 2, 1572.Born at Bologna, he served as superintendent general of the Papal States during his pontificate . He occupied several curial offices...

2 June 1572 Unknown
Filippo Guastavillani 5 July 1574 Unknown
Francesco Sforza di Santa Fiora 12 December 1583 Relative through his sister Costanza, wife of pope's son
Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V
Pope Sixtus V , born Felice Peretti di Montalto, was Pope from 1585 to 1590.-Early life:The chronicler Andrija Zmajević states that Felice's family originated from modern-day Montenegro...


(1585–1590)
Alessandro Peretti di Montalto
Alessandro Peretti di Montalto
Alessandro Damasceni Peretti di Montalto was an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal Deacon. He received the title by his uncle Felice Peretti after the latter was elected Pope Sixtus V on April 24, 1585, in the consistory on May 13; the cardinal was then fourteen years old...

13 May 1585 Unknown
Gregory XIV
Pope Gregory XIV
Pope Gregory XIV , born Niccolò Sfondrati, was Pope from 5 December 1590 until his death in 1591.- Early career :...


(1590–1591)
Paolo Emilio Sfondrati
Paolo Emilio Sfondrati
Paolo Emilio Sfondrati was an Italian Cardinal.Born to a noble family in Milan and the nephew of Pope Gregory XIV, he was the cardinal priest of Santa Cecilia, papal legate in Bologna, member of the Congregation of the Sant'Offizio and a good friend of San Filippo Neri.He was bishop of Cremona,...

19 December 1590 Unknown
Flaminio Piatti 6 March 1591 Relative
Innocent IX
Pope Innocent IX
Pope Innocent IX , born Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti, was Pope from 29 October 1591 to his death on 30 December of the same year...


(1591)
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce† 18 December 1591 Grandnephew
Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII
Pope Clement VIII , born Ippolito Aldobrandini, was Pope from 30 January 1592 to 3 March 1605.-Cardinal:...


(1592–1605)
Pietro Aldobrandini
Pietro Aldobrandini
Pietro Aldobrandini was an Italian Cardinal and patron of the arts.He was made a cardinal in 1593 by his uncle, Pope Clement VIII. He took over the duchy of Ferrara in 1598 when it fell to the Papal States...

17 September 1593 Nephew
Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini
Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini
Cinzio Personeni Albobrandini was an Italian cardinal. In some documents he is known as Cinzio Passeri Aldobrandini because, after settling in Romagna, the family varied its name according to the place from which they had moved - his father Aurelio Personeni was born in Cà Personeni and later...

Nephew
Silvestro Aldobrandini 17 September 1603 Grandnephew
Giovanni Battista Deti 3 March 1599 Relative
Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini
Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini
Bonifazio Bevilacqua Aldobrandini was an Italian Cardinal. He was the uncle of Pope Gregory XIV.-Biography:In 1601, Pope Clement VIII associated Count Luigi Bevilacqua and his two brothers, Conte Bonifazio IV and Conte Alfonso II , with his own family granting them use of his family’s...

Adopted while already a cardinal on 3 April 1601

17th century



Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Paul V
Pope Paul V
-Theology:Paul met with Galileo Galilei in 1616 after Cardinal Bellarmine had, on his orders, warned Galileo not to hold or defend the heliocentric ideas of Copernicus. Whether there was also an order not to teach those ideas in any way has been a matter for controversy...


(1605–1621)
Scipione Borghese Caffarelli
Scipione Borghese
Scipione Borghese was an Italian Cardinal, art collector and patron of the arts. A member of the Borghese family, he was the patron of the painter Caravaggio and the artist Bernini...

18 July 1605 Nephew
Giambattista Leni 24 November 1608 Distant relative
Tiberio Muti 2 December 1615 Unknown
Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV
Pope Gregory XV , born Alessandro Ludovisi, was pope from 1621, succeeding Paul V on 9 February 1621...


(1621–1623)
Ludovico Ludovisi† 15 February 1621 Nephew
Marcantonio Gozzadini
Marcantonio Gozzadini
Marcantonio Gozzadini was an Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal.-Biography:He was born in Bologna into a patrician family...

21 July 1621 Cousin
Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII
Pope Urban VIII , born Maffeo Barberini, was pope from 1623 to 1644. He was the last pope to expand the papal territory by force of arms, and was a prominent patron of the arts and reformer of Church missions...


(1623–1644)
Francesco Barberini
Francesco Barberini (seniore)
Francesco Barberini was an Italian Catholic Cardinal. The nephew of Pope Urban VIII , he benefited immensely from the nepotism practiced by his uncle...

2 October 1623 Nephew
Lorenzo Magalotti 7 October 1624 Brother in law
Antonio Marcello Barberini
Antonio Marcello Barberini
Antonio Marcello Barberini was an Italian cardinal and the younger brother of Maffeo Barberini, later Pope Urban VIII. He is sometimes referred to as Antonio the Elder to distinguish him from his nephew Antonio Barberini.Born Marcello Barberini in Florence into the Barberini family, he entered the...

Brother
Antonio Barberini
Antonio Barberini
Antonio Barberini was an Italian Catholic cardinal, Archbishop of Reims, military leader, patron of the arts and a prominent member of the House of Barberini. As one of the cardinal-nephews of Pope Urban VIII and a supporter of France, he played a significant role at a number of the papal...

30 August 1627 Nephew
Francesco Maria Macchiavelli
Francesco Maria Macchiavelli
Francesco Maria Macchiavelli was an Italian Catholic cardinal. Born in Florence, he was bishop of Ferrara from 1638 to 1653....

6 December 1641 Relative
Innocent X
Pope Innocent X
Pope Innocent X , born Giovanni Battista Pamphilj , was Pope from 1644 to 1655. Born in Rome of a family from Gubbio in Umbria who had come to Rome during the pontificate of Pope Innocent IX, he graduated from the Collegio Romano and followed a conventional cursus honorum, following his uncle...


(1644–1655)
Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili
Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili
Camillo Francesco Maria Pamphili was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and later nobleman of the Pamphili family. His name is often spelled with the final long i orthography; Pamphilj.-Early life:...

14 November 1644 Son of Innocent X's sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini
Olimpia Maidalchini
Olimpia Maidalchini , also spelled Olympia and known as Donna Olimpia, was the sister-in-law of Pope Innocent X .- Early life :...

Resigned 21 January 1647
Francesco Maidalchini
Francesco Maidalchini
Francesco Maidalchini was an Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.-Early life:Maidalchini was born 12 April 1631 in Viterbo, the son of Andrea Maidalchini and Pacifica Feliziani...

7 October 1647 Nephew of Olimpia Maidalchini
Camillo Astalli
Camillo Astalli
Camillo Astalli was an Italian cardinal, elevated on 19 September 1650 by Pope Innocent X, who simultaneously adopted him into the Pamphili family and appointed him Cardinal-Nephew...

19 September 1650 Cousin of Olimpia Maidalchini Deprived of the title of nipote in February 1654
Alexander VII
Pope Alexander VII
Pope Alexander VII , born Fabio Chigi, was Pope from 7 April 1655, until his death.- Early life :Born in Siena, a member of the illustrious banking family of Chigi and a great-nephew of Pope Paul V , he was privately tutored and eventually received doctorates of philosophy, law, and theology from...


(1655–1667)
Flavio Chigi, seniore† 9 April 1657 Nephew
Antonio Bichi Unknown
Clement IX
Pope Clement IX
Pope Clement IX , born Giulio Rospigliosi, was Pope from 1667 to 1669.-Early life:Born Giulio Rospigliosi to a noble family of Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, he was a pupil of the Jesuits. After receiving his doctorate in philosophy at the University of Pisa, he taught theology there...


(1667–1669)
Giacomo Rospigliosi† 12 December 1667 Nephew
Clement X
Pope Clement X
Pope Clement X , born Emilio Bonaventura Altieri, was Pope from 29 April 1670 to 22 July 1676.-Early life:Emilio Altieri was born in Rome, the son of Lorenzo Altieri and Victoria Delphini, a Venetian lady...


(1670–1676)
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni
thumb|Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni.Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni was an Italian Catholic Cardinal and Cardinal-Nephew to Pope Clement X.-Biography:...

24 January 1664
(by Pope Alexander VII)
Adopted while already a cardinal
Vincenzo Maria Orsini
Pope Benedict XIII
-Footnotes:...

22 February 1672 Relative Future Pope Benedict XIII
Innocent XI
Pope Innocent XI
Blessed Pope Innocent XI , born Benedetto Odescalchi, was Pope from 1676 to 1689.-Early life:Benedetto Odescalchi was born at Como in 1611 , the son of a Como nobleman, Livio Odescalchi, and Paola Castelli Giovanelli from Gandino...


(1676–1689)
Carlo Stefano Anastasio Ciceri 2 September 1686 Distant relative
Alexander VIII
Pope Alexander VIII
Pope Alexander VIII , born Pietro Vito Ottoboni, was Pope from 1689 to 1691.-Early life:Pietro Ottoboni was born of a noble Venetian family, and was the son of Marco Ottoboni, chancellor of the Republic of Venice...


(1689–1691)
Pietro Ottoboni† 7 November 1689 Grandnephew
Giambattista Rubini 13 February 1690 Unknown

18th century


Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Clement XI
Pope Clement XI
Pope Clement XI , born Giovanni Francesco Albani, was Pope from 1700 until his death in 1721.-Early life:...


(1700–1721)
Annibale Albani
Annibale Albani
Annibale Albani was an Italian Cardinal.Albani was born in Urbino, to Albanian parents. A cousin of Pope Clement XI, he became Cardinal Bishop of Sabina ....

23 December 1711 Unknown
Fabio Olivieri 6 May 1715 Cousin
Innocent XIII
Pope Innocent XIII
Pope Innocent XIII was pope from 1721 until his death.He was born Michelangelo Conti in Poli, near Rome. Like Pope Innocent III , Pope Gregory IX and Pope Alexander IV , he was a member of the family of the Conti, counts and dukes of Segni...


(1721–1724)
Bernardo Maria Conti 16 June 1721 Brother
Clement XII
Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII , born Lorenzo Corsini, was Pope from 12 July 1730 to 6 February 1740.Born in Florence, the son of Bartolomeo Corsini, Marquis of Casigliano and his wife Isabella Strozzi, sister of the Duke of Bagnuolo, Corsini had been an aristocratic lawyer and financial manager under preceding...


(1730–1740)
Neri Maria Corsini
Neri Maria Corsini
Neri Maria Corsini was an Italian nobleman and nephew of pope Clement XII, who made him a cardinal in pectore at the consistory of 14 August 1730 - his creation as cardinal was made public in December 1730. He exercised several roles in the Roman Curia, notably the Supreme Tribunal of the...

14 August 1730 Unknown
Giovanni Antonio Guadagni 24 September 1731 Unknown
Clement XIII
Pope Clement XIII
Pope Clement XIII , born Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico, was Pope from 16 July 1758 to 2 February 1769....


(1758–1769)
Carlo Rezzonico 11 September 1758 Nephew
Pius VI
Pope Pius VI
Pope Pius VI , born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, was Pope from 1775 to 1799.-Early years:Braschi was born in Cesena...


(1775–1799)
Giovanni Carlo Bandi
Giovanni Carlo Bandi
Giovanni Carlo Bandi JUD was an Italian Cardinal who served as Bishop of Imola.Bandi was born in Cesena. He was the uncle of Pope Pius VI on his mother's side. He was educated at the University of Fermo where he received a doctorate in utroque iure, both canon and civil law on 9 December 1734. ...

29 May 1775 Uncle
Barnaba Chiaramonti
Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII , born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was a monk, theologian and bishop, who reigned as Pope from 14 March 1800 to 20 August 1823.-Early life:...

14 February 1785 Relative on his mother's side Future Pope Pius VII
Romualdo Braschi-Onesti 18 December 1786 Unknown

19th century


Elevating pope Cardinal-nephew Date of elevation Relationship Notes
Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII
Pope Leo XIII , born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci to an Italian comital family, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903...


(1878–1903)
Giuseppe Pecci
Giuseppe Pecci
Giuseppe Pecci S.J. was a Catholic Thomist theologian whose younger brother, Vincenzo, became Pope Leo XIII and appointed him a cardinal...

12 May 1879 Brother