Continuity (broadcasting)

Continuity (broadcasting)

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Continuity (broadcasting)'
Start a new discussion about 'Continuity (broadcasting)'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
'Continuity' or 'presentation' is a term used in broadcasting
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

, especially in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 (see Continuity announcers in the United Kingdom
Continuity announcers in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, continuity announcers are people who are employed to introduce programmes on radio and television networks, to promote forthcoming programmes on the station, to cross-promote programmes on the broadcaster's other stations where applicable and, sometimes, to provide...

), to refer to announcements, messages and graphics played by the broadcaster between specific programmes
Television program
A television program , also called television show, is a segment of content which is intended to be broadcast on television. It may be a one-time production or part of a periodically recurring series...

. It typically includes programme schedules, announcement of the programme immediately following and trailers or descriptions of forthcoming programmes. Continuity can be spoken by an announcer
Announcer
An announcer is a presenter who makes "announcements" in an audio medium or a physical location.-Television and other media:Some announcers work in television production , radio or filmmaking, usually providing narrations, news updates, station identification, or an introduction of a product in...

 or displayed in text over graphics
Graphics
Graphics are visual presentations on some surface, such as a wall, canvas, computer screen, paper, or stone to brand, inform, illustrate, or entertain. Examples are photographs, drawings, Line Art, graphs, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric designs, maps, engineering drawings,or...

. On television
Television
Television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be monochrome or colored, with accompanying sound...

 continuity generally coincides with a display of the broadcaster's logo
Logo
A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition...

 or ident. Advertisements are generally not considered part of continuity. In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, the term station break is used instead.

A continuity announcer is a broadcaster
Broadcasting
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium. Receiving parties may include the general public or a relatively large subset of thereof...

 whose voice (and, in some cases, face) appears between radio or television programmes to give programme information. Continuity announcers tell viewers and listeners which channel they are watching or listening to at the moment (or which station they are tuned to), what they are about to see (or hear), and what they could be watching (or listening to) if you changed to a different channel operated by the broadcaster. At the end of programmes, they may read out information about the previous programme, for example who presented and produced it, relay information or merchandise relating to the show, or to provide details of organisations who may offer support in relation to a storyline or issue raised in the programme. Continuity announcers may also play music during intervals and give details of programmes later in the day. If there is a breakdown, they make any necessary announcements and often play music for its duration.

Television


Television continuity announcements typically take one of two forms:
  • Out-of-vision, where only the announcer's voice is heard, either over the end sequence of a programme or on-screen graphics. With appropriate training in sound and vision mixing, this can be achieved with a single person acting as both voice and controller.
  • In-vision, where the announcer is seen delivering the announcement on-screen. This typically requires a number of people in a small studio, including sound engineers, vision mixers, and occasionally camera operators. Modern installations with motorised cameras can reduce this to two — the presenter, and a technical assistant to perform the "backstage" functions such as adjusting the camera and mixing. Typically, in-vision announcers are utilised today in smaller television markets, usually where private commercial channels were introduced late.


Currently, the following European television channels use in-vision announcers:
  • Belgium
    Belgium
    Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

    : één
    EEN
    EEN may refer to:* Eastern Educational Television Network, the original name for American Public Television.* Elemental Energy, a Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game booster pack.* Emerald Energy, an oil company...

    , Ketnet, VT4
    VT4
    VT4 is a Flemish commercial television channel. It is part of ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG.The channel began broadcasting on 1 February 1995. The channel initially had no Belgian broadcasting license and was transmitted via London . The channel now broadcasts legally from Zaventem in Belgium...

     and VIJFtv
    VIJFtv
    VIJFtv started in October 2004 as SBS Belgium's second channel and a sister channel to VT4. Although the channel's target audience are females, the first thing VIJFtv broadcast was a soccer game. By doing that the station made sure men would set their TV up to view VIJFtv.2005 was a strong year for...

  • Finland
    Finland
    Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

    : YLE TV1
    YLE TV1
    YLE TV1 is a Finnish television channel owned and operated by Finnish public broadcaster Yleisradio. It is the first and oldest Television channel in Finland. More than 70% of channel's programs are documentaries, news or educative programmes...

     and YLE TV2
    YLE TV2
    YLE TV2 is a Finnish television channel owned and operated by YLE.TV2 launched in 1964, and broadcasts public service programming, children's, youth, sport and music programmes.-Own Productions:* Ajankohtainen kakkonen* Akuutti* Jopet Show* Kummeli...

  • Iceland
    Iceland
    Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

    : Sjónvarpið
    Sjónvarpið
    RÚV is the television channel of RÚV, the Icelandic National Broadcasting Service, launched in 1966. The channel broadcasts primarily news, sports, cultural programs, children's material, American, British & Nordic films and entertainment programming...

  • Ireland
    Ireland
    Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

    : TG4
    TG4
    TG4 is a public service broadcaster for Irish language speakers. The channel has been on-air since 31 October 1996 in the Republic of Ireland and since April 2005 in Northern Ireland....

  • Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    : Rai 1, Rai 2 and Rai 3
  • Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

    : NRK1
    NRK1
    NRK1 is the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation's main television channel. Test broadcasts started on 12 January 1954, regular test broadcasts started on 13 April 1958 and regular broadcasts started in 20 August 1960. It is Norway's oldest and largest television channel...

  • Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

    : TVP1
  • Slovakia
    Slovakia
    The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

    : Jednotka
    Jednotka
    Jednotka is a Slovak television channel owned and operated by Slovenská televízia....

    , Dvojka
    Dvojka
    Dvojka is a Slovak television channel owned and operated by Slovenská televízia....

  • Sweden
    Sweden
    Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

    : SVT1
    SVT1
    SVT1 is the primary television station of the Swedish public service broadcaster Sveriges Television in Sweden.-History:The channel began broadcasting in 1956 and was known as Radiotjänst TV, A year later, it was renamed Sveriges Radio TV. In 1969, the second television station TV2 was launched and...

     and TV4
  • Switzerland
    Switzerland
    Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

    : TSR 1
    TSR 1
    TSR 1 is a Swiss public television channel owned by Télévision Suisse Romande.- History :Launched on 1 November 1954 to succeed Télé Geneva, TSR 1 is the first channel of the two French Swiss networks of television group TSR ....

     and TSR 2
    TSR 2
    TSR 2 is a Swiss public television channel owned by Télévision Suisse Romande, launched on 1 September 1997, showing documentary, culture and sport programmes...

  • United Kingdom
    United Kingdom
    The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

    : The CBBC Channel
    CBBC Channel
    CBBC is a BBC television channel aimed at 6 to 12 year olds. It complements the CBBC programming that continues to air on BBC One and BBC Two. Launched on 11 February 2002, it broadcasts from 7am to 7pm on Freeview, cable, IPTV and digital satellite, occupying the same bandwidth as, but a different...

    , CBeebies
    CBeebies
    CBeebies is the brand used by the BBC for programming aimed at children 6 years and under. It is used as a themed strand in the UK on terrestrial television, as a separate free-to-air domestic British channel and used for international varients supported by advertising, subscription or both...

    , BBC Alba, BBC Switch
    BBC Switch
    BBC Switch was the brand for BBC content aimed at UK teenagers. The brand launched on Saturday 20 October 2007 on BBC Two And ceased broadcasting on Saturday 17 December 2010...

     and UTV
    UTV
    UTV is a television channel based in the UK region of Northern Ireland. The channel is the Channel 3 or Independent Television licensee for Northern Ireland and is operated by UTV Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of UTV Media.- Terrestrial :* Analogue: Normally tuned to 3 * Freeview : 3...


Radio


With most radio stations now broadcasting only music, few networks retain continuity announcers. Exceptions include talk stations such as National Public Radio in the United States, BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4
BBC Radio 4 is a British domestic radio station, operated and owned by the BBC, that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes, including news, drama, comedy, science and history. It replaced the BBC Home Service in 1967. The station controller is currently Gwyneth Williams, and the...

 and the BBC World Service
BBC World Service
The BBC World Service is the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasting in 27 languages to many parts of the world via analogue and digital shortwave, internet streaming and podcasting, satellite, FM and MW relays...

 in the UK and Swedish SR P1
P1 (Swedish radio station)
P1 is a national radio channel produced by the Swedish public broadcaster Sveriges Radio.P1, which subtitles itself "The spoken channel" , is the principal radio channel in Sweden for:* news...

 : in the case of Radio 4 they have the extra tasks of reading the Shipping Forecast
Shipping Forecast
The Shipping Forecast is a four-times-daily BBC Radio broadcast of weather reports and forecasts for the seas around the coasts of the British Isles. It is produced by the Met Office and broadcast by BBC Radio 4 on behalf of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. The forecasts sent over the Navtex...

s and gale warnings. Many double up as newsreaders
News presenter
A news presenter is a person who presents news during a news program in the format of a television show, on the radio or the Internet.News presenters can work in a radio studio, television studio and from remote broadcasts in the field especially weather...

.

Canada


In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, CBC Television
CBC Television
CBC Television is a Canadian television network owned by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, the national public broadcaster.Although the CBC is supported by public funding, the television network supplements this funding with commercial advertising revenue, in contrast to CBC Radio which are...

 used in-vision announcers to 'host' primetime programming from 2001 to 2006. As the credits rolled, the announcer would describe upcoming episodes of the series, then introduce the next program at the top of the hour. The evening's host changed daily. Usually, the host was appearing in a major upcoming program the same week, giving the appearance that the host is promoting not only the next program in the evening but his or her own upcoming show. Sometimes CBC Radio newcasters or program hosts would appear as the evening TV hosts. The initiative, sometimes known as "Hosted Prime", only covered the CBC's core evening block (8:00 to 10:00 p.m. local) as opposed to programs in the 7:00 hour, and would not normally appear during the summer.

CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One
CBC Radio One is the English language news and information radio network of the publicly-owned Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. It is commercial free and offers both local and national programming...

 has used continuity announcers in recent years. Originally, a number of staff announcers shared the duties, however, in 2004, the service began employing actress Shauna MacDonald
Shauna MacDonald
Shauna MacDonald is a Canadian television and film actress and radio announcer.-Life and career:MacDonald was born in Antigonish, Nova Scotia. She graduated from Dr...

 as its primary continuity announcer. Her identity remained a secret for more than a year, leading her to be dubbed "Promo Girl". MacDonald has since been replaced by Jeremy Harris, serving in a similar capacity for both Radio One and Radio 2.

Omni Television
OMNI Television
Omni Television, corporately styled as OMNI Television, is a Canadian television system owned and operated by Rogers Communications. It consists of the company's conventional television stations in Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta which are licensed as multicultural stations...

 in Toronto has used in-vision continuity announcers for the past 10 years or so. These "interstitial" segments fill in the time left in programming due to the different break structure of American TV programming, that cannot be filled by commercials in Canada due to Canadian broadcast regulations regarding the number of minutes of commercials allowable per hour. The segments range from 30 seconds to 2 minutes, and in addition to announcing the station and the programs coming up, the announcers will talk about other programming, station contests, quirky news or celebrity gossip.

Continuity announcements on Citytv
Citytv
Citytv is a Canadian English language television system owned and operated by Rogers Communications under its Rogers Broadcasting Ltd. division...

 have been voiced by actor Dan Aykroyd
Dan Aykroyd
Daniel Edward "Dan" Aykroyd, CM is a Canadian comedian, actor, screenwriter, musician, winemaker and ufologist. He was an original cast member of Saturday Night Live, an originator of The Blues Brothers and Ghostbusters and has had a long career as a film actor and screenwriter.-Early...

 and journalist Mark Dailey
Mark Dailey
Mark Edward Dailey was an American-born Canadian television journalist and announcer. He was the host of 11 p.m...

.

Other Canadian stations will fill this time in by a news update or a teaser about news stories.

Flanders, Belgium


één
EEN
EEN may refer to:* Eastern Educational Television Network, the original name for American Public Television.* Elemental Energy, a Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game booster pack.* Emerald Energy, an oil company...

, VRT
Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroep
The Vlaamse Radio- en Televisieomroeporganisatie , or VRT, is a publicly-funded broadcaster of radio and television in Flanders ....

's main television station in the Flanders
Flanders
Flanders is the community of the Flemings but also one of the institutions in Belgium, and a geographical region located in parts of present-day Belgium, France and the Netherlands. "Flanders" can also refer to the northern part of Belgium that contains Brussels, Bruges, Ghent and Antwerp...

 region of Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

 uses a team of five staff announcers, who perform in-vision and out-of-vision continuity links. They are Andrea Croonenberghs (senior announcer), Eva Daeleman, Evy Gruyaert, Geena Lisa Peeters, and Saartje Vandendriessche. VRT's children's station, Ketnet, also utilises in-vision continuity with announcing staff known on-air as Ketnetwrappers. Ketnet's announcers are Peter Pype, Karolien Debecker, Melvin Klooster, Kobe Van Herwegen and Kristien Maes. As opposed to één and Ketnet, the highbrow station Canvas uses live out-of-vision announcers.

vtm
VTM
The abbreviation VTM may refer to::* Vampire: The Masquerade, a popular role-playing game* Virginia Tech massacre* vtm, the main commercial television station in Flanders, Belgium...

, the main commercial television channel in Flanders, uses live out-of-vision announcers. The station utilised in-vision continuity until January 2008. vtms sister station, 2BE, only utilises pre-recorded voiceovers.

Both of SBS Belgium's television stations, VT4
VT4
VT4 is a Flemish commercial television channel. It is part of ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG.The channel began broadcasting on 1 February 1995. The channel initially had no Belgian broadcasting license and was transmitted via London . The channel now broadcasts legally from Zaventem in Belgium...

 and VIJFtv
VIJFtv
VIJFtv started in October 2004 as SBS Belgium's second channel and a sister channel to VT4. Although the channel's target audience are females, the first thing VIJFtv broadcast was a soccer game. By doing that the station made sure men would set their TV up to view VIJFtv.2005 was a strong year for...

 use in-vision continuity announcers. VT4's station announcers are Hanne Troonbeeckx, Véronique De Kock and Ann Van Elsen whilst VIJFtv's continuity team are Gene Thomas, Sophie Dewaele and Els Tibau. Prior to an on-air relaunch on August 27, 2007, VIJFtv continuity was provided by pre-recorded voiceovers.

China, Peoples Republic of


CCTV
China Central Television
China Central Television or Chinese Central Television, commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the major state television broadcaster in mainland China. CCTV has a network of 19 channels broadcasting different programmes and is accessible to more than one billion viewers...

 had offered in-vision continuity. However, this kind of segment has been withdrawn in recent years.

China, Republic of (Taiwan)


Pre-recorded continuity announcements are offered on the TV channels in Taiwan.

Ireland


All domestic terrestrial channels in Ireland make use of continuity announcers, mainly to introduce programmes, promote forthcoming programmes, provide information relating to the programme just broadcast and, in the case of stations with sister channels, cross-promote programmes on the other channel (such as linking between RTÉ
RTE
RTÉ is the abbreviation for Raidió Teilifís Éireann, the public broadcasting service of the Republic of Ireland.RTE may also refer to:* Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 25th Prime Minister of Turkey...

 One and Two, or TV3 and 3e
3E
3E or 3-E may refer to:*3e, general entertainment channel operated in Ireland*3rd meridian east*Third edition in the Editions of Dungeons & Dragons*NY 3E, alternate name for New York State Route 104*OK-3E, abbreviation for Oklahoma State Highway 3...

).

RTÉ One
RTÉ One
RTÉ One is the flagship television channel of Raidió Teilifís Éireann , and it is the most popular and most watched television channel in Ireland. It was launched as Telefís Éireann on 31 December 1961, it was renamed RTÉ Television in 1966, and it was renamed as RTÉ One upon the launch of RTÉ...

 used in-vision continuity announcers until at least 2000. and in-vision continuity was briefly reprised in the late 1990s for overnight programmes.

RTÉ Two
RTÉ Two
RTÉ Two is a free-to-air general entertainment channel operated by Irish state broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann. RTÉ Two is available throughout the island of Ireland through digital terrestrial service Saorview, VHF and UHF bands, and is also available via satellite to Irish subscribers of...

 used in-vision continuity announcers from its launch in November 1978 to at least 1986. In-vision continuity links were reprised on the channel, then known as Network 2, during the evening schedule, from 1997 to 2001.

From January 2008, the daytime schedule on TV3
TV3 Ireland
TV3 is a free-to-air commercial television network in the Republic of Ireland. Launched on 20 September 1998 it was Ireland's first commercial broadcaster. The channel is owned by TV3 Group a subsidiary of Doughty Hanson & Co.-The TV3 Group:...

 launched with two new in-vision continuity annnouncers, Conor Clear and Andrea Hayes.

TG4
TG4
TG4 is a public service broadcaster for Irish language speakers. The channel has been on-air since 31 October 1996 in the Republic of Ireland and since April 2005 in Northern Ireland....

 makes regular use of in-vision continuity during its evening schedule. Currently, TG4 employ six continuity announcers:
  • Mairéad Ní Chuaig
    Mairéad Ní Chuaig
    Mairéad Ní Chuaig is an Irish language presenter on TG4.Ní Chuaig is a native of Connemara and is a weather and continuity presenter on the channel.-External links:* http://www.tg4.ie/bearla/stud/aims/aims.asp...

  • Fedelma Ní Ráighne
    Fedelma Ní Ráighne
    Fedelma Ní Ráighne is an Irish language presenter on TG4.Ní Ráighne is a native of Connemara and is a weather and continuity presenter on the chanel.-External links:* http://www.tg4.ie/bearla/stud/aims/aims.asp#* http://thetvroom.com/irish/tg-4-99-27.html...

  • Cormac Ó Loideáin
  • Dáithí Ó Sé
    Dáithí Ó Sé
    Dáithí Ó Sé is a television presenter with TG4 in Ireland, where he presents the weather forecast and does continuity announcements. He has also presented various programmes on TG4, including travel programme Dáithí ar Route 66, about the U.S...

  • Sinéad Ní Loideáin
    Sinéad Ní Loideáin
    Sinéad Ní Loideáin is an Irish language presenter on TG4 and RTÉ Two.Ní Loideáin is a native of Connemara and a native Irish language speaker. She was nominated for a TV Now Award in 2006.-External links:...

  • Aoife Ní Thuairisg
    Aoife Ní Thuairisg
    Aoife Ní Thuairisg is an Irish language presenter on TG4.Aoife Ní Thuairisg was born in Inverin in Conamara and has two brothers and one sister. Before working in television, she ran her own business. She started working as a presenter on TG4 in 1997, and now presents the weather and is also a...


  • The station's announcers also present weather forecasts in-vision, and often mention forthcoming programmes during the weather bulletins.

    Italy


    Continuity announcers still appear in-vision on the three main RAI
    RAI
    RAI — Radiotelevisione italiana S.p.A. known until 1954 as Radio Audizioni Italiane, is the Italian state owned public service broadcaster controlled by the Ministry of Economic Development. Rai is the biggest television company in Italy...

     channels, where female continuity announcers are known as signorine buonasera (or 'good evening ladies'), although their role is much more marginal than it used to be. Past continuity announcers such as Nicoletta Orsomando or Rosanna Vaudetti are regarded today as cultural icons of the 1960s, particularly because of their impeccable elegance and perfect pronunciation of Italian
    Italian language
    Italian is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, by minorities in Malta, Monaco, Croatia, Slovenia, France, Libya, Eritrea, and Somalia, and by immigrant communities in the Americas and Australia...

    . Since 2003, all in-vision links on Rai Uno
    Rai Uno
    Rai 1 is the primary television station of RAI, the national public service broadcaster, and the most watched television channel in Italy. It was born as Rai Tv from 1954 to 1961, called Programma Nazionale from 1961 to 1979, after called Rete 1 from 1979 to 1982, then called Rai Uno from 1982 to...

    , Rai Due
    Rai Due
    Rai 2 is one of the three main television channels broadcast by Italian public television company RAI alongside with Rai 1 and Rai 3. Rai 2 first started transmissions on November 4, 1961...

     and Rai Tre
    Rai Tre
    Rai 3 is part of RAI, the Italian government broadcasting agency, which owns other channels, such as Rai 1 and Rai 2 . Rai 3 first started transmissions on December 15, 1979. In the eighties it was under the predominant political influence of the Italian Communist Party...

     have been pre-recorded.

    Other Italian channels such as Retequattro, Canale 5
    Canale 5
    Canale 5 is an Italian private television network of Mediaset, the media branch of Fininvest. Canale 5 was the first private television network to have a national coverage in Italy in 1980, based on a local channel, TeleMilano 58, founded in 1978....

     and Italia 1
    Italia 1
    Italia 1 is an Italian commercial television channel on the Mediaset network. It is oriented especially at young people.Italia 1 was launched in January 1982 and, originally, was owned by Rusconi; after a few months, however, due to the aggressive dumping practices of Silvio Berlusconi's rival...

     also used their own team of signorine buonasera in the 1980s and 1990s.

    Sweden


    In Sweden, a continuity announcer (or programme presenter) is informally known as a hallåa, which roughly means "helloer". This comes from the early days of radio when the station in Stockholm contacted the rest of the station around the country by shouting "hallå, hallå". Continuity announcers have been present on Swedish public television since November 1957. Initially, Sveriges Radio employed a team of both male and female announcers, but in the 1960s, the announcers became almost solely female. Male announcers returned in the 1970s.

    Both Kanal 1 and TV2, as well as the educational television service UR, continued to use in-vision announcers from the 1970s through to the 1990s, except for a few years in the early nineties when Kanal 1 (now SVT1
    SVT1
    SVT1 is the primary television station of the Swedish public service broadcaster Sveriges Television in Sweden.-History:The channel began broadcasting in 1956 and was known as Radiotjänst TV, A year later, it was renamed Sveriges Radio TV. In 1969, the second television station TV2 was launched and...

    ) switched to out-of-vision continuity. In a cost-cutting exercise, SVT decided to drop live in-vision announcing from SVT2
    SVT2
    SVT2, until 1996 TV2, is one of two television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden. It was started by Sveriges Radio in 1969. SVT2 is generally more specialist, compared to SVT1.-History:...

     in January 2005 and introduced pre-recorded voice-overs by SVT's announcing staff. The educational broadcaster UR dropped in-vision announcers by the end of 2006. Since then, SVT1
    SVT1
    SVT1 is the primary television station of the Swedish public service broadcaster Sveriges Television in Sweden.-History:The channel began broadcasting in 1956 and was known as Radiotjänst TV, A year later, it was renamed Sveriges Radio TV. In 1969, the second television station TV2 was launched and...

     is the only public channel that uses in-vision continuity, while SVT2
    SVT2
    SVT2, until 1996 TV2, is one of two television channels broadcast by Sveriges Television in Sweden. It was started by Sveriges Radio in 1969. SVT2 is generally more specialist, compared to SVT1.-History:...

    , SVT24
    SVT24
    SVT24 or 24 is a Swedish language TV channel broadcast by Sveriges Television . It started broadcasting in 1999 as a dedicated news channel. In 2003 extended its scope to include other current events-related programmes and sports in the weekends...

    , Kunskapskanalen
    Kunskapskanalen
    Kunskapskanalen is a Swedish language television channel broadcasting educational and factual programming between 9 a.m. and 01 a.m. all days of the week...

     and UR use out-of-vision announcers.

    The largest commercial channel, TV4
    TV4 Sweden
    TV4 is a Swedish television network. It started broadcasting by satellite in 1990 and, since 1992, on the terrestrial network. In 1994, TV4 became the largest channel and remained so for a number of years. The two channels of Sveriges Television lost more and more viewers for a couple of years...

     has utilised in-vision announcers since it began broadcasting in 1990. Most other commercial channels broadcast from London and use out-of-vision announcers. Private channels with out-of-vision announcers include TV3
    TV3 (Sweden)
    TV3 is a television channel targeted at a Swedish language audience owned by Viasat . It was founded on 31 December 1987 by entrepreneur Jan Stenbeck as joint Scandinavian channel, but Denmark and Norway soon got their own versions of TV3...

    , Kanal 5
    Kanal 5 (Sweden)
    Kanal 5 is a Swedish commercial television channel established in 1989. It is owned by the media corporation ProSiebenSat.1 Media.After a troublesome 1990s, Kanal 5 launched new strategies in the early 2000s that established it as a popular entertainment channel targeting young people...

    , TV6
    TV6 Sweden
    TV6 is an entertainment television channel broadcasting to Sweden and now most of Europe through the Thor 2 satellite...

    , Kanal 9
    Kanal 9
    Kanal 9 is a commercial television channel owned by ProSiebenSat.1 Media AG broadcasting to Sweden. It targets the 30-59 age group, which is a slightly older age group than the sister channel Kanal 5. The channel launched on 25 February 2007. Its opening night featured the 79th Academy Awards...

     and TV4 Plus
    TV4 Plus
    Sjuan is a sister channel of Swedish TV4, owned by TV4 AB. The main focus of the channel is on entertainment, sports and lifestyle programmes. The channel started as TV4 Plus in 2003 but changed name to Sjuan in September 2011....

    .

    Indochina (Southeast Asia)


    Today, in-vision announcers are used in Southeast Asia, especially in Cambodia
    Cambodia
    Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

    , Indonesia
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

    , Malaysia and Vietnam
    Vietnam
    Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

    .

    This list is Southeast Asian channels still using in-vision announcers:
    • Cambodia
      Cambodia
      Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

      : National Television of Kampuchea
      National Television of Kampuchea
      The National Television of Kampuchea is the oldest first television station of Cambodia, officially launched on December 28, 1963 in Phnom Penh...

       and regional broadcasters: TV Battambang, TTV3
      TeesamTV
      TeesamTV is Cambodian regional television broadcasting in Teesamai Island, Kampot, Cambodia and Southern Vietnam broadcasting in local dialect.-Program:TeesamTV's transmission is 11 hours, 11:00-23:00TeesamTV broadcasts* News* Music...

    • Indonesia
      Indonesia
      Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

      : TVRI
      TVRI
      Televisi Republik Indonesia Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) Televisi Republik Indonesia (TVRI) (formerly known as Televisi Indonesia (Indonesian Television in English) and Radio Indonesia (Indonesian Radio in English) is a state-owned television station, the oldest television station in...

      , SCTV
      SCTV
      SCTV can refer to:*Second City Television, a Canadian sketch comedy television program*SCTV , an Indonesian TV station*SCTV , a television station of Sichuan province in China...

       and Trans 7
      Trans 7
      Trans 7 is an Indonesian commercial television station based in Central Jakarta. It is jointly owned by the Gramedia Group and Trans TV. It began broadcasting on 15 December 2001. On 15 December 2006, the official name became Trans 7 from TV 7 due to its half ownership by Trans Corp, a company...

    • Laos
      Laos
      Laos Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao, officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south and Thailand to the west...

      : Lao National Television
      Lao National Television
      Lao National Television is the national television station in the country of Laos. There are two channels, LNTV1 and LNTV3, both broadcasting from 8:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m.-Channels:-See also:...

       (not used as usual)
    • Malaysia: Radio Televisyen Malaysia
      Radio Televisyen Malaysia
      The Department of Broadcasting, Malaysia, DBA Radio Televisyen Malaysia , is a Malaysian state-owned public broadcaster. It owns and operates a number of radio and television stations in Malaysia, based in Kuala Lumpur...

       (program menu also used), TV3
      TV3 (Malaysia)
      Sistem Televisyen Malaysia Berhad or TV3 began broadcasting on 1 June 1984 as Malaysia’s first commercial television station. It is part of Media Prima Berhad group of companies. It now transmits opened broadcasting business private 24-hours a day, 7 days a week since 1 January 2010...

       (two times a day), ntv7
      Ntv7
      Natseven TV Sdn Bhd or better known as ntv7 is a terrestrial television channel in Malaysia. It was launched nationwide on 7 April 1998 and was the country's third private free-to-air TV station after TV3 and Astro. Its mission is to promote a happier and more enlightened Malaysia...

    • Singapore
      Singapore
      Singapore , officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the...

      : TV3
    • Thailand
      Thailand
      Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

      : TV3
      Channel 3 (Thailand)
      Thailand Colour Television Channel 3 is a Thailand television channel. The headquarters are located in Bangkok, Thailand. The channel was established in 1970.The owner of the channel is BEC-TERO.- Ident :-Broadcast times:...

       (program menu also used), TV5
      Channel 5 (Thailand)
      Royal Thai Army Radio and Television Channel 5 is a military-run and controlledThai television station.This station is special from other Thai stations is it has feeds every year, so testcards can be watched yearly...

       (military announcer)
    • Vietnam
      Vietnam
      Vietnam – sometimes spelled Viet Nam , officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam – is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered by China to the north, Laos to the northwest, Cambodia to the southwest, and the South China Sea –...

      : Binh Thuan Television

    See also


    See bumper music
    Bumper music
    Bumper music, or a bump, is a term used in the radio broadcasting industry to refer to short clips of signature or theme music used to buffer transitions between programming elements. Bumper music is commonly employed when a syndicated program takes a break for local station identification or...

     for a similarly functioning idea used in talk radio
    Talk radio
    Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues. Most shows are regularly hosted by a single individual, and often feature interviews with a number of different guests. Talk radio typically includes an element of listener participation, usually by broadcasting live...

     in the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    .