Vicksburg, Mississippi

Vicksburg, Mississippi

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Vicksburg is a city in Warren County
Warren County, Mississippi
-National protected areas:* Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge * Vicksburg National Military Park -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 49,644 people, 18,756 households, and 13,222 families residing in the county. The population density was 85 people per square mile...

, Mississippi
Mississippi
Mississippi is a U.S. state located in the Southern United States. Jackson is the state capital and largest city. The name of the state derives from the Mississippi River, which flows along its western boundary, whose name comes from the Ojibwe word misi-ziibi...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. It is the only city in Warren County. It is located 234 miles (376.6 km) northwest of New Orleans
New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The New Orleans metropolitan area has a population of 1,235,650 as of 2009, the 46th largest in the USA. The New Orleans – Metairie – Bogalusa combined statistical area has a population...

 on the Mississippi
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 and Yazoo
Yazoo River
The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi.The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth. The exact meaning of the term is unclear...

 rivers, and 40 miles (64.4 km) due west of Jackson
Jackson, Mississippi
Jackson is the capital and the most populous city of the US state of Mississippi. It is one of two county seats of Hinds County ,. The population of the city declined from 184,256 at the 2000 census to 173,514 at the 2010 census...

, the state capital. In 1900, 14,834 people lived in Vicksburg; in 1910, 20,814; in 1920, 17,931; and in 1940, 24,460. The population was 26,407 at the 2000 census with a Micropolitan population of 49,644. It is the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Warren County
Warren County, Mississippi
-National protected areas:* Theodore Roosevelt National Wildlife Refuge * Vicksburg National Military Park -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 49,644 people, 18,756 households, and 13,222 families residing in the county. The population density was 85 people per square mile...

.

Vicksburg is the principal city of the Vicksburg Micropolitan Statistical Area
Vicksburg Micropolitan area
The Vicksburg Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of one county – Warren – in Mississippi, anchored by the city of Vicksburg...

, which includes all of Warren County.

History


The area which is now Vicksburg was previously part of the Natchez
Natchez people
The Natchez are a Native American people who originally lived in the Natchez Bluffs area, near the present-day city of Natchez, Mississippi. They spoke a language isolate that has no known close relatives, although it may be very distantly related to the Muskogean languages of the Creek...

 Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

s' territory. The first Europeans who settled the area were French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

 colonists, who built Fort-Saint-Pierre
Fort St. Pierre Site
Fort St. Pierre Site is an archaeological site that was the location of a French fort during 1719-1729, center of a community named Yazoo Post. The site has additional importance for its use in dating other archaeological sites due to its integrity and brief period of use.It was declared a...

 in 1719 on the high bluffs overlooking the Yazoo River
Yazoo River
The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi.The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth. The exact meaning of the term is unclear...

 at present-day Redwood
Redwood, Mississippi
Redwood is an unincorporated community located southeast of Twin Lake in Warren County, Mississippi, United States. The town is located near the junction of Highways 61 and 3, about 10 miles north of Vicksburg. Its zip code is 39156....

. On 28 November 1729, the Natchez Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 attacked the fort and plantations in and around Natchez
Natchez, Mississippi
Natchez is the county seat of Adams County, Mississippi, United States. With a total population of 18,464 , it is the largest community and the only incorporated municipality within Adams County...

, killing several hundred settlers, including the Jesuit Father Paul Du Poisson, and carrying off a number of women and children. The Natchez War was a disaster for French Louisiana as the colonial population of the Natchez District never recovered. However, with the help of the Choctaw
Choctaw
The Choctaw are a Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States...

, traditional enemies of the Natchez, the French defeated and scattered the Natchez and their allies, the Yazoo.

The Choctaw Nation took over the area by right of conquest and inhabited it for several decades. Under pressure from the US government, in 1801 the Choctaw agreed to cede nearly 2000000 acres (8,093.7 km²) of land to the US under the terms of the Treaty of Fort Adams
Treaty of Fort Adams
The Treaty of Fort Adams was signed on December 17, 1801 between the Choctaw and the United States Government. The treaty ceded about of Choctaw land...

. The treaty was the first of a series that eventually led to the removal
Indian Removal
Indian removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river...

 of most of the Choctaw to Indian Territory
Indian Territory
The Indian Territory, also known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land set aside within the United States for the settlement of American Indians...

 west of the Mississippi River in 1830. Nonetheless, many Choctaw remained in Mississippi, citing article XIV of the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek
The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a treaty signed on September 27, 1830 between the Choctaw and the United States Government. This was the first removal treaty carried into effect under the Indian Removal Act...

.

In 1790 the Spanish founded a military outpost on the site, which they called Fort Nogales (nogales meaning "walnut trees"). When the Americans took possession in 1798, they changed the name to Walnut Hills. A sprawling community developed which officially incorporated in 1825 as Vicksburg. It was named after Newitt Vick, a Methodist minister. He had been a conscientious objector
Conscientious objector
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, and/or religion....

 during the Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

.

In 1835, during the Murrell Excitement
John Murrell (bandit)
John A. Murrell , a near-legendary bandit operating in the United States along the Mississippi River in the mid-nineteenth century...

, a mob from Vicksburg attempted to expel the gamblers from the city, because the citizens were sick of the rougher element treating the city with nothing but contempt. Five gamblers were hanged as a result. The events caused a national and international outcry against the people of Vicksburg.


During the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, the city finally had to surrender during the Siege of Vicksburg, after which the Union Army
Union Army
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War. It was also known as the Federal Army, the U.S. Army, the Northern Army and the National Army...

 gained control of the entire Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

. The 47-day siege was intended to starve the city into submission. Otherwise its location atop a high bluff overlooking the Mississippi River proved impregnable to assault by federal troops. The surrender of Vicksburg by Confederate General John C. Pemberton
John C. Pemberton
John Clifford Pemberton , was a career United States Army officer who fought in the Seminole Wars and with distinction during the Mexican–American War. He also served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Siege of Vicksburg in...

 on July 4, 1863, together with the defeat of General Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Robert Edward Lee was a career military officer who is best known for having commanded the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War....

 at Gettysburg
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg , was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. The battle with the largest number of casualties in the American Civil War, it is often described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Gordon Meade's Army of the Potomac...

 the day before, has historically marked the turning point
Turning point of the American Civil War
There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. The idea of a turning point is an event after which most observers would agree that the eventual outcome was inevitable. While the Battle of Gettysburg is the most widely cited , there are several other arguable...

 in the Civil War. The residents of Vicksburg did not celebrate the national holiday of 4th of July
Independence Day (United States)
Independence Day, commonly known as the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday in the United States commemorating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain...

 again until 1945.

Because of the city's location on the Mississippi River, in the 19th century it built an extensive trade from the river's prodigious steamboat
Steamboat
A steamboat or steamship, sometimes called a steamer, is a ship in which the primary method of propulsion is steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels...

 traffic. Between 1881 and 1894, the Anchor Line, a prominent steamboat company on the Mississippi River from 1859 to 1898, operated a steamboat called the City of Vicksburg. In 1876 a Mississippi River flood cut off the large meander
Meander
A meander in general is a bend in a sinuous watercourse. A meander is formed when the moving water in a stream erodes the outer banks and widens its valley. A stream of any volume may assume a meandering course, alternately eroding sediments from the outside of a bend and depositing them on the...

 flowing past Vicksburg, leaving limited access to the new channel.

The United States Army Corps of Engineers
United States Army Corps of Engineers
The United States Army Corps of Engineers is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 38,000 civilian and military personnel, making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency...

 diverted the Yazoo River
Yazoo River
The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi.The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth. The exact meaning of the term is unclear...

 in 1903 into the old, shallowing channel to rejuvenate the waterfront. Railroad access to the west was by transfer steamers and ferry barges until a combination railroad-highway bridge was built in 1929. This is the only Mississippi River rail crossing between Baton Rouge and Memphis
Memphis, Tennessee
Memphis is a city in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Shelby County. The city is located on the 4th Chickasaw Bluff, south of the confluence of the Wolf and Mississippi rivers....

. It is the only highway crossing between Natchez
Natchez
Natchez may refer to:* Natchez people, a Native American nation* Natchez language, the language of that Native American tribe* Natchez, Mississippi, United States* Natchez, Louisiana, United States* Natchez, Indiana, United States...

 and Greenville
Greenville, Mississippi
Greenville is a city in Washington County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 48,633 at the 2000 census, but according to the 2009 census bureau estimates, it has since declined to 42,764, making it the eighth-largest city in the state. It is the county seat of Washington...

.

Interstate 20
Interstate 20
Interstate 20 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. I‑20 runs 1,535 miles from near Kent, Texas, at Interstate 10 to Florence, South Carolina, at Interstate 95...

 bridged the river after 1973. Freight rail traffic still crosses via the old bridge. North-South transportation links are by the Mississippi River and U.S. Highway 61.
On March 12, 1894, the popular soft drink Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola
Coca-Cola is a carbonated soft drink sold in stores, restaurants, and vending machines in more than 200 countries. It is produced by The Coca-Cola Company of Atlanta, Georgia, and is often referred to simply as Coke...

 was bottled for the first time in Vicksburg by Joseph Biedenharn, a local confectioner
Confectionery
Confectionery is the set of food items that are rich in sugar, any one or type of which is called a confection. Modern usage may include substances rich in artificial sweeteners as well...

. Today, surviving nineteenth-century Biedenharn soda
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

 bottle
Bottle
A bottle is a rigid container with a neck that is narrower than the body and a "mouth". By contrast, a jar has a relatively large mouth or opening. Bottles are often made of glass, clay, plastic, aluminum or other impervious materials, and typically used to store liquids such as water, milk, soft...

s are prized by collectors of Coca-Cola memorabilia. His original candy store has been renovated as the Biedenharn Coca-Cola Museum.

Vicksburg served as the primary refugee gathering point, and relief parties put up temporary housing during the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927
The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in the history of the United States.-Events:The flood began when heavy rains pounded the central basin of the Mississippi in the summer of 1926. By September, the Mississippi's tributaries in Kansas and Iowa were swollen to...

. It submerged a large percentage of the Mississippi Delta
Mississippi Delta
The Mississippi Delta is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers. The region has been called "The Most Southern Place on Earth" because of its unique racial, cultural, and economic history...

. That flood was the impetus towards the US Army Corps of Engineers establishing the Waterways Experiment Station as the primary hydraulics laboratory, to develop protection of important croplands and cities from the river. Now known as the Engineer Research and Development Center, it applies military engineering, information technology, environmental engineering, hydraulic engineering, and geotechnical engineering.

In December 1953, a severe tornado
1953 Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak
The 1953 Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak was a deadly severe weather event that affected northeastern Louisiana, southeastern Arkansas, and western Mississippi on December 5, 1953. At least four confirmed tornadoes touched down; one of the tornadoes produced F5 damage on the Fujita scale as...

 swept across Vicksburg causing 38 deaths and destroying nearly 1,000 buildings.

Racial unrest


In the first few years after the war, the Ku Klux Klan became active but was suppressed about 1870. By the mid-1870s, new paramilitary groups had arisen in the Deep South
Deep South
The Deep South is a descriptive category of the cultural and geographic subregions in the American South. Historically, it is differentiated from the "Upper South" as being the states which were most dependent on plantation type agriculture during the pre-Civil War period...

. On December 7, 1874 in the Vicksburg Massacre, white men killed at least 50 black residents. Alternate accounts estimated that upwards of 300 blacks were killed in the city and the surrounding area. The Red Shirts, a paramilitary
Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

 organization that acted as an arm of the Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

, was active in Vicksburg and other Mississippi areas. President Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant was the 18th President of the United States as well as military commander during the Civil War and post-war Reconstruction periods. Under Grant's command, the Union Army defeated the Confederate military and ended the Confederate States of America...

 sent Federal troops to Vicksburg to quell the violence. In the aftermath of the Vicksburg Massacre, other states adopted what they called the Mississippi Plan. At election times, paramilitary groups' intimidated black Republican voters into staying away from the polls, thereby preventing the election of any Republicans or blacks, despite their legal right to vote. By the late 1870s, the Democrats had regained power in state legislatures across the former Confederacy.

Lynchings and other forms of vigilante
Vigilante
A vigilante is a private individual who legally or illegally punishes an alleged lawbreaker, or participates in a group which metes out extralegal punishment to an alleged lawbreaker....

 violence continued to occur in Vicksburg after the turn of the century as well. In May 1903, for example, two black men charged with murdering a planter were taken from jail by a mob of 200 farmers and lynched before they went to trial.

Contemporary Vicksburg



In 2001 a group of Vicksburg residents visited the Paducah, Kentucky mural project. In 2002 the Vicksburg Riverfront mural
Mural
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface. A particularly distinguishing characteristic of mural painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture.-History:Murals of...

s program was begun by Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

 mural artist Robert Dafford
Robert Dafford
-Life and work:Robert Dafford is a current resident of Lafayette, Louisiana. Dafford has painted over 300 murals across the United States, Canada, France, Belgium, and England. He has been painting murals, signs and fine art paintings for 35 years...

 and his team on the floodwall located on the waterfront in downtown. Subjects for the murals were drawn from the history of Vicksburg and the surrounding area and include President Theodore Roosevelt's bear hunt, the SS Sultana, the Sprague
Sprague (towboat)
The Sprague built at Dubuque, Iowa by Iowa Iron Works in 1901 by Captain Peter Sprague for the Monongahela River Consolidated Coal and Coke Company, was the world's largest steam powered sternwheeler towboat. It was nicknamed Big Mama, and was capable of pushing 56 coal barges at once...

, the Siege of Vicksburg, the Kings Crossing site
Kings Crossing Site
Kings Crossing Site is an archaeological site that is a type site for the Kings Crossing Phase of the Lower Yazoo Basin Coles Creek chronology.-Location:...

, Willie Dixon
Willie Dixon
William James "Willie" Dixon was an American blues musician, vocalist, songwriter, arranger and record producer. A Grammy Award winner who was proficient on both the Upright bass and the guitar, as well as his own singing voice, Dixon is arguably best known as one of the most prolific songwriters...

, the Flood of 1927
Great Mississippi Flood of 1927
The Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 was the most destructive river flood in the history of the United States.-Events:The flood began when heavy rains pounded the central basin of the Mississippi in the summer of 1926. By September, the Mississippi's tributaries in Kansas and Iowa were swollen to...

, the 1953 Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak
1953 Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak
The 1953 Vicksburg, Mississippi tornado outbreak was a deadly severe weather event that affected northeastern Louisiana, southeastern Arkansas, and western Mississippi on December 5, 1953. At least four confirmed tornadoes touched down; one of the tornadoes produced F5 damage on the Fujita scale as...

, and the Vicksburg National Military Park
Vicksburg National Military Park
Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from May 18 to July 4, 1863. The park, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Delta, Louisiana, also commemorates the greater Vicksburg Campaign, which preceded the battle. Reconstructed forts and...

. The project was finished in 2009 with the completion of the Jitney Jungle/Glass Kitchen mural. In the fall of 2010 a new 55 foot mural was painted on a section of wall on Grove Hill across the street from the original project by former Dafford muralists Benny Graeff and Herb Roe
Herb Roe
Herb Roe is a painter of large scale outdoor murals and classical realist oil paintings. After attending the Columbus College of Art and Design in Columbus, Ohio for a short time, he apprenticed to mural artist Robert Dafford. After 15 years with Dafford Murals, he left to pursue his own art...

. The mural's subject is the annual "Run thru History" held in the Vicksburg National Military Park.

Geography


Vicksburg is located at 32°20′10"N 90°52′31"W (32.335986, -90.875356). According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 35.3 square miles (91.4 km²), of which 32.9  square miles (85.2 km²) is land and 2.4 square miles (6.2 km²) (6.78%) is water.

Vicksburg is located at the confluence
Confluence
Confluence, in geography, describes the meeting of two or more bodies of water.Confluence may also refer to:* Confluence , a property of term rewriting systems...

 of the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 and Yazoo River
Yazoo River
The Yazoo River is a river in the U.S. state of Mississippi.The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth. The exact meaning of the term is unclear...

. Much of the city is on top of a high bluff on the east bank of the Mississippi River.

Demographics



As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 26,407 people with a Micropolitan population of 49,644, 10,364 households, and 6,612 families residing in the city. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 803.1 people per square mile (310.1/km²). There were 11,654 housing units for an average density of 354.4 per square mile (136.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 60.43% African American, 37.80% White, 0.15% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 0.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population.
There were 10,364 households out of which 32.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.9% were married couples
Marriage
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 24.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.2% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the city the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 82.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,466, and the median income for a family was $34,380. Males had a median income of $29,420 versus $20,728 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $16,174. About 19.3% of families and 23.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.8% of those under age 18 and 16.5% of those age 65 or over.

The city is also home to three large Corps of Engineers installations, the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), the Mississippi Valley Division headquarters, and the Vicksburg District headquarters.

Government



The city government consists of a mayor who is elected at large. The current mayor is Paul Winfield, who defeated incumbent Mayor Leyens in the June 2009 election. There are also two aldermembers who are elected from one of two wards.

High Schools

  • Vicksburg High School
  • 1988-1989 National Blue Ribbon School
  • Warren Central High School
    Warren Central High School (Mississippi)
    Warren Central High School is a public high school of Vicksburg Warren School District located in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Its has over 1500 students in its main campus .- History :...


Elementary Schools

  • Beechwood Elementary School
  • Bovina Elementary School
  • Bowmar Avenue Magnet School
  • Dana Road Elementary School
  • Redwood Elementary School
  • Sherman Avenue Elementary School
  • South Park Elementary School
  • Warrenton Elementary School
  • Vicksburg Intermediate School
  • Warren Central Intermediate School

Private Schools

  • Vicksburg Community School (K-12)
  • Porters Chapel Academy
  • Vicksburg Catholic School- St. Francis Xavier Elementary & St. Aloysius Catholic High School*

Former Schools

  • Hall's Ferry Road Elementary School
  • 1985-1986 National Blue Ribbon School
  • Culkin Elementary School
  • Jett Elementary School
  • Cedars Elementary School
  • Vicksburg Middle School
  • All Saints' Episcopal School was a local boarding school located on Confederate Avenue, which closed in 2006 after 98 years in operation. The historic campus is currently used by Americorps as a regional training center.

Culture


A made-for-TV movie version of I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings
I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is the 1969 autobiography about the early years of African-American writer and poet Maya Angelou. The first in a six-volume series, it is a coming-of-age story that illustrates how strength of character and a love of literature can help overcome racism and trauma...

, based on Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou
Maya Angelou is an American author and poet who has been called "America's most visible black female autobiographer" by scholar Joanne M. Braxton. She is best known for her series of six autobiographical volumes, which focus on her childhood and early adult experiences. The first and most highly...

's memoir, was filmed in Vicksburg. Some of the movie O Brother, Where Art Thou?
O Brother, Where Art Thou?
O Brother, Where Art Thou? is a 2000 comedy film directed by Joel and Ethan Coen and starring George Clooney, John Turturro, Tim Blake Nelson, John Goodman, Holly Hunter, and Charles Durning. Set in 1937 rural Mississippi during the Great Depression, the film's story is a modern satire loosely...

 was filmed here. The Stokes campaign dinner was filmed in the Southern Cultural Heritage Center's auditorium.

Vicksburg is home to the McRaven House
McRaven House
McRaven was built ca.1797 by Andrew Glass in a town called Walnut Hills, which is now Vicksburg, Mississippi. In the Civil War era, it was known as the Bobb House, and it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as such. McRaven got its current name from the street it is located on,...

, said to be one of the most haunted houses in America.

Every summer, Vicksburg plays host to the Miss Mississippi Pageant and Parade.

Cultural references

  • Vicksburg is mentioned in the Pulitzer Prize
    Pulitzer Prize
    The Pulitzer Prize is a U.S. award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism, literature and musical composition. It was established by American publisher Joseph Pulitzer and is administered by Columbia University in New York City...

     winning play
    Play (theatre)
    A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of scripted dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading. There are rare dramatists, notably George Bernard Shaw, who have had little preference whether their plays were performed...

     Crimes of the Heart
    Crimes of the Heart
    Crimes of the Heart is a play by Beth Henley.-Synopsis:At the core of the tragic comedy are the three Magrath sisters, Meg, Babe, and Lenny, who reunite at Old Granddaddy's home in Hazlehurst, Mississippi after Babe shoots her abusive husband. The trio was raised in a dysfunctional family with a...

     by Beth Henley.

  • Vicksburg is mentioned in the song "Dixie Lily
    Paddle steamer
    A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat, powered by a steam engine, using paddle wheels to propel it through the water. In antiquity, Paddle wheelers followed the development of poles, oars and sails, where the first uses were wheelers driven by animals or humans...

    " from Elton John
    Elton John
    Sir Elton Hercules John, CBE, Hon DMus is an English rock singer-songwriter, composer, pianist and occasional actor...

    's 8th studio album
    Studio album
    A studio album is an album made up of tracks recorded in the controlled environment of a recording studio. A studio album contains newly written and recorded or previously unreleased or remixed material, distinguishing itself from a compilation or reissue album of previously recorded material, or...

     Caribou
    Caribou (album)
    Caribou is the 8th studio album by British singer/songwriter Elton John, released in 1974 . It was John's 4th chart-topping album in the U.S. and his 3rd in the U.K. The album contains the singles, "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me", which reached # 16 in the UK Singles Chart and # 2 in the U.S.,...

    , in the last line of the chorus: "...down from Louisiana
    Louisiana
    Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

     on the Vicksburg run
    Steamboats of the Mississippi
    Steamboats played a major role in the 19th Century development of the Mississippi River and its tributaries by allowing the practical large-scale transport of passengers and freight both up- and down-river. Using steam power, riverboats were developed during that time which could navigate in...

    ."

  • Vicksburg is mentioned in the song High Water (For Charley Patton)
    High Water (For Charley Patton)
    "High Water " is a song by Bob Dylan, released on his 31st studio album "Love and Theft" in 2001. The song draws its title from the Charley Patton song "High Water Everywhere", which is one of many songs based on the 1927 Louisiana flood...

     by Bob Dylan
    Bob Dylan
    Bob Dylan is an American singer-songwriter, musician, poet, film director and painter. He has been a major and profoundly influential figure in popular music and culture for five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when he was an informal chronicler and a seemingly...

    .

  • The city is mentioned multiple times in the series of books surrounding the Logan family including Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
    Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry
    Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry is a 1976 children's novel by Mildred D. Taylor. The novel won the 1977 Newbery Medal. Its sequel, Let the Circle Be Unbroken, was released in 1981. It also has a prequel in 1975, Song of the Trees...

     (1976) and Let The Circle Be Unbroken
    Let the Circle Be Unbroken
    Let The Circle Be Unbroken is the 1981 sequel to Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry, written by Mildred D. Taylor. T.J.'s punishment is approaching, Stacey runs away to find work, and the Logan children's cousin, Suzella Rankin, tries to pass herself off as a white person, but fails which leads to...

     (1981), by Mildred Taylor.

Notable residents

  • William Wirt Adams
    William Wirt Adams
    William Wirt Adams was a United States district court judge for the state of Mississippi, a soldier for the Republic of Texas, and a Confederate officer and general in the American Civil War.-Early life and career:...

    , Confederate Army officer and member of the Mississippi House of Representatives
    Mississippi House of Representatives
    The Mississippi House of Representatives is the lower house of the Mississippi Legislature, the lawmaking body of the U.S. state of Mississippi....

  • Edwin C. Bearss
    Ed Bearss
    Edwin Cole Bearss , a United States Marine Corps veteran of World War II, is a military historian and author known for his work on the American Civil War and World War II eras and is a popular tour guide of historic battlefields...

    , historian
  • Jan-Michael Vincent
    Jan-Michael Vincent
    Jan-Michael Vincent is an American actor best known for his role as helicopter pilot Stringfellow Hawke on the 1980s U.S. television series Airwolf .-Early life:...

    , actor, famous for the series Airwolf
    Airwolf
    Airwolf is an American television series that ran from 1984 until 1987. The program centers on a high-tech military helicopter, code named Airwolf, and its crew as they undertake various missions, many involving espionage, with a Cold War theme....

    '.
  • Tommy Bishop
    Tommy Bishop
    Tommy Bishop is an English former rugby league footballer and coach of the 1960s and 70s. He played for St. Helens in the English Rugby Football League Championship and the Cronulla-Sutherland Sharks in the New South Wales Rugby League competition in Australia...

    , country guitarist; godfather of "rockabilly" guitar.
  • Roosevelt Brown
    Roosevelt Brown (baseball)
    Roosevelt Brown is a retired professional baseball player who played outfielder in the Major Leagues from -. He played for the Chicago Cubs in Major League Baseball and the Orix BlueWave in Japan. Brown ended his career after a season playing for the Charlotte Knights, the Triple-A affiliate of...

    , former Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball
    Major League Baseball is the highest level of professional baseball in the United States and Canada, consisting of teams that play in the National League and the American League...

     outfielder for the Chicago Cubs
    Chicago Cubs
    The Chicago Cubs are a professional baseball team located in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of Major League Baseball's National League. They are one of two Major League clubs based in Chicago . The Cubs are also one of the two remaining charter members of the National...

  • Ellis Burks
    Ellis Burks
    Ellis Rena Burks is a former outfielder and designated hitter who played in Major League Baseball for 18 seasons...

    , former MLB outfielder
  • Charles Burnett
    Charles Burnett (director)
    Charles Burnett is an African-American film director, film producer, writer, editor, actor, photographer, and cinematographer...

    , filmmaker
  • Jack Christian
    Jack Christian
    John "Jack" Christian was a businessman who served from 1957-1964 as the Mayor/President of Baton Rouge, Louisiana.-Background:Christian was born to John C...

    , businessman; mayor-president of Baton Rouge
    Baton Rouge, Louisiana
    Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana. It is located in East Baton Rouge Parish and is the second-largest city in the state.Baton Rouge is a major industrial, petrochemical, medical, and research center of the American South...

    , Louisiana
    Louisiana
    Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

    , from 1957–1964, was born in Vicksburg in 1911.
  • Odia Coates
    Odia Coates
    Odia Coates was an American singer, best known for her work with Canadian singer-songwriter Paul Anka.-Early life:...

    , country singer
  • Rod Coleman
    Rod Coleman
    Roderick Dwayne Coleman is an American football defensive tackle who is currently a free agent. He was drafted by the Oakland Raiders in the fifth round of the 1999 NFL Draft...

    , defensive tackle for the Atlanta Falcons
    Atlanta Falcons
    The Atlanta Falcons are a professional American football team based in Atlanta, Georgia. They are a member of the South Division of the National Football Conference in the National Football League...

  • Mart Crowley
    Mart Crowley
    Mart Crowley is an American playwright.Crowley was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi. After graduating from The Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C. in 1957, Crowley headed west to Hollywood, where he worked for a number of television production companies before meeting Natalie Wood on...

    , playwright, TV executive
  • Jefferson Davis
    Jefferson Davis
    Jefferson Finis Davis , also known as Jeff Davis, was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President for its entire history. He was born in Kentucky to Samuel and Jane Davis...

    , Mexican war hero, U.S. Congressman, Senator, Secretary of War, and President of the Confederate States of America.
  • Willie Dixon
    Willie Dixon
    William James "Willie" Dixon was an American blues musician, vocalist, songwriter, arranger and record producer. A Grammy Award winner who was proficient on both the Upright bass and the guitar, as well as his own singing voice, Dixon is arguably best known as one of the most prolific songwriters...

    , blues bassist, singer, songwriter, and producer.
  • John "Kayo" Dottley, college All-American and professional football player
  • Louis Green
    Louis Green
    Louis Edward Green is a football player who is currently a free agent. Green attended Jefferson County High School in Fayette, Mississippi and was a letterman in football...

    , linebacker for the Denver Broncos
    Denver Broncos
    The Denver Broncos are a professional American football team based in Denver, Colorado. They are currently members of the West Division of the American Football Conference in the National Football League...

  • Milt Hinton
    Milt Hinton
    Milton John "Milt" Hinton , "the dean of jazz bass players," was an American jazz double bassist and photographer. He was nicknamed "The Judge".-Biography:...

    , jazz bassist
  • Joseph Holt
    Joseph Holt
    General Joseph Holt was a leading member of the Buchanan administration and was Judge Advocate General of the United States Army, most notably during the Lincoln assassination trials.-Early life:...

    , longest-serving Judge Advocate General
    Judge Advocate General
    In the United Kingdom, the Judge Advocate General and Judge Martial of all the Forces is a judge responsible for the court martial process within the Royal Navy, British Army and Royal Air Force.-Qualifications:...

     of the Army.
  • Delbert Hosemann, Jr.
    Delbert Hosemann
    Delbert Hosemann, Jr. is the Republican Secretary of State of Mississippi. Hosemann received his Bachelor of Business Administration from Notre Dame University in 1969. He then went on to earn his Juris Doctor from the University of Mississippi Law School in 1972. He completed his...

    , MS Secretary of State.
  • Hank Jones
    Hank Jones
    Henry "Hank" Jones was an American jazz pianist, bandleader, arranger, and composer. Critics and musicians described Jones as eloquent, lyrical, and impeccable. In 1989, The National Endowment for the Arts honored him with the NEA Jazz Masters Award...

    , jazz pianist, born in Vicksburg.
  • Patrick Kelly
    Patrick Kelly (fashion designer)
    Patrick Kelly was a Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. born. Kelly studied art at Jackson University and than attended Parsons DesignNYC. While living in Atlanta Kelly sold recycled clothes and working with out pay at Yves Saint Laurent chairman Pierre Bergé, who later in 1988, sponsored Kelly...

    , fashion designer.
  • George McConnell
    George McConnell
    George McConnell is an American guitarist from Vicksburg, Mississippi who played for Widespread Panic, Kudzu Kings, and Beanland. He attended the University of Mississippi where he was in the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity....

    , former guitarist for Widespread Panic
    Widespread Panic
    Widespread Panic is an American rock band from Athens, Georgia. The current lineup includes guitarist/singer John Bell, bassist Dave Schools, drummer Todd Nance, percussionist Domingo "Sunny" Ortiz, keyboardist John "JoJo" Hermann, and guitarist Jimmy Herring...

    , Kudzu Kings, and Beanland
  • Alex Monsour, Mississippi state representative
  • Michael Myers
    Michael Myers (American football)
    Michael Myers is an American football defensive tackle who is currently a free agent. He played college football at the University of Alabama.-High school years:...

    , defensive tackle for the Cincinnati Bengals
    Cincinnati Bengals
    The Cincinnati Bengals are a professional football team based in Cincinnati, Ohio. They are members of the AFC's North Division in the National Football League . The Bengals began play in 1968 as an expansion team in the American Football League , and joined the NFL in 1970 in the AFL-NFL...

    .
  • Evelyn Preer
    Evelyn Preer
    Evelyn Preer, born Evelyn Jarvis , was a pioneering African-American stage and screen actress and blues singer of the 1910s through the early 1930s. Evelyn was known within the black community as "The First Lady of the Screen."She was the first black actress to earn celebrity and popularity...

    , African-American film actress
  • George Reed
    George Reed
    George Robert Reed, CM is a former American college football and Canadian Football League player. Reed, along with Mike Pringle and Johnny Bright, is one of the players most often mentioned as being the greatest running back in CFL history...

    , former running back for the Saskatchewan Roughriders
    Saskatchewan Roughriders
    The Saskatchewan Roughriders are a Canadian Football League team based in Regina, Saskatchewan. They were founded in 1910. They play their home games at 2940 10th Avenue in Regina, which has been the team's home base for its entire history, even prior to the construction of Mosaic Stadium at Taylor...

    , CFL
    Canadian Football League
    The Canadian Football League or CFL is a professional sports league located in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football, a form of gridiron football closely related to American football....

     Hall of Fame member.
  • Beah Richards
    Beah Richards
    Beah Richards was an American actress of stage, screen and television. She was a poet, playwright and author....

    , African-American film and television actress
  • Roy C. Strickland
    Roy C. Strickland
    Roy Clifton Strickland was a businessman in The Woodlands, Texas, north of Houston, who was a pioneer in the development of the Republican Party in the U.S. state of Louisiana. Strickland challenged the Democrat Gillis William Long, a part of the Long political dynasty, for the United States House...

    , businessman and politician in Louisiana
    Louisiana
    Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

     and Texas
    Texas
    Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

    , was born in Vicksburg in 1942.
  • Taylor Tankersley
    Taylor Tankersley
    Taylor Mark Tankersley is an American professional baseball player. A left-handed relief pitcher, he is currently with the New York Mets organization of Major League Baseball.-Career:...

    , Florida Marlins
    Florida Marlins
    The Miami Marlins are a professional baseball team based in Miami, Florida, United States. Established in 1993 as an expansion franchise called the Florida Marlins, the Marlins are a member of the Eastern Division of Major League Baseball's National League. The Marlins played their home games at...

     relief pitcher.
  • Robert Walker
    Robert Walker
    -Creative arts:*Robert Walker , American actor*Robert Walker , English portrait painter*Rob Walker , Australian poet*Robert Joseph Walker , Australian Aboriginal poet*Robert W...

    , first African-American mayor
  • Carl Westcott, American entrepreneur, founder of 1-800-Flowers and Westcott Communications
  • Nanette Workman
    Nanette Workman
    Nanette Joan Workman is today a singer-songwriter, actress and author who has been based in Quebec, Canada during much of her career. She was raised by musician parents in Jackson, Mississippi where she began her first performances. She mainly performs in French although raised as a native...

    , singer-songwriter, actress, and author; honored by Gov. Haley Barbour at the opening of The Nanette Workman French (Francophone) House
  • Delmon Young
    Delmon Young
    Delmon Damarcus Young is an American professional baseball outfielder with the Detroit Tigers of Major League Baseball. He is the younger brother of former major league outfielder and first baseman Dmitri Young. He was born in Montgomery, Alabama.Young is known for having a strong and accurate...

    , outfielder for the Minnesota Twins
    Minnesota Twins
    The Minnesota Twins are a professional baseball team based in Minneapolis, Minnesota. They play in the Central Division of Major League Baseball's American League. The team is named after the Twin Cities area of Minneapolis and St. Paul. They played in Metropolitan Stadium from 1961 to 1981 and the...

  • Dmitri Young
    Dmitri Young
    Dmitri Dell Young is a former Major League Baseball first baseman. Young is 6'2" and 275 pounds...

    , first baseman for the Washington Nationals
    Washington Nationals
    The Washington Nationals are a professional baseball team based in Washington, D.C. The Nationals are a member of the Eastern Division of the National League of Major League Baseball . The team moved into the newly built Nationals Park in 2008, after playing their first three seasons in RFK Stadium...


Sites of interest

  • Historic Anchuca Mansion
  • Biedenharn Coca-Cola Museum
  • McRaven House
    McRaven House
    McRaven was built ca.1797 by Andrew Glass in a town called Walnut Hills, which is now Vicksburg, Mississippi. In the Civil War era, it was known as the Bobb House, and it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as such. McRaven got its current name from the street it is located on,...

  • Old Court House Museum
    Old Courthouse, Warren County
    The Old Courthouse, Warren County, also known as Warren County Courthouse, sits prominently on a hill in Vicksburg, Mississippi and was a symbol of Confederate resistance during the siege of Vicksburg. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1968 and a Mississippi Landmark in 1986...

  • U.S.S. Cairo Gunboat & Museum
    USS Cairo (1861)
    USS Cairo was a City class ironclad gunboat constructed for the Union Navy by James B. Eads during the American Civil War. She was the first vessel of the City class ironclads, also called the Cairo class....

    , part of Vicksburg National Military Park
    Vicksburg National Military Park
    Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from May 18 to July 4, 1863. The park, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Delta, Louisiana, also commemorates the greater Vicksburg Campaign, which preceded the battle. Reconstructed forts and...

  • Pemberton's Headquarters
    Pemberton's Headquarters
    Pemberton's Headquarters, also known as Willis-Cowan House, is a two-story brick house that served as the headquarters for Confederate General John C. Pemberton during most of the 47 day siege of Vicksburg, and the site where he decided to surrender the city to Ulysses S...

    , part of Vicksburg National Military Park
    Vicksburg National Military Park
    Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from May 18 to July 4, 1863. The park, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Delta, Louisiana, also commemorates the greater Vicksburg Campaign, which preceded the battle. Reconstructed forts and...

  • Vicksburg Battlefield Museum
  • Vicksburg National Military Park
    Vicksburg National Military Park
    Vicksburg National Military Park preserves the site of the American Civil War Battle of Vicksburg, waged from May 18 to July 4, 1863. The park, in Vicksburg, Mississippi, and Delta, Louisiana, also commemorates the greater Vicksburg Campaign, which preceded the battle. Reconstructed forts and...

  • Vicksburg Theatre Guild
  • Yesterday's Children -- Antique Doll & Toy Museum
  • Balfour House
    Balfour House
    Balfour House is an antebellum mansion located at the corner of Crawford Street and Cherry Street in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Built in 1835, it was the home of Emma Balfour, celebrated diarist of the Siege of Vicksburg...

  • The Jacqueline House African American Museum
  • Catfish Row Art Park

Sources


External links