Tupolev

Tupolev

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Tupolev is a Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District
Basmanny District
Basmanny District is a district of Central Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. Population: The district extends northeast from Kitai-gorod, within the radial boundaries of Vorontsovo Pole Street and Yauza River in the south and Myasnitskaya Street and Novaya Basmannaya Street in the north...

, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. Known officially as Public Stock Company Tupolev, it is the successor of the Tupolev OKB
OKB
OKB is a transliteration of the Russian acronym for "Опытное конструкторское бюро" - Opytnoe Konstructorskoe Byuro, meaning Experimental Design Bureau...

 or Tupolev Design Bureau (OKB-156, design office prefix Tu) headed by the Soviet aerospace engineer A.N. Tupolev
Andrei Tupolev
Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev was a pioneering Soviet aircraft designer.During his career, he designed and oversaw the design of more than 100 types of aircraft, some of which set 78 world records...

. The company celebrated its 80th anniversary on October 22, 2002. The Russian government is planning to merge Tupolev with Mikoyan
Mikoyan
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG , or RSK MiG, is a Russian joint stock company. Formerly Mikoyan-and-Gurevich Design Bureau , then simply Mikoyan, it is a military aircraft design bureau, primarily designing fighter aircraft...

, Ilyushin
Ilyushin
Open Joint Stock Company «Ilyushin Aviation Complex» , operating as Ilyushin or Ilyushin Design Bureau, is a Russian design bureau and aircraft manufacturer, founded by Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin. Ilyushin was established under the Soviet Union. Its operations began on January 13, 1933, by...

, Irkut, Sukhoi
Sukhoi
Sukhoi Company is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, famous for its fighters...

, and Yakovlev
Yakovlev
The Yak Aircraft Corporation is a Russian aircraft designer and manufacturer...

 as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.

Introduction


The capabilities of PSC Tupolev include development, manufacturing and overhaul for both civil and military aerospace products such as aircraft and weapons systems. It is also active with missile
Missile
Though a missile may be any thrown or launched object, it colloquially almost always refers to a self-propelled guided weapon system.-Etymology:The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, meaning "to send"...

 and naval aviation
Naval aviation
Naval aviation is the application of manned military air power by navies, including ships that embark fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. In contrast, maritime aviation is the operation of aircraft in a maritime role under the command of non-naval forces such as the former RAF Coastal Command or a...

 technologies. More than 18,000 Tupolev aircraft were produced for the USSR and the Eastern Bloc
Eastern bloc
The term Eastern Bloc or Communist Bloc refers to the former communist states of Eastern and Central Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact...

.

History


Tupolev OKB was founded by Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev in 1922. Its facilities are tailored for aeronautics
Aeronautics
Aeronautics is the science involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of airflight-capable machines, or the techniques of operating aircraft and rocketry within the atmosphere...

 research and aircraft design only, manufacturing is handled by other firms. It researched all-metal airplane
Fixed-wing aircraft
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft capable of flight using wings that generate lift due to the vehicle's forward airspeed. Fixed-wing aircraft are distinct from rotary-wing aircraft in which wings rotate about a fixed mast and ornithopters in which lift is generated by flapping wings.A powered...

s during the 1920s.

Among its notable results during the period was the heavy bomber, where Tupolev's design approach defined for many years the trends of heavy aircraft development, civil and military.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, the twin-engined, all-metal Tu-2
Tupolev Tu-2
|-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Bishop, Chris. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of WWII: The Comprehensive Guide to Over 1,500 Weapons Systems, Including Tanks, Small Arms, Warplanes, Artillery, Ships, and Submarines. New York: Sterling, 2002. ISBN 1-58663-762-2.* Ethell, Jeffrey L. Aircraft...

 was one of the best front-line bombers of the Soviets. Several variants of it were produced in large numbers from 1942. During the war it used wooden rear fuselages due to a shortage of metal.

In 1945, three Boeing B-29 Superfortresses landed in Soviet territory after missions over Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

. They were quickly copied by the design bureau and formed the basis of the first Soviet intercontinental strategic bomber, the Tu-4
Tupolev Tu-4
The Tupolev Tu-4 was a piston-engined Soviet strategic bomber that served the Soviet Air Force from the late 1940s to mid 1960s...

, which first flew in 1947 and was produced in substantial numbers.

This was succeeded by the development of the jet-powered Tu-16
Tupolev Tu-16
The Tupolev Tu-16 was a twin-engine jet bomber used by the Soviet Union. It has flown for more than 50 years, and the Chinese license-built Xian H-6 remains in service with the Chinese air force.-Development:...

 bomber, based on an enlarged version of the B-29/Tu-4 fuselage, which used a sweptback wing for good subsonic performance.

As turbojets were not fuel efficient enough to provide truly intercontinental
Intercontinental
Intercontinental may refer to:* anything spanning several continents* Intercontinental ballistic missile* the InterContinental hotel chain* InterContinental Hotels Group* Intercontinental Cup * Intercontinental Championship...

 range, the Soviets elected to design a new bomber, the Tu-20
Tupolev Tu-95
The Tupolev Tu-95 is a large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform. First flown in 1952, the Tu-95 entered service with the former Soviet Union in 1956 and is expected to serve the Russian Air Force until at least 2040...

, more commonly referred to as the Tu-95.
It, too, was based on the fuselage and structural design of the Tu-4, but with four colossal Kuznetsov
Kuznetsov (aircraft engines)
The Kuznetsov Design Bureau was a Soviet design bureau for aircraft engines, administrated by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov. It was created for developing German WW2 jet engine technology headed by a group of deported Junkers engineers under Ferdinand Brandner.The Kuznetzov Bureau first became...

 NK-12
Kuznetsov NK-12
-See also:-External links:*...

 turboprop
Turboprop
A turboprop engine is a type of turbine engine which drives an aircraft propeller using a reduction gear.The gas turbine is designed specifically for this application, with almost all of its output being used to drive the propeller...

 engines providing a unique combination of jet-like speed and long range. It became the definitive Soviet intercontinental bomber, with intercontinental range and jet-like performance. In many respects the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, it served as a strategic bomber
Strategic bomber
A strategic bomber is a heavy bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemy's capacity to wage war. Unlike tactical bombers, which are used in the battle zone to attack troops and military equipment, strategic bombers are...

 and in many alternate roles, including reconnaissance
Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance is the military term for exploring beyond the area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about enemy forces or features of the environment....

 and anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of naval warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines....

.

The Tu-16 was developed into the civil Tu-104
Tupolev Tu-104
The Tupolev Tu-104 was a twin-engined medium-range turbojet-powered Soviet airliner and the world's first successful jet airliner...

, which was for some time the only jet-powered airliner due to the temporary grounding of the De Havilland Comet
De Havilland Comet
The de Havilland DH 106 Comet was the world's first commercial jet airliner to reach production. Developed and manufactured by de Havilland at the Hatfield, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom headquarters, it first flew in 1949 and was a landmark in aeronautical design...

. The Tu-95 became the basis of the unique Tu-114
Tupolev Tu-114
The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya is a turboprop-powered long-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau and built in the USSR from May 1955....

 medium-to-long-range airliner, the fastest turboprop aircraft ever. One common feature found in many large subsonic Tupolev jet aircraft is large pods extending rearward from the trailing edge
Trailing edge
The trailing edge of an aerodynamic surface such as a wing is its rear edge, where the airflow separated by the leading edge rejoins. Essential control surfaces are attached here to redirect the air flow and exert a controlling force by changing its momentum...

 of the wings, holding the aircraft's landing gear
Landing Gear
Landing Gear is Devin the Dude's fifth studio album. It was released on October 7, 2008. It was his first studio album since signing with the label Razor & Tie. It features a high-profile guest appearance from Snoop Dogg. As of October 30, 2008, the album has sold 18,906 copies.-Track...

. These allow the aircraft to have landing gears made up of many large low-pressure tire
Tire
A tire or tyre is a ring-shaped covering that fits around a wheel rim to protect it and enable better vehicle performance by providing a flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground...

s, which are invaluable for use on the poor quality runway
Runway
According to ICAO a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft." Runways may be a man-made surface or a natural surface .- Orientation and dimensions :Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally one tenth...

s that were common in the Soviet Union at the time. For example the Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid 1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. As the mainstay 'workhorse' of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it serviced over a sixth of the world's landmass and carried half of all passengers flown...

 airliner, the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing 727
Boeing 727
The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine, T-tailed commercial jet airliner, manufactured by Boeing. The Boeing 727 first flew in 1963, and for over a decade more were built per year than any other jet airliner. When production ended in 1984 a total of 1,832 aircraft had been produced...

, has 14 tyres, the same number as Boeing's far larger 777-200
Boeing 777
The Boeing 777 is a long-range, wide-body twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It is the world's largest twinjet and is commonly referred to as the "Triple Seven". The aircraft has seating for over 300 passengers and has a range from , depending on model...

.

Even before the first flights of the Tu-16 and Tu-20/Tu-95, Tupolev was working on supersonic bombers, culminating in the unsuccessful Tu-98. Although that aircraft never entered service, it became the basis for the prototype Tu-102
Tupolev Tu-28
The Tupolev Tu-28 was a long-range interceptor aircraft introduced by the Soviet Union in the 1960s. The official designation was Tu-128, but this designation was less commonly used in the West...

 (later developed into the Tu-28
Tupolev Tu-28
The Tupolev Tu-28 was a long-range interceptor aircraft introduced by the Soviet Union in the 1960s. The official designation was Tu-128, but this designation was less commonly used in the West...

 interceptor
Interceptor aircraft
An interceptor aircraft is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to prevent missions of enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. Interceptors generally rely on high speed and powerful armament in order to complete their mission as quickly as possible and set up...

) and the Tu-105
Tupolev Tu-22
The Tupolev Tu-22 was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union. Manufactured by Tupolev, the Tu-22 entered service with the Soviet military in the 1960s, and the last examples were retired during the 1990s...

, which evolved into the supersonic Tu-22
Tupolev Tu-22
The Tupolev Tu-22 was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union. Manufactured by Tupolev, the Tu-22 entered service with the Soviet military in the 1960s, and the last examples were retired during the 1990s...

 bomber in the mid-1960s. Intended as a counterpart to the Convair B-58 Hustler, the Tu-22 proved rather less capable, although it remained in service much longer than the American aircraft. Meanwhile the "K" Department was formed in the Design Bureau, with the task of designing unmanned aircraft such as the Tu-139 and the Tu-143 unmanned reconnaissance aircraft.

In the 1960s A. N. Tupolev's son, A. A. Tupolev
Alexei Tupolev
Alexei Andreyevich Tupolev was a Soviet aircraft designer who led the development of the first supersonic passenger jet, the failed Tupolev Tu-144. He also helped design the Buran space shuttle and the Tu-2000, which has been suspended because of the lack of funds.Tupolev was the son of famed...

, became active with management of the agency. His role included the development of the world's first supersonic airliner, the Tu-144
Tupolev Tu-144
The Tupolev Tu-144 was a Soviet supersonic transport aircraft and remains one of only two SSTs to enter commercial service, the other being the Concorde...

, the popular Tu-154
Tupolev Tu-154
The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid 1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. As the mainstay 'workhorse' of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it serviced over a sixth of the world's landmass and carried half of all passengers flown...

 airliner and the Tupolev Tu-22M
Tupolev Tu-22M
The Tupolev Tu-22M is a supersonic, swing-wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Soviet Union. Significant numbers remain in service with the Russian Air Force....

 strategic bomber
Strategic bomber
A strategic bomber is a heavy bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemy's capacity to wage war. Unlike tactical bombers, which are used in the battle zone to attack troops and military equipment, strategic bombers are...

. All these developments enabled the Soviet Union to achieve strategic military and civil aviation parity with the West.

In the 1970s, Tupolev concentrated its efforts on improving the performance of the Tu-22M bombers, whose variants included maritime versions. It is the presence of these bombers in quantity that brought about the SALT I and SALT II treaties. Also the efficiency and performance of the Tu-154 was improved, culminating in the efficient Tu-154M.

In the 1980s the design bureau developed the supersonic Tu-160
Tupolev Tu-160
The Tupolev Tu-160 is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. Although several civil and military transport aircraft are larger in overall dimensions, the Tu-160 is currently the world's largest combat aircraft, largest...

 strategic bomber. Features include variable-geometry wings.

Post Soviet Era


With the end of the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, research work was concentrated on subsonic civil aircraft, mainly on operating economics and alternative fuels. The developments include fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire
Fly-by-wire is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface. The movements of flight controls are converted to electronic signals transmitted by wires , and flight control computers determine how to move the actuators at each control...

, use of efficient high-bypass turbofan
Turbofan
The turbofan is a type of airbreathing jet engine that is widely used for aircraft propulsion. A turbofan combines two types of engines, the turbo portion which is a conventional gas turbine engine, and the fan, a propeller-like ducted fan...

s and advanced aerodynamic layouts for the 21st century transport aircraft such as the Tu-204
Tupolev Tu-204
The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is considered to be broadly equivalent to the Boeing 757 and has competitive...

/Tu-214, Tu-330
Tupolev Tu-330
-External links:*...

 and Tu-334
Tupolev Tu-334
-See also:-References:* Gordon, Yefim; Rigamant, Vladimir . OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-214-4....

.

Among current Tupolev projects:
  • further development of Tu-204/214 and TU-334 aircraft family
  • development of cargo aircraft Tu-330, regional and executive Tu-324 aircraft
  • research on practical aspects of aircraft operation using alternative fuels
  • modernization of Russian Naval Aviation and Air Force


On 19 August 2009, Tupolev announced that it had a contract with the Russian Defense Ministry to develop a new-generation strategic bomber which "will be a conceptually new plane based on the most advanced technologies".

Directors

  • Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev
    Andrei Tupolev
    Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev was a pioneering Soviet aircraft designer.During his career, he designed and oversaw the design of more than 100 types of aircraft, some of which set 78 world records...

     was a leading designer at the Moscow-based Central Aero-Hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI
    TsAGI
    TsAGI is a transliteration of the Russian abbreviation for Центра́льный аэрогидродинами́ческий институ́т or "Tsentralniy Aerogidrodinamicheskiy Institut", the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute....

    ) from 1929 until his death in 1972. This design bureau produced mostly bomber
    Bomber
    A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets, by dropping bombs on them, or – in recent years – by launching cruise missiles at them.-Classifications of bombers:...

    s and airliner
    Airliner
    An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such aircraft are operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an aircraft intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial...

    s.
  • Alexei Andreyevich Tupolev
    Alexei Tupolev
    Alexei Andreyevich Tupolev was a Soviet aircraft designer who led the development of the first supersonic passenger jet, the failed Tupolev Tu-144. He also helped design the Buran space shuttle and the Tu-2000, which has been suspended because of the lack of funds.Tupolev was the son of famed...

    , son of Andrei Tupolev, was also a famous aircraft designer. His most famous design was the supersonic airliner Tupolev Tu-144
    Tupolev Tu-144
    The Tupolev Tu-144 was a Soviet supersonic transport aircraft and remains one of only two SSTs to enter commercial service, the other being the Concorde...

    . He managed Tupolev until his death in 2001.

Tupolev aircraft


Many designs were developed by the design bureau. Those in production series may manufacture as many as 4,500 units as for the Tu-2. However many are also dead-ends or experimental, with as little as a single copy being produced. They were terminated by changing military or political situations. Many of these experimental variants enabled series production versions.

Early piston-powered

  • ANT-1
    Tupolev ANT-1
    |-See also:-References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev The Man and His aircraft. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.* Shavrov, V.B. History of aircraft construction in the USSR. Vol 1. p.363....

    : The first aircraft by A.N.T. and the first Soviet-built aircraft. Mixed materials design. The work started in 1921. Assembly began in 1922. The tests were cancelled due to engine malfunction.
  • ANT-2
    Tupolev ANT-2
    -References:Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kankdalov. Tupolev The Man and His aircraft. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers....

    : Two passenger aircraft. The first Soviet all-metal aircraft, 1924.
  • ANT-3/R-3
    Tupolev ANT-3
    Tupolev acquired much experience in building his first two aircraft, which he put into the next one, the ANT-3. By this time, Soviet Air Force leaders were convinced that metal was a highly usable substance in the building of airplanes. So, Tupolev guided AGOS- TsAGI in creating the first Soviet...

    : All-metal two-seats recce biplane, 1925. About 100 were built.
  • ANT-3 Pervenets: torpedo boat (not an aircraft!). It was put afloat 14 March 1928.
  • ANT-4/TB-1
    Tupolev TB-1
    -See also:-References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK:Airlife Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1 85310 728 X....

    : All-metal twin-engined (M-17B) monoplane heavy bomber, 1925. There were 212 aircraft built. There was a G-1 cargo version.
  • ANT-5/I-4
    Tupolev I-4
    -External links:*http://www.aviation.ru/Tu/#ANT-5...

    : Prototype of I-4 fighter. The first aircraft designed by Pavel Sukhoi
    Pavel Sukhoi
    Pavel Osipovich Sukhoi was a Soviet aerospace engineer. He designed the Sukhoi military aircraft and founded the Sukhoi Design Bureau. -Biography:...

    , 1927. 369 were built. I-4 was in service in 1928-1933.
  • ANT-6/TB-3
    Tupolev TB-3
    The Tupolev TB-3 was a heavy bomber aircraft which was deployed by the Soviet Air Force in the 1930s and during World War II. It was the world's first cantilever wing four-engine heavy bomber. Despite obsolescence and being officially withdrawn from service in 1939, TB-3 performed bomber and...

    : Four-engine development of TB-1, 1930. There was a G-2 cargo version.
  • ANT-7/R-6/KR-6/MR-6: Development of TB-1 as reconnaissance (R-6), "cruiser" (escort fighter, KR-6), and maritime patrol/torpedo bomber (MR-6), 1931.
  • ANT-8/MDR-2
    Tupolev ANT-8
    -References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev The Man and His aircraft. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.* Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft 1975-1995.. London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9....

    : Maritime long range recce flying boat, 1931.
  • ANT-9
    Tupolev ANT-9
    -See also:-References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK:Airlife Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1 85310 728 X....

    : Three-engined passenger airliner, 1929.
  • ANT-10/R-7
    Tupolev ANT-10
    |-See also:-References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev,: The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1 85310 728 X....

    : Reconnaissance/light bomber aircraft prototype, 1930.
  • ANT-13/I-8: Fighter/interceptor prototype, 1930.
  • ANT-14 Pravda: Large five-engined propaganda monoplane developed from the ANT-9, 1931.
  • ANT-16/TB-4
    Tupolev ANT-16
    |-See also:...

    : Six-engine version of TB-3, predecessor of ANT-20, 1933.
  • ANT-20 Maxim Gorky
    Tupolev ANT-20
    -See also:*Dornier Do X-External links:* * Russian: Babelfish rough English translation * * Babelfish rough English translation from Russian History of Aviation, Publ Young Guards...

    : Eight-engine huge cargo/propaganda aircraft, 1934.
  • ANT-21/MI-3
    Tupolev ANT-21
    -References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK:Airlife Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1 85310 728 X.* Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Complete Book of Fighters. New York, Smithmark, 1994. ISBN 0-8317-3939-8.* Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopedia...

    : Multiseat fighter. Development of R-6, 1933.
  • ANT-22/MK-1
    Tupolev ANT-22
    |-See also:...

    : Armoured six-engine recce flying boat, 1934.
  • ANT-23/I-12
    Tupolev I-12
    -External links:**...

    : Experimental twin-engined fighter equipped with two recoilless 75mm cannons, 1931.
  • ANT-25
    Tupolev ANT-25
    The Tupolev ANT-25 was a Soviet long-range experimental aircraft which was also tried as a bomber. First constructed in 1933, it was used by the Soviet Union for a number of record-breaking flights.-History and records:...

    : Single engine monoplane long range bomber. Designed by Pavel Sukhoi. ANT-25RD (RD for "Rekord Dalnosty", i.e. "Range Record") was used in a record flight from Moscow to San Jacinto, California, USA over the North Pole—10,148 km, 1933 (one was built in 1989).
  • ANT-26/TB-6
    Tupolev TB-6
    |-References:Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kankdalov. Tupolev The Man and His aircraft. Warrendale, PA: Society of Automotive Engineers.Gordon, Yefim; Rigamant, Vladimir . OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing....

    : 12-engined heavy-bomber aircraft project.
  • ANT-27/MDR-4/MTB-1
    Tupolev MTB-1
    -See also:...

    : Patrol flying-boat for the Soviet Navy, 1934.
  • ANT-29/DIP-1: Twin-engined fighter, 1935.
  • ANT-31/I-14
    Tupolev I-14
    |-See also:-References:* Duffy, Paul and Andrei Kandalov. Tupolev,: The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing, 1996. ISBN 1 85310 728 X....

    : All metal monoplane fighter, 1935.
  • ANT-35/PS-35: Twin-engined passenger transport aircraft developed from the SB, 1936.
  • ANT-36/DB-1
    Tupolev DB-1
    -See also:...

    : Long-range bomber, 1936.
  • ANT-37/DB-2
    Tupolev ANT-37
    |-See also:-Bibliography:* Donald, David, ed. The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. London: Orbis, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.* Gordon, Yefim and Vladimir Rigmant. OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Midland, 2006. ISBN 1-8578-0214-4.* Higham, Robin, John Greenwood...

    : Long-range bomber, 1935.
  • ANT-40/SB/PS-40/PS-41
    Tupolev SB
    The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name Tupolev SB , and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three-seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934....

    : Medium bomber, also erroneously known as SB-2, 1934.
  • ANT-44/MTB-2
    Tupolev MTB-2
    Tupolev MTB-2 , also known as ANT-44, was a four-engine flying boat designed in the Soviet Union in 1935.-Design and development:The ANT-44 was designed as a long range maritime reconnaissance/bomber flying boat...

    : Heavy-bomber flying-boat, 1937.
  • ANT-46/DI-8
    Tupolev SB
    The Tupolev ANT-40, also known by its service name Tupolev SB , and development co-name TsAGI-40, was a high speed twin-engined three-seat monoplane bomber, first flown in 1934....

    : Two-seat fighter prototype, developed from the SB, 1935.
  • Tu-2 (ANT-58/ANT-61) "Bat"
    Tupolev Tu-2
    |-See also:-References:NotesBibliography* Bishop, Chris. The Encyclopedia of Weapons of WWII: The Comprehensive Guide to Over 1,500 Weapons Systems, Including Tanks, Small Arms, Warplanes, Artillery, Ships, and Submarines. New York: Sterling, 2002. ISBN 1-58663-762-2.* Ethell, Jeffrey L. Aircraft...

    : Medium bomber, 1939.
  • Tu-4 "Bull"
    Tupolev Tu-4
    The Tupolev Tu-4 was a piston-engined Soviet strategic bomber that served the Soviet Air Force from the late 1940s to mid 1960s...

    : copied from seized Boeing B-29 Superfortresses. Initial name is B-4 (the A.N.T. want not give his name to the aircraft designed outside of his OKB), 1947.
  • Tu-10 (ANT-68): General-purpose bomber prototype, developed from the Tu-2.

Experimental aircraft

  • Tu-1 (ANT-63P): prototype night-fighter variant of the Tu-2, 1946
  • Tu-6: prototype reconnaissance variant of the Tu-2
  • Tu-8 (ANT-69): prototype long-range bomber variant of the Tu-2
  • Tu-12
    Tupolev Tu-12
    -References:NotesBibliography...

     (also known as the Tu-77): medium bomber prototype, developed from the Tu-2, 1947
  • Tu-70
    Tupolev Tu-70
    |-See also:...

    : prototype airliner variant of the Tu-4, 1946
  • Tu-72
    Tupolev Tu-4
    The Tupolev Tu-4 was a piston-engined Soviet strategic bomber that served the Soviet Air Force from the late 1940s to mid 1960s...

    : prototype jet bomber
  • Tu-73: three-engined development of the Tu-72, 1947
  • Tu-74: proposed reconnaissance variant of the Tu-73
  • Tu-75
    Tupolev Tu-75
    |-See also:-References:NotesBibliography...

    : prototype cargo/transport variant of the Tu-4, 1950
  • Tu-79: prototype long-range reconnaissance variant of the Tu-73
  • Tu-80
    Tupolev Tu-80
    |-See also:-References:...

    : prototype long-range variant of the Tu-4, 1949
  • Tu-82
    Tupolev Tu-82
    |-See also:...

    : experimental swept-wing jet bomber, 1949
  • Tu-85 "Barge": prototype strategic bomber variant of the Tu-4, 1951
  • Tu-91 "Boot"
    Tupolev Tu-91
    - See also :...

    : prototype naval attack aircraft, 1954
  • Tu-93
  • Tu-96: prototype long-range intercontinental high altitude strategic bomber variant of the Tu-95, 1955
  • Tu-98 "Backfin": prototype swept-wing jet bomber, 1956
  • Tu-102: development test variant of the Tu-28, 1959
  • Tu-105: initial prototype of the Tu-22, 1954
  • Tu-107
    Tupolev Tu-107
    The Tupolev Tu-107 was a prototype Soviet military transport aircraft developed from the Tu-104. It featuring a rear ramp loading door and was intended to carry light vehicles or artillery pieces, or up to 70 paratroopers. The fuselage was unpressurized which meant the paratroopers had to use...

    : prototype military transport variant of the Tu-104
  • Tu-110 "Cooker"
    Tupolev Tu-110
    |-See also:-References:* Gunston, Bill. “The Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875 – 1995”. London, Osprey. 1995. ISBN 1 85532 405 9* Gordon,Yefim & Rigmant, Vladimir. Tupolev Tu-104”. Midland. Hinkley. 2007. ISBN 978 1 85780 265 8-External links:...

    : prototype long-range airliner, 1957
  • Tu-114: prototype airliner variant of the Tu-95, entered production
  • Tu-116: two Tu-95's fitted with passenger cabins, 1958
  • Tu-117: proposed military transport version of the Tu-110
  • Tu-119
    Tupolev Tu-119
    - External links :* * *...

     (also known as the Tu-95LAL): prototype nuclear reactor-powered variant of the Tu-95, 1961
  • Tu-125
    Tupolev Tu-125
    The Tupolev Tu-125 was an unrealized project to develop a new long-range supersonic bomber for the Soviet Air Force. Development commenced in 1958 to replace the newest Tu-22. The "Tu-125" designation was an internal one used by the Tupolev design bureau...

    : proposed long-range supersonic bomber, 1958
  • Tu-155
    Tupolev Tu-155
    -External links:* *...

    : a Tu-154 converted into a testbed for alternative fuels, 1988
  • Tu-156
    Tupolev Tu-155
    -External links:* *...

  • Tu-206: a Tu-204 converted into a testbed for alternative fuels
  • Tu-216
    Tupolev Tu-204
    The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is considered to be broadly equivalent to the Boeing 757 and has competitive...


Bombers and other military types



  • Tu-14 "Bosun"
    Tupolev Tu-14
    -References:NotesBibliography...

     (also known as the Tu-81) torpedo bomber
  • Tu-16 "Badger"
    Tupolev Tu-16
    The Tupolev Tu-16 was a twin-engine jet bomber used by the Soviet Union. It has flown for more than 50 years, and the Chinese license-built Xian H-6 remains in service with the Chinese air force.-Development:...

     strategic bomber
  • Tu-20/Tu-95 "Bear"
    Tupolev Tu-95
    The Tupolev Tu-95 is a large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform. First flown in 1952, the Tu-95 entered service with the former Soviet Union in 1956 and is expected to serve the Russian Air Force until at least 2040...

     long-range strategic bomber and modifications
    • Tu-142 "Bear F/Bear J"
      Tupolev Tu-142
      The Tupolev Tu-142 is a maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare aircraft derived from the Tu-95 turboprop strategic bomber. A specialised communications variant designated Tu-142MR was tasked with long-range communications duties with Soviet ballistic missile submarines...

      , anti-submarine/reconnaissance
  • Tu-22 "Blinder"
    Tupolev Tu-22
    The Tupolev Tu-22 was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union. Manufactured by Tupolev, the Tu-22 entered service with the Soviet military in the 1960s, and the last examples were retired during the 1990s...

     supersonic medium bomber
  • Tu-22M/Tu-26 "Backfire"
    Tupolev Tu-22M
    The Tupolev Tu-22M is a supersonic, swing-wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Soviet Union. Significant numbers remain in service with the Russian Air Force....

     supersonic swing-wing long range/maritime strike bomber
  • Tu-126 "Moss"
    Tupolev Tu-126
    |-See also:-Bibliography:*Duffy, Paul and Kandalov, Andrei. Tupolev: The Man and His Aircraft. Shrewsbury, UK:Airlife, 1996. ISBN 1 85310 728 X....

     airborne early warning (AEW) and control aircraft variant of the Tu-114
  • Tu-160 "Blackjack"
    Tupolev Tu-160
    The Tupolev Tu-160 is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. Although several civil and military transport aircraft are larger in overall dimensions, the Tu-160 is currently the world's largest combat aircraft, largest...

     supersonic swing-wing bomber

Airliners/transport



  • Tu-104 "Camel"
    Tupolev Tu-104
    The Tupolev Tu-104 was a twin-engined medium-range turbojet-powered Soviet airliner and the world's first successful jet airliner...

     medium-range airliner developed from the Tu-16
  • Tu-114 Rossiya "Cleat"
    Tupolev Tu-114
    The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya is a turboprop-powered long-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau and built in the USSR from May 1955....

     long range airliner developed from the Tu-95
  • Tu-124 "Cookpot"
    Tupolev Tu-124
    The Tupolev Tu-124 was a 56 passenger short range twinjet airliner built in the Soviet Union. It was the world's first turbofan-powered airliner.- Design and development :...

     a short haul jet airliner developed from the Tu-104
  • Tu-134 "Crusty"
    Tupolev Tu-134
    The Tupolev Tu-134 is a twin-engined airliner, similar to the American Douglas DC-9 and the French Sud Aviation Caravelle, and built in the Soviet Union from 1966–1984. The original version featured a glazed-nose design and, like certain other Russian airliners , it can operate from unpaved...

     a rear engine evolution of the Tu-124
  • Tu-144 "Charger"
    Tupolev Tu-144
    The Tupolev Tu-144 was a Soviet supersonic transport aircraft and remains one of only two SSTs to enter commercial service, the other being the Concorde...

     a supersonic airliner similar to Concorde
    Concorde
    Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde was a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner, a supersonic transport . It was a product of an Anglo-French government treaty, combining the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation...

  • Tu-154 "Careless"
    Tupolev Tu-154
    The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid 1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. As the mainstay 'workhorse' of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it serviced over a sixth of the world's landmass and carried half of all passengers flown...

  • Tu-204
    Tupolev Tu-204
    The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association. First introduced in 1989, it is considered to be broadly equivalent to the Boeing 757 and has competitive...

     a narrow-body jet airliner
  • Tu-214, Tu-204-200's built at a different factory
  • Tu-244
    Tupolev Tu-244
    |-See also:-References:* * Gordon, Yefim and Vladimir Rigamant. OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-85780-214-4....

    , an SST
    Supersonic transport
    A supersonic transport is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound. The only SSTs to see regular service to date have been Concorde and the Tupolev Tu-144. The last passenger flight of the Tu-144 was in June 1978 with its last ever...

     concept developed from the Tu-144
    Tupolev Tu-144
    The Tupolev Tu-144 was a Soviet supersonic transport aircraft and remains one of only two SSTs to enter commercial service, the other being the Concorde...

  • Tu-324
    Tupolev Tu-324
    -External links:* *...

    , a regional airliner concept
  • Tu-330
    Tupolev Tu-330
    -External links:*...

    , medium transport aircraft based on the Tu-204/Tu-214
  • Tu-334
    Tupolev Tu-334
    -See also:-References:* Gordon, Yefim; Rigamant, Vladimir . OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-214-4....

    , a short haul jet airliner
  • Tu-444
    Tupolev Tu-444
    |-See also:-External links:* *...

    , a supersonic business jet
    Supersonic business jet
    A supersonic business jet would be a small business jet, intended to travel at speeds above Mach 1.0. Typically intended to transport about ten passengers, SSBJs are about the same size as traditional subsonic business jets...

     concept.

Unmanned aircraft

  • Tu-121C
  • Tu-123 Yastreb-1
    Tupolev Tu-123
    -References:This article contains material that originally came from the web article by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain....

  • Tu-139 Yastreb-2
    Tupolev Tu-123
    -References:This article contains material that originally came from the web article by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain....

    , reusable version of the Tu-123
  • Tu-141 Strizh
    Tupolev Tu-141
    -References:* Gordon, Yefim and Vladimir Rigmant. OKB Tupolev: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. Hinkley, UK: Midland Publishing, 2005. ISBN 978 1 85780 214 6....

  • Tu-143 Reis
    Tupolev Tu-143
    The Tupolev Tu-143 Reys was a Soviet reconnaissance drone in service with the Soviet Red Army and with a number of its Warsaw Pact and Middle East allies during the late 1970s and 1980s.-Development:...

  • Tu-243 Reis-D
    Tupolev Tu-143
    The Tupolev Tu-143 Reys was a Soviet reconnaissance drone in service with the Soviet Red Army and with a number of its Warsaw Pact and Middle East allies during the late 1970s and 1980s.-Development:...

    , improved version of the Tu-143
  • Tu-300 Korshun
    Tupolev Tu-143
    The Tupolev Tu-143 Reys was a Soviet reconnaissance drone in service with the Soviet Red Army and with a number of its Warsaw Pact and Middle East allies during the late 1970s and 1980s.-Development:...

    , modernized version of the Tu-143, 1995

Planned aircraft

  • PAK DA
    PAK DA
    -External links:**...

    : next generation stragetic bomber based on the Tu-160
  • Tu-2000
    Tupolev Tu-2000
    The Tupolev Tu-2000 was a planned long-range heavy bomber designed by the Tupolev design bureau. Originally designed for the Soviet Union, development then continued for use by the Russian Air Force until it was eventually cancelled....

    : proposed long-range heavy bomber, 1986

See also




External links