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Funk carioca

Funk carioca

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Funk carioca favela funk and, elsewhere in the world, baile funk, is a type of dance music from Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, derived from Miami bass
Miami bass
Miami bass , is a type of hip hop music, that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Its roots are directly linked to the Electro-funk sound of the early 1980s, pioneered by Afrika Bambataa & The Soulsonic Force and later on by UK-based musician Paul Hardcastle...

.

"Baile funk", in Brazil, refers not to the music, but to the actual parties
Dance party
A dance party is a social gathering where dancing is the primary activity. Some dance parties are held in a casual setting and open to the public, such as a rave, or those held in nightclubs and discothèques...

 or discothèques in which the music is played. Although originated in Rio, funk carioca has become increasingly popular amongst (mainly) low classes in other parts of Brazil. In the whole country, funk carioca is most often simply known as funk, although it is very different musically from what funk
Funk
Funk is a music genre that originated in the mid-late 1960s when African American musicians blended soul music, jazz and R&B into a rhythmic, danceable new form of music. Funk de-emphasizes melody and harmony and brings a strong rhythmic groove of electric bass and drums to the foreground...

 means in most other places.

Overview


Funk is a direct derivative of Miami Bass
Miami bass
Miami bass , is a type of hip hop music, that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Its roots are directly linked to the Electro-funk sound of the early 1980s, pioneered by Afrika Bambataa & The Soulsonic Force and later on by UK-based musician Paul Hardcastle...

 and freestyle (another Miami-based genre) music from the United States
Music of the United States
The music of the United States reflects the country's multi-ethnic population through a diverse array of styles. Among the country's most internationally-renowned genres are hip hop, blues, country, rhythm and blues, jazz, barbershop, pop, techno, and rock and roll. The United States has the...

. The reason why these genres, very localized in the USA, became popular and influential in Rio de Janeiro is due to proximity. Miami is a popular plane stop for Rio DJs to buy the latest American records.

The funk popularized in the 80s in Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

 shanty towns called favela
Favela
A favela is the generally used term for a shanty town in Brazil. In the late 18th century, the first settlements were called bairros africanos . This was the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years, many freed black slaves moved in...

s. From mid-90s it was a mainstream phenomenon in Brazil. Funk songs discuss topics as varying as poverty
Poverty
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

, human dignity, racial pride of black people
Black people
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

, sex
Sex
In biology, sex is a process of combining and mixing genetic traits, often resulting in the specialization of organisms into a male or female variety . Sexual reproduction involves combining specialized cells to form offspring that inherit traits from both parents...

 (breaking its moral values), violence
Violence
Violence is the use of physical force to apply a state to others contrary to their wishes. violence, while often a stand-alone issue, is often the culmination of other kinds of conflict, e.g...

 and social injustice
Social injustice
Social injustice is a concept relating to the claimed unfairness or injustice of a society in its divisions of rewards and burdens and other incidental inequalities...

. Social analysts believe that the funk is a genuine expression of the severe social issues falling on the poor and black people in Rio.

The rhythms of funk in its early days were mostly loops of electronic drums from Miami Bass or freestyle records, while a few artists composed them with actual drum machines. The most common drum beat was a loop of DJ Battery Brain's "808 volt", commonly referred to as "Voltmix", though Hassan's "Pump Up The Party" is also notable. Now, funk rhythms use tamborzão rhythms in addition to the older drum machine loops. Tamborzão beats use samples of Brazilian hand drums, particularly the atabaque, in arrangements that are close to the same as those used in Maculelê
Maculele
Maculele, Maculelê or Makulele may refer to:*Makulele , Makulele Area, Makuleke Region, or Pafuri Triangle of the Kruger National Park.*Makulele , Makuleke, people living in Pafuri Triangle....

 capoeira. Melodies are usually sampled. Older songs typically chopped up freestyle samples for the melody, or had none at all. Modern funk uses a set of samples from various sources, notably horn and accordion stabs
Stab (music)
In music, a stab is a single staccato chord that adds dramatic impact to a composition. Stabs are usually provided by horns , thus the term horn stab, or an orchestral sample, usually occur on a 1-beat, and are frequently used in funk, freestyle, and ska.As well, stabs are used in electronic music,...

, as well as the horn intro to the "Rocky
Rocky
Rocky is a 1976 American sports drama film directed by John G. Avildsen and both written by and starring Sylvester Stallone. It tells the rags to riches American Dream story of Rocky Balboa, an uneducated but kind-hearted debt collector for a loan shark in the city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...

" theme. Funk music has always used a small catalog of rhythms and samples which almost all songs take from (commonly with several in the same song). Funk carioca songs can either be instrumental or include rapping, singing, or something in between the two.
On February 11, 2001, the first U.S. reference to the music itself was made by Neil Strauss
Neil Strauss
Neil Darrow Strauss , also known by the pen names Style and Chris Powles, is an American and Kittitian author, journalist and ghostwriter...

 in the New York Times newspaper, recognizing it as a distinct musical genre, and along with Kwaito
Kwaito
Kwaito is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa, during the 1990s. It is a variant of house music featuring the use of African sounds and samples. Typically at a slower tempo range than other styles of house music, Kwaito often contains catchy melodic and percussive loop samples,...

 music in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, one of the first new genres of electronic, street dance music to have become important outside North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

.

Funk melody



Funk melody is based on funk carioca beat but with romantic focus. It attracts more female singers. Popular funk melody singers are Perlla
Perlla
Perla Fernandes dos Santos is a teenage Brazilian Dance music and Pop singer commonly known by Perlla. Perlla rose to fame with her first album, Eu Só Quero Ser Livre, in early-2006.-Biography:...

, Babi
Babi
Babi may refer to:* Babı, a municipality in Azerbaijan* Babi Dynasty, founded in 1735 by Muhammed Sher Khan Babi , Nawabs of this dynasty went on to rule over Junagadh in Gujarat, from the 18th to the 20th century....

, Latino
Latino (singer)
Latino is a Brazilian pop singer.-Career:Latino is a Brazilian singer. His "trademarks" are a shifty smile and a nice young boy way of being. However, before becoming that famous, while living in the USA, Latino worked as barman, magician, cook, dancer and even as waiter...

 and Copacabana Beat.

Recognition in Europe


Until the year 2000, Funk Carioca was only a regional phenomenon. Then the Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an media began to report its peculiar combination of music, social issues with a strong sexual appeal.

In 2001, for the first time, Baile funk tracks appeared on a Non-Brazilian label. The album was named Favela Chic by BMG
BMG
Bertelsmann Music Group, , was a division of Bertelsmann before its completion of sale of the majority of its assets to Japan's Sony Corporation of America on October 1, 2008. It was established in 1987 to combine the music label activities of Bertelsmann...

 and contained 3 old-school funk carioca hits, including the song Popozuda Rock n´Roll by De Falla.

In 2003, the tune Quem Que Caguetou (Follow Me Follow Me) by Black Alien & Speed
Black Alien & Speed
Black Alien & Speed was an independent Brazilian Hip hop duo active between 1993 and 2001. Made up of singer Black Alien and the late producer/musician/rapper Speed, they started out using the name "Speedfreaks" and around 1998 became "Black Alien & Speed".The group performed and recorded in...

, not a big hit in Brazil, was then used in a sports car advertisement in Europe, and it helped spread the word about baile funk. Berlin music journalist and DJ Daniel Haaksman released the seminal CD-compilations Rio Baile Funk Favela Booty Beats in 2004, and More Favela Booty Beats 2006 through Essay Recordings Germany. He launched the international career of "Popozuda Rock n´Roll" artist Edu K, whose baile funk anthem was used in a soft drink TV advertisement in Germany. Haaksman continued to produce and distribute many new baile funk records, especially the EP
Extended play
An EP is a musical recording which contains more music than a single, but is too short to qualify as a full album or LP. The term EP originally referred only to specific types of vinyl records other than 78 rpm standard play records and LP records, but it is now applied to mid-length Compact...

 series "Funk Mundial" and "Baile Funk Masters" on his label Man Recordings.

In 2004, dance clubs from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

, mainly Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 increased the popularity of funk due to the strong sexual appeal of the music and dance, also known as Bonde das Popozudas. Many Rio funk artists started to do shows abroad at that time. DJ Marlboro
DJ Marlboro
Fernando Luiz Mattos da Matta, better known as DJ Marlboro, is a Brazilian DJ.DJ Marlboro is one of the originators of the Funk Scene in Brazil. His LP Funk Brasil is seen as marking the birth of so-called Baile funk, which included rapping in Portuguese. DJ Marlboro is the host and producer of...

 and Favela Chic Paris club were the pioneer travellers/producers. The funk carioca production was until then limited to playing in the ghetto
Ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

s and the Brazilian pop market. DJ Marlboro, a major composer of funk carioca's tunes declared in 2006 in the Brazilian "Isto É magazine" how astonished he was with the sudden overseas interest in the genre. He traveled in over 10 European countries.

In London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, artists Tetine
Tetine
Tetine are Bruno Verner and Eliete Mejorado. They met in 1995 in São Paulo, Brazil. Since then they have created a multitude of sound works from atonal orchestral pieces to electro punk / baile funk / miami bass-driven tunes. They have also made a series of ritualistic performances and have...

 have also assembled an important pioneer compilation in 2004, Slum Dunk Presents Funk Carioca mixed by Tetine, by Mr Bongo Records
Mr Bongo Records
Mr Bongo Records is a now Brighton based independent record label, independent film and publishing company specialising in world music and art house / world cinema. It was formed in 1989 by David 'Mr Bongo' Buttle, and operated out of London until 2003....

. In Italy, Irma Records
Irma Records
-Artists:*Sarah Jane Morris*Modulo 5*The PIano Room*Danny Losito*Agnesse Manganaro*Jacare'*Musetta*The Shiffers*Maler*2 Men 4 Soul*Steve Rogers Band*Belladonna*Black Mighty Orchestra*DJ Rodriguez*Don Carlos*Gazzara*Jestofunk*Greenlab*Zone...

 released the 2005 compilation Colors Music #4: Rio Funk. Many small European (notably Arcade Mode) and American (Flamin´Hotz, Nossa) labels released several compilations and EPs in bootleg formats.

The artist M.I.A. brought mainstream international popularity to Brazilian Funk with her single Bucky Done Gun
Bucky Done Gun
"Bucky Done Gun" is the third single from M.I.A.'s critically acclaimed album Arular. It is written by Maya Arulpragasam and Wesley Pentz and produced by Diplo, with additional production by A. Brucker, P. Byrne and Wizard...

released in 2005, and attention to US-based Diplo who worked as the song's producer. He had worked on M.I.A.'s 2004 mixtape Piracy Funds Terrorism in addition to the tracks Baile Funk One, Baile Funk Two, and Baile Funk Three. Diplo made a 2004 bootleg mix CD Favela On Blast after finding Ivanna Bergese compiled remix-tapes of her performance act Yours Truly. He also produced documentary Favela on Blast, which was released in July 2010 and documents the role, culture, and character of funk carioca in Rio's favelas.

Other indie video-documentaries have been made in Europe, especially in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 and Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

. These generally focused on the social issues in the favelas. One of the most famous of these series of documentaries is Mr Catra the faithful (2005) by Danish
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 filmmaker Andreas Rosforth Johnsen, broadcasted by many European open and cable television channels.

London based artist Sandra D'Angelo was the first Italian singer-producer to bring Baile funk to Italy. She performed in London with Mc Gringo at Notting Hill Arts Club
Notting Hill Arts Club
The Notting Hill Arts Club is a music and arts venue in Notting Hill, central London, England. The club holds clubnights every night of the week. Its range of events covers everything from interactive crafts to themed Soviet nights, but perhaps most famous is its Death Disco clubnight, which is run...

 in 2008. She performed her baile funk productions for the contest Edison Change the Music in 2008. Sandra D'Angelo performed Baile Funk also in New York and produced tracks with EDU KA (Man Recordings) and DJ Amazing Clay from Rio.

In 2008 Berlin label Man Recordings released Gringão, the debut album by German MC Gringo - the only non-Brazilian MC performing in the bailes of Rio de Janeiro.

Criticism


In Brazil, Funk Carioca lyrics are often criticized due to their violent and sexually explicit, as well as misogynistic content - the degradation of women
Sexism
Sexism, also known as gender discrimination or sex discrimination, is the application of the belief or attitude that there are characteristics implicit to one's gender that indirectly affect one's abilities in unrelated areas...

 as objects for sex is a recurring theme in funk Carioca. Girls are called "cachorras" (dogs) - meaning bitches - and "popozudas" - large asses, and many songs revolve around casual and degrading sex practices with them. "Novinhas" (young/underaged girls) as sexual objects
Sexual objectification
Sexual objectification refers to the practice of regarding or treating another person merely as an instrument towards one's sexual pleasure, and a sex object is a person who is regarded simply as an object of sexual gratification or who is sexually attractive...

 are also a frequent theme in funk songs. Some of these songs, however, are ironically sung by women.

The extreme banalization of sex and the incitement of promiscuity
Promiscuity
In humans, promiscuity refers to less discriminating casual sex with many sexual partners. The term carries a moral or religious judgement and is viewed in the context of the mainstream social ideal for sexual activity to take place within exclusive committed relationships...

 is viewed as a negative aspect of the funk culture. Besides the moral considerations, in favelas, where sanitary conditions are poor and sex education
Sex education
Sex education refers to formal programs of instruction on a wide range of issues relating to human sexuality, including human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, and...

 low, this might lead to public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

 and social issues. In such communities definitive contraceptive methods
Birth control
Birth control is an umbrella term for several techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization or to interrupt pregnancy at various stages. Birth control techniques and methods include contraception , contragestion and abortion...

 are hardly available and due to lack of education and awareness family planning
Family planning
Family planning is the planning of when to have children, and the use of birth control and other techniques to implement such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling and...

 is close to nonexistent. This environment results in unwanted pregnancies, population overgrowth, and eventually the growth of the communities (favelização).

The glamourization of criminality in the favelas is also frequently viewed as another negative consequence of funk carioca. Some funk songs, belonging to a style known as "proibidão" ("the forbidden"), have very violent lyrics and are sometimes composed by drug-dealing gangs
Illegal drug trade
The illegal drug trade is a global black market, dedicated to cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of those substances which are subject to drug prohibition laws. Most jurisdictions prohibit trade, except under license, of many types of drugs by drug prohibition laws.A UN report said the...

. Its themes include praising the murders of rival gang members and cops, intimidating opposers, claiming power over the favelas, robbery, drug use and the illicit life of drug dealers in general. Authorities view some of these lyrics as "recruiting" people to organized crime and inciting violence, and playing some of this songs is thus considered crime.

Due to the lack of regulation and the locations where they usually take place, "bailes funk" are also very crime prone environments. They are popular hot spots for drug trade and consumption, dealers display power frequenting the parties heavily armed, and even murder rates are high.

More popular funk artists usually compose two different sets of similar lyrics for their songs: one gentler, more "appropriate" version, and another with a harsher, cruder set of lyrics. The first version is the one broadcast by local radio stations; the second is played in dance halls, parties, and in public by sound cars. Recurrent lyric topics in Funk Carioca are explicit sexual positions, the funk party, the police force, and the life of slum dwellers in the favela
Favela
A favela is the generally used term for a shanty town in Brazil. In the late 18th century, the first settlements were called bairros africanos . This was the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years, many freed black slaves moved in...

s. Another large part of the lyrics is the use of the world around them - mainly the poverty that has enveloped the area. This is usually denounced in the lyrics and the hope for a better life is carried through many of their messages.

However, while they do talk about violence and crime, the lyrics of Funk Carioca songs do not advocate sexual violence. Additionally, while funk carioca frequently makes references to sexuality, it often employs euphemisms instead of bold statements.

With its recent success in Europe, it is also criticized that Brazil is exporting music that is much inferior compared to the Bossa Nova
Bossa Nova
Bossa Nova may refer to:*Bossa nova, a style of music*Bossa Nova , a dance form associated with the music*Bossa Nova , a 2000 film*Bossa Nova - album by John Pizzarelli...

 and the Brazilian rock
Brazilian rock
Brazilian rock refers to rock music produced in Brazil and usually sung in Portuguese.-Overview:Rock entered the Brazilian music scene in 1956, with the screening of the film The Blackboard Jungle, featuring Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock", which would later be covered in Portuguese by Nora...

 that was made famous in the 1950s. It has been rumored that most of the funk projects in favelas are also financially backed by drug lords, thereby some lyrics deal much with challenging the police and law.

Response


Defenders of funk argue that the genre is an authentic expression of low-income communities and the sexual lyrics reflect sexual freedom in Brazilian society. Some sociologists say that such content reflects the life of the impoverished people who lack protection and better conditions due to insufficient State involvement in the favelas.

See also

  • Surra de Bunda
    Surra de Bunda
    The Surra de Bunda is a dance invented by the group Tequileiras do Funk, from São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil, which involves a female dancer "beating" her buttocks into a man's face. It gained international attention by mid-2010. The phrase Surra de Bunda in Brazilian Portuguese loosely...

  • Favela
    Favela
    A favela is the generally used term for a shanty town in Brazil. In the late 18th century, the first settlements were called bairros africanos . This was the place where former slaves with no land ownership and no options for work lived. Over the years, many freed black slaves moved in...

  • Hip Hop
    Hip hop
    Hip hop is a form of musical expression and artistic culture that originated in African-American and Latino communities during the 1970s in New York City, specifically the Bronx. DJ Afrika Bambaataa outlined the four pillars of hip hop culture: MCing, DJing, breaking and graffiti writing...

  • Electro
  • Miami bass
    Miami bass
    Miami bass , is a type of hip hop music, that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Its roots are directly linked to the Electro-funk sound of the early 1980s, pioneered by Afrika Bambataa & The Soulsonic Force and later on by UK-based musician Paul Hardcastle...

  • Reggaeton
    Reggaeton
    Reggaeton is a form of Puerto Rican and Latin American urban and Caribbean music. After its mainstream exposure in 2004, it spread to North American, European and Asian audiences. Reggaeton originated in Puerto Rico but is also has roots from Reggae en Español from Panama and Puerto Rico and...


External links