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Family planning

Family planning

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Family planning is the planning
Planning
Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior...

 of when to have child
Child
Biologically, a child is generally a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Some vernacular definitions of a child include the fetus, as being an unborn child. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority...

ren, and the use of birth control
Birth control
Birth control is an umbrella term for several techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization or to interrupt pregnancy at various stages. Birth control techniques and methods include contraception , contragestion and abortion...

  and other techniques to implement such plans. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education
Sex education
Sex education refers to formal programs of instruction on a wide range of issues relating to human sexuality, including human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, and...

, prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, pre-conception counseling
Pre-conception counseling
Pre-conception counseling is based on the medical theory that all women of child-bearing years should be pre-screened for health and risk potentials before attempting to become pregnant...

  and management, and infertility management
Infertility
Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability of a person to contribute to conception. Infertility may also refer to the state of a woman who is unable to carry a pregnancy to full term...

.

Family planning is sometimes used in the wrong way also as a synonym for the use of birth control
Birth control
Birth control is an umbrella term for several techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization or to interrupt pregnancy at various stages. Birth control techniques and methods include contraception , contragestion and abortion...

, though it often includes more. It is most usually applied to a female
Female
Female is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces non-mobile ova .- Defining characteristics :The ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced by the male...

-male
Male
Male refers to the biological sex of an organism, or part of an organism, which produces small mobile gametes, called spermatozoa. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete or ovum, in the process of fertilization...

 couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy
Pregnancy
Pregnancy refers to the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, in a woman's uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets...

 (also known as spacing children). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

.

Family planning services are defined as "educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved."

Purposes


Raising a child requires significant amounts of resources: time, social, financial, and environmental.
Planning can help assure that resources are available.

Health


Waiting until the mother is at least 18 years old before trying to have children improves maternal and child health. Also, if additional children are desired after a child is born, it is healthier for the mother and the child to wait at least 2 years after the previous birth before attempting to conceive (but not more than 5 years). After a miscarriage
Miscarriage
Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the spontaneous end of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or fetus is incapable of surviving independently, generally defined in humans at prior to 20 weeks of gestation...

 or abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

, it is healthier to wait at least 6 months.

Modern methods



Some families use modern medical advances in family planning. For example in surrogacy
Surrogacy
Surrogacy is an arrangement in which a woman carries and delivers a child for another couple or person. This woman may be the child's genetic mother , or she may carry the pregnancy to delivery after having an embryo, to which she has no genetic relationship whatsoever, transferred to her uterus...

 treatments a woman agrees to become pregnant and deliver a child for another couple or person.

In sperm donation
Sperm donation
Sperm donation is the provision by a man, , of his sperm, with the intention that it be used to impregnate a woman who is not usually the man's sexual partner, in order to produce a child....

s, pregnancies are usually achieved using donated sperm by artificial insemination
Artificial insemination
Artificial insemination, or AI, is the process by which sperm is placed into the reproductive tract of a female for the purpose of impregnating the female by using means other than sexual intercourse or natural insemination...

 (either by ICI or IUI) and less commonly by in vitro fertilization (IVF), usually known in this context as ART
ART
ART is a three-letter acronym that can mean:Medicine* The use of Antiretroviral drugs, in anti-retroviral therapy, for the treatment of HIV* Assisted reproductive technology* Androgen Replacement Therapy...

 but insemination may also be achieved by a donor having sexual intercourse
Sexual intercourse
Sexual intercourse, also known as copulation or coitus, commonly refers to the act in which a male's penis enters a female's vagina for the purposes of sexual pleasure or reproduction. The entities may be of opposite sexes, or they may be hermaphroditic, as is the case with snails...

 with a woman for the sole purpose of initiating conception. This method is known as natural insemination, or NI
NI
NI is a two-letter abbreviation and may refer to:-Business:* National Instruments, a U.S. producer of automated test equipment and virtual instrumentation software...

.

There is generally a demand for sperm donors who have no genetic problems in their family, 20/20 eyesight, with excellent visual acuity
Visual acuity
Visual acuity is acuteness or clearness of vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain....

, a college degree, and sometimes a value on a certain height and age.

Finances


Childbirth and prenatal health care cost averaged $7,090 for normal delivery in the US in 1996. US Department of Agriculture estimates that for a child born in 2007, a US family will spend an average of $11,000 to $23,000 per year for the first 17 years of child's life. (Total inflation adjusted estimated expenditure: $196,000 to $393,000, depending on household income.)

Planning ahead has always been imperative in affecting the outcome of life-changing situations for everyone, which most certainly applies when it comes to pregnancy. Nearly fifty percent of the pregnancies nationwide each year is unplanned and the occurrence is far more prevalent among women under the age of 25 or with low income status. Lack of financial and emotional preparation often derives from unplanned parenthood that subsequently leads to a serious burden to the surrounding family members. Optional government aid became the only hope for many who are financially broken. Therefore, for women who are sexually active and have no intentions for parenthood, birth control pills offer a simple and effective deterrent to unplanned pregnancy that can adversely affect both family and society.

Birth control


With assertions of overpopulation
Overpopulation
Overpopulation is a condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat. The term often refers to the relationship between the human population and its environment, the Earth...

, there have been asertions that birth control
Birth control
Birth control is an umbrella term for several techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization or to interrupt pregnancy at various stages. Birth control techniques and methods include contraception , contragestion and abortion...

 is the answer. Birth control is techniques used to prevent unwanted pregnancy.

There are a range of contraceptive methods, each with unique advantages and disadvantages. Any of the widely recognized methods of birth control is much more effective than no method. Behavioral methods that include intercourse, such as withdrawal
Withdrawal
Withdrawal can refer to any sort of separation, but is most commonly used to describe the group of symptoms that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications, recreational drugs, and alcohol...

 and calendar based methods have little up front cost and are readily available, but are less effective in typical use than most other methods. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods, such as IUD and implant are highly effective and convenient, requiring little user action. When cost of failure is included, IUDs and vasectomy
Vasectomy
Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization and/or permanent birth control. During the procedure, the vasa deferentia of a man are severed, and then tied/sealed in a manner such to prevent sperm from entering into the seminal stream...

 are much less costly than other methods.

Policy



The world's largest international source of funding for population and reproductive health programs is the United Nations Population Fund
United Nations Population Fund
The United Nations Population Fund is a UN organization. The work of the UNFPA involves promotion of the right of every woman, man and child to enjoy a life of health and equal opportunity. This is done through major national and demographic surveys and with population censuses...

 (UNFPA). The main goals of the International Conference on Population and Development
International Conference on Population and Development
The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5–13 September 1994. Its resulting Program of Action is the steering document for the United Nations Population Fund ....

 Program of Action are:
  • Universal access to reproductive health
    Reproductive health
    Within the framework of the World Health Organization's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health, or sexual health/hygiene, addresses the reproductive processes, functions and system...

     services by 2015
  • Universal primary education and closing the gender gap in education by 2015
  • Reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015
  • Reducing infant mortality
    Infant mortality
    Infant mortality is defined as the number of infant deaths per 1000 live births. Traditionally, the most common cause worldwide was dehydration from diarrhea. However, the spreading information about Oral Re-hydration Solution to mothers around the world has decreased the rate of children dying...

  • Increasing life expectancy
  • Reducing HIV
    HIV
    Human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive...

     infection rates in persons aged 15–24 years by 25% in the most-affected countries by 2005, and by 25% globally by 2010


The World health organization
World Health Organization
The World Health Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health...

 (WHO) and World Bank
World Bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programmes.The World Bank's official goal is the reduction of poverty...

 estimate that $3.00 per person per year would provide basic family planning, maternal and neonatal health care to women in developing countries. This would include contraception
Contraception
Contraception is the prevention of the fusion of gametes during or after sexual activity. The term contraception is a contraction of contra, which means against, and the word conception, meaning fertilization...

, prenatal, delivery and post-natal care in addition to postpartum family planning and the promotion of condoms to prevent sexually transmitted infections.

China



China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

's one-child policy
One-child policy
The one-child policy refers to the one-child limitation applying to a minority of families in the population control policy of the People's Republic of China . The Chinese government refers to it under the official translation of family planning policy...

forces some couples to have no more than one child. China's population policy has been credited with a very significant slowing of China's population growth which had been higher before the policy was implemented. It has come under criticism that the implementation of the policy has involved forced abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

s and forced sterilization. However, while the punishment of "unplanned" pregnancy is a fine, both forced abortion and forced sterilization can be charged with intentional assault, which is punished with up to 10 years' imprisonment.

Hong Kong


See also: Two-child policy

In Hong Kong, the Eugenics League was found in 1936, which became The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong is a voluntary organisation that promotes family planning in Hong Kong. The current CEO is Peggy Lam.-History:...

 in 1950. The organisation provides family planning advice, sex education
Sex education
Sex education refers to formal programs of instruction on a wide range of issues relating to human sexuality, including human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, contraception, and...

, birth control
Birth control
Birth control is an umbrella term for several techniques and methods used to prevent fertilization or to interrupt pregnancy at various stages. Birth control techniques and methods include contraception , contragestion and abortion...

 services to the general public of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

. In the 1970s, due to the rapidly rising population, it launched the "Two is Enough" campaign, which reduced the general birth rate through educational means.

The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong is a voluntary organisation that promotes family planning in Hong Kong. The current CEO is Peggy Lam.-History:...

, Hong Kong's national family planning association, founded the International Planned Parenthood Federation
International Planned Parenthood Federation
The International Planned Parenthood Federation is a global non-governmental organization with the broad aims of promoting sexual and reproductive health, and advocating the right of individuals to make their own choices in family planning. It was first formed in 1952 in Bombay, India, and now...

 with its counterparts in seven other countries.

Ireland


The sale of contraceptives was illegal in Ireland from 1935 until 1980, when it was legalized with strong restrictions, later loosened. It has been argued that the resulting demographic dividend
Demographic dividend
The demographic dividend is a rise in the rate of economic growth due to a rising share of working age people in a population. This usually occurs late in the demographic transition when the fertility rate falls and the youth dependency rate declines. During this demographic window of opportunity,...

 played a role in the economic boom in Ireland in the 1990s (the Celtic tiger
Celtic Tiger
Celtic Tiger is a term used to describe the economy of Ireland during a period of rapid economic growth between 1995 and 2007. The expansion underwent a dramatic reversal from 2008, with GDP contracting by 14% and unemployment levels rising to 14% by 2010...

) was in part due to the legalization of contraception in 1979
An Irish solution to an Irish problem
The availability of contraception in the Republic of Ireland was illegal in the Irish Free State from 1935 until 1980, when it was legalized with strong restrictions, later loosened...

 and subsequent decline in the fertility rate. In Ireland the ratio of workers to dependents improved due to lower fertility but was raised further by increased female labor market participation.

Pakistan


In agreement with the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development
International Conference on Population and Development
The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5–13 September 1994. Its resulting Program of Action is the steering document for the United Nations Population Fund ....

 in Cairo, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 pledged that by 2010 it would provide universal access to family planning. Additionally, Pakistan’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper has set specific national goals for increases in family planning and contraceptive use.

United States


Title X
Title X
The Title X Family Planning Program, officially known as Public Law 91-572 or “Population Research and Voluntary Family Planning Programs” was enacted under President Richard Nixon in 1970 as part of the Public Health Service Act...

 of the Public Health Service Act
Public Health Service Act
The Public Health Service Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1944. The full act is captured under Title 42 of the United States Code "The Public Health and Welfare", Chapter 6A "Public Health Service"....

, is a US government program dedicated to providing family planning services for those in need. But funding for Title X as a percentage of total public funding to family planning client services has steadily declined from 44% of total expenditures in 1980 to 12% in 2006. Medicaid
Medicaid
Medicaid is the United States health program for certain people and families with low incomes and resources. It is a means-tested program that is jointly funded by the state and federal governments, and is managed by the states. People served by Medicaid are U.S. citizens or legal permanent...

 has increased from 20% to 71% in the same time. In 2006, Medicaid contributed $1.3 billion to public family planning.

See also



  • Family
    Family
    In human context, a family is a group of people affiliated by consanguinity, affinity, or co-residence. In most societies it is the principal institution for the socialization of children...

  • Life planning
  • Natural family planning
    Natural family planning
    Natural family planning is a term referring to the family planning methods approved by the Roman Catholic Church. In accordance with the Church's requirements for sexual behavior in keeping with its philosophy of the dignity of the human person, NFP excludes the use of other methods of birth...

  • natalism
    Natalism
    Natalism is a belief that promotes human reproduction. The term is taken from the Latin adjective form for "birth", natalis. Natalism promotes child-bearing and glorifies parenthood...

     and antinatalism
    Antinatalism
    Antinatalism is a philosophical position that assigns a negative value to birth, standing in opposition to natalism. It has been advanced by figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Peter Wessel Zapffe, Heinrich Heine, Emil Cioran, Philipp Mainländer, Philip Larkin, Chris Korda, Matti Häyry, Thomas...

  • Parental leave
    Parental leave
    Parental leave is an employee benefit that provides paid or unpaid time off work to care for a child or make arrangements for the child's welfare. Often, the term parental leave includes maternity, paternity, and adoption leave...

  • POPLINE
    POPLINE
    POPLINE is a reproductive health database, containing citations with abstracts to scientific articles, reports, books, and unpublished reports in the field of population, family planning, and reproductive health issues...

    : World's largest reproductive health database, part of The INFO Project
    The INFO Project
    The INFO Project is housed at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs and is funded by the United States Agency for International Development....

  • Sex selection
    Sex selection
    Sex selection is the attempt to control the sex of the offspring to achieve a desired sex. It can be accomplished in several ways, both pre- and post-implantation of an embryo, as well as at birth...

  • Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population
    Fatal Misconception
    Fatal Misconception: The Struggle to Control World Population is a 2008 book by Matthew Connelly, an associate professor of history at Columbia University....

  • Birth in Sri Lanka
    Birth in Sri Lanka
    Birth in Sri Lanka documents issues and practices related to childbirth in Sri Lanka, which are influenced by the sociocultural composition, political history and violence within the country.-Background:-Physical environment:...

  • Two-child policy

Organizations


International
  • International Planned Parenthood Federation
    International Planned Parenthood Federation
    The International Planned Parenthood Federation is a global non-governmental organization with the broad aims of promoting sexual and reproductive health, and advocating the right of individuals to make their own choices in family planning. It was first formed in 1952 in Bombay, India, and now...

  • Marie Stopes International
    Marie Stopes International
    Marie Stopes International is an International Non-Governmental Organisation working on Sexual and Reproductive Health with headquarters in London, UK. It is named after Marie Stopes, a Scottish author, campaigner for eugenics, women's rights, and a pioneer in the field of family planning...

  • Centre for Development and Population Activities
    Centre for Development and Population Activities
    The Centre for Development and Population Activities is an international nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the lives of women and girls in developing countries through education, health and training programs.-History:...



National
  • British Pregnancy Advisory Service
    British Pregnancy Advisory Service
    The British Pregnancy Advisory Service is a British charity whose stated purpose is to "[support] reproductive choice by advocating and providing high quality, affordable services to prevent or end unwanted pregnancies with contraception or by abortion."...

  • Family Planning Association
    Family Planning Association
    FPA is a UK registered charity working to enable people to make informed choices about sex and to enjoy sexual health. It is the national affiliate for the International Planned Parenthood Federation in the United Kingdom. It celebrated its 80th anniversary in 2010...

     (UK)
  • Family Planning Association India
    Family Planning Association India
    The Family Planning Association India, also known as FPA India, is an Indian registered charity working to promote sexual health and family planning in India. It celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1999. Its motto is "Fulfilling People's Aspiration". It is the national affiliate of the International...

  • Family Planning Association of Hong Kong
  • German Foundation for World Population
    German Foundation for World Population
    The German Foundation for World Population is an international non-governmental organisation addressing Sexual & Reproductive Health and population dynamics...

     (DSW)
  • National Alliance for Optional Parenthood
    National Alliance for Optional Parenthood
    The National Organization for Non-Parents was begun in Palo Alto, CA by Ellen Peck and Shirley Radl in 1972. N.O.N was formed to advance the notion that people could choose not to have children--to be childfree...

     (USA)
  • Planned Parenthood
    Planned Parenthood
    Planned Parenthood Federation of America , commonly shortened to Planned Parenthood, is the U.S. affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and one of its larger members. PPFA is a non-profit organization providing reproductive health and maternal and child health services. The...

     (USA)
  • Marie Stopes South Africa (RSA)

External links