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First aid

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First aid is the provision of initial care for an illness
Illness
Illness is a state of poor health. Illness is sometimes considered another word for disease. Others maintain that fine distinctions exist...

 or injury
Injury
-By cause:*Traumatic injury, a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical injury, as from violence or accident*Other injuries from external physical causes, such as radiation injury, burn injury or frostbite*Injury from infection...

. It is usually performed by non-expert, but trained personnel to a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be accessed. Certain self-limiting illnesses or minor injuries may not require further medical care past the first aid intervention. It generally consists of a series of simple and in some cases, potentially life-saving techniques that an individual can be trained to perform with minimal equipment.

While first aid can also be performed on all animals, the term generally refers to care of human patients.

History


The instances of recorded first aid were provided by religious knights, such as the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta , also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's...

, formed in the 11th century, providing care to pilgrims and knights, and training other knights in how to treat common battlefield injuries. The practice of first aid fell largely in to disuse during the High Middle Ages
High Middle Ages
The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries . The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500....

, and organized societies were not seen again until in 1859 Jean-Henri Dunant organized local villagers to help victims of the Battle of Solferino
Battle of Solferino
The Battle of Solferino, , was fought on June 24, 1859 and resulted in the victory of the allied French Army under Napoleon III and Sardinian Army under Victor Emmanuel II against the Austrian Army under Emperor Franz Joseph I; it was the last major battle in world...

, including the provision of first aid. Four years later, four nations met in Geneva and formed the organization which has grown into the Red Cross
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human...

, with a key stated aim of "aid to sick and wounded soldiers in the field". This was followed by the formation of St. John Ambulance
St. John Ambulance
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid and the provision of ambulance services, all of which derive their origins from the St John...

 in 1877, based on the principles of the Knights Hospitaller, to teach first aid, and numerous other organization joined them with the term first aid first coined in 1878 as civilian ambulance services spread as a combination of "first treatment" and "national aid" in large railway centres and mining districts as well as with police forces. First aid training began to spread through the empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 through organisations such as St. John, often starting, as in the UK, with high risk activities such as ports and railways.

Many developments in first aid and many other medical techniques have been driven by wars, such as in the case of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

, which prompted Clara Barton
Clara Barton
Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" Barton was a pioneer American teacher, patent clerk, nurse, and humanitarian. She is best remembered for organizing the American Red Cross.-Youth, education, and family nursing:...

 to organize the American Red Cross
American Red Cross
The American Red Cross , also known as the American National Red Cross, is a volunteer-led, humanitarian organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief and education inside the United States. It is the designated U.S...

. Today, there are several groups that promote first aid, such as the military
Military
A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats. The military may have additional functions of use to its greater society, such as advancing a political agenda e.g...

 and the Scouting
Scouting
Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, that they may play constructive roles in society....

 movement. New techniques and equipment have helped make today’s first aid simple and effective.

Aims


The key aims of first aid can be summarized in three key points:
  • Preserve life: the overriding aim of all medical care, including first aid, is to save lives
  • Prevent further harm: also sometimes called prevent the condition from worsening, or danger of further injury, this covers both external factors, such as moving a patient away from any cause of harm, and applying first aid techniques to prevent worsening of the condition, such as applying pressure to stop a bleed becoming dangerous.
  • Promote recovery: first aid also involves trying to start the recovery process from the illness or injury, and in some cases might involve completing a treatment, such as in the case of applying a plaster to a small wound


First aid training also involves the prevention of initial injury and responder safety, and the treatment phases.

Key skills




Certain skills are considered essential to the provision of first aid and are taught ubiquitously. Particularly the "ABC"s of first aid, which focus on critical life-saving intervention, must be rendered before treatment of less serious injuries. ABC stands for Airway, Breathing, and Circulation. The same mnemonic
Mnemonic
A mnemonic , or mnemonic device, is any learning technique that aids memory. To improve long term memory, mnemonic systems are used to make memorization easier. Commonly encountered mnemonics are often verbal, such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something,...

 is used by all emergency health professionals
Emergency medicine
Emergency medicine is a medical specialty in which physicians care for patients with acute illnesses or injuries which require immediate medical attention. While not usually providing long-term or continuing care, emergency medicine physicians diagnose a variety of illnesses and undertake acute...

. Attention must first be brought to the airway
Airway
The pulmonary airway comprises those parts of the respiratory system through which air flows, conceptually beginning at the nose and mouth, and terminating in the alveoli...

 to ensure it is clear. Obstruction (choking
Choking
Choking is the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs. Choking prevents breathing, and can be partial or complete, with partial choking allowing some, although inadequate, flow of air into the lungs. Prolonged or complete choking results in asphyxia which...

) is a life-threatening emergency. Following evaluation of the airway, a first aid attendant would determine adequacy of breathing and provide rescue breathing if necessary. Assessment of circulation
Circulatory system
The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients , gases, hormones, blood cells, etc...

 is now not usually carried out for patients who are not breathing, with first aiders now trained to go straight to chest compressions (and thus providing artificial circulation) but pulse
Pulse
In medicine, one's pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips. The pulse may be palpated in any place that allows an artery to be compressed against a bone, such as at the neck , at the wrist , behind the knee , on the inside of the elbow , and near the...

 checks may be done on less serious patients.

Some organizations add a fourth step of "D" for Deadly bleeding
Bleeding
Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system...

or Defibrillation
Defibrillation
Defibrillation is a common treatment for life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator...

, while others consider this as part of the Circulation step. Variations on techniques to evaluate and maintain the ABCs depend on the skill level of the first aider. Once the ABCs are secured, first aiders can begin additional treatments, as required. Some organizations teach the same order of priority using the "3Bs": Breathing, Bleeding, and Bones (or "4Bs": Breathing, Bleeding, Brain, and Bones). While the ABCs and 3Bs are taught to be performed sequentially, certain conditions may require the consideration of two steps simultaneously. This includes the provision of both artificial respiration
Artificial respiration
Artificial respiration is the act of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration...

 and chest compressions
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency procedure which is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive...

 to someone who is not breathing and has no pulse, and the consideration of cervical spine injuries when ensuring an open airway.

Preserving life


In order to stay alive, all persons need to have an open airway—a clear passage where air can move in through the mouth
Mouth
The mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food andsaliva. The oral mucosa is the mucous membrane epithelium lining the inside of the mouth....

 or nose
Human nose
The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. The shape of the nose is determined by the ethmoid bone and the nasal septum, which consists mostly of cartilage and which separates the nostrils...

 through the pharynx
Pharynx
The human pharynx is the part of the throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and anterior to the esophagus and larynx. The human pharynx is conventionally divided into three sections: the nasopharynx , the oropharynx , and the laryngopharynx...

 and down in to the lungs, without obstruction. Conscious people will maintain their own airway automatically, but those who are unconscious (with a GCS
Glasgow Coma Scale
Glasgow Coma Scale or GCS is a neurological scale that aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person for initial as well as subsequent assessment...

 of less than 8) may be unable to maintain a patent airway, as the part of the brain which automatically controls breathing in normal situations may not be functioning.

If the patient was breathing, a first aider would normally then place them in the recovery position
Recovery position
The recovery position refers to one of a series of variations on a lateral recumbent or three-quarters prone position of the body, in to which an unconscious but breathing casualty can be placed as part of first aid treatment.An unconscious person The recovery position refers to one of a series of...

, with the patient leant over on their side, which also has the effect of clearing the tongue from the pharynx. It also avoids a common cause of death in unconscious patients, which is choking on regurgitated stomach contents.

The airway can also become blocked through a foreign object becoming lodged in the pharynx or larynx, commonly called choking
Choking
Choking is the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs. Choking prevents breathing, and can be partial or complete, with partial choking allowing some, although inadequate, flow of air into the lungs. Prolonged or complete choking results in asphyxia which...

. The first aider will be taught to deal with this through a combination of ‘back slaps’ and ‘abdominal thrusts’.

Once the airway has been opened, the first aider would assess to see if the patient is breathing. If there is no breathing, or the patient is not breathing normally, such as agonal breathing, the first aider would undertake what is probably the most recognized first aid procedure—cardiopulmonary resuscitation or CPR, which involves breathing for the patient, and manually massaging the heart to promote blood flow around the body.

Promoting recovery


The first aider is also likely to be trained in dealing with injuries such as cuts, grazes or bone fracture
Bone fracture
A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone...

. They may be able to deal with the situation in its entirety (a small adhesive bandage on a paper cut), or may be required to maintain the condition of something like a broken bone, until the next stage of definitive care (usually an ambulance
Ambulance
An ambulance is a vehicle for transportation of sick or injured people to, from or between places of treatment for an illness or injury, and in some instances will also provide out of hospital medical care to the patient...

) arrives.

Training



Basic principles, such as knowing to use an adhesive bandage or applying direct pressure on a bleed, are often acquired passively through life experiences. However, to provide effective, life-saving first aid interventions requires instruction and practical training. This is especially true where it relates to potentially fatal illnesses and injuries, such as those that require cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency procedure which is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive...

 (CPR); these procedures may be invasive, and carry a risk of further injury to the patient and the provider. As with any training, it is more useful if it occurs before an actual emergency
Emergency
An emergency is a situation that poses an immediate risk to health, life, property or environment. Most emergencies require urgent intervention to prevent a worsening of the situation, although in some situations, mitigation may not be possible and agencies may only be able to offer palliative...

, and in many countries, emergency ambulance dispatchers may give basic first aid instructions over the phone while the ambulance is on the way.

Training is generally provided by attending a course, typically leading to certification. Due to regular changes in procedures and protocols, based on updated clinical knowledge, and to maintain skill, attendance at regular refresher courses or re-certification is often necessary. First aid training is often available through community organizations such as the Red Cross and St. John Ambulance
St. John Ambulance
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid and the provision of ambulance services, all of which derive their origins from the St John...

, or through commercial providers, who will train people for a fee. This commercial training is most common for training of employees to perform first aid in their workplace. Many community organizations also provide a commercial service, which complements their community programmes.

Australia


In Australia, Nationally recognized First Aid certificates may only be issued by Registered training organisation
Registered training organisation
A registered training organisation in Australia, is a vocational education organisation that provides students with training that results in qualifications and statements of attainment that are recognised and accepted by industry and other educational institutions throughout Australia.Registered...

s who are accredited on the National Training Information System (NTIS). Courses are based on the delivery and assessment of Unit's of Competency from various Training Packages. Most First Aid certificates are issued at one of three levels::
  • Provide Basic Emergency Life Support. Formerly Level 1 (or “Basic First Aid”, or “Basic Life Support”) this is a 1-day course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies. It involves the training and assessment of HLTFA201A from the HLT07 Health Training Package
  • Apply First Aid. Formerly Level 2 (“Senior First Aid”) is either a 2 day face to face course or 1 day face to face combined with 4 - 8 theory work at home or online. It involves the delivery and assessment of HLTFA301B Apply First Aid. It covers all the aspects of training in "Provide Basic Emergency Life Support, as well as specialized training for treatment of burns, bites, stings, electric shock and poisons and the use of an AED
    AED
    AED may refer to:* Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, a genetic disorder* Automated external defibrillator, a portable electronic device that diagnoses and can correct arrhythmia of the heart....

    . Apply First Aid must be re-accredited every three years to remain current for use in the workplace Reaccreditation of the CPR component ( HLTFACPR201 is generally required annually, although individual states set the specific requirements.
  • Apply Advanced First Aid. Formerly Level 3 (“Occupational First Aid”) is a three or four day course covering advanced first aid, use of oxygen and automated external defibrillator
    Automated external defibrillator
    An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

    s and documentation. It is suitable for workplace First Aiders and those who manage First Aid facilities. It is based on the training and assessment of a group of units of competency - HLTFA301B Apply first aid, HLTFA402B Apply advanced first aid and HLTFA403A Manage first aid in the workplace - that are generally delivered together.

Other courses outside these levels are commonly taught, including CPR-only courses, Advanced Resuscitation, Remote Area or Wilderness First Aid, Administering Medications (such as salbutamol
Salbutamol
Salbutamol or albuterol is a short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist used for the relief of bronchospasm in conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is marketed as Ventolin among other brand names....

 or the Epi-Pen) and specialized courses for parents, school teachers, community first responders or hazardous workplace first aiders. CPR Re-accreditation courses are sometimes required yearly, regardless of the length of the overall certification.

Canada


In Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, first aid certificates are awarded by one of several national organizations including the Red Cross
Canadian Red Cross
The Canadian Red Cross Society is a Canadian humanitarian charitable organization and one of 186 national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies....

, the Lifesaving Society
Royal Life Saving Society of Canada
The Royal Life Saving Society Canada operates throughout Canada as the Lifesaving Society. The Society works to prevent drowning and water-related injury through its training programs, Water Smart public education, water-incident research, safety management and lifesaving sport...

 and St. John Ambulance. Or they can also be issued by sub-national organizations such as Certified Emergency Response Training. The terms "Emergency First Aid" and "Standard First Aid" are generic and based on Health Canada (a federal department of the Government of Canada) review and approval of a training organization's curriculum / syllabus (training content), standards and other factors. Workplace safety regulations and standards for first aid vary by province depending on occupation. However, as some occupations are governed by federal, not provincial, workplace safety regulations, such as the transportation industry (marine, aviation, rail), trainees need to confirm with their employer as to exactly what specific training and certification standards comply with the applicable regulatory agencies, federal or provincial.
  • Emergency First Aid: is an 8-hour course covering primarily life-threatening emergencies: CPR, bleeding, choking and other life-threatening medical emergencies.
  • Standard First Aid: is a 16-hour course that covers the same material as Emergency First Aid and will include training for some, but not all, of the following: breaks; burns; poisons, bites and stings; eye injuries; head and neck injuries; chest injuries; wound care; emergency child birth; and multiple casualty management.
  • Medical First Responder (BTLS—known by different names among different Canadian organizations): is a 40 hour course. It requires Standard First Aid certification as a prerequisite. Candidates are trained in the use of oxygen, automated external defibrillator
    Automated external defibrillator
    An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

    s, airway management, and the use of additional emergency equipment.


CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency procedure which is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive...

 certification in Canada is broken into several levels. Depending on the level, the lay person will learn the basic one-person CPR and choking procedures for adults, and perhaps children, and infants. Higher-level designations also require two-person CPR to be learned. Depending on provincial laws, trainees may also learn the basics of automated external defibrillation
Automated external defibrillator
An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

 (AED).
  • Level A is the lowest level of CPR training. Trainees learn how to perform the standard one-rescuer CPR and choking procedures on adults.
  • Level B requires the same procedures as Level A, but trainees learn to perform these maneuvers on children and infants in addition to adults.
  • Level C requires the same maneuvers as Level B, and trainees are also taught how to perform two-person CPR.
  • Level HCP (Health Care Professional) was introduced in Canada in response to new guidelines set by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation
    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation
    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation was formed in 1992 to provide an opportunity for the major organizations in resuscitation to work together on CPR and ECC protocols...

    . In addition to the techniques taught in Level C, artificial resuscitation
    Artificial respiration
    Artificial respiration is the act of assisting or stimulating respiration, a metabolic process referring to the overall exchange of gases in the body by pulmonary ventilation, external respiration, and internal respiration...

    , AED use (to certification standards), and bag-valve-mask use is taught. Anyone with CPR-HCP certification is considered AED certified.

France


In France, first aid certificates are delivered by organisations that are approved by the Minister of the Interior
Minister of the Interior (France)
The Minister of the Interior in France is one of the most important governmental cabinet positions, responsible for the following:* The general interior security of the country, with respect to criminal acts or natural catastrophes...

, following the official national reference document (Référentiel national, RN). There are about 20 approved associations (Croix-rouge française
International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human...

, Fédération Nationale de Protection Civile, Fédération des secouristes français Croix-Blanche, Œuvres hospitalières françaises de l'ordre de Malte, Union nationale de protection civile, Association nationale des premiers secours, …); many administrations — army
French Army
The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre , is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces.As of 2010, the army employs 123,100 regulars, 18,350 part-time reservists and 7,700 Legionnaires. All soldiers are professionals, following the suspension of conscription, voted in...

, fire services, national education, … — are also approved.
  • at school: basics must be taught at the primary school
    • grande section de maternelle (5 years old): to detect a danger, to look for an adult,
    • cours élémentaire 1 (CE1, 7 years old): to protect oneself, to call for help,
    • cours moyen 2 (CM2, 10 years old): to make a complete phone call, to place a casualty in an adapted position (sitting, lying, recovery position);
  • at the Journée défense et citoyenneté (Information to the army careers): IAPS, Initiation à l'alerte et aux premiers secours (initiation to call for help and first aid)
    1. Securing.
    2. Calling for help.
    3. The casualty is not alert (recovery position).
    4. The casualty is not breathing (CPR, AED).
  • PSC1: Prévention et secours civiques de niveau 1 (Prevention and civic aid, level 1): 10 hours,
    1. Securing (including emergency casualty movement).
    2. Calling for help.
    3. The casualty is choking.
    4. The casualty bleeds deadly.
    5. The casualty is not alert (recovery position).
    6. The casualty is not breathing (CPR, AED, including children and babies).
    7. The casualty complains about illness (including strokes and heart infarction).
    8. The casualty complains after a trauma (burns, wounds, broken bones, joint sprains and dislocations).
  • SST: Sauvetage-secourisme du travail (first aid at work): similar to PSC1, with a study of the specific risks of the activity of the worker;
  • PSE: premiers secours en équipe (team first aid, certified first responders):
    • PSE1 (level 1): 35 hrs, acting as a member of a first aid organisation
      general principles (managing stress, relationships to the casualty and the bystanders, hygiene, being part of a team, security, basic anatomy), advanced assessment (check pupils, check pulse, pain assessment), cervical collar
      Cervical collar
      A cervical collar is an orthopedic medical device used to support a patient's neck and head. It is also used by emergency personnel for victims of traumatic head or neck injuries, and can be used to treat chronic medical conditions....

      , suction
      Suction (medicine)
      In medicine, devices are sometimes necessary to create suction. Suction may be used to clear the airway of blood, saliva, vomit, or other secretions so that a patient may breathe. Suctioning can prevent pulmonary aspiration, which can lead to lung infections...

      , oxygen first aid, basic bandage
      Bandage
      A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to the body; they can also be used to restrict a part of the body. During heavy bleeding or following a poisonous bite it is important to slow the flow of blood,...

      s and tourniquet
      Tourniquet
      An emergency tourniquet is a tightly tied band applied around a body part sometimes used in an attempt to stop severe traumatic bleeding. Tourniquets are also used during venipuncture and other medical procedures. Severe bleeding means the loss of more than 1,000 ml of blood. This flow of blood...

      s, methods with two team members (emergency movements, recovery position, removal of a helmet, jaw thrust, CPR), specific cases (amputation
      Amputation
      Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma, prolonged constriction, or surgery. As a surgical measure, it is used to control pain or a disease process in the affected limb, such as malignancy or gangrene. In some cases, it is carried out on individuals as a preventative surgery for...

      s, casualty in a car, drowning
      Drowning
      Drowning is death from asphyxia due to suffocation caused by water entering the lungs and preventing the absorption of oxygen leading to cerebral hypoxia....

      ), simple patient transport (walking, sitting in a chair);
    • PSE2 (level 2): 35 hrs, acting as a member of a rescue team
      managing the medical wastes, cleaning an ambulance and the first aid material, reacting to an accidental contact with blood, complete assessment (including blood pressure cuff, pulse oximeter
      Pulse oximeter
      A pulse oximeter is a medical device that indirectly monitors the oxygen saturation of a patient's blood and changes in blood volume in the skin, producing a photoplethysmograph. It is often attached to a medical monitor so staff can see a patient's oxygenation at all times...

      , ear thermometer), two-way radio
      Two-way radio
      A two-way radio is a radio that can both transmit and receive , unlike a broadcast receiver which only receives content. The term refers to a personal radio transceiver that allows the operator to have a two-way conversation with other similar radios operating on the same radio frequency...

      , specific cases (bites, stings, intoxication, blast
      Blast
      Blast or The Blast may refer to:*Explosion, a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner*Detonation, an exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front-Film:...

      , rhabdomyolysis
      Rhabdomyolysis
      Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which damaged skeletal muscle tissue breaks down rapidly. Breakdown products of damaged muscle cells are released into the bloodstream; some of these, such as the protein myoglobin, are harmful to the kidneys and may lead to kidney failure...

      , heat stroke, hypothermia
      Hypothermia
      Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

      , hanging
      Hanging
      Hanging is the lethal suspension of a person by a ligature. The Oxford English Dictionary states that hanging in this sense is "specifically to put to death by suspension by the neck", though it formerly also referred to crucifixion and death by impalement in which the body would remain...

       and strangulation, convulsion
      Convulsion
      A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body. Because a convulsion is often a symptom of an epileptic seizure, the term convulsion is sometimes used as a synonym for seizure...

      s, diabetes, anaphylaxis
      Anaphylaxis
      Anaphylaxis is defined as "a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death". It typically results in a number of symptoms including throat swelling, an itchy rash, and low blood pressure...

      , pregnancy
      Pregnancy
      Pregnancy refers to the fertilization and development of one or more offspring, known as a fetus or embryo, in a woman's uterus. In a pregnancy, there can be multiple gestations, as in the case of twins or triplets...

      , behaviour disorders), advanced bandage
      Bandage
      A bandage is a piece of material used either to support a medical device such as a dressing or splint, or on its own to provide support to the body; they can also be used to restrict a part of the body. During heavy bleeding or following a poisonous bite it is important to slow the flow of blood,...

      s, preservation of an amputated limb, member realignment and splints
      Splint (medicine)
      A splint is a device used for support or immobilization of limbs or of the spine.It can be used:* By the emergency medical services or by volunteer first responders, to immobilize a fractured limb before the transportation; it is then a temporary immobilization;* By allied health professionals such...

       (including cervical collar
      Cervical collar
      A cervical collar is an orthopedic medical device used to support a patient's neck and head. It is also used by emergency personnel for victims of traumatic head or neck injuries, and can be used to treat chronic medical conditions....

      , KED, long spine board
      Long spine board
      A spinal board, also known as a long spine board , longboard, spineboard, or backboard, is a patient handling device used primarily in pre-hospital trauma care designed to provide rigid support during movement of a patient with suspected spinal or limb injuries...

       with side head supports, vacuum mattress
      Vacuum mattress
      A vacuum mattress, or vacmat, is a medical device used for the immobilisation of patients, especially in case of a vertebra, pelvis or limb trauma . It is also used for manual transportation of patients for short distances...

      , Donway traction splint
      Traction splint
      A traction splint most commonly refers to a splinting device that uses straps attaching over the pelvis or hip as an anchor, a metal rod to mimic normal bone stability and limb length, and a mechanical device to apply traction to the limb...

      s), casualty lifting
      Casualty lifting
      Casualty lifting is the first step of casualty movement, an early aspect of emergency medical care. It is the procedure used to put the casualty on a stretcher....

       (including standing casualty with a spine trauma, casualty lying face-down or in recovery popsition, different lifting device, stretcher
      Stretcher
      A stretcher is a medical device used to carry casualties or an incapacitated person from one place to another. It is a simple type of litter, and still called by that name in some cases....

      s and chairs), casualty transport (including obstacles passing, stairs), situations with multiple casualties (including disasters, plan rouge, plan Orsec, chemical hazard).

Ireland


In Ireland, the workplace qualification is the Occupational First Aid Certificate. The Health and Safety Authority
Health and Safety Authority
The Health and Safety Authority is the national body in Ireland with responsibility for occupational health and safety. Its role is to secure health and safety at work...

 issue the standards for first aid at work and hold a register of qualified instructors, examiners and organisations that can provide the course. A FETAC Level 5 certificate is awarded after passing a three day course and is valid for two years from date of issue. Occupational First Aiders are more qualified than Cardiac First Responders
Certified first responder
A certified first responder is a person who has completed a course and received certification in providing pre-hospital care for medical emergencies. They have more skill than someone who is trained in basic first aid but they are not a substitute for advanced medical care rendered by emergency...

 (Cardiac First Response and training on the AED
Automated external defibrillator
An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

 is now part of the OFA course) but less qualified than Emergency First Responders but strangely Occupational First Aid is the only one of the three not certified by PHECC. Organisations offering the certificate include, Ireland's largest first aid organisation, the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
The Order of Malta Ambulance Corps is the largest voluntary ambulance and first aid organisation of its kind in Ireland. The Order of Malta is engaged in teaching first aid, providing ambulance cover at large events, patient transport, community and nursing services...

, the St John Ambulance Brigade
St. John Ambulance Brigade of Ireland
The St. John Ambulance Brigade of Ireland is a charitable voluntary organisation in the Republic of Ireland. For constitutional reasons it is not a full member association of the Venerable Order of Saint John and the international St. John Ambulance movement, but rather is classed as an...

, and the Irish Red Cross
Irish Red Cross
The Irish Red Cross Society , commonly referred to as the Irish Red Cross , is the National Red Cross Society in the Republic of Ireland. It was established by Nurse Elizabeth O'Herrin either on 1 July or 1 August 1939 on the approach of the Second World War...

. The Irish Red Cross also provides a Practical First Aid Course aimed at the general public dealing primarily with family members getting injured. Many other (purely commercially run) organisations offer training.

Singapore


In Singapore, the workplace qualification is the Occupational First Aid Certificate. The Ministry of Manpower (Singapore)
Ministry of Manpower (Singapore)
The Ministry of Manpower is a ministry of the Government of Singapore that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to manpower in Singapore.-Mission:...

 issue the standards for first aid at work and qualifies first aid instructors, occupational nurses and doctors and registered safety officers as examiners and organisations that can provide the course. Instructors are required to undergo an ACTA certification, a nationally recognised training standard endorsed by the Workforce Development Agency. Workplaces with more than 25 employees are required to have certified Occupational First Aiders. The Occupational First Aid Course recently incorporated a CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is an emergency procedure which is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest. It is indicated in those who are unresponsive...

 and AED
Automated external defibrillator
An automated external defibrillator or AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient, and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of...

 segment which is accredited by the National Resuscitation Council of Singapore and is valid for 2 years. Occupational First Aiders learn more workplace related topics than Cardiac First Responders
Certified first responder
A certified first responder is a person who has completed a course and received certification in providing pre-hospital care for medical emergencies. They have more skill than someone who is trained in basic first aid but they are not a substitute for advanced medical care rendered by emergency...

  and is the industry standard in Singapore. However, they may be less qualified than EMT
Emergency medical technician
Emergency Medical Technician or Ambulance Technician are terms used in some countries to denote a healthcare provider of emergency medical services...

s.

The Netherlands


In the Netherlands basic level lay firstaid training is mostly provided by specialised (commercial) first aid training companies or volunteer instructors and first aiders are mostly certified by the "Dutch Red Cross" and the foundation "Het Oranje Kruis".
The foundation "LPEV" certifies mainly advanced and first responder level' firstaid training.

Medical firstaid must always be provided by certified ambulance crews, physicians and hospital staff.

United Kingdom


In the U.K., there are two main types of first aid courses offered. An “Emergency First Aid at Work” course typically lasts one day, and covers the basics, focusing on critical interventions for conditions such as cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest
Cardiac arrest, is the cessation of normal circulation of the blood due to failure of the heart to contract effectively...

 and severe bleeding, and is usually not formally assessed. A “First Aid at Work” course is usually a three-day course (two days for a re-qualification) that covers the full spectrum of first aid, and is formally assessed by recognized Health and Safety Executive
Health and Safety Executive
The Health and Safety Executive is a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom. It is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in England and Wales and Scotland...

 assessors. Certificates for the “First Aid at Work” course are issued by the training organization and are valid for a period of three years from the date the delegate passes the course. Other courses offered by training organizations such as St. John Ambulance
St. John Ambulance
St John Ambulance, branded as St John in some territories, is a common name used by a number of affiliated organisations in different countries dedicated to the teaching and practice of medical first aid and the provision of ambulance services, all of which derive their origins from the St John...

, St Andrew’s First Aid or the British Red Cross
British Red Cross
The British Red Cross Society is the United Kingdom branch of the worldwide impartial humanitarian organisation the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The society was formed in 1870, and is a registered charity with over 31,000 volunteers and 2,600 staff. At the heart of their work...

 include Baby and Child Courses, manual handling, people moving, and courses geared towards more advanced life support, such as defibrillation
Defibrillation
Defibrillation is a common treatment for life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator...

 and administration of medical gases such as oxygen and entonox
Entonox
A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical anaesthesia gas, commonly known as Entonox or Nitronox, or colloquially as gas and air, and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and...

.

The British Forces use First Aid ranging from levels 1–3, to assist the medical staff on their Ship, Squadron, Section, Base or any other purpose required. They are trained in both Military and Civilian First Aid and often utilise their knowledge in aid stricken regions around the world. First Aid is vital on board HM Ships because of the number of people in a small area and the space given to perform their task, it is also vital for the Army and Royal Marines to know basic first aid to help the survival rate of the soldiers when in combat.

United States


In the United States, there is no universal schedule of First Aid levels that are applicable to all agencies that provide first aid training. Training is provided typically through the American Red Cross, but may also be completed by local fire departments and the American Heart Association (AHA) in terms of CPR. The American Red Cross, however, offers the following courses:
  • CPR
    • CPR-Adult (CPR-A)
    • CPR-Child and Infant (CPR-CI)
    • CPR-Adult and Child (CPR-AC)
    • CPR-Adult, Child, and Infant (CPR-ACI)
  • CPR/Automated External Defibrillator (AED)
    • CPR/AED-Adult (CPR/AED-A)
    • CPR/AED-Adult and Child (CPR/AED-AC)
    • CPR/AED for the Professional Rescuer
  • First Aid
    • First Aid Basics
    • Standard First Aid
    • First Aid - Responding to Emergencies
    • Wilderness and Remote First Aid
    • Emergency Medical Response
  • Specialty
    • Administering Emergency Oxygen
    • Bloodborne Pathogens Training
    • Lifeguarding (Lifeguard training)
    • Epinephrine Auto-Injector Use
    • First Responder in the Workplace training (CPR/AED/First Aid)
    • Dog, Cat, and Dog/Cat First Aid
    • Babysitter's Training
    • Instructor Certification

Red Cross training programs may vary by Chapter and season. Lay First Aid Providers in the United States are subject to Good Samaritan law
Good Samaritan law
Good Samaritan laws are laws or acts protecting those who choose to serve and tend to others who are injured or ill. They are intended to reduce bystanders' hesitation to assist, for fear of being sued or prosecuted for unintentional injury or wrongful death...

 protections as long as their treatment does not extend beyond training or certification. First Aid training in the United States is limited to basic life support functions needed to sustain life, and training instills the importance of activating the Emergency Medical System before beginning assistance (through the Three C's: Check, Call, Care). Training classes range from a few hours for a specific course, or several days for combination, specialty, and instructor courses. Red Cross volunteers are required to be Standard First Aid plus CPR/ACI certified (AED is encouraged but not required as of 2009), as well as passing the FEMA NIMS
National Incident Management System
The National Incident Management System is emergency management doctrine used nationwide to coordinate emergency preparedness and incident management and response among the public and private sectors.NIMS is a comprehensive, national approach to incident management that is applicable at all...

 Introductory certification.

Specific disciplines


There are several types of first aid (and first aider) which require specific additional training. These are usually undertaken to fulfill the demands of the work or activity undertaken.
  • Aquatic/Marine first aid—Usually practiced by professionals such as lifeguards, professional mariners or in diver rescue
    Diver rescue
    thumb|right|Beaching a casualty while providing artificial respirationDiver rescue, following an accident, is the process of avoiding or limiting further exposure to diving hazards and bringing a SCUBA diver to safety...

    , and covers the specific problems which may be faced after water-based rescue and/or delayed MedEvac
    MEDEVAC
    Medical evacuation, often termed Medevac or Medivac, is the timely and efficient movement and en route care provided by medical personnel to the wounded being evacuated from the battlefield or to injured patients being evacuated from the scene of an accident to receiving medical facilities using...

    .
  • Battlefield first aid
    Battlefield medicine
    Battlefield medicine, also called field surgery and later combat casualty care, is the treatment of wounded soldiers in or near an area of combat. Civilian medicine has been greatly advanced by procedures that were first developed to treat the wounds inflicted during combat...

    —This takes in to account the specific needs of treating wounded combatants and non-combatants during armed conflict.
  • Hyperbaric first aid—Which may be practiced by SCUBA diving
    Scuba diving
    Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater....

     professionals, who need to treat conditions such as the bends
    Decompression sickness
    Decompression sickness describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurization...

    .
  • Oxygen
    Oxygen therapy
    Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a medical intervention, which can be for a variety of purposes in both chronic and acute patient care...

     first aid
    —Providing oxygen to casualties who suffer from conditions resulting in hypoxia
    Hypoxia (medical)
    Hypoxia, or hypoxiation, is a pathological condition in which the body as a whole or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply. Variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiology, for example, during strenuous physical exercise...

    .
  • Wilderness first aid is the provision of first aid under conditions where the arrival of emergency responders or the evacuation of an injured person may be delayed due to constraints of terrain, weather, and available persons or equipment. It may be necessary to care for an injured person for several hours or days.
  • Hydrofluoric Acid
    Hydrofluoric acid
    Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a valued source of fluorine and is the precursor to numerous pharmaceuticals such as fluoxetine and diverse materials such as PTFE ....

     first aid
    —taught to first aiders in the chemical industry where hydrofluoric acid may be used. Instructs the first aider how to initially treat (with calcium gluconate
    Calcium gluconate
    Calcium gluconate is a mineral supplement.-Hypocalcemia:10% calcium gluconate solution is the form of calcium most widely used in the treatment of hypocalcemia. This form of calcium is superior to calcium lactate, but it only contains 0.93% calcium ion. Calcium gluconate is a salt of calcium and...

    ) any skin that has been splashed with the acid.

Symbols



Although commonly associated with first aid, the symbol of a red cross is an official protective symbol of the Red Cross. According to the Geneva Conventions
Geneva Conventions
The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of the victims of war...

 and other international laws, the use of this and similar symbols is reserved for official agencies of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent, and as a protective emblem for medical personnel and facilities in combat situations. Use by any other person or organization is illegal, and may lead to prosecution.

The internationally accepted symbol for first aid is the white cross on a green background shown below.

Some organizations may make use of the Star of Life
Star of Life
The Star of Life is a blue, six-pointed star, outlined with a white border which features the Rod of Asclepius in the center, originally designed and governed by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration...

, although this is usually reserved for use by ambulance services, or may use symbols such as the Maltese Cross
Maltese cross
The Maltese cross, also known as the Amalfi cross, is identified as the symbol of an order of Christian warriors known as the Knights Hospitaller or Knights of Malta and through them came to be identified with the Mediterranean island of Malta and is one of the National symbols of Malta...

, like the Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
Order of Malta Ambulance Corps
The Order of Malta Ambulance Corps is the largest voluntary ambulance and first aid organisation of its kind in Ireland. The Order of Malta is engaged in teaching first aid, providing ambulance cover at large events, patient transport, community and nursing services...

 and St John Ambulance. Other symbols may also be used.

Conditions that often require first aid


Also see medical emergency
Medical emergency
A medical emergency is an injury or illness that is acute and poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long term health. These emergencies may require assistance from another person, who should ideally be suitably qualified to do so, although some of these emergencies can be dealt with by the...

.
  • Altitude sickness
    Altitude sickness
    Altitude sickness—also known as acute mountain sickness , altitude illness, hypobaropathy, or soroche—is a pathological effect of high altitude on humans, caused by acute exposure to low partial pressure of oxygen at high altitude...

    , which can begin in susceptible people at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet, can cause potentially fatal swelling of the brain
    High altitude cerebral edema
    High altitude cerebral edema is a severe form of altitude sickness. HACE is the result of swelling of brain tissue from fluid leakage and almost always begins as acute mountain sickness...

     or lungs
    High Altitude Pulmonary Edema
    High altitude pulmonary edema is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs in otherwise healthy mountaineers at altitudes typically above ....

    .
  • Anaphylaxis
    Anaphylaxis
    Anaphylaxis is defined as "a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death". It typically results in a number of symptoms including throat swelling, an itchy rash, and low blood pressure...

    , a life-threatening condition in which the airway can become constricted and the patient may go into shock. The reaction can be caused by a systemic allergic reaction to allergen
    Allergen
    An allergen is any substance that can cause an allergy. In technical terms, an allergen is a non-parasitic antigen capable of stimulating a type-I hypersensitivity reaction in atopic individuals....

    s such as insect bites or peanuts. Anaphylaxis is initially treated with injection of epinephrine
    Epinephrine
    Epinephrine is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. In chemical terms, adrenaline is one of a group of monoamines called the catecholamines...

    .
  • Battle
    Battle
    Generally, a battle is a conceptual component in the hierarchy of combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants. In a battle, each combatant will seek to defeat the others, with defeat determined by the conditions of a military campaign...

    field first aid—This protocol refers to treating shrapnel, gunshot wounds, burns, bone fractures, etc. as seen either in the ‘traditional’ battlefield setting or in an area subject to damage by large scale weaponry, such as a bomb
    Bomb
    A bomb is any of a range of explosive weapons that only rely on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy...

     blast.
  • Bone fracture
    Bone fracture
    A bone fracture is a medical condition in which there is a break in the continuity of the bone...

    , a break in a bone initially treated by stabilizing the fracture with a splint.
  • Burns
    Burn (injury)
    A burn is a type of injury to flesh caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, light, radiation or friction. Most burns affect only the skin . Rarely, deeper tissues, such as muscle, bone, and blood vessels can also be injured...

    , which can result in damage to tissues and loss of body fluids through the burn site.
  • Cardiac Arrest
    Cardiac Arrest
    Cardiac Arrest is a 1980 horror/thriller-film written and directed by Murray Mintz.-Plot:The city of San Francisco is pushed into a state of terror and fear as a deranged murderer stalks the city. The police are baffled by the case and are lead to extremes by a lunatic whose victims all have...

    ,which will lead to death unless CPR preferably combined with an AED is started within minutes. There is often no time to wait for the emergency services to arrive as 92 percent of people suffering a sudden cardiac arrest die before reaching hospital according to the American Heart Association.
  • Choking
    Choking
    Choking is the mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the lungs. Choking prevents breathing, and can be partial or complete, with partial choking allowing some, although inadequate, flow of air into the lungs. Prolonged or complete choking results in asphyxia which...

    , blockage of the airway which can quickly result in death due to lack of oxygen
    Oxygen
    Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

     if the patient’s trachea is not cleared, for example by the Heimlich Maneuver.
  • Childbirth
    Childbirth
    Childbirth is the culmination of a human pregnancy or gestation period with the birth of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus...

    .
  • Cramp
    Cramp
    Cramps are unpleasant, often painful sensations caused by muscle contraction or over shortening. Common causes of skeletal muscle cramps include muscle fatigue, low sodium, and low potassium...

    s in muscles due to lactic acid build up caused either by inadequate oxygenation of muscle or lack of water or salt.
  • Diving disorders, drowning
    Drowning
    Drowning is death from asphyxia due to suffocation caused by water entering the lungs and preventing the absorption of oxygen leading to cerebral hypoxia....

     or asphyxiation.
  • Gender-specific conditions, such as dysmenorrhea
    Dysmenorrhea
    Dysmenorrhea is a gynecological medical condition of pain during menstruation that interferes with daily activities, as defined by ACOG and others. Still, dysmenorrhea is often defined simply as menstrual pain, or at least menstrual pain that is excessive...

     and testicular torsion
    Testicular torsion
    Testicular torsion is when the spermatic cord to a testicle twists, cutting off the blood supply. The most common symptom is acute testicular pain and the most common underlying cause is a congenital malformation known as a "bell-clapper deformity". The diagnosis is often made clinically but if it...

    .
  • Heart attack
    Myocardial infarction
    Myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction , commonly known as a heart attack, results from the interruption of blood supply to a part of the heart, causing heart cells to die...

    , or inadequate blood flow to the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle.
  • Heat stroke, also known as sunstroke or hyperthermia
    Hyperthermia
    Hyperthermia is an elevated body temperature due to failed thermoregulation. Hyperthermia occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate...

    , which tends to occur during heavy exercise in high humidity, or with inadequate water, though it may occur spontaneously in some chronically ill persons. Sunstroke, especially when the victim has been unconscious, often causes major damage to body systems such as brain, kidney, liver, gastric tract. Unconsciousness for more than two hours
    Coma
    In medicine, a coma is a state of unconsciousness, lasting more than 6 hours in which a person cannot be awakened, fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light or sound, lacks a normal sleep-wake cycle and does not initiate voluntary actions. A person in a state of coma is described as...

     usually leads to permanent disability. Emergency treatment involves rapid cooling of the patient.
  • Hair tourniquet
    Hair tourniquet
    Hair tourniquet is a medical condition where in a hair or other thread becomes tied around a toe or finger tightly, so as to put the digit at risk of damage...

     a condition where a hair or other thread becomes tied around a toe or finger tightly enough to cut off blood flow.
  • Heat syncope
    Heat syncope
    Heat syncope is fainting as a result of overheating . It is another stage in the same process as heat stroke, it occurs under similar conditions, and it is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities...

    , another stage in the same process as heat stroke, occurs under similar conditions as heat stroke and is not distinguished from the latter by some authorities.
  • Heavy bleeding, treated by applying pressure (manually and later with a pressure bandage) to the wound site and elevating the limb if possible.
  • Hyperglycemia
    Hyperglycemia
    Hyperglycemia or Hyperglycæmia, or high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a glucose level higher than 13.5mmol/l , but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15-20 mmol/l...

     (diabetic coma
    Diabetic coma
    Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency.Three different types of diabetic coma are identified:#Severe diabetic hypoglycemia...

    ) and Hypoglycemia
    Hypoglycemia
    Hypoglycemia or hypoglycæmia is the medical term for a state produced by a lower than normal level of blood glucose. The term literally means "under-sweet blood"...

     (insulin shock).
  • Hypothermia
    Hypothermia
    Hypothermia is a condition in which core temperature drops below the required temperature for normal metabolism and body functions which is defined as . Body temperature is usually maintained near a constant level of through biologic homeostasis or thermoregulation...

    , or Exposure, occurs when a person’s core body temperature falls below 33.7°C (92.6°F). First aid for a mildly hypothermic patient includes rewarming, but rewarming a severely hypothermic person could result in a fatal arrhythmia, an irregular heart rhythm.
  • Insect and animal bites and stings.
  • Joint dislocation.
  • Poison
    Poison
    In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause disturbances to organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism....

    ing, which can occur by injection, inhalation, absorption, or ingestion.
  • Seizures, or a malfunction in the electrical activity in the brain. Three types of seizures include a grand mal (which usually features convulsions as well as temporary respiratory abnormalities, change in skin complexion, etc.) and petit mal (which usually features twitching, rapid blinking, and/or fidgeting as well as altered consciousness and temporary respiratory abnormalities).
  • Muscle strain
    Strain (injury)
    A strain is an injury to a muscle or tendon in which the muscle fibres tear as a result of overstretching. A strain is also colloquially known as a pulled muscle...

    s and Sprain
    Sprain
    A sprain is an injury in a joint, caused by the ligament being stretched beyond its capacity. A muscular tear caused in the same manner is referred to as a strain. In cases where either ligament or muscle tissue is torn, immobilization and surgical repair may be necessary...

    s, a temporary dislocation
    Dislocation
    In materials science, a dislocation is a crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. The presence of dislocations strongly influences many of the properties of materials...

     of a joint that immediately reduces automatically but may result in ligament damage.
  • Stroke
    Stroke
    A stroke, previously known medically as a cerebrovascular accident , is the rapidly developing loss of brain function due to disturbance in the blood supply to the brain. This can be due to ischemia caused by blockage , or a hemorrhage...

    , a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain.
  • Toothache
    Toothache
    A toothache, also known as odontalgia or, less frequently, as odontalgy, is an aching pain in or around a tooth.-Causes:* Dental etiology, In most cases toothaches are caused by problems in the tooth or jaw, such as** Dental caries...

    , which can result in severe pain and loss of the tooth but is rarely life threatening, unless over time the infection spreads into the bone of the jaw and starts osteomyelitis
    Osteomyelitis
    Osteomyelitis simply means an infection of the bone or bone marrow...

    .
  • Wound
    Wound
    A wound is a type of injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured , or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion . In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.-Open:...

    s and bleeding
    Bleeding
    Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging is the loss of blood or blood escape from the circulatory system...

    , including lacerations, incisions and abrasions, Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding
    Gastrointestinal bleeding or gastrointestinal hemorrhage describes every form of hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract, from the pharynx to the rectum. It has diverse causes, and a medical history, as well as physical examination, generally distinguishes between the main forms...

    , avulsion
    Avulsion injury
    In medicine, an avulsion is an injury in which a body structure is forcibly detached. It most commonly refers to a surface trauma where all layers of the skin have been torn away, exposing the underlying structures...

    s and Sucking chest wound
    Pneumothorax
    Pneumothorax is a collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity of the chest between the lung and the chest wall. It may occur spontaneously in people without chronic lung conditions as well as in those with lung disease , and many pneumothoraces occur after physical trauma to the chest, blast...

    s, treated with an occlusive dressing
    Occlusive dressing
    An occlusive dressing is an air- and water-tight trauma dressing used in first aid. These dressings are generally made with a waxy coating so as to provide a total seal, and as a result do not have the absorbent properties of gauze pads...

    to let air out but not in.

External links