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Radio Data System

Radio Data System

Encyclopedia
Radio Data System, or RDS, is a communications protocol
Communications protocol
A communications protocol is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications...

 standard for embedding small amounts of digital information in conventional FM radio broadcast
FM broadcasting
FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

s. RDS standardises several types of information transmitted, including time
Time
Time is a part of the measuring system used to sequence events, to compare the durations of events and the intervals between them, and to quantify rates of change such as the motions of objects....

, station identification
Station identification
Station identification is the practice of radio or television stations or networks identifying themselves on air, typically by means of a call sign or brand name...

 and programme information.

Radio Broadcast Data System (RBDS) is the official name used for the U.S.
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 version of RDS. The two standards are only slightly different.

The standard began as a project of the European Broadcasting Union
European Broadcasting Union
The European Broadcasting Union is a confederation of 74 broadcasting organisations from 56 countries, and 49 associate broadcasters from a further 25...

 (EBU), but has since become an international standard of the International Electrotechnical Commission
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"...

 (IEC).

Both carry data at 1,187.5 bits per second on a 57 kHz subcarrier
Subcarrier
A subcarrier is a separate analog or digital signal carried on a main radio transmission, which carries extra information such as voice or data. More technically, it is an already-modulated signal, which is then modulated into another signal of higher frequency and bandwidth...

, so there are exactly 48 cycles of subcarrier during every data bit. The RBDS/RDS subcarrier was set to the third harmonic
Harmonic
A harmonic of a wave is a component frequency of the signal that is an integer multiple of the fundamental frequency, i.e. if the fundamental frequency is f, the harmonics have frequencies 2f, 3f, 4f, . . . etc. The harmonics have the property that they are all periodic at the fundamental...

 of the 19 kHz FM stereo pilot tone to minimize interference
Interference (communication)
In communications and electronics, especially in telecommunications, interference is anything which alters, modifies, or disrupts a signal as it travels along a channel between a source and a receiver. The term typically refers to the addition of unwanted signals to a useful signal...

 and intermodulation
Intermodulation
Intermodulation or intermodulation distortion is the amplitude modulation of signals containing two or more different frequencies in a system with nonlinearities...

 between the data signal, the stereo pilot and the 38 kHz DSB-SC
Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission
Double-sideband suppressed-carrier transmission : transmission in which frequencies produced by amplitude modulation are symmetrically spaced above and below the carrier frequency and the carrier level is reduced to the lowest practical level, ideally completely suppressed.In the double-sideband...

 stereo difference signal. (The stereo difference signal extends up to 38 kHz + 15 kHz = 53 kHz, leaving 4 kHz for the lower sideband of the RDS signal.)

The data is sent with error correction. RDS defines many features including how private (in-house) or other undefined features can be "packaged" in unused program groups.

Development


RDS was inspired by the development of the Autofahrer-Rundfunk-Informationssystem
Autofahrer-Rundfunk-Informationssystem
Autofahrer-Rundfunk-Informationssystem was a system for indicating the presence of traffic information in FM broadcasts used by the German ARD network of FM radio stations from 1974...

 (ARI) in Germany by the Institut für Rundfunktechnik
Institut für Rundfunktechnik
The Institut für Rundfunktechnik GmbH is the research centre of the German broadcasters , Austria's broadcaster and the Swiss public broadcaster . It is located in Munich and is responsible for the research and standardisation of broadcasting technology...

 (IRT) and the radio manufacturer Blaupunkt
Blaupunkt
GmbH is a German manufacturer of electronics equipment, noted for its home and car audio equipment. It was a 100% subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH until March 1st, 2009 when its Aftermarket and Accessories branch including the brand name were sold to Aurelius AG of Germany for an undisclosed...

. ARI used a 57 kHz subcarrier to indicate the presence of traffic information in an FM radio broadcast.

The EBU Technical Committee launched a project at its 1974 Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 meeting to develop a technology with similar purposes to ARI, but which was more flexible and which would enable automated retuning of a receiver where a broadcast network transmitted the same radio programme on a number of different frequencies. The modulation system was based on that used in a Swedish paging system and the baseband coding was a new design, mainly developed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the IRT. The EBU issued the first RDS specification in 1984.

Enhancements to the alternative frequencies functionality were added to the standard and it was subsequently published as a European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
CENELEC is the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization.CENELEC is responsible for European Standardization in the area of electrical engineering...

 (CENELEC) standard in 1990.

In 1992 the US National Radio Systems Committee
National Radio Systems Committee
The National Radio Systems Committee is an organization sponsored by the Consumer Electronics Association and the National Association of Broadcasters . Its main purpose is to set industry technical standards for radio broadcasting in the United States...

 issued the North American version of the RDS standard, called the Radio Broadcast Data System. The CENELEC standard was updated in 1992 with the addition of Traffic Message Channel
Traffic Message Channel
Traffic Message Channel is a technology for delivering traffic and travel information to drivers. It is typically digitally coded using the FM-RDS system on conventional FM radio broadcasts...

 and in 1998 with Open Data Applications and, in 2000, RDS was published worldwide as IEC standard 62106.

Content and implementation


The following information fields are normally contained in the RDS data:
AF (alternative frequencies): This allows a receiver to re-tune to a different frequency
Radio frequency
Radio frequency is a rate of oscillation in the range of about 3 kHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals...

 providing the same station
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

 when the first signal becomes too weak (e.g., when moving out of range). This is often utilized in car stereo systems.
CT (clock time): Can synchronize a clock
Clock
A clock is an instrument used to indicate, keep, and co-ordinate time. The word clock is derived ultimately from the Celtic words clagan and clocca meaning "bell". A silent instrument missing such a mechanism has traditionally been known as a timepiece...

 in the receiver or the main clock in a car. Due to transmission vagaries, CT can only be accurate to within 100 ms of UTC.
EON (enhanced other networks): Allows the receiver to monitor other networks or stations for traffic
Traffic
Traffic on roads may consist of pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel...

 programmes
Traffic reporting
Traffic reporting is the distribution of information about road conditions such as traffic congestion, detours, and traffic accidents, generally as part of a radio or television broadcast program. The reports help commuters anticipate and avoid traffic problems. Many reports mention alternate...

, and automatically temporarily tune into that station.
PI (programme identification): This is the unique code that identifies the station. Every station receives a specific code with a country prefix. In the US, PI is determined by applying a formula to the station's call sign
Call sign
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitting station. In North America they are used as names for broadcasting stations...

.
PS (programme service): This is simply an eight-character static display that represents the call letters or station identity name. Most RDS capable receivers display this information and, if the station is stored in the receiver's presets, will cache this information with the frequency and other details associated with that preset.
PTY (programme type): This coding of up to 31 pre-defined programme types (e.g., in Europe: PTY1 News, PTY6 Drama, PTY11 Rock music) allows users to find similar programming by genre. PTY31 seems to be reserved for emergency announcements in the event of natural disasters or other major calamities.
REG (regional): This is mainly used in countries where national broadcasters run "region-specific" programming such as regional opt-outs on some of their transmitters. This functionality allows the user to "lock-down" the set to their current region or let the radio tune into other region-specific programming as they move into the other region.
RT (radio text): This function allows a radio station to transmit a 64-character free-form textual information that can be either static e.g. station slogans or in sync with the programming such as the title and artist of the currently playing song.
TA, TP (traffic announcement
Traffic Announcement
Traffic announcement refers to the broadcasting of a specific type of traffic report on the Radio Data System. It is generally used by motorists, to assist with route planning, and for the avoidance of traffic congestion....

, traffic programme): The receiver can often be set to pay special attention to this flag and, for example, stop the tape/pause the CD or retune to receive a traffic bulletin. The TP flag is used to allow the user to find only those stations that regularly broadcast traffic bulletins whereas the TA flag is used to signal an actual traffic bulletin in progress, with radio units perhaps performing other actions such as stopping a cassette tape (so the radio can be heard) or raising the volume during the traffic bulletin.
TMC (traffic message channel
Traffic Message Channel
Traffic Message Channel is a technology for delivering traffic and travel information to drivers. It is typically digitally coded using the FM-RDS system on conventional FM radio broadcasts...

): Digitally encoded traffic information. Not all RDS equipment supports this. Often available for automotive navigation system
Automotive navigation system
An automotive navigation system is a satellite navigation system designed for use in automobiles. It typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position data to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. Using the road database, the unit can give directions to other locations...

s. In many countries only encrypted data is broadcast, and so a subscription and appropriate decoder is required to use.

RDS support


As far as implementation is concerned, most car stereos will support at least AF, EON, REG, PS and TA/TP.
  • More expensive car stereos will offer TMC
    Traffic Message Channel
    Traffic Message Channel is a technology for delivering traffic and travel information to drivers. It is typically digitally coded using the FM-RDS system on conventional FM radio broadcasts...

    , RT and / or PTY, perhaps with "NEWS" override.
  • Home systems, especially hi-fi receivers, will mainly support functions like PS, RT and PTY.


There are a growing number of RDS implementations in portable and navigation devices thanks to lower-priced, small-footprint solutions. These include:
  • Apple
    Apple Computer
    Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and markets consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company's best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad...

    • iPod
      IPod
      iPod is a line of portable media players created and marketed by Apple Inc. The product line-up currently consists of the hard drive-based iPod Classic, the touchscreen iPod Touch, the compact iPod Nano, and the ultra-compact iPod Shuffle...

      's Radio Remote accessory.
    • iPod Nano
      IPod nano
      iPod Nano is a digital media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc.. The first generation of iPod Nano was introduced on September 7, 2005 as a replacement for iPod Mini. It uses flash memory for storage. iPod Nano has gone through six models, or generations, since its introduction...

       5th Generation
    • iPod Nano
      IPod nano
      iPod Nano is a digital media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc.. The first generation of iPod Nano was introduced on September 7, 2005 as a replacement for iPod Mini. It uses flash memory for storage. iPod Nano has gone through six models, or generations, since its introduction...

       6th Generation

  • Directed Electronics
    • DHHD-1000 (Table Top HD Radio)
    • DMHD-1000 (Car Audio Add-On Tuner Box)

  • HTC
    • HTC Desire HD
      HTC Desire HD
      The HTC Desire HD is an Android smartphone by HTC Corporation. It was unveiled at a press event in London hosted by HTC on September 15, 2010, and was made available for sale in October in Europe and in January 2011 in Canada...

    • HTC Vision/G2
    • HTC Touch Pro
      HTC Touch Pro
      The HTC Touch Pro is a smart phone from the Touch series of Internet-enabled Windows Mobile Pocket PC smartphones designed and marketed by HTC Corporation of Taiwan...

    • HTC Touch Pro 2
    • HTC Touch Diamond
      HTC Touch Diamond
      The HTC Touch Diamond, also known as the HTC P3700 or its codename the HTC Diamond, is a Windows Mobile 6.1-powered Pocket PC designed and manufactured by HTC. It is the first device to feature TouchFLO 3D - a new version of the TouchFLO interface, unique to the Touch family. The HTC Touch Diamond...

    • HTC Touch HD
      HTC Touch HD
      The HTC Touch HD, also known as the HTC T828X or its codename the HTC Blackstone, is a Windows Mobile 6.1 -powered luxury Pocket PC designed and manufactured by HTC...

    • HTC HD2
      HTC HD2
      The HTC HD2 , is a smartphone belonging to the HTC Touch family, manufactured by HTC and running the Windows Mobile 6.5 operating system. The phone was designed and manufactured by HTC, and was released in Europe in November 2009, and in December 2009 in Hong Kong...

    • HTC HD Mini
      HTC HD Mini
      The HTC HD Mini is a mobile telephone running the Windows Mobile operating system with HTC Sense. The phone was designed and manufactured by HTC, and was first released in February 2010.-Description:...

    • HTC Inspire 4G
    • HTC Droid Incredible
    • HTC Salsa
    • HTC Smart
      HTC Smart
      HTC Smart is a budget smartphone produced by HTC Corporation. It is based on Qualcomm's BREW mobile operating system. HTC Smart was officially announced on January 7, 2010 and was released on March 15, 2010 in Europe and Asia....

    • HTC Legend
      HTC Legend
      The HTC Legend is a phone manufactured by HTC Corporation in Taiwan for the Android platform. It was unveiled by HTC during the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona on 16 February 2010 and went on sale on 31 March 2010....

    • HTC Desire
      HTC Desire
      The HTC Desire is a smartphone developed by the HTC Corporation, announced on 16 February 2010 and released in Europe and Australia in the second quarter of the same year. The HTC Desire runs the Android operating system, version 2.2 "Froyo"...

    • HTC Evo 4G
      HTC Evo 4G
      The HTC Evo 4G is a smartphone developed by HTC Corporation and marketed as Sprint's flagship Android smartphone, running on its WiMAX network...

    • HTC Wildfire
      HTC Wildfire
      The HTC Wildfire is a smartphone developed by the HTC Corporation, that was announced on 17 May 2010 and released in Europe in June of the same year. It is powered by a 528 MHz Qualcomm processor and runs the Android operating system, version 2.2. It includes an TFT LCD capacitive touchscreen...

    • HTC Aria
      HTC Aria
      The HTC Aria is a smartphone manufactured by HTC Corporation that runs the Android operating system with HTC Sense.-Release:...

  • Sony Ericsson
    Sony Ericsson
    Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB is a joint venture established on October 1, 2001 by the Japanese consumer electronics company Sony Corporation and the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson to manufacture mobile phones....

    • C702
    • C901 Green Heart
    • C905a
    • F305
    • G900
    • J105 Naite
    • K600i
    • K550i
    • K750
    • K750i
    • K770i
    • K790i
    • K800i
    • K810i
    • K850i
    • S312
    • W200i
    • W300i
    • W350i
    • W380i
    • W395
      Sony Ericsson W395
      The Sony Ericsson W395 is a slider mobile phone and part of the Walkman series of Sony Ericsson mobiles. It was announced in February 2009 and was later officially released in March that year. The W395 is targeted at the youth market, as well as being a Walkman phone it also has TrackID music...

    • W580i
    • 595s
    • W600i
    • W610i
    • W660i
    • W760i
    • W810i
    • W830i
    • P990i
    • P1i
    • R300 Radio
    • R306 Radio
    • T303
    • T700
      Sony Ericsson T700
      The Sony Ericsson T700 was introduced in 2008 as a mid-range mobile phone. It is in color combinations of "Black on Silver", "Black on Red" and "Shining Silver".-External links:*...

    • W850i
    • W890i
    • W910i
    • W950i
    • W700i
    • Sony Ericsson W980
      Sony Ericsson W980
      The Sony Ericsson W980 is a clamshell model phone that was released on 10th February 2008. Its main features are the state of the art Walkman player integrated into the phone - which can be used when the phone is either open or closed. Another is the 3.2MP camera which allows the user to take high...

    • W995
    • Z550i
    • Sony Ericsson Aino
      Sony Ericsson Aino
      Sony Ericsson Aino is touch screen based slider phone. It has a multimedia PS3-inspired touch menu, a large touchscreen, VGA@30 frame/s video recording. The screen is touch-enabled but only in the multimedia part of the menu and the camera interface. Some third party applications like Opera-Mini...

    • Sony Ericsson Yari
      Sony Ericsson Yari
      Yari is a slider phone from Sony Ericsson. It was unveiled on December 14, 2009. It is a phone meant for entertainment . It is available in two colors: Cranberry Red and Achromatic Black. It is the lowest end model for the Sony Ericsson entertainment series. It has three predecessors, the Aino,...

    • Sony Ericsson Elm
      Sony Ericsson Elm
      The Sony Ericsson Elm is a cell phone released in 2010.The phone is one of Sony Ericsson's earliest "Greenheart" environmentally friendly range, featuring devices made of recycled materials, longer battery life and low-energy chargers, as well as minimal use of paper through reduced packaging and...

    • Sony Ericsson Jalou
    • Sony Ericsson Hazel
    • Xperia X10 Mini
    • Xperia X10 Mini Pro
    • Xperia Pureness
    • Sony Ericsson Vivaz Pro
    • Sony Ericsson Aspen
    • Sony Ericsson Zylo
  • Nokia
    Nokia
    Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational communications corporation that is headquartered in Keilaniemi, Espoo, a city neighbouring Finland's capital Helsinki...

    • 2690
      Nokia 2690
      The Nokia 2690 is a mobile phone made by Nokia. It operates on GSM quad band frequency 850, 900, 1800 and 1900 MHz, with automatic switching between frequencies...

    • 2700 Classic
      Nokia 2700 classic
      The Nokia 2700 classic is a Nokia quad-band GSM cell phone. It has a camera, FM radio, bluetooth connectivity, multimedia playback, and several internet-based applications .It has very attractive design and its a one of successors of the popular Nokia 6300...

    • 2720 fold
    • 2730 Classic
      Nokia 2730 classic
      The Nokia 2730 classic is a Nokia Quad-band GSM/UMTS 3G cell phone that includes a camera, FM radio, Bluetooth, music and video player, as well as several internet-based applications .-Key features:...

    • 3208c
    • 3600 slide
      Nokia 3600 slide
      The Nokia 3600 slide is a mobile phone by Nokia that was released in August 2008. The phone runs the Series 40 3rd Edition platform. This is classed as the 'low end version' of the Nokia 6600 slide, its major difference being the lack of 3G support.-Features:...

    • 3710 fold
    • 3720 Classic
      Nokia 3720 classic
      The Nokia 3720 classic is a mobile phone by Nokia announced in July 2009 and manufactured in Hungary. The phone runs the Series 40 6th edition platform....

    • 5130 XpressMusic
    • 5220 XpressMusic
    • 5230 XpressMusic
      Nokia 5230
      The Nokia 5230 Nuron is a low-cost smartphone from Nokia that is manufactured in South Korea and is famous and commonly used in India, Brazil, Indonesia, etc. It is a candybar style phone similar in shape to the 5800 but does not have a secondary camera, has less internal storage and is not...

    • 5233 XpressMusic
    • 5235 Comes With Music
    • 5310 XpressMusic
    • 5320 XpressMusic
      Nokia 5320 XpressMusic
      The Nokia 5320 Xpress Music is a Symbian OS S60 smartphone, released by Nokia in 2008 as a part of their XpressMusic line of portable devices. The phone has a rugged candybar body with outlined keypads. It emphasizes music and multimedia playback...

    • 5530 XpressMusic
    • 5610 XpressMusic
    • 5630 XpressMusic
      Nokia 5630 XpressMusic
      The Nokia 5630 XpressMusic is a multimedia and music-dedicated smartphone announced in March and released in May 2009.-External links:* *...

    • 5730 XpressMusic
      Nokia 5730 XpressMusic
      The Nokia 5730 XpressMusic is a multimedia and music-dedicated sliding smartphone announced in March and released in June 2009. Its features include a full backlit slide-out QWERTY keyboard, dedicated camera, volume, gaming and music keys as well as Wi-Fi connectivity and a basic accelerometer...

    • 5800 XpressMusic
    • 5800 Navigation Edition
    • 6210 Navigator
      Nokia 6210 Navigator
      The Nokia 6210 Navigator is a mobile phone made by Nokia that is a successor to Nokia 6110 Navigator. It has been available since July 2008.The Nokia 6210 Navigator is the third GPS Phone in the Navigator series to be released by Nokia...

    • 6220 Classic
      Nokia 6220 Classic
      Nokia 6220 classic is a Nokia-produced Symbian OS smartphone .-Features:* HSDPA-3.6M/384k / WCDMA-900/2100 / DTM EGPRS-850/900/1800/1900 Class 11A/32B* GPS navigation with Assisted GPS...

    • 6260 slide
      Nokia 6260 Slide
      - Features :Among its key features are integrated A-GPS with included maps, WLAN, VoIP, a 5.0 megapixel camera with LED flash, WebKit Open Source Browser, Flash Lite 3.0, Bluetooth 2.1 + EDR and MIDP Java 2.1 with additional Java APIs.- Specification sheet :...

    • 6300i
      Nokia 6300i
      The Nokia 6300i is a mobile telephone handset produced by Nokia. It is an upgraded version of Nokia 6300 and has the same design as the 6300, but adds WLAN/VoIP capability.The device is designed for typical use in Europe and only distributed there....

    • 6303 Classic
      Nokia 6303 classic
      The Nokia 6303 classic is a mobile telephone handset produced by Nokia in Hungary. The Nokia 6303 classic has been in production since the second quarter of 2009.- Features :...

    • 6500 slide
      Nokia 6500 slide
      The Nokia 6500 slide is a mobile phone by Nokia. The phone runs the Series 40 platform. The case is made of brushed stainless steel.It is the Slide version of Nokia 6500 classic.-Features:*Communications...

    • 6600 fold
      Nokia 6600 fold
      The Nokia 6600 fold is a mobile phone by Nokia. The phone runs the Series 40 platform. This is thefold or clamshell version of updated Nokia 6600 series.The device is sold in three color variants: blue, black and purple.-Features:...

    • 6600 slide
      Nokia 6600 slide
      The Nokia 6600 slide is a mobile phone series by Nokia. It includes the original 6600 slide and its successor the 6600i slide . The phone runs the Series 40 5th edition platform, including Feature Pack 1...

    • 6600i slide
    • 6700 Classic
    • 6710 Navigator
    • 6720 Classic
    • 6730 Classic
    • 6760 slide
      Nokia 6760 Slide
      The Nokia 6760 slide is a Symbian Series 60 mobile phone. One of its main selling points is its SMS messaging capabilities.The phone is listed as a Messaging phone...

    • 6790 Surge
    • 7020
    • 7100 Supernova
    • 7210 Supernova
    • 7230
      Nokia 7230
      The Nokia 7230 is a metallic grilled 3G slider phone from Nokia. It's estimated price is 100 Euros and it sports a high resolution vertical display that supports up to 262 thousand colors. It features a 3.2 mega pixel camera without flash support and is capable of recording videos at QVGA...

    • 7310 Supernova
    • 7510 Supernova
      Nokia 7510 Supernova
      The Nokia 7510 Supernova is a phone made by Nokia. It contains a 2 megapixel camera and a 2.2" QVGA colour display with a 320x240 resolution.- External links :**...

    • 7610 Supernova
    • C1-01
      Nokia C1-01
      - Specification sheet :-External links:*...

       (with recording)
    • C1-02 (with recording)
    • C3-00
    • C2-01
    • C2-02
      Nokia C2-02
      The Nokia C2-02 is a mobile telephone handset produced by Nokia. This is the first mobile handset released by Nokia that possesses a touchscreen in a "slider" phone form factor. Previously released touchscreen devices from Nokia using Series 40 Operating System have been in "candybar" form factor.-...

       (with recording)
    • C2-02
      Nokia C2-03
      The Nokia C2-03 is a mobile telephone handset produced by Nokia. This is the first mobile handset released by Nokia that possesses a touchscreen in a "slider" phone form factor. Previously released touchscreen devices from Nokia using Series 40 Operating System have been in "candybar" form factor.-...

       (with recording)
    • C3-01
    • C5
    • C6-00
    • C6-01
      Nokia C6-01
      The Nokia C6-01 is a Symbian^3 smartphone from the Nokia Cseries. The C6-01 display features comes with a 3.2in AMOLED display with capacitive touchscreen capabilities and Nokia's ClearBlack technology for improved outdoor visibility...

    • C7
    • E52
      Nokia E52
      The Nokia E52 is a smartphone from the Nokia Eseries range, a Symbian OS v9.3 device with a 240x320 screen. It is available in Black, Black Aluminum, Metal Grey aluminium, White Aluminium and Gold. It comes with a 1GB MicroSD memory card, but it supports MicroSD cards with up to 16GB memory. It...

    • E55
    • E6
      Nokia E6
      The Nokia E6-00 is a smartphone based on the Symbian^3 "Anna" operating system made by Nokia. It supersedes the Nokia E72 as the new Symbian business mobility solution from Nokia....

    • E72
      Nokia E72
      The Nokia E72 is a smartphone from the Nokia Eseries range that manufactured in Finland. It is the successor to the Nokia E71 and is based on a similar design and form factor, and offers a similar feature set...

    • E73
    • E75
      Nokia E75
      The Nokia E75 is a smartphone from the Eseries range with a side sliding QWERTY keyboard and also front keypad. - Features:*Quad band GSM / GPRS / EDGE: GSM 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900...

    • E5-00
      Nokia E5-00
      The Nokia E5-00 also called Nokia E5 is a qwerty smartphone that runs on the Symbian OS v9.3 operating system. Like all phones in the Nokia Eseries it is targeted at b2b and comes with business software applications, including Quickoffice . It was released in the third quarter of 2010. It comes in...

    • N78
      Nokia N78
      The Nokia N78 is a multimedia 3G Smartphone made by Nokia, designed by Joeske Schellen. It was first introduced at the Mobile World Congress in February 2008, and was launched on 26 May 2008 for €350 before taxes and subsidies...

    • N79
      Nokia N79
      Nokia N79 is a smartphone and a member of the Nokia Nseries multimedia smartphone family. It was officially announced by Nokia on 26 August 2008...

    • N85
      Nokia N85
      The Nokia N85 is a smartphone produced by Nokia. The N85's functions include those of a camera phone and portable media player, in addition to offering e-mail, web browsing, local Wi-Fi connectivity, text messaging and a built-in GPS receiver, allowing satellite navigation using no external...

    • N86 8MP
      Nokia N86 8MP
      The Nokia N86 8MP is a Symbian Series 60 mobile phone. One of its main selling points is its photography features.It was Nokia's first camera phone to have an 8 megapixel sensor, and features both multiple aperture settings and a mechanical shutter , and a Carl Zeiss lens with a wide angle of view...

    • N96
      Nokia N96
      Nokia N96 is a Nokia smartphone in the Nseries range of products. It is the official successor to Nokia N95.The handset was publicly announced at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, February 2008, and started shipping in September 2008. Europe, Middle East and Asia-Pacific are the first locations...

    • N97
      Nokia N97
      Nokia N97 is a touch screen mobile phone in the Nseries of smartphones by Nokia, with a slide-out QWERTY keyboard...

    • N97 mini
    • N900
      Nokia N900
      The Nokia N900 is a smartphone made by Nokia. It supersedes the Nokia N810. Its default operating system, Maemo 5, is a Linux-based OS originally developed for the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet. It is the first Nokia device based upon the Texas Instruments OMAP3 microprocessor with the ARM Cortex-A8...

       (transmit & receive)
    • N8
      Nokia N8
      The Nokia N8 is a Symbian^3 smartphone of the Nokia Nseries and Nokia's flagship device of 2010. It was released on 23 September 2010 at the Nokia Online Store before being released in markets around the world on 1 October 2010. The N8 features a 12 megapixel camera, a pentaband 3.5G radio and...

       (transmit & receive)
    • X2
    • X3
    • X3-02
    • X5-01
    • X6
      Nokia X6
      The Nokia X6 is a music-oriented capacitive touchscreen smartphone and portable entertainment device by Nokia. It was announced in early September 2009 during Nokia World 2009 in Germany.The X6 replaces the Nokia 5800 as Nokia's flagship music-centred model...

    • X6 8GB
    • X6 16GB
  • Motorola
    Motorola
    Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, which was eventually divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011, after losing $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009...

    • L9
    • E6
    • E2
    • VE66
    • W375
    • W396
    • W230
    • W270
    • L6i
    • W220
      Motorola W220
      The Motorola W220 is an entry level flip-phone for the GSM network, introduced in 2006. The phone features dual-band capabilities, an FM Radio, and a 65k color screen. Visually its design was based on the popular Razr phones from the same manufacturer....

    • Motorola DEFY
      Motorola DEFY
      The Motorola Defy is an Android-based smartphone from Motorola. The Defy is marketed as water-resistant, dust-resistant, impact- and scratch-resistant by merit of its port covers and Gorilla Glass screen...

    • MB810 (Droid X)
    • Electrify
    • Photon

    • Microsoft
      Microsoft
      Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

      • Zune HD
        Zune HD
        The Zune HD is a portable media player in the Zune product family released on September 15, 2009 by Microsoft. It is a direct competitor with the Apple iPod and iPhone series of mobile devices. It was initially released in 16 and 32 GB capacities. A 64 GB version was released on April 9, 2010...

      • Zune
        Zune
        Zune is a digital media brand owned by Microsoft which includes a line of portable media players, a digital media player software for Windows machines, a music subscription service known as a 'Zune Music Pass', music and video streaming for the Xbox 360 via the Zune Software, music, TV and movie...


    • Nissan
      • (Clarion) 2010/2011 Car Radio w/RDS
      • (all but base model includes RDS FM)

    • Sandisk
      SanDisk
      SanDisk Corporation is an American multinational corporation that designs, develops and manufactures data storage solutions in a range of form factors using the flash memory, controller and firmware technologies. It was founded in 1988 by Dr. Eli Harari and Sanjay Mehrotra, non-volatile memory...

      • Sansa Fuze+
      • Sansa SlotRadio Player
      • Sansa Clip Zip

    • Sangean
      Sangean
      Sangean is a globally active Taiwanese electronics company specialised in radios. The company was founded in 1974 and has built its worldwide reputation especially on shortwave radios and recently also made a name for itself with digital receivers...


    • Samsung
      Samsung
      The Samsung Group is a South Korean multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul, South Korea...

      • SGH-F330
      • SGH-G800
      • SGH-L170
      • SGH-L770
      • SGH-E950
      • SGH-U600
      • SGH-U900
      • GT-S3350
      • SGH-i917
      • Samsung Galaxy S
      • Samsung Galaxy S II
        Samsung Galaxy S II
        The Samsung Galaxy S II is a smartphone running under the Android operating system that was announced by Samsung on February 13, 2011 at the Mobile World Congress. It is the successor to the Samsung Galaxy S, with a different appearance and significantly improved hardware...

      • Samsung Wave S8500
        Samsung Wave S8500
        The Samsung Wave GT-S8500 is the first touchscreen smartphone running the new bada operating system designed by Samsung, which was commercially released on June 1, 2010...

      • Samsung S5230
        Samsung S5230
        Samsung S5230 is a feature phone announced in March 2009 and released in May 2009 by Samsung....

      • Samsung C5212
      • Samsung B7722
      • Samsung Omnia HD
      • Samsung Galaxy Ace
        Samsung Galaxy Ace
        The Samsung Galaxy Ace, is a smartphone manufactured by Samsung that runs the open source Android operating system. Announced and released by Samsung in February 2011, the Galaxy Ace is the successor to the Galaxy 3....

      • Samsung Galaxy 3
      • Samsung Galaxy 5
        Samsung i5500
        The Samsung i5500, also named Samsung i5503, Samsung Galaxy Europa, Samsung Galaxy 550 and the Samsung Galaxy 5 in some countries, is a smartphone. , it is the lowest cost mobile phone made by Samsung that uses the open source Android operating system . It was announced on 15 June...

    • LG
      LG
      LG may refer to:*LG Corp., a South Korean electronics and petrochemicals conglomerate*LG Electronics, an affiliate of the South Korean LG Group which produces electronic products* Lawrence Graham, a London headquartered firm of business lawyers...

      • Viewty
      • LG KS-20
      • LG Cookie (KP500)
        LG Cookie (KP500)
        The KP500 is a touchscreen mobile smartphone. LG targeted the entry-level touchscreen market keeping the cost of the KP500 as low as possible by omitting some of the features found on high-end products, such as GPS, 3G or Wi-Fi...

      • LG GT505
      • LG GB230
      • GD880 Mini
        LG GD880 Mini
        The LG Mini GD880i is a multimedia feature phone released by LG Electronics in April 2010. The Mini is very similar feature wise to the LG KM900 Arena with exception to the display and internal memory....

      • LG Optimus Black
        LG Optimus Black
        The LG P970 Optimus Black is a smartphone designed and manufactured by LG Electronics. With 9.2 mm, it's LG's thinnest smartphone at the time of its release and is slightly smaller than the iPhone 4. The LG Optimus Black features a WVGA NOVA display which is brighter than competitor displays with...

      • LG Optimus 2X
        LG Optimus 2X
        The LG Optimus 2X is a smartphone designed and manufactured by LG Electronics. The Optimus 2X is the world's first smartphone with a dual-core processor and third phone in the LG Optimus-Android series. LG debuted the Optimus 2X on December 16, 2010 and the device first became available to...

    • Garmin
      Garmin
      Garmin Ltd. , incorporated in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, is the parent company of a group of companies founded in 1989 by Gary Burrell and Min Kao , that develops consumer, aviation, and marine technologies for the Global Positioning System...

      • Nuvi360
    • Griffin Technology
      Griffin Technology
      Griffin Technology is a privately held U.S. company founded in Nashville, Tennessee in 1992 by Paul Griffin. The company designs and manufactures computer peripherals, consumer electronics, and accessories, the first products being primarily video adapters, in particular those to enable the...

      • iTrip AutoPilot
      • iTrip 1591 (FM Transmitter with App support)
      • Navigon
        Navigon
        Navigon GmbH is a Hamburg, Germany-based manufacturer of GPS devices and GPS navigation software. It is privately owned, however in June 2011 it was announced that Navigon is to be acquired by a subsidiary of Garmin...

         5100
      • Magellan Maestro 4250
    • Insignia
      • NS-8V24
      • NS-4V24
      • NS-2V17
      • NS-HD01 Portable HD Radio Receiver
    • Cardo Systems
      • Scala Rider G4
    • O2
      • ATOM LIFE

    Program types


    The following table lists the RDS and RBDS Program Type (PTY) codes and their meanings:
    PTY code RDS Program type (EU) RBDS Program type (North America)
    0 No programme type or undefined No program type or undefined
    1 News News
    2 Current affairs
    Current affairs (news format)
    Current Affairs is a genre of broadcast journalism where the emphasis is on detailed analysis and discussion of news stories that have recently occurred or are ongoing at the time of broadcast....

    Information
    3 Information Sports
    4 Sport Talk
    Talk radio
    Talk radio is a radio format containing discussion about topical issues. Most shows are regularly hosted by a single individual, and often feature interviews with a number of different guests. Talk radio typically includes an element of listener participation, usually by broadcasting live...

    5 Education Rock
    6 Drama Classic rock
    Classic rock
    Classic rock is a radio format which developed from the album-oriented rock format in the early 1980s. In the United States, the classic rock format features music ranging generally from the late 1960s to the late 1980s, primarily focusing on the hard rock genre that peaked in popularity in the...

    7 Culture Adult hits
    Adult hits
    Adult hits is a radio format, popular in the early 2000s, that does not adhere to a specific music genre, but instead draws from a wider playlist...

    8 Science Soft rock
    Soft rock
    Soft rock is a style of music which uses the techniques of rock music to compose a softer, more toned-down sound. Soft rock songs generally tend to focus on themes like love, everyday life and relationships. The genre tends to make heavy use of acoustic guitars, pianos, synthesizers and sometimes...

    9 Varied Top 40
    10 Pop music
    Pop music
    Pop music is usually understood to be commercially recorded music, often oriented toward a youth market, usually consisting of relatively short, simple songs utilizing technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes.- Definitions :David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop...

    Country
    11 Rock music
    Rock music
    Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music...

    Oldies
    Oldies
    Oldies is a term commonly used to describe a radio format that concentrates on music from a period of about 15 to 55 years before the present day....

    12 Easy listening
    Easy listening
    Easy listening is a broad style of popular music and radio format that emerged in the 1950s, evolving out of big band music, and related to MOR music as played on many AM radio stations. It encompasses the exotica, beautiful music, light music, lounge music, ambient music, and space age pop genres...

    Soft
    13 Light classical Nostalgia
    Nostalgia
    The term nostalgia describes a yearning for the past, often in idealized form.The word is a learned formation of a Greek compound, consisting of , meaning "returning home", a Homeric word, and , meaning "pain, ache"...

    14 Serious classical Jazz
    15 Other music Classical
    16 Weather Rhythm and blues
    Rhythm and blues
    Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B, is a genre of popular African American music that originated in the 1940s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, rocking, jazz based music with a...

    17 Finance Soft rhythm and blues
    18 Children’s programmes Language
    19 Social affairs Religious music
    20 Religion Religious talk
    21 Phone-in Personality
    22 Travel Public
    23 Leisure College
    24 Jazz music Unassigned
    25 Country music Unassigned
    26 National music Unassigned
    27 Oldies music Unassigned
    28 Folk music Unassigned
    29 Documentary Weather
    30 Alarm test Emergency test
    31 Alarm Emergency
    Emergency Alert System
    The Emergency Alert System is a national warning system in the United States put into place on January 1, 1997, when it superseded the Emergency Broadcast System , which itself had superseded the CONELRAD System...


    The later RBDS standard made no attempt to match the original RDS plan, therefore several identical radio format
    Radio format
    A radio format or programming format not to be confused with broadcast programming describes the overall content broadcast on a radio station. Radio formats are frequently employed as a marketing tool, and constantly evolve...

    s were given different numbers, including jazz, weather, sports, and rock. Other similar formats such as varied/college and phone-in/talk are also mismatched. This is mainly a problem for portable radios taken overseas.

    Example RDS usage


    The following three images illustrate how RDS can be used on an FM radio station; the latter two were taken when the radio was tuned to Nottingham
    Nottingham
    Nottingham is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England. It is located in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire and represents one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group...

     radio station Trent FM
    Trent FM
    Trent FM was an Independent Local Radio station which broadcast to Nottinghamshire. The station merged with two other East Midlands stations, Leicester Sound and Ram FM to form Capital FM East Midlands on Monday 3 January 2011.-History:Launched on 3 July 1975 as Radio Trent and based in a...

    . All the images are of the display on the Sony
    Sony
    , commonly referred to as Sony, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan and the world's fifth largest media conglomerate measured by revenues....

     XDR-S1 DAB/FM/MW/LW portable radio.


    Scrolling Program Service messages are illegal in the U.K. and expressly forbidden by the RDS standards for all countries because of the potential of distracting drivers on the road and causing problems with receiver memory stores. Scrolling messages are, however, widely used in mainland Europe and are common in the U.S.



    Other usage


    In addition, RDS is being proposed as the data transmission protocol in California's "Programmable Communicating Thermostat
    Programmable Communicating Thermostat
    The term programmable communicating thermostat is used by the California Energy Commission to describe programmable thermostats that can receive information wirelessly....

    " (PCT) program. The proposed technology would allow electricity consumers exposed to “time-based pricing
    Time-based pricing
    Time-based pricing refers to a type offer or contract by a provider of a service or supplier of a commodity, in which the price depends on the time when the service is provided or the commodity is delivered. The rational background of time-based pricing is expected or observed change of the supply...

    ” for electricity to respond to an RDS signal containing price information when their retail electricity price changed during periods of high wholesale electricity costs or abnormally high demand that threatened the stability of the electricity grid. The PCT could then automate any actions that the consumer had pre-programmed the device to take. For example, if the price of electricity went up on a hot afternoon because of extremely high demand, the consumer could preset the PCT to raise their air conditioner cooling set point
    Thermostat
    A thermostat is the component of a control system which regulates the temperature of a system so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint temperature. The thermostat does this by switching heating or cooling devices on or off, or regulating the flow of a heat transfer...

     by a few degrees in order to reduce their overall electricity consumption and bill.

    The technology could be extended to other home electricity consuming devices such as water heaters, clothes dryer
    Clothes dryer
    A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine....

    s, dishwasher
    Dishwasher
    A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishes and eating utensils. Dishwashers can be found in restaurants and private homes.Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically between ...

    s, swimming pool
    Swimming pool
    A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or simply a pool, is a container filled with water intended for swimming or water-based recreation. There are many standard sizes; the largest is the Olympic-size swimming pool...

     pumps, etc. allowing consumers under time-based pricing
    Time-based pricing
    Time-based pricing refers to a type offer or contract by a provider of a service or supplier of a commodity, in which the price depends on the time when the service is provided or the commodity is delivered. The rational background of time-based pricing is expected or observed change of the supply...

     for electricity significant automatic control over their electricity consumption during periods when the price of electricity is naturally higher than normal (see load management
    Load management
    Load management is the process of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output...

    ). The goal is to give consumers a choice between paying more for high value peak electricity, or reducing their lowest value loads at those times. Such voluntary “demand response
    Demand response
    In electricity grids, demand response is similar to dynamic demand mechanisms to manage customer consumption of electricity in response to supply conditions, for example, having electricity customers reduce their consumption at critical times or in response to market prices...

    ” behavior could significantly reduce the price of electricity during non-peak periods because of reduced need for infrequently used peaking power plant
    Peaking power plant
    Peaking power plants, also known as peaker plants, and occasionally just "peakers," are power plants that generally run only when there is a high demand, known as peak demand, for electricity.-Peak hours:...

    s, and also reduce the chances of blackout
    Power outage
    A power outage is a short- or long-term loss of the electric power to an area.There are many causes of power failures in an electricity network...

    s during emergency events when the electricity grid is stressed or damaged.

    RDS subcarrier use for the control of peak power has been in development in Australia since early 2000. ETSA the South Australia Electricity Trust and Saab Systems Australia, a local South Australia
    South Australia
    South Australia is a state of Australia in the southern central part of the country. It covers some of the most arid parts of the continent; with a total land area of , it is the fourth largest of Australia's six states and two territories.South Australia shares borders with all of the mainland...

    n company, pioneered the idea after Saab engineer Trent Ryan developed the idea in late 1999 and brought it to Saab for further refinement.

    In Sweden, RDS PTY signalling is used to let the public service broadcaster break into commercial radio station transmissions to broadcast emergency warnings.

    RDS chipsets


    Companies such as ST Microelectronics, Silicon Labs
    Silicon Laboratories
    Silicon Laboratories, Inc. is a mixed signal fabless semiconductor company based in Austin, Texas.The company was founded in 1996 by three veterans from the former Crystal Semiconductor – Nav Sooch, Dave Welland and Jeff Scott . The company's CEO is Necip Sayiner. The company went public in...

     in Austin, Texas
    Austin, Texas
    Austin is the capital city of the U.S. state of :Texas and the seat of Travis County. Located in Central Texas on the eastern edge of the American Southwest, it is the fourth-largest city in Texas and the 14th most populous city in the United States. It was the third-fastest-growing large city in...

     and NXP Semiconductors (formerly Philips
    Philips
    Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. , more commonly known as Philips, is a multinational Dutch electronics company....

    ) offer single chip solutions that are found in these devices. The Silicon Labs part supports PS, RT, PTY, TMC, and all other RDS types in a single 3x3 mm chip and its intended purpose is portable usage (such as mobile phones and MP3 players). NXP also has solutions in this field, and has some automotive chips.

    See also


    High-level RDS APIs
    • Advanced Multimedia Supplements
      Advanced Multimedia Supplements
      In computing, the Advanced Multimedia Supplements is an API specification for the Java ME platform. Practically speaking, it is an extension to JSR 135 Mobile Media API providing new features, such as positional 3D audio processing, audio and video effects processing, better controls for digital...

       (JSR-234) (in Java programming language)
    • OpenMAX AL (in C programming language)


    Related technologies
    • Data Radio Channel (DARC)
    • DirectBand
      DirectBand
      DirectBand is a North American wireless datacast network owned and operated by Microsoft. It uses FM radio broadcasts in over 100 cities to constantly transmit data to a variety of devices, including portable GPS devices, wristwatches and home weather stations....

    • PSIP
    • ALERT FM- RBDS emergency notification system
    • HEARO
      HEARO
      The HEARO Local Alert Receiver is an emergency management tool to relay and display informational text messages in English, Spanish, French and German using RDS technology. It notifies local residents in the event of an emergency within a matter of seconds. HEARO carries NOAA weather warnings and...

       Local Alert Receiver
    • UECP -protocol (Universal Encoder Communication Protocol)


    Related topics
    • Digital radio
      Digital radio
      Digital radio has several meanings:1. Today the most common meaning is digital radio broadcasting technologies, such as the digital audio broadcasting system, also known as Eureka 147. In these systems, the analog audio signal is digitized into zeros and ones, compressed using formats such as...

    • Error correction
    • Modem
      Modem
      A modem is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data...

    • FM broadcasting
      FM broadcasting
      FM broadcasting is a broadcasting technology pioneered by Edwin Howard Armstrong which uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. The term "FM band" describes the "frequency band in which FM is used for broadcasting"...

    • Internet radio device
      Internet radio device
      An Internet radio device, also called network music player is a hardware device that is capable of receiving and playing streamed media from either Internet radio stations or a home network.-Background:...

    • List of stations using the Radio Data System in New Zealand
    • Radio receiver

    External links